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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are described for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber. In the second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

Gregg, D.W.

1981-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

3

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Oil shale retorting and retort water purification process  

SciTech Connect

An oil shale process is provided to retort oil shale and purify oil shale retort water. In the process, raw oil shale is retorted in an in situ underground retort or in an above ground retort to liberate shale oil, light hydrocarbon gases and oil shale retort water. The retort water is separated from the shale oil and gases in a sump or in a fractionator or quench tower followed by an API oil/water separator. After the retort water is separated from the shale oil, the retort water is steam stripped, carbon adsorbed and biologically treated, preferably by granular carbon adsorbers followed by activated sludge treatment or by activated sludge containing powdered activated carbon. The retort water can be granularly filtered before being steam stripped. The purified retort water can be used in various other oil shale processes, such as dedusting, scrubbing, spent shale moisturing, backfilling, in situ feed gas injection and pulsed combustion.

Venardos, D.G.; Grieves, C.G.

1985-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

5

Process for oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

6

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed analysis of technical and economic factors solar retorting of oil shale shows that such a process should be technically feasible and, depending on the grade of the shale, should improve the fuel yield from the oil shale by 10 to 40%, compared to one of the best competing surface ay for the incremental processes. The improved oil yield should more than pay for the incremental cost associated with adding the solar collection system. An experiment is described in which solar energy is used to retort oil shale, and the experimental results show that yields of better than 110% Fischer Assay are achievable. An advanced design for a solar oil-shale retort is also discussed.

Gregg, D.W.; Grens, J.Z.; Taylor, R.W.; Aiman, W.R.

1980-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

7

Oil shale combustion/retorting  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

Not Available

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

First, in an overview, we outline and discuss the potential applications of solar energy to the production of fuels. We show that, starting from a fossil feedstock, there are four areas in which solar energy can have a major impact in the production of fuels: in solar retorting of oil shale, in solar coal gasification, in solar steam flooding of oil fields, and in solar steam-reforming of methane. We performed a detailed technical and economic analysis of solar retorting of oil shale. The analysis shows that this solar process not only should be technically feasible but also should improve the fuel yield from the oil-shale feedstock by 10 to 40%, depending on the grade of the shale, compared to the most efficient competing (nonsolar) process. The improved oil yield should more than pay for the incremental cost associated with adding the solar collection system (field of focusing heliostats). The results from an experiment in which solar energy was used to retort oil shale show that yields of better than 110% Fischer Assay are achievable. An advanced design for a solar oil-shale retort is also presented.

Gregg, D.W.; Taylor, R.W.; Grens, J.Z.; Aiman, W.R.; Marsh, L.E.

1980-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Process and apparatus for oil shale retorting  

SciTech Connect

A process and apparatus are disclosed for the continuoua steady state retorting of ground oil shale in the absence of air. Retorting is accomplished by countercurrently contacting heated spent oil shale with fresh ground oil shale in a vessel from which air is excluded. The spent oil shale is heated by combustion of its carbonaceous residue to form a hot heat transfer medium which, when contacted with fresh oil shale in the retorting process, provides the energy for the recovery of hydrocarbons. (auth)

Frick, G.W.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Reverse combustion oil-shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oil shale was retorted in a laboratory retort with the flame front and gas flow moving concurrently and countercurrently. Results indicate countercurrent flow produced a lower oil yield and a higher heating value of the retort gas than concurrent flow. Energy recovery from the oil shale was essentially the same when the retorting was done with either concurrent or countercurrent flame and gas movement. Laboratory results are compared with large scale retorts operated under similar conditions.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.; Dockter, L.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Enriching off gas from oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

Liquid and gaseous products are recovered from oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort in which a combustion zone is advanced therethrough by a method which includes the steps of establishing a combustion zone in the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort and introducing a gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone in the direction the combustion zone is to be advanced through the in situ oil shale retort. The gaseous feed mixture comprises an oxygen supplying gas and water vapor and is introduced into the combustion zone at a rate sufficient to maintain the temperature in the combustion zone within a predetermined range of temperatures above the retorting temperature of the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort and sufficient to advance the combustion zone through the in situ oil shale retort. The introduction of the gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone generates combustion products gases which together with the portion of the gaseous feed mixture which does not take part in the combustion process, is called flue gas. The flue gas passes through the oil shale on the advancing side of the combustion zone, thereby retorting the oil shale to produce liquid and gaseous products. The liquid product and the retort off gas, which comprises gaseous product and flue gas, are withdrawn from the in situ oil shale retort at a point on the advancing side of the retorting zone. 47 claims, 1 figure.

Cha, C.Y.; Ridley, R.D.

1977-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

12

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

13

Oil shale retorting method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

York, E.D.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

14

Enriching off gas from oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

A method whereby liquid and gaseous products are recovered from oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort is discussed. A combustion zone is advanced by establishing a combustion zone in the oil shale and introducing a gaseous feed mixture into the zone in the direction the zone is to be advanced through the oil shale retort. The gaseous feed mixture consists of an oxygen supplying gas and water vapor and is introduced into the combustion zone at a rate sufficient to maintain the temperature in the combustion zone within a predetermined range of temperatures above the retorting temperature of the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort. The introduction of the gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone generates combustion product gases which together with the portion of the gaseous feed mixture which does not take part in the combustion process, is called flue gas. The flue gas passes through the oil shale on the advancing side of the combustion zone, thereby retorting the oil shale to produce liquid and gaseous products. The liquid product and the retort off gas, which consists of gaseous product and flue gas, are withdrawn from the in situ oil shale retort at a point on the advancing side of the retorting zone. (47 claims) (Continuation-in-part of U.S. Appl. 492,289, f. 7/26/74)

Cha, C.Y.; Ridley, R.D.

1977-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

15

Multiphase flow analysis of oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several multiphase phenomena occur during oil shale retorting. An analysis is presented of two of these processes including condensation of oil shale vapor and oscillations of pressure in oil shale blocks through cracked bedding planes. Energy conservation equations for oil shale retorting, which include the effects associated with condensation of oil, are derived on the basis of two phase flow theory. It is suggested that an effective heat capacity associated with the latent heat of condensation should be included in the modeling of simulated modified in-situ oil shale retorting. A pressure propagation equation for fast transients in oil shale cracks has been derived and examined in view of existing experimental data. For slow processes, a limiting solution for maximum pressure in oil shale rocks has been obtained. Generation of high pressures in rocks by thermal or other means may lead to rock fracture which may be taken advantage of in modified in-situ oil shale processing.

Gidaspow, D.; Lyczkowski, R.W.

1978-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

16

Method for retorting oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

1985-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

17

Apparatus for oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or by refin- ing and using shale Oil Mass balances and oil.shale retorting produces shale oil, mobility factors wereand retort operating shale, shale oil, retorting (LETC) con-

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

situ oil shale combustion experiment con- A gas chro- Thisspent shales were waters were studied, retort water and gasof retort waters and gas condensate. Spent shale reduces the

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Gas withdrawal from an in situ oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

Liquid and gaseous products are recovered from oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale by retorting oil shale in the fragmented mass to produce gaseous and liquid products. The liquid products are withdrawn from the retort to a first level in unfragmented formation below the elevation of the bottom boundary of the retort. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the retort to a second level below the elevation of the first level.

Mills, E.A.

1979-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Combuston method of oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

Jones, Jr., John B. (300 Enterprise Building, Grand Junction, CO 81501); Reeves, Adam A. (P.O. Box 781, Anvil Points, Rifle, CO 81650)

1977-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

22

Gas collection system for oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

An in-situ oil shale retorting process is described in which a cavity filled with broken particles of oil shale is formed within the subsurface oil shale formation and air is forced down through the cavity to sustain combustion of the top layer of oil shale particles, the products of combustion being withdrawn at the bottom of the cavity. A plurality of exhaust pipes traverse the bottom of the cavity and extend out through the sealed entrance to the retort cavity. The pipes are supported above the floor of the cavity and have holes opening on the bottom side of the pipes through which the product gases are withdrawn from the cavity. Valves in each pipe control the flow so as to balance the flow distribution of air and exhaust gases through the retorting cavity.

Ridley, R.D.; Burton, R.S. III

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. of Decomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II. LivermoreEffects Lawrence of Steam on Oil Shale Retorting: Livermore

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermoreof Colorado Oil Shale: II. Livermore Laboratory Report No.Effects Lawrence of Steam on Oil Shale Retorting: Livermore

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor elements in oil shale and oil~shale products, LERCmercury to the oil shale, shale oil, and retort water. Thesemercury to spent shale, shale oil, retort water and offgas

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Oil shale retorting and combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

Pitrolo, Augustine A. (Fairmont, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Shang, Jerry Y. (Fairfax, VA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Two-stage oil shale retorting process and disposal of spent oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Formation is excavated from an in situ oil shale retort site for forming at least one void within the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent such a void. The remaining zone is explosively expanded toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. Oil shale in the in situ retort is retorted to produce liquid and gaseous products, leaving a mass of spent oil shale particles in the in situ retort. Oil shale particles excavated from the in situ retort site are separately retorted, such as in a surface retorting operation, producing liquid and gaseous products and spent surface retorted oil shale particles. The spent surface retorted particles are disposed of by forming an aqueous slurry of the particles, and pumping the slurry into a spent in situ retort. In one embodiment, the aqueous slurry is introduced into a hot lower portion of the spent retort where contact with hot spent oil shale particles generates steam which, in turn, is withdrawn from the spent retort in usable form. In another embodiment, water from the aqueous slurry introduced into a spent in situ retort collects at a level within the retort. The water can be recovered by drilling a drainage hole upwardly from a lower level drift into the level within the spent retort where the water collects and draining the water through the drainage hole to the lower level drift for recovery.

Tassoney, J.P.

1983-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

Control Strategies for Abandoned in situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented elt the TUJelfth Oil Shale Synlposittnz, Golden,for Abandoned In Situ Oil Shale Retorts P. Persoll and ]. P.Water Pollution of Spent Oil Shale Residues, EDB Lea,

Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Control Strategies for Abandoned in situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented elt the TUJelfth Oil Shale Synlposittnz, Golden,for Abandoned In Situ Oil Shale Retorts P. Persoll and ]. P.Pollution of Spent Oil Shale Residues, EDB Lea, Salinity

Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermore Laboratoryb) using columns of spent shale. REFERENCES Burnham, Alankinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1. co Effect

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Why solar oil shale retorting produces more oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar oil shale retorting process may produce higher oil yield than conventional processing. High oil yield is obtained for three reasons: oil carbonization inside of the shale is reduced, oil cracking outside of the shale is reduced, and oil oxidation is essentially eliminated. Unique capabilities of focused solar energy produce these advantages. An increase in yield will reduce the cost of mining and shale transportation per barrel of oil produced. These cost reductions may justify the increased processing costs that will probably be associated with solar oil shale retorting.

Aiman, W.R.

1981-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controls for a Commercial Oil Shale In~try, Vol. I, An En~Mathematical Hodel for In-Situ Shale Retorting," in SecondBriefing on In-Situ Oil Shale Technology, Lawrence Livermore

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Oil shale retorting and off-gas purification  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a process for removing acidic impurities from off-gases generated in the retorting of oil shale comprising contacting a rubblized mass of oil shale which has been substantially depleted in hydrocarbonaceous materials with water, so as to extract basic components from the mass; and contacting off-gases, which were generated during the retorting of oil shale and which contain acidic impurities, with the water containing basic components so as to substantially remove said acidic impurities from the off-gases. Also disclosed is a process for the in situ retorting of oil shale and removal of acidic impurities from off-gases generated in the in situ or surface retorting of oil shale comprising forming a plurality of subterranean in situ oil shale retorts containing rubblized oil shale having a void space of about 5 to about 40 per cent; retorting a first subterranean in situ retort until the rubblized oil shale is spent and substantially depleted in hydrocarbonaceous material; injecting water into the spent retort so as to deplete the heat content of the retorted rubblized oil shale and to form steam; recovering and using the steam in the retorting of a second subterranean in situ oil shale retort; continuing to inject water into the spent first retort so as to extract basic components from the retorted rubblized oil shale; recovering the water containing basic components; and contacting off-gases generated during the in situ or surface retorting of oil shale, the off-gases containing acidic impurities, with the water containing basic components so as to substantially remove acidic impurities from the off-gases.

Honaker, D.E.

1978-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

35

Two-level, horizontal free face mining system for in situ oil shale retorts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for forming an in-situ oil shale retort within a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, such an in-situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed within upper, lower and side boundaries of an in-situ oil shale retort site.

Cha, C.Y.; Ricketts, T.E.

1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

36

Experimental work on oil shale at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and predictions of retorting characteristics of oil shale. [RISE  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program is being carried out to advance oil-shale retorting technology. This paper summarizes some results of laboratory and pilot retorting and gives the reactions of oil-shale char with gases. A computer model of the retorting process has been compared with retort experiments and has been used to predict in situ retorts under various operating conditions. Finally, the results of a retort using Negev (Israel) oil shale are compared with those using Colorado oil shale.

Rothman, A.J.; Lewis, A.E.

1977-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

37

Utilization of Oil Shale Retorting Technology and Underground Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper analyzes the world's oil shale development and status of underground dry distillation technology and, through case studies proved the advantages of underground dry distillation technology. Global oil shale resource-rich, many countries in the ... Keywords: oil shale, ground retorting, underground dry distillation, shale oil, long slope mining

Chen Shuzhao; Guo Liwen; Xiao Cangyan; Wang Haijun

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

In-situ laser retorting of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale formations were retorted in-situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation. After fracturing a region of oil shale formation by directing a high energy laser beam into one of the wells and focussing the laser beam into a region of oil shale formation from a laser optical system, compressed gas was forced into the well which supports combustion in the flame front ignited by laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale and recovering gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured oil shale from one of the auxiliary wells.

Bloomfield, H.S.

1977-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

39

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. , 1979, Analysis of oil shale of products and effluents:In- Situ Retorting of Oil Shale in a Controlled- Stateelement matrices by x-ray for shale retort: Quarterly of the

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence LivermoreReaction kinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1.Reaction kinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 2.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermorekinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1. co Effectkinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 2. co 2

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Reaction kinetics for remodeling oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results from recent laboratory kinetic studies at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) on gasification, pyrolysis, and mineral reactions in oil shale are presented. The specific pyrolysis reactions investigated include the decomposition of kerogen, the evolution of oil, hydrogen and C/sub 2/ plus C/sub 3/ hydrocarbons and the formation of a carbonaceous residue. Data describing the evolution of H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ during secondary pyrolysis of the carbonaceous residue are also presented. The mineral reaction kinetics discussed include the decomposition and/or reaction (with silica or silicates) of calcite, dolomite, dawsonite and nahcolite. Rate equations describing the effects of CO/sub 2/ and steam on the reactions of calcite and dolomite are presented. Finally, kinetics describing gasification of the carbonaceous residue by CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O are examined. The above kinetic data are summarized in a set of rate expressions that can be used in numerical modeling of oil shale retorting. The rate equations are general enough for modeling both in-situ and surface retorting processes.

Campbell, J.H.; Burnham, A.K.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Oil shale project run summary: small retort run S-14  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Retort run S-14 was a combustion run in the small retort conducted on Nov. 15-16, 1977. The charge of Anvil Points shale operated under a 50% steam - 50% air mixture. Results indicate that the broad particle size range in the packed bed increases nonuniformities in gas flow and bed retorting characteristics. Oil yield was 87%, hydrogen production amounted to 0.25 wt % of the raw shale. (DLC)

Ackerman, F.J.; Sandholtz, W.A.; Raley, J.H.; Tripp, L.J.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Control Costs for Oil Shale Processes, DOE/EV-dicted Costs of Environmental Controls for a Commercial Oilsitu retorts. Cost per Barrel of Oil, $ Tract C-b Technology

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Control strategies for abandoned in situ oil shale retorts  

SciTech Connect

In situ oil shale retorting may result in a number of environmental impacts including degradation of local surface and groundwaters, low resource recovery, and subsidence. The target of present oil shale commercialization activities is the Mahogany zone in Colorado's Piceance Creek Basin. The principal oil shale resource in this area is surrounded by two confined aquifers. During mining and retorting, these aquifers are dewatered. When the site is abandoned, groundwater will reinvade the area and flow through the abandoned retorts, leaching potentially toxic or carcinogenic materials from the spent oil shale. This material may then be transported in local aquifers, withdrawn in wells or discharged into the Colorado River system as base flow. Certain control technologies appear potentially able to protect groundwater quality at reasonable cost. These include designing retort blocks to include a hydraulic bypass around abandoned retorts (about $0.50/bbl), placing absorbent clays in abandoned retorts to catch and hold leachable matter (about $0.50/bbl), collecting leachate and treating it on the surface (about $1.20/bbl), protecting abandoned retorts from leaching by placing a grout curtain around a block of abandoned retorts (about $2.00 to $3.00/bbl), or grouting abandoned retorts with spent shale (about $3 to $4/bbl).

Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Numerical modeling of a true in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A numerical model has been developed to simulate the true in situ retorting process. The retort is assumed to be a low-porosity fractured bed composed of large seams of competent shale separated at intervals by open fractures. Kerogen and carbonate decomposition and char, oil, and gas combustion, as well as other reactions, are considered. In contrast to the results of rubbled-bed models, the retorting of seams thicker than one meter is characterized by incomplete retorting and significant oil combustion (10 to 40% of that retorted). The amount of shale retorted can, however, be maximized by proper control of air and steam injection rates, with the injected gas being optimally 40 to 50% steam. The oil available for recovery from a two meter seam can then be, for example, as high as 50% of Fischer Assay.

Tyner, C.E.; Hommert, P.J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. York, E. D. , Amoco Oil Co. , letter to J. P. Fox,Reaction kinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Process concept of retorting of Julia Creek oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A process is proposed for the above ground retorting of the Julia Creek oil shale in Queensland. The oil shale characteristics, process description, chemical reactions of the oil shale components, and the effects of variable and operating conditions on process performance are discussed. The process contains a fluidized bed combustor which performs both as a combustor of the spent shales and as a heat carrier generator for the pyrolysis step. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Sitnai, O.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

The Kiviter process for retorting large particle oil shale  

SciTech Connect

In recent years considerable interest has been shown to the experience of commercial-scale processing of oil shale as an alternative feedstock for the production of liquid fuels. The evaluation of different retort systems, however, should be made with due consideration of the specific properties of different oil shales, influencing the efficiency of the retorting process. The author's studies of oil shale samples extracted from the world's largest oil shale formations in the USA and Brazil as well as those of kukersite (Baltic oil shale) processed in the USSR on a commercial scale, show that the latter is characterized by several technological properties which complicate it's thermal processing. Relatively high levels of specific heat consumption for the retorting process and a high organic matter content make it necessary to process kukersite in special retorting systems. Due to the specific properties of kukersite the concept employing cross current flow of heat carrier gas through the shale bed proved to be most acceptable for the retorting of this particular shale. Compared with the traditionally employed counter current flow of heat carrier gas this concept is more preferable providing for more uniform distribution of the heat carrier through the fuel bed. It enables to modify the height of the retorting chamber and thus to practically eliminate the dependence of the unit throughput rate on the velocity of the heat carrier gas in the retorting chamber, and to perform the process in a thin oil shale bed. The authors discuss how generators employing cross current heat carrier flow (the Kiviter process) are widely applied in the U.S.S.R. for retorting of kukersite, characterized by a high organic content and bituminization upon heating.

Yefimov, V.M. (Oil Shale Research Institute, Kohtla-Jarve, Estonian (UA)); Rooks, I.H. (V.I. Lenin PO Slantsekhim, Kohtla-Jarve, Estonian (UA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

elements. Over 25% of the raw shale gas five groups productsthe oil, in the raw oil shale gas, consequence of retorting„good product raw oil shale and input gases that is accounted

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. , 1979, Analysis of oil shale of products and effluents:In- Situ Retorting of Oil Shale in a Controlled- Stateactivation: Archaeometry, oil-shale analysis v. 11, p.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Effect of oil shale type and retorting atmosphere on the products from retorting various oil shales by the controlled-state retort  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Six oil shales from different locations (the Green River formation of Colorado and Utah, the Antrim Basin of Michigan, and Morocco) having different Fischer Assay oil yields were retorted using three retorting atmospheres (N/sub 2/, N/sub 2//steam, and N/sub 2//steam/O/sub 2/) under the same retorting conditions. The products (oils, gases, waters, and shales) were analyzed and the data are reported. Changing retorting atmospheres had little observable effect on the product oils; however, there was a great deal of change in the composition and amount of gas produced. Steam in the retorting atmosphere increased the amount of carbon dioxide produced and decreased the amount of carbonate and organic carbon in the retorted shale. Addition of oxygen to N/sub 2//steam and increasing the maximum temperature compounded the above effect. 3 figures, 20 tables.

Duvall, J.J.; Mason, K.K.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Oil shale retorting: Part 2, variation in product oil chemistry during retorting of an oil shale block  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses the variation in composition of oil as it is evolved during the pyrolysis of oil shale. Thirteen shale oil fractions collected during pyrolysis of an 18- x 18-cm cylindrical shale block have been analyzed by measurements of density, viscosity, elemental composition, simulated distillation, GLC, /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR, and infrared spectroscopy. The results show a striking change in the composition of oil collected early during retorting, as compared with that collected during the middle or latter part of retorting. In particular, the early oil fractions contain a predominance of naturally occurring isoprenoid compounds, whereas later fractions contain larger amounts of paraffin compounds. Less dramatic changes include variations in the amounts of olefins, aromatics, and degree of aromatic substitution, changes in amount of nitrogen-containing compounds, and variations in density and viscosity. The results of these analyses are used to form a picture of the changes in shale oil composition during retorting in the hope that a clearer understanding of the system's chemistry may eventually provide a way to optimize the shale oil retorting process.

Coburn, T.T.; Campbell, J.H.

1977-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

54

Non-subsidence method for developing an in situ oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

A non-subsidence method for developing an in situ oil shale retort tract in a subterranean formation containing oil shale includes forming a number of spaced apart rows of in situ oil shale retorts, leaving intervening zones of unfragmented formation between adjacent rows of retorts for supporting the overburden loads without substantial subsidence. Each retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The retorts in each row are separated by gas barriers that provide support for the overburden load above each row of retorts. After retorting, a stabilizing material is introduced into the void spaces in the spent in situ oil shale retorts for increasing the compressive strength of the fragmented masses of spent oil shale particles in the spent in situ retorts. Thereafter, separate rows of in situ oil shale retorts are formed in corresponding intervening zones of unfragmented formation. The retorts in each intervening row are separated by gas barriers that provide partial support for the overburden load above each row of intervening retorts. Separate barriers of unfragmented formation are left between the retorts in each intervening row and adjacent rows of spent retorts. This shifts the overburden load to the spent retorts and to the intervening barriers of unfragmented formation, as well as to the barriers of formation between individual retorts in the intervening rows of retorts, which collectively support overburden loads without substantial subsidence during the operating life of the retorts in the intervening rows.

Hutchins, N.M.

1983-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

55

Ground water control for an in situ oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale. An open base of operation is excavated in the formation above the retort site, and an access drift is excavated to the bottom of the retort site. Formation is explosively expanded to form the fragmented mass between the access drift and an elevation spaced below the bottom of the base of operation, leaving a horizontal sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the top of the fragmented mass and the bottom of the base of operation. The sill pillar provides a safe base of operation above the fragmented mass from which to control retorting operations. A plurality of blasting holes used in explosively expanding the formation extend from the base of operation, through the sill pillar, and open into the top of the fragmented mass. Trenches are formed in the base of operation for collecting ground water which enters the base of operation prior to and during retorting operations, and collected ground water is withdrawn from the base of operation. Casings can be placed in the blasting holes and adapted for controlling gas flow through the fragmented mass during retorting operations. The casings extend above the floor of the base of operation to inhibit flow of ground water through the blasting holes into the fragmented mass, and other blasting holes not having such casings are sealed. After retorting is completed, the floor of the base of operation can be covered with a layer of concrete and/or the blasting holes can be sealed with concrete to inhibit leakage of ground water into treated oil shale particles in the fragmented mass.

Ridley, R.D.

1979-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

56

Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

Ricketts, T.E.

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

57

Characterization of in situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

Turner, Thomas F. (Laramie, WY); Moore, Dennis F. (Laramie, WY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION OF SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water from Green River Oil Shale, Chemistry and Industry,for an In-Situ Produced Oil-Shale Processin g Water, LERCOf Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Water B.A. Ossio, J.P.

Ossio, E.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

A Strategy for the Abandonment of Modified In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of steam on oil shale ing: a preliminary laboratoryInstitute to Rio Blanco Oil Shale Project, May 1977. 1~OF MODIFIED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS J. P. Fox and P.

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Moody, M.M.; Sisemore, C.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION OF SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water from Green River Oil Shale, Chemistry and Industry,an In-Situ Produced Oil-Shale Processin g Water, LERC ReportOf Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Water B.A. Ossio, J.P.

Ossio, E.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is pyrolysized to produce shale oil, gas, a solid referredshale, and aqueous effluents known as retort water and gasoil shale process waters were studied: retort water and gas

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Simulated in situ retorting of oil shale in a controlled-state retort. I. Nitrogen atmosphere, interrupted runs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of experiments has been performed on Green River oil shale using the controlled-state retort, an electrically heated retort designed to simulate in situ retorting. Each experiment described was stopped when only part of the shale bed had been completely retorted. Retorting parameters investigated include heating rate, retorting advance rate, gas input flow rate, and maximum temperature. Oils were washed and bitumens were extracted from the partially retorted and unretorted oil shales. The oils and bitumens were examined by simulated distillation gas chromatography, the product gases were analyzed by mass spectroscopy, and the shales were subjected to elemental analysis. Results of the various analyses are presented and conclusions are drawn from the data concerning the way the product oil moves through the bed of unretorted shale. The effects of temperature, heating rate, gas flow rate, and breadth of retorting zone on oil film thickness and bitumen content; the effect of heating rate on organic carbon content in the retorted shale; and the effect breadth of retorting zone has on the boiling point distribution of oils and bitumens as related to distance from the retorting zone are discussed.

Duvall, J.J.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Underground oil shale retorting. [Basic principles are outlined  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The basic principles involved in combustion processing of oil shale are outlined. The manual is designed to serve as an introduction to the subject for the support personnel of the LLL Oil Shale Project. The material is presented in a simple two page format with one page devoted to a figure or table and the facing page contains a brief description of that material. Thus, it can serve as a self-study guide. Following a brief description of oil shale, how it was formed, and the extent of the resource, an overview of the concepts and major technical problems of Modified In-Situ (MIS) Oil Shale Retorting is presented. Finally, the liquid product, shale oil, is compared with typical petroleum crudes.

Campbell, J.H.; Raley, J.H.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

A Strategy for the Abandonment of Modified In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of steam on oil shale ing: a preliminary laboratoryJr. , "Disposal J. spent shale ash in "in situ" retortedInstitute to Rio Blanco Oil Shale Project, May 1977. 1~

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Moody, M.M.; Sisemore, C.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Method for closing a drift between adjacent in-situ oil shale retorts  

SciTech Connect

A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

Hines, A.E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

66

Method for closing a drift between adjacent in situ oil shale retorts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

Hines, Alex E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Retorting of oil shale followed by solvent extraction of spent shale: Experiment and kinetic analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of El-Lajjun oil shale were thermally decomposed in a laboratory retort system under a slow heating rate (0.07 K/s) up to a maximum temperature of 698--773 K. After decomposition, 0.02 kg of spent shale was extracted by chloroform in a Soxhlet extraction unit for 2 h to investigate the ultimate amount of shale oil that could be produced. The retorting results indicate an increase in the oil yields from 3.24% to 9.77% of oil shale feed with retorting temperature, while the extraction results show a decrease in oil yields from 8.10% to 3.32% of spent shale. The analysis of the data according to the global first-order model for isothermal and nonisothermal conditions shows kinetic parameters close to those reported in literature.

Khraisha, Y.H.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

Richardson, J.H.; Monaco, S.B.; Sanborn, R.H.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Taylor, J.R.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during oil shale retorting: retort water and gas condensate.commercial oil shale plant, retort water and gas condensateunique to an oil shale retort water, gas condensate, and

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Method for establishing a combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

A method for retorting oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort includes the steps of excavating a void in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and placing combustible material in the void adjacent an ignition situs. Formation is then explosively expanded toward the void to form a retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale, the top layer of the fragmented mass adjacent an ignition situs containing such combustible material. The combustible material is then ignited for establishing a combustion zone in the retort.

Bartel, W.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Burton, R.S. III

1979-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

73

Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

retort waters. Process waters are produced within the retortorganics. Process waters are produced in large quantities.Measurements Retort waters are co-produced with shale oil

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Weathering effects on some chemical and physical properties of retorted oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Union B retorted Utah oil shale, Paraho retorted Utah oil shale, and Paraho retorted Colorado oil shale differed in texture, pH, and salinity. Physical breakdown of Paraho retorted Colorado oil shale particles was observed at the surface of columns exposed to field conditions in eastern Utah for 9 months, but no physical weathering was observed in the other two retorted oil shale types under the same conditions. Exposure to weather resulted in pH reduction of all three retorted shales but was most pronounced in the more highly alkaline Paraho retorted Utah oil shale. The finer particle (< 2 mm) fractions tended to have lower pH values and higher electrical conductivities than the more coarse fractions, even when the latter were crushed to < 2 mm. Freezing and thawing in the laboratory were very effective in causing particle breakdown of Paraho retorted Colorado oil shale. During weathering the large particles first separated along cleavage planes, followed by disintegration of the lamina.

Richardson, S.G. (Utah State Univ., Logan); McKell, C.M.; George, M.R.; Gray, G.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas compressorThis process produces shale oil, a low BTU gas, and char,Oil Shale Process" in Oil Shale and Tar Sands, J. W. Smith

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Fluid outlet at the bottom of an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Formation is excavated from within the boundaries of a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming at least one retort level void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. A production level drift is excavated below the retort level void, leaving a lower zone of unfragmented formation between the retort level void and the production level drift. A plurality of raises are formed between the production level drift and the retort level void for providing product withdrawal passages distributed generally uniformly across the horizontal cross section of the retort level void. The product withdrawal passages are backfilled with a permeable mass of particles. Explosive placed within the remaining zone of unfragmented formation above the retort level void is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward at least the retort level void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the boundaries of the retort site. During retorting operations products of retorting are conducted from the fragmented mass in the retort through the product withdrawal passages to the production level void. The products are withdrawn from the production level void.

Hutchins, Ned M. (Grand Junction, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are unique to in-situ oil shale production, Literature fromother industries to oil shale production because these datapotential for spent shale grout production and to design a

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the carbon, oil, and gas from the shale are combusted; andceases •t II Burner gas and shale heat shale ll>" ~Air AirFigure 2. Oil recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Multiphase flow modeling of oil mist and liquid film formation in oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A first level model is developed to account for the appearance and disappearance of liquid oil produced during oil shale retorting. Although nearly all the kerogen initially present in the oil shale exits the retort in the form of a liquid either in the form of a mist or a falling film, the flow of this valuable, clean liquid fuel is not presently accounted for in oil shale retorting computer models. A rigorous treatment of the problem is very difficult. A simplified but sophisticated treatment is developed which is designed to be easily incorporated into the LLL computer model now without major modifications to the numerical solution algorithms. A complete set of equations and simple models are developed to explicitly account for the movement of condensed oil mist and liquid film flowing at unequal velocities. The equations clearly illustrate where more detailed treatments may be inserted, as they are developed.

Lyczkowski, R.W.; Gidaspow, D.

1979-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Revised quarterly report, July--September, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following are reported: site preparation, drilling/blasting, reentry drilling, retort preparation, retort burn, oil production/handling, post-blast coring, separate experiments, environmental research, Kampsite, retort number 16 gas composition, water quality data, retort tracer tests, vibration and sound study, and shale oil analysis. (DLC)

Zerga, D.P.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are unique to in-situ oil shale production, Literature fromother industries to oil shale production because these dataThe processes used in production of oil shale have not been

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controls for a Commercial Oil Shale In~try, Vol. I, An En~in Second Briefing on In-Situ Oil Shale Technology, LawrenceReactions in Colorado Oil Shale, Lawrence Report UCRL-

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water from Green River Oil Shale, 11 Chem. Ind. 1, 485 (Effluents from In-Situ Oil Shale Processing," in ProceedingsControl Technology for Oil Shale Retort Water," August 1978.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

Reeves, Adam A. (Rifle, CO)

1978-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

86

Oil shale project: large retort run summary, run L-3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the retort run L-3, a high yield (83 to 84% of FA) was achieved using a broad particle size distribution (-30.5 cm, + 0.001 cm) with 15 to 20% of the shale larger than 15 cm. The nonuniform flow in the retort was closely predicted by the changing shape of the steam front. Steam front measurements after the run indicated that the flow distribution through the bed was little affected by the retorting and combustion processes. The technique of ignition by hot-gas-preheating worked satisfactorily; no oxygen was observed in the exit gas during the entire retort operation. The temperature of the retort front was controlled by the air flux; no runaway temperatures were encountered when making the step grade change from 18 to 36 gal/ton. The hydrogen concentration in the exit gas reached approximately 18% in the rich (36 gal/ton) shale at the bottom of the bed; this is the highest concentration seen in any of the retorting experiments. A factor-of-three change in the CO/CO/sub 2/ ratio was observed as the combustion front moved from the 18 gal/ton to 36 gal/ton shale; also, about a factor-of-two change occurred in the rate of production of CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/ and CO.

Ackerman, F.J.; Sandholtz, W.A.; Raley, J.H.; Carley, J.F.; Tripp, L.J.; Rothman, A.J.; Campbell, J.H.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Method of enhancing yield from an in situ oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

To recover liquid and gaseous products from a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale, a buffer zone containing retorted oil shale is established in the fragmented mass by passing a hot processing gas substantially free of free oxygen through at least a portion of the fragmented mass. Thereafter, a combustion zone is established in the buffer zone, and a combustion zone feed containing oxygen is introduced into the fragmented mass on the trailing side of the combustion zone. This advances the combustion zone through the fragmented mass and retorts oil shale in a retorting zone on the advancing side of the combustion zone. The thickness of the buffer zone is sufficient for reaction of most of the oxygen in the combustion zone feed with residual carbonaceous material in retorted oil shale in the buffer zone.

Cha, C.Y.

1978-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

88

In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October-December 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The burn of Retort 17 was terminated December 10. Retort 18 was ignited November 12. Retort 17 produced 510 bbl during the quarter for the total of 3,775 bbl, while Retort 18 produced 1,187 bbl. The shale oil was analyzed. Environmental studies were done.

Hutchinson, D.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit for in situ retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit that has been formed in alternate horizontal layers of rich and lean shale, including the steps of driving a horizontal tunnel along the lower edge of a rich shale layer of the deposit, sublevel caving by fan drilling and blasting of both rich and lean overlying shale layers at the distal end of the tunnel to rubblize the layers, removing a substantial amount of the accessible rubblized rich shale to permit the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form a column of lean shale, performing additional sublevel caving of rich and lean shale towards the proximate end of the tunnel, removal of a substantial amount of the additionally rubblized rich shale to allow the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form another column of rubblized lean shale, similarly performing additional steps of sublevel caving and removal of rich rubble to form additional columns of lean shale rubble in the rich shale rubble in the tunnel, and driving additional horizontal tunnels in the deposit and similarly rubblizing the overlying layers of rich and lean shale and forming columns of rubblized lean shale in the rich, thereby forming an in situ oil shale retort having zones of lean shale that remain permeable to hot retorting fluids in the presence of high rubble pile pressures and high retorting temperatures.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controls for a Commercial Oil Shale In~try, Vol. I, An En~in Second Briefing on In-Situ Oil Shale Technology, LawrenceHeley, Water Management ln Oil Golder Associates, Kirkland,

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

Mallon, R.G.

1979-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Determining the locus of a processing zone in an oil shale retort by effluent off gas heating value  

SciTech Connect

A processing zone advances through a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort has an effluent gas passing therefrom. The effluent gas has a heating value which is dependent on the kerogen content of the oil shale then in contact with the processing zone. To determine the locus of the processing zone, the formation is assayed at selected locations in the retort for kerogen content before processing the selected locations, and effluent gas from the retort is monitored for its heating value.

Cha, C.Y.

1981-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

95

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2), forms the ubiquitous oil source matrix in shales. Thus~Oil Shale Retort and Process Water s Inorganic Arsenic and Organoarsenic compounds were purchased from commercial sources

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Material balance calculations for true in-situ oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In an effort to further understand the characteristics of true in situ oil shale retorting, a comprehensive material balance procedure has been developed for this application. In addition to the normal elemental balances, laboratory data for the stoichiometry of oil coking and kerogen decomposition are used. This additional information allows estimates to be made as to the extent of the product loss mechanisms of oil coking and oil combustion. Assumptions are necessary in order to close the balance; thus sensitivity of the results to these assumptions is examined. The procedure has been applied to both the Site 9 and, on a preliminary basis, Site 12 oil shale retorts conducted by the Laramie Energy Technology Center. Results indicate that oil combustion and oil coking are significant loss mechanisms, i.e., on the order of 40 to 60% of oil retorted.

Hommert, P.J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Pollution control technical manual: modified 'in situ' oil shale retorting combined with Lurgi surface retorting. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The oil shale PCTM for Modified In Situ Oil Shale Retorting combined with Lurgi Surface Retorting addresses the application of this combination of technologies to the development of oil shale resources in the western United States. This manual describes the combined plant using Lurgi surface retorting technology (developed by Lurgi Kohle and Mineralotechnik GmbH, West Germany) and the Modified In Situ process (developed by Occidental Oil Shale, Inc.) proposed by Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. and Tenneco Shale Oil Company for use in the development of their Federal oil shale lease Tract C-b in western Colorado. Since details regarding waste streams and control technologies for the Lurgi process are presented in a separate PCTM, this document focuses principally on the Modified In Situ process.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Hydrogen production by fluid-bed retorting of oil shale. [Shale oil/partial oxidation; steam-oxygen gasifier; CO/sub 2/ acceptor gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oil produced from retorting of oil shales requires hydrogen treatment to improve its characteristics and make it suitable for refining into marketable products. Hydrogen requirements can be met by partial oxidation of a fraction of the shale oil produced or by direct processing of oil shale in a fluid bed. This report examines the economics and engineering feasibility of using fluid bed systems to produce hydrogen. Fluid bed processing of oil shale to produce hydrogen might be technically and economically competitive with a more conventional shale retorting/partial oxidation method. A major development program would be required to demonstrate the feasibility of the fluid bed approach.

Barnes, J.W.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

A Strategy for the Abandonment of Modified In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spent shale, latent heat within the retort, gases, processgas and process water and leaves behind large underground chambers (retorts) of spent shale andspent shale into a pozzolan or cement, use of NH3 in the gas

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Moody, M.M.; Sisemore, C.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO); Fernandes, Robert J. (Bakersfield, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by pressure monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring pressure in the retort. Monitoring can be effected by placing a pressure transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

Ridley, R.D.; Burton, R.S. III

1978-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

103

Design and test of a two-step solar oil-shale retort  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar retorting of oil shale has been identified as a technically feasible process where focused solar energy can displace fossil energy in the production of liquid fuels. The predicted result is a 10 to 40% improvement in the exportable fuel (oil + gas) production per ton of raw shale. The degree of improvement depends strongly on the grade of the shale. Greater improvements can be achieved with the lower grade shales where with nonsolar processes a larger fraction of the fuel content has to be used in the processing. This report presents a design of a two-step solar oil shale retort, the logic for the design, and the results from a preliminary test of the design at the White Sands Solar Furnace, New Mexico. The tests showed that the basic design had considerable promise, but more development work would be needed to optimize it.

Gregg, D.W.; Taylor, R.W.; Aiman, W.R.; Ruiz, R.

1981-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

104

Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

Studebaker, Irving G. (Grand Junction, CO); Hefelfinger, Richard (Grand Junction, CO)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Oil degradation during oil shale retorting. [Effects on oil yields from powdered shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent experimental data demonstrating the effects of varied thermal histories on oil yield from powdered Colorado shale are reviewed. Losses in overall yield resulting from interruption of a rapid heating schedule with an isothermal holding period are directly related to the amounts of oil that are produced during the holding period. These amounts are also correlated with the inert gas flow rates required to raise the yields to the assay value. The results show that degradation of oil outside the shale particles is the major determinant of oil yield from powdered shale. Maximum thermal degradation rates are calculated from these data and compared with pyrolysis rates for petroleum fractions.

Raley, J.H.; Braun, R.L.

1976-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

106

Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, January-March 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Retort No. 18 produced 3479 barrels of oil during the quarter for a total of 4528 barrels to date. Chromatographic analyses of Retort No. 18 shale oil by the GKI analytical laboratory indicated variation in the oil from the wells near the air-in end and from the air-out end of the retort. Shale oil has been blended with Altamont crude (the Roosevelt refinery's normal feedstock); the distillation, API gravity, pour point, flash point, Naptha and Cat Gas were not affected by the shale oil. The diesel off the crude unit changed from water white to yellow, however, and a fine grayish-brown precipitate formed. Re-entry drilling was performed on Retorts No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23 during the quarter; tracer tests were run by Sandia Laboratories on Retorts No. 19, No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 25.

Hutchinson, D.L.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the grout. SPENT SHALE Oil shale, which is a low-gradeMineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. of Decomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II. Livermore

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

Burton, III, Robert S. (Mesa, CO)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Source characterization studies at the Paraho semiworks oil shale retort. [Redistribution of trace and major elements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to determine the redistribution of trace and major elements and species during aboveground oil shale retorting, a comprehensive program was carried out for the sampling and analysis of feedstock, products, effluents, and ambient particulates from the Paraho Semiworks Retort. Samples were obtained during two periods in 1977 when the retort was operating in the direct mode. The data were used to construct mass balances for 31 trace and major elements in various effluents, including the offgas. The computed mass balances indicated that approx. 1% or greater fractions of the As, Co, Hg, N, Ni, S, and Se were released during retorting and redistributed to the product oil, retort water, or product offgas. The fraction released for these seven elements ranged from approx. 1% for Co and Ni to 50 to 60% for Hg and N. Approximately 20% of the S and 5% each of the As and Se were released. Ambient aerosols were found to be elevated near the retorting facility and associated crushing and retorted shale disposal sites. Approximately 50% of these particles were in the respirable range (< 5 ..mu..m). The elevated dust loadings are presented very local, as indicated by relatively low aerosol loadings at background sites 100 to 200 m away. State-of-the-art dust control measures were not employed. 15 figures, 19 tables.

Fruchter, J.S.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Evans, J.C.; Sanders, R.W.; Abel, K.W.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Process for Recovery of Oil Shale, Nov. 1976-0ct. 1977,1. Lekas, M. A. , Proc. 12th Oil Shale Sympos. , ColoradoCOMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT ~~D PROCESS WATERS

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Process for Recovery of Oil Shale, Nov. 1976-0ct. 1977,M. A. , Proc. 12th Oil Shale Sympos. , Colorado School ofCOMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT ~~D PROCESS WATERS

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, January, February, March 1981  

SciTech Connect

Retort No. 23 has been heavily instrumented and was ignited on March 16, 1981. A total of 6588 barrels of shale oil have been recovered from Retort No. 24 to date; 6057 barrels of oil were recovered during the quarter, an average of 65 barrels per day. Approximately 4909 barrels of shale oil were shipped by tanker truck to the WESRECO refinery in Salt Lake City, Utah, during the quarter. Drilling of re-entry process and instrumentation wells on Retort No. 25 was completed. A post-burn core sampling program for Retort No. 18 was developed and implemented.

Hutchinson, D.L.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Forming shale oil recovery retort by blasting into slot-shaped columner void  

SciTech Connect

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean oil shale deposit by excavating one or more slot-shaped columnar voids each having a pair of vertically extending, planar free faces, drilling blasting holes adjacent to the columnar void and parallel to the free faces, loading the blasting holes with explosive, and detonating the explosive in a single round to expand the shale adjacent to the columnar void one directionally toward each free face in one or more planar layers severed in a sequence progressing away from each free face and to fill with fragmented oil shale the columnar void and the space in the in situ retort originally occupied by the expanded shale prior to the expansion. The pair of free faces extend across the entire width (or length) of the retort being formed. A room having a horizontal floor plan that coincides approximately with the horizontal cross section of the retort to be formed is excavated so as to intersect the columnar void. The blasting holes are drilled and loaded with explosive from the room.

Ridley, R.D.

1977-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

114

Anaerobic fermentation of simulated in-situ oil shale retort water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of removing soluble organics from oil shale retort water by anaerobic digestion with methane production was experimentally investigated. The following conclusions were made. The retort water studied had to be pretreated to remove toxic and add deficient constituents before it could be successfully treated with the anaerobic fermentation process. Pretreatment included pH adjustment to 7, ammonia reduction, and nutrient addition. A digested sludge from a conventional municipal sewage treatment plant was successfully acclimated to the retort water studied. A major fraction of the organics in the retort water studied was stabilized by conversion to CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/ using the anaerobic fermentation process. BOD/sub 5/ and COD removal efficiences were 76 to 80 percent. The effluent from anaerobic fermentation of the retort water studied (BOD/sub 5/ : 530 to 580 mg/l) may be suitable for treatment by conventional aerobic processes. The growth of the methane formers, which stabilize the organics, is nutrient limited in the retort water studied. The pretreatment of the retort water studied removed 49 percent of the BOD/sub 5/. This was probably due to the reduction in solubility of high molecular weight fatty acids at neutral pHs. A major component removed from the retort water studied during anaerobic fermentation was fatty acids. The long hydraulic residence time used in this study would not be used in practice.

Ossio, E.A.; Fox, J.P.; Thomas, J.F.; Poulson, R.E.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Mercury emissions from a simulated in-situ oil shale retort  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In simulated in-situ retorting, lesser amounts of mercury are distributed to the spent shale, shale oil, and water than to the offgas. The mercury release is controlled by the successive volatilization and removal of mercury as the reaction front progresses down the shale bed. Oil-wet shale, enriched in heavy ends, may selectively remove the mercury from the gaseous phase. If nonuniform gas flow occurs in commercial retorts, mercury may be condensed in cool regions of the shale bed behind the reaction front where it may be subsequently leached by groundwaters. In a 50,000 bpd or larger commercial operation, it is likely that mercury will have to be removed from the gas stream to meet air quality standards or emission standards. Existing control technologies under consideration for oil shale plants need to be evaluated to determine their mercury removal efficiency. Mercury levels in retort waters would exceed water quality standards and criteria for discharge to local streams and mercury would have to be removed from these waters before discharge. Additional work is required to determine the fate and form of the mercury in a stack plume and the effect of the oil-wet zone on the removal of mercury from the gas phase. 5 figures, 9 tables.

Fox, J.P.; Duvall, J.J.; Mason, K.K.; McLaughlin, R.D.; Bartke, T.C.; Poulson, R.E.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the Division of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology and theGas Environments on Mineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale,"

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Selected elemental distributions as determined by reference retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In an effort to determine potential hindrances to the commercial development of the oil shale industry mass balance Fischer assay was used as a reference retorting method to examine the distribution of selected elements generally considered as contaminants in the final retort products. The elements examined were nitrogen, sulfur, silver, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead, selenium, and zinc. The shales used in this study were an eastern (New Albany) interim reference shale, a western (Green River Formation) interim reference shale, and a series of stratigraphically differentiated shales from Colorado corehole No. 1 in the Piceance Creek Basin. Analysis of the raw shale and retort products was accomplished using instrumental elemental methods including inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy and graphite furnace atomic absorption. Carbon balances indicated a high potential for achieving good mass closures existed. However, instrumental limitations combined with a high potential for contamination and/or representative sampling problems resulted in poor closures for many of the trace elements. Consistent closures were obtained for arsenic, barium, copper, and zinc. Given the operating conditions of the retort all elements under consideration remained primarily in the spent shale. Elements verified in the oil product included nitrogen and sulfur compounds and arsenic and selenium. The water product was also contaminated by nitrogen and sulfur compounds and arsenic and selenium. Evidence suggests the sulfur occurs primarily as organic sulfur. Quantitative results for the gas product were poor. However, sulfur and mercury were determined to be present at significant levels in the gas stream. The data presented here concurs with previously reported data that suggests the existence of several potential problem areas in the development of an oil shale industry. 42 refs., 1 fig., 42 tabs.

Johnson, L.S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Mathematical modeling of modified in situ and aboveground oil shale retorting: Revision 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A one-dimensional mathematical model has been developed for simulating the chemicophysical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a rubblized bed of oil shale. Included are those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion mode. The physical processes are axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle shale thermal conductivity, water vaporization and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to the flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, and O/sub 2/. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, CH/sub x/, and CO, and the water-gas shift. The governing equations for mass and energy balance are solved numerically by a semi-implicit, finite-difference method. The bulk-gas flow rate, as well as the composition and temperature of both the gas stream and the shale particles, are calculated as a function of time and location in the retort. 60 refs.

Braun, R.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Challenge of efficiently retorting very nonuniform beds of oil shale rubble  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent experimental pilot scale retort work has shown significant declines in oil recovery yield as the size of the shale block increases. Current analyses of the problem are reviewed, together with experimental evidence for the key fluid mechanical, heat transfer and mass transfer processes that cause these lower yields. It is found that loss in retort oil yield is dominated by the flow patterns in the matrix material around the large blocks and by the thermal transient characteristics within the blocks. The principal mechanism appears to be burning and cracking of the produced oil in the gas phase near the larger shale blocks. The use of process control methods involving air/steam ratio, total flow, and flow variations coupled with monitored exit gas composition appears feasible to maximize oil production.

Galloway, T.R.

1979-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

120

Oil shale retorting: a correlation of selected infrared absorbance bands with process heating rates and oil yeild  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The measured absorbance for specific infrared bands of Colorado shale oil is correlated with process oil yield and retorting rate. The results show excellent correlations using bands associated with olefinic groups (910, 990 and 1640 cm/sup -1/); analyses were carried out using both quantitative and qualitative infrared methods. No pretreatment of the crude shale oil is required. The results are encouraging enough that, with further development, the method may have potential use as an on-line monitoring technique for various retorting processes.

Evans, R.A.; Campbell, J.H.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Retort No. 18 burn was terminated on May 11, 1980. A total of 5547 barrels of shale oil or 46 percent of in-place resource was recovered from the retort. The EPA-DOE/LETC post-burn core sampling program is underway on Retort No. 16. Eleven core holes (of 18 planned) have been completed to date. Preliminary results indicate excellent core recovery has been achieved. Recovery of 702 ft of core was accomplished. The Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit application was submitted to the EPA regional office in Denver for review by EPA and Utah air quality officials. The application for an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit to authorize GKI to inject retort wastewater into the Mesa Verde Formation is being processed by the State of Utah. A hearing before the Board of Oil, Gas and Mining is scheduled in Salt Lake City, Utah, for July 22, 1980. Re-entry drilling on Retort No. 24 is progressing and placement of surface equipment is underway. Retort No. 25 blasthole drilling was completed and blast preparations are ongoing. Retort No. 25 will be blasted on July 18, 1980. The retort will be similar to Retort No. 24, with improvements in blasthole loading and detonation. US Patent No. 4,205,610 was assigned to GKI for a shale oil recovery process. Rocky Mountain Energy Company (RME) is evaluating oil shale holdings in Wyoming for application of the GKI process there.

Hutchinson, D.L.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort, January 1991--September 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our objective, together with our CRADA partners, is to demonstrate advanced technology that could lead to an economic and environmentally acceptable commercialization of oil shale. We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

Cena, R.J.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Method and apparatus for igniting an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique is provided for igniting an in situ oil shale retort having an open void space over the top of a fragmented mass of particles in the retort. A conduit is extended into the void space through a hole in overlying unfragmented formation and has an open end above the top surface of the fragmented mass. A primary air pipe having an open end above the open end of the conduit and a liquid atomizing fuel nozzle in the primary air pipe above the open end of the primary air pipe are centered in the conduit. Fuel is introduced through the nozzle, primary air through the pipe, and secondary air is introduced through the conduit for vortical flow past the open end of the primary air pipe. The resultant fuel and air mixture is ignited for combustion within the conduit and the resultant heated ignition gas impinges on the fragmented mass for heating oil shale to an ignition temperature.

Burton, Robert S. (Grand Junction, CO); Rundberg, Sten I. (Debeque, CO); Vaughn, James V. (Debeque, CO); Williams, Thomas P. (Debeque, CO); Benson, Gregory C. (Grand Junction, CO)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Establishing a combustion zone below a sill pillar in an in situ oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale. An open base of operation is excavated in the formation above the retort site, and an access drift is excavated to the bottom of the retort site. Formation is explosively expanded to form the fragmented mass between the access drift and an elevation spaced below the bottom of the base of operation, leaving a horizontal sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the top of the fragmented mass and the bottom of the base of operation. The sill pillar provides a safe base of operation above the fragmented mass after it is formed. The fragmented mass is formed by, among other steps, drilling blasting holes from the base of operation down through the sill pillar and detonating explosive in the holes to form the fragmented mass of particles in the retort below the sill pillar. The fragmented mass is ignited through at least a first one of such blasting holes to establish a combustion zone in the top of the fragmented mass. The combustion zone is then advanced across the top of the fragmented mass by generating a gas pressure differential between the first blasting hole and at least a second blasting hole to draw gas down through the first blasting hole, across a top portion of the fragmented mass, and up through a second blasting hole so that gas flow across an upper portion of the fragmented mass spreads the combustion zone across the fragmented mass.

Burton, R.S. III; Chambers, C.C.; Hughes, R.F.

1979-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

125

Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 4. Solid waste from mining and surface retorts  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this study were to: review and evaluate published information on the disposal, composition, and leachability of solid wastes produced by aboveground shale oil extraction processes; examine the relationship of development to surface and groundwater quality in the Piceance Creek basin of northwestern Colorado; and identify key areas of research necessary to quantitative assessment of impact. Information is presented under the following section headings: proposed surface retorting developments; surface retorting processes; environmental concerns; chemical/mineralogical composition of raw and retorted oil shale; disposal procedures; water quality; and research needs.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

Elkington, W. Brice (Grand Junction, CO)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

An update on modified in-situ retorting of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The demonstration of Geokinetics, Rio Blanco and Occidental MIS technologies provide a spectrum of options for the recovery of shale oil from a wide range of available deposits. Geokinetics is very suitable for thin deposits with shallow overburden that may be utilized more economically employing Geokinetics technology than by above ground retorting. Rio Blanco and Occidental technologies are suitable for deeper, thicker deposits which cannot be exploited effectively without some MIS operations from the standpoint of total resource recovery.

Tardoni, E.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production of portland cement from a 1.8:1 mixture of limestone and raw oil shale.oil production and result in a new, high-risk tech- nology while modification of as-received spent shale

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Bakersfield, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Withdrawal of gases and liquids from an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in situ oil shale retort is formed within a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. A production level drift extends below the fragmented mass, leaving a lower sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the production level drift and the fragmented mass. During retorting operations, liquid and gaseous products are recovered from a lower portion of the fragmented mass. A liquid outlet line extends from a lower portion of the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar for conducting liquid products to a sump in the production level drift. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the fragmented mass through a plurality of gas outlet lines distributed across a horizontal cross-section of a lower portion of the fragmented mass. The gas outlet lines extend from the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar and into the production level drift. The gas outlet lines are connected to a gas withdrawal manifold in the production level drift, and gaseous products are withdrawn from the manifold separately from withdrawal of liquid products from the sump in the production level drift.

Siegel, Martin M. (Broken Arrow, OK)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting  

SciTech Connect

The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Chromosome aberrations and loss of some cell functions following in vitro exposure to retorted oil shale. [Cultured cells were exposed to processes oil shale particles (spent shales)  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of cellular level effects of processed oil shale from a simulation of modified in situ retorting was undertaken as part of an assessment of the toxicity and mutagenicity of oil shale. Complete assessment of the health hazards associated with physical contact, inhalation, or ingestion of oil shale has not been examined in humans and until it becomes practical to assess these hazards in man, we must rely upon well established in vitro detection procedures in addition to whole animal testing. CHO cells and L-2 rat lung epithelial cell lines were exposed in vitro to processed oil shale particles at different intervals following exposure. Cells were analyzed for chromosome alterations, cell colony forming ability, DNA synthesis, and cell transformation. The results of these studies demonstrate that retorted oil shale, under these experimental conditions, does modify cells in vitro. Chromosome aberrations increased with dose, cell colony forming ability decreased exponentially with dose, and the rate of DNA synthesis was affected, however cell transformation was not demonstrated after 3 months.

Stroud, A.N.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model  

SciTech Connect

A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Effects of space velocity on quality and quantity of gas from oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of gas injection rate, water injection rate, and retort pressure on offgas quality and quantity were studied using a small laboratory retort. There are interactions between these variables and oxygen injection and oil shale grade which affect total energy recovery, oil recovery, and energy content of the offgas. Prediction equations were developed describing the effects of these interactions. The study shows that with a low gas injection rate of 0.5 scfm/ft/sup 2/ at 100 psig with a water injection rate of 0.0201 lb/ft/sup 2/-min 50 percent of the potential oil recovery can be obtained together with 250 Btu/ft/sup 3/ gas.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.; Burwell, E.L.

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

steam, and groundwater intrusion during oil shale retorting: retort water and gas condensate.Steam Stripping of Occi- dental petroleum Retort No. 6 Gas Condensate,

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Selected elemental distributions as determined by reference retorting of oil shale and possible correlation with Fischer assay oil yield  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In previous work, the concentrations and distribution of selected elements in oil shale retort products were reported for the Department of Energy interim reference shales and Mahogany zone shale from Colorado corehole No. 1. As an extension of this work, the distribution of the same elements for a new shale group was investigated. The new shale group was composed of rich and lean shale pairs from other Mahogany zone coreholes in the Piceance Creek and Uinta Basins. This report summarizes graphically the distribution data collected to date, including data for the reference shales, Colorado corehole No. 1, and the rich and lean shale pairs. Also included are elemental concentrations by product stream for the new shale group. The data previously reported for Colorado corehole No. 1 were combined with the data from the new shale group to develop a capability for predicting the distribution of these elements in the different product streams. The data collected for the reference shales were not considered in the development of this predictive capability. The empirical data were collected for the new shale group using the same experimental approach as previously reported. Briefly, the general experimental design was to use mass balance Fischer assay as a reference retorting method, with subsequent analysis of the feedstock and all retort products for the elements of concern by instrumental analysis. The elements examined were arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nitrogen, selenium, silver, sulfur, and zinc. Initially, data analysis also remained the same. Unlike the previous work, statistical analysis was used to test for differences between shale groups for the distribution of a given element in a given product stream. 42 refs., 61 figs., 27 tabs.

Johnson, L.S.; Wood, F.J. Jr.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Differential thermal analysis of the reaction properties of raw and retorted oil shale with air  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study to determine the kinetics of combustion of oil shale and its char by using differential thermal analysis are reported. The study indicates that Colorado oil shale and its char combustion rate is the fastest while Fushun oil shale and its char combustion rate is the slowest among the six oil shales used in this work. Oil shale samples used were Fushun oil shale, Maoming oil shale, Huang county oil shale, and Colorado oil shale.

Wang, T.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model  

SciTech Connect

A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cement to Individual Wells," Oil and Gas Journal, ]2, No.pertinent materials, ~tab In oil well completions, cementlike cements (API, 1977). Oil well cementing has special

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Apparatus and method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for conducting such method are disclosed for igniting a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort. The method is conducted by forming a hole through unfragmented formation to the fragmented mass. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the hole. A fuel is introduced into a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The fuel and oxygen-containing gas mix forming a combustible mixture which is ignited for establishing a combustion zone in a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The hot gas generated in the combustion zone is conducted from the hole into the fragmented mass for heating a portion of the fragmented mass above an ignition temperature of oil shale.

Chambers, Carlon C. (Grand Junction, CO)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Unsaturated flow modeling of a retorted oil shale pile.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the capabilities of the UNSAT1D model for assessing this potential threat to the environment by understanding water movement through spent shale piles. Infiltration, redistribution, and drainage of water in a spent shale pile were simulated with the UNSAT1D model for two test cases: (1) an existing 35 m pile; and (2) a transient pile growing at a rate of 10 m/year for 5 years. The first test case simulated three different layering scenarios with each one being run for 1 year. The second test case simulated two different initial moisture contents in the pile with each simulation being run for 30 years. Grand Junction and Rifle, Colorado climatological data were used to provide precipitation and potential evapotranspiration for a wet (1979) and dry (1976) year, respectively. Hydraulic properties obtained from the literature on Paraho process spent shale soil, and clay were used as model input parameters to describe water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics. Plant water uptake was not simulated in either test case. The two test cases only consider the evaporation component of evapotranspiration, thereby maximizing the amount of water infiltrating into the pile. The results of the two test cases demonstrated that the UNSAT1D model can adequately simulate flow in a spent shale pile for a variety of initial and boundary conditions, hydraulic properties, and pile configurations. The test cases provided a preliminary sensitivity analysis in which it was shown that the material hydraulic properties, material layering, and initial moisture content are the principal parameters influencing drainage from the base of a pile. 34 figures, 4 tables.

Bond, F.W.; Freshley, M.D.; Gee, G.W.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Assessment of oil shale retort wastewater treatment and control technology: phases I and II. Final report, May 1979-March 1980  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale retorting is a synthetic fuel production technology on the verge of commercialization in the United States. In order to ensure that the emerging oil shale industry will have minimal adverse effects upon surface and/or groundwater where recoverable reserves of oil shale are found, demonstrated technologies to upgrade oil shale wastewaters must be available to developers. To this end, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has contracted with Monsanto Research Corporation to conduct a three-year, five-phase study to: (1) summarize known information concerning oil shale retort wastewater sources and characteristics; (2) identify potentially applicable control technologies capable of treating the identified wastewater streams; and (3) design, construct, and operate pilot-plant facilities to evaluate the selected technologies. This report presents results of Phases I and II, in which literature and other information sources were surveyed to obtain relevant data about oil shale retorting technologies, wastewater sources and characteristics, potential wastewater uses, and potentially applicable treatment technologies. As a result of the study, data gaps were identified, and recommendations for bench-scale treatability studies were made.

Klieve, J.R.; Rawlinss, G.D.; Hoeflein, J.R.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Summary of the environmental monitoring at the Rock Springs, Wyoming Site No. 9, true in situ oil shale retorting experiment  

SciTech Connect

The environmental effects and needed control technology associated with the potential in-situ retorting of oil shale in the Green River Basin (near Rock Springs, Wyoming) has been studied for over four years. This environmental monitoring program has included previous and existing in-situ oil-shale retorting field experiments and baseline data collection for potential future retorting experiments. The most extensive environmetal monitoring effort is at Rock Springs Site No. 9, a true in-situ oil-shale retorting field experiment which was ignited April 5, 1976. The purpose of this monitoring program was to identify any significant changes in the hydrology, air quality, and soils. Data have been collected during the pre-operational (baseline) and operational phases and continues to be collected during the post-operational phase. This report presents the results of the environmental monitoring conducted in support of the LETC Rock Springs No. 9 field experiment and the entire DOE oil shale program. 18 figures, 8 tables.

Virgona, J.E.; Poulson, R.E.; Spedding, T.J.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Method of operating an oil shale kiln  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

Reeves, Adam A. (Rifle, CO)

1978-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

146

ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION OF SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water co produced with shale oil and decanted from it isWater from Green River Oil Shale, Chemistry and Industry,for an In-Situ Produced Oil-Shale Processin g Water, LERC

Ossio, E.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

A Strategy for the Abandonment of Modified In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of steam on oil shale ing: a preliminary laboratoryInstitute to Rio Blanco Oil Shale Project, May 1977. 1~Cement, pozzolan and oil shale chemistry The chemistry of

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Moody, M.M.; Sisemore, C.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,V. E . • 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,E . • 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone the

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component Materials," LBL-

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Influence of irrigation and weathering reactions on the composition of percolates from retorted oil shale in field lysimeters  

SciTech Connect

Major cations, anions, trace elements and dissolved organic C were measured in percolate from retorted oil shale collected from irrigated lysimeters in the field at Anvil Points, Colorado, over a two year period. The investigations indicated that chemical equilibrium was not established over the monitoring period and major changes occurred in percolate composition as a function of applied water volume and water residence time in the shale. Field and laboratory studies indicated that several factors contributed to changes in the chemistry of the shale on weathering, including recarbonization of the surface horizons with atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and the activities of microorganisms in surface and subsurface horizons. However, the principal mechanism responsible for the decreases in pH and salt concentrations appeared to be the conversion of major quantities of sulfide in the retorted shale to sulfate through a thiosulfate intermediate.

Garland, T. R.; Wildung, R. E.; Harbert, H. P.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

Coburn, T.T.

1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

154

High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

KECL finds that 18-8 alloys are needed for oil shale retorting  

SciTech Connect

The Kentucky Energy Cabinet Laboratory (KECL) has, over a period of several years, investigated the corrosion and wear of materials of construction in oil shale retorting. The objective of the program was to develop an alloy performance database so that cost-effective materials of construction can be selected for plant designs. The KECL researchers conclude that 18-8 type alloys are needed for components exposed to gas and mist. For components exposed to interaction of erosion or abrasion with corrosion, wastage rates can be 10-20 times those under corrosion alone. These areas should probably be refractory or ceramic lined. Any metallic components (thermowells, etc.) will need to be protected by hard coatings or overlays. In condensate systems, the low alloys suffered extensive corrosive damage. Ferritic and stabilized austinitic stainless steels can be used to prevent stress corrosion cracking in these systems. 4 tables.

Not Available

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

produce oil, in various gas, bitumen, and C quantities andquantity of each element distributed among the products and Elements in the oilOil shales contain organic material in a mineral matrix which includes significant environmentally As, quantities

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Oil shale retorting: Part 3, a correlation of shale oil 1-alkene/n-alkane ratios with yield  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Shale oil obtained by pyrolyzing oil shale in an autogeneous or inert gas environment was analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography. It was found that ratios of l-alkenes to n-alkanes in the liquid oil correlate linearly with the percent of oil yield.

Coburn, T.T.; Bozak, R.E.; Clarkson, J.E.; Campbell, J.H.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surface spent shale, and grout production from treateda grout from spent shale--grout production fromraw shale, grout production from as-

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Application of the LO-CAT Hydrogen Sulfied Oxidation Process to geokinetics in-situ oil shale retorting  

SciTech Connect

A commercially feasible process for in-situ retorting of shale to produce shale oil and fuel gas is described. The LOFRECO process has been under development since 1975 and is currently producing approximately 40,000 barrels of shale oil per retort. The present operation in Southeastern Utah involves two 300 x 300 ft. areas, each containing a 30 foot thickness of oil shale at a depth of 100 feet, and producing approximately 400 BBL/day. The by-product gas produced by the retorting process is burned in an incineration unit. The gas composition varies during the burn period which lasts as long as one year. In order to meet the State of Utah requirements limiting sulfur dioxide emission, Geokinetics elected to install a LO-CAT Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation process. The LO-CAT process has successfully met the State requirements and has demonstrated substantial advantages over the Stretford process tested on a limited scale. The LO-CAT process is described in detail and the operating experience of the commercial LO-CAT unit with the Stretford results is compared.

Hardison, L.C.; Lekas, J.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Experimental studies in a bottom-burning oil shale combustion retort.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As the domestic demand for oil continues to increase, it is expected that the enormous worldwide oil shale reserves will eventually be tapped. Oil from… (more)

Udell, Kent S.

1905-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemicals Identified in Oil Shale and Shale Oil. list." 1.of Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Wa- ters", Am.Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Waters", in Oil Shale

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil Shale Process Wastewater," in Analysis of Waters Associated with Alternate Fuel Production,oil and shale during In in-situ processes, retort water its production

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

DOE/EA-1331: Environmental Assessment for Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the Rock Springs In Situ Oil Shale Retort Site (07/31/00)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31 31 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT REMEDIATION OF SUBSURFACE AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION AT THE ROCK SPRINGS IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT SITE SWEETWATER COUNTY, WYOMING July 2000 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT REMEDIATION OF SUBSURFACE AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION AT THE ROCK SPRINGS IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT SITE SWEETWATER COUNTY, WYOMING July 2000 Prepared by: U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory NEPA COMPLIANCE SUMMARY SHEET LEAD AGENCY U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TITLE Environmental Assessment for Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the Rock Springs In Situ Oil Shale Retort Test Site; Sweetwater County Wyoming. CONTACT Additional copies or information concerning the Environmental Assessment (EA) can

165

Method for establishing a combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort having a pocket at the top  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in situ oil shale retort having a top boundary of unfragmented formation and containing a fragmented permeable mass has a pocket at the top, that is, an open space between a portion of the top of the fragmented mass and the top boundary of unfragmented formation. To establish a combustion zone across the fragmented mass, a combustion zone is established in a portion of the fragmented mass which is proximate to the top boundary. A retort inlet mixture comprising oxygen is introduced to the fragmented mass to propagate the combustion zone across an upper portion of the fragmented mass. Simultaneously, cool fluid is introduced to the pocket to prevent overheating and thermal sloughing of formation from the top boundary into the pocket.

Cha, Chang Y. (1904 Glenmont Dr., Bakersfield, CA 93309)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Oil shale technology and evironmental aspects  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are a combination of mining, retorting, and upgrading facilities. This work outlines the processing steps and some design considerations required in an oil shale facility. A brief overview of above ground and in situ retorts is presented; 6 retorts are described. The development aspects which the oil shale industry is addressing to protect the environment are presented.

Scinta, J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Current developments in oil shale research at the Laramie Energy Research Center. [Review of studies in 4 areas: concurrent gasification and retorting; high pressure retorting; abnormal heating rate of interior of large blocks of oil shale; and in-situ combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current oil shale research being conducted at the Laramie Energy Research Center is many faceted, and some of the recent developments in these areas are presented. Concurrent gasification and retorting of oil shale where the effects of operating pressure and amounts of oxygen and water injection on quality and quantity of gas and oil produced is being studied. This work has resulted in off gas with heating values varying from 50 to 1,300 Btu/ft/sup 3/ and oil recovery of up to 80 vol percent of Fischer assay. The effects of retorting atmosphere, pressure, and external heating rate are being studied in a high pressure batch retort. Results from this work indicate that a nitrogen atmosphere decreases oil yield slightly while a hydrogen atmosphere increases the oil yield significantly. Large blocks of oil shale are being retorted in a 150-ton aboveground retort to study the abnormal heating rate of the interior of the blocks. This could be caused by an oxidation exotherm similar to that found in limited DTA studies. Some early results from the Rock Springs site 9 in-situ experiment are also presented. This is the fifth in-situ combustion experiment and is being performed in a 40-foot-thick oil shale bed having an average Fischer assay of 23 gallons per ton.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.; Burwell, E.L.; Harak, A.E.; Long, A.; Wise, R.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

171

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.and Biological Treatment of Shale Oil Retort Water, DraftPA (1979). H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedingsin the Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Waters," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.

Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E.; Jewett, Kenneth L.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Effects of in-situ oil-shale retorting on water quality near Rock Springs, Wyoming, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Experimental in-situ retorting techniques (methods of extracting shale oil without mining) were used from 1969 to 1979 by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) at a test area near Rock Springs in southwestern Wyoming. The retorting experiments at site 9 have produced elevated concentrations of some contaminants in the ground water. During 1988 and 1989, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, conducted a site characterization study to evaluate the chemical contamination of ground water at the site. Water samples from 34 wells were analyzed; more than 70 identifiable organic compounds were detected using a combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analytical methods. This report provides information that can be used to evaluate possible remedial action for the site. Remediation techniques that may be applicable include those techniques based on removing the contaminants from the aquifer and those based on immobilizing the contaminants. Before a technique is selected, the risks associated with the remedial action (including the no-action alternative) need to be assessed, and the criteria to be used for decisions regarding aquifer restoration need to be defined. 31 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs.

Lindner-Lunsford, J.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Plafcan, M.; Lowham, H.W.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

viable is the recovery of shale oil from our substantialdeposits of oil shale (1). Shale oil is recovered from oilproduce~ along with the shale oil, considerable amounts of

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Syncrude from eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to make resource assessment, mining and process economic evaluations of oil shale in Lewis and Fleming Counties, Kentucky. Two surface retorting processes, Paraho and HYTORT, were selected and the process and economic analyses were made for a 30,000 tons/day oil shale retorting facility. This work presents the results of this eastern oil shale feasibility study. 3 refs.

Vyas, K.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Control Technology for Shale Oil Wastewaters,~~ inpyrolysized to produce shale oil, gas, a solid referred towaters are co-produced with shale oil and separated from it

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

Gary, J.H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measured mercury levels in shale gases and waters. The TLV'srecovery shale Spent shale gas (wet) CS~35 cs~s6 CS-57 CS-59on large areas of the shale bed if gas channeling and

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentStudies Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J.Organic Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H.

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

each of retort water and shale oil, about 10 1 000 standardfrom In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and Environmentanic species present in shale oils process waters, gases,

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentTrace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J. Kland, A.Organic Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H.

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentTrace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J. Kland, A.Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H. Fish,

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properties of Spent Shales. Surface Area Measurements.Carbon. Effects. ~~ co 2,and Oil~Shale Partial-pressure andWater from Green River Oil Shale, 11 Chem. Ind. 1, 485 (

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the work reported is to clarify the reaction mechanisms which determine the observed alkene/alkane ratios under various conditions. The C/sub 1/ to C/sub 3/ hydrocarbons and hydrogen were measured as a function of time for oil shale heated at a constant rate. The effect of an inert sweep gas on the time-dependent ethene/ethane and propene/propane ratios and the integral 1-alkene/n-alkane ratios in the oil were also determined. It is shown that the C/sub 2/H/sub 4/-C/sub 2/H/sub 6/-H/sub 2/ system is not in thermal equilibrium. Results are interpreted in terms of a nonequilibrium free radical mechanism proposed by Raley.

Burnham, A.K.; Ward, R.L.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Shale oil: process choices  

SciTech Connect

The four broad categories of shale-oil processing are discussed. All of these processes share the basic function of retorting oil-shale rock at high temperature so that the kerogen material in the rocks is thermally decomposed to shale oil and gaseous products. The technologies and the organizations working on their development are: solids-to-solids heating, The Oil Shale Co. (TOSCO) and Lurgi-Rhur; gas-to-solids heating with internal gas combustion, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Development Engineering Inc. and Union Oil of California; gas-to-solid heating with external heat generation, Development Engineering, Union Oil, Petrobas, and Institute of Gas Technology; and in-situ retorting, Occidental Petroleum Corp. The TOSCO II process is considered proven and on the verge of commercialization. (BLM)

1974-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

188

Some observations of retorting phenomena in shale blocks. [Large blocks in oxidizing and nonoxidizing atmospheres  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A small retort (nominal capacity, one-half-ton oil shale) with glass viewing ports was designed and operated to provide additional information on the retorting characteristics of large blocks of oil shale in oxidizing and nonoxidizing atmospheres. Shale blocks selected for retorting ranged in weight from 240 to 680 pounds and represented shale grades of 14 to 36 gallons of oil per ton. In all tests, temperature profiles show a lag in heating rate of the inside of these blocks compared to the heating rate for the shale rubble surrounding them. Analytical data on the vent gases and gas samples taken from inside the blocks are included along with physical observations to expand the technology on retorting large blocks of oil shale.

Minster, R.A.; Martel, R.A.; Harak, A.E.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

An engineering model for prediction of in situ oil shale retort blasting  

SciTech Connect

The in situ extraction of oil from most oil shale beds is highly dependent upon explosive fracturing and rubbling of rock in a controlled and predictable manner. In blasting, it is necessary not only to fracture the rock, but also to move the broken rubble in a predictable manner. Most in situ extraction techniques require rubblization to take place in a confined region where rock motion is a predominate factor in creating a permeable broken bed. In this paper, an engineering model is presented which describes the large rubble motion during blasting. In this model the rock medium is represented by a discrete series of circular regions of fractured material. These regions are set in motion by pressure loads from the explosive. The motion of the regions is calculated using a step-wise, explicit, numerical time integration method. Interaction of adjacent regions is based on inelastic impact of spherical bodies. The derivation of this model is presented along with the background for selecting loading pressure based on explosive behavior.

Quong, R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jr. and M. D. Shelby, "Chemicals Identified in Oil Shaleand Shale Oil. list." 1. Preliminary Environmental Mutagenof Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Wa- ters", Am.

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jr. and M. D. Shelby, "Chemicals Identified in Oil Shaleand Shale Oil. list." 1. Preliminary Environmental MutagenTrace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Wa- ters", Am. Chern.

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity assay of natural and synthetic crude oils including a Fischer-Retorted Estonian shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DMSO extracts of a variety of natural and synthetic crude oils were tested for genotoxic activity in the Ames/Salmonella bioassay. Both mutagenic and cytotoxic potentials are cited. Natural crude oils and their refined products and upgraded synfuels are less mutagenic than parent crude shale oils which in turn are less mutagenic than the coal derived distillate blend sample, SRC II. However, this order is not true for cytotoxicity induced by these oil samples; therefore, caution must be exercised in the assessment of their mutagenic potential without consideration of other influential factors including cytotoxicity.

Strniste, G.F.; Nickols, J.W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Studies of oil-shale reaction chemistry at LLL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review is presented of recent studies on the chemistry of oil shale retorting. Kinetics are summarized for oil production and destruction mechanisms including kerogen-bitumen pyrolysis, oil coking and oil cracking. The effect of retorting conditions on shale oil quality is discussed along with the reverse process of inferring retorting conditions and yield loss mechanisms in modified in-situ retorts. Kinetic studies of carbonate mineral decomposition and related mineral reactions as well as residual carbon gasification are outlined.

Burnham, A.K.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Oil shale commercialization study  

SciTech Connect

Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

Warner, M.M.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Office of Oil Shale,Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Office of Oil Shale,

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 5: an investigation of dewatering for the modified in-situ retorting process, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The C-a and the C-b tracts in the Piceance Creek Basin are potential sites for the development of oil shale by the modified in-situ retorting (MIS) process. Proposed development plans for these tracts require the disturbance of over three billion m/sup 3/ of oil shale to a depth of about 400 m (1312 ft) or more below ground level. The study investigates the nature and impacts of dewatering and reinvasion that are likely to accompany the MIS process. The purpose is to extend earlier investigations through more refined mathematical analysis. Physical phenomena not adequately covered in previous studies, particularly the desaturation process, are investigated. The present study also seeks to identify, through a parametric approach, the key variables that are required to characterize systems such as those at the C-a and C-b tracts.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Shale oil recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Development and Utilization of Changpo Oil Shale Mining Area in Hainan Province China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper according to the Hainan provincial governor slope occurrence of oil shale mining, analyzing the direction of oil shale mining, development mode and reasonable development of the scale. Analysis showed that the long slope of oil shale mining ... Keywords: oil shale, a long slope mining, retorting, oil shale, in situ retorting

Wang Haijun; Li Kemin; Chen Shuzhao; Wang Bowen

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Oil shale: The environmental challenges III  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

Petersen, K.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Oil-shale utilization at Morgantown, WV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fully aware of the nation's need to develop high-risk and long-term research in eastern oil-shale and low-grade oil-shale utilization in general, the US DOE/METC initiated an eastern oil-shale characterization program. In less than 3 months, METC produced shale oil from a selected eastern-US oil shale with a Fischer assay of 8.0 gallons/ton. In view of the relatively low oil yield from this particular oil shale, efforts were directed to determine the process conditions which give the highest oil yield. A 2-inch-diameter electrically heated fluidized-bed retort was constructed, and Celina oil shale from Tennessee was selected to be used as a representative eastern oil shale. After more than 50 runs, the retorting data were analyzed and reviewed and the best oil-yield operating condition was determined. In addition, while conducting the oil-shale retorting experiments, a number of technical problems were identified, addressed, and overcome. Owing to the inherent high rates of heat and mass transfers inside the fluidized bed, the fluidized-bed combustor and retorting appear to be a desirable process technology for an effective and efficient means for oil-shale utilization. The fluidized-bed operation is a time-tested, process-proven, high-throughput, solid-processing operation which may contribute to the efficient utilization of oil-shale energy.

Shang, J.Y.; Notestein, J.E.; Mei, J.S.; Romanosky, R.R.; King, J.A.; Zeng, L.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Oil shale data book  

SciTech Connect

The Oil Shale Data Book has been prepared as a part of its work under DOE Management Support and Systems Engineering for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves Predevelopment Plan. The contract calls for the preparation of a Master Development Plan for the Reserves which comprise some 145,000 acres of oil shale lands in Colorado and Utah. The task of defining the development potential of the Reserves required that the resources of the Reserves be well defined, and the shale oil recovery technologies that are potentially compatible with this resource be cataloged. Additionally, processes associated with shale oil recovery like mining, materials handling, beneficiation, upgrading and spent shale disposal have also been cataloged. This book, therefore, provides a ready reference for evaluation of appropriate recovery technologies and associated processes, and should prove to be valuable for many oil shale activities. Technologies that are still in the process of development, like retorting, have been treated in greater detail than those that are commercially mature. Examples of the latter are ore crushing, certain gas clean-up systems, and pipeline transportation. Emphasis has been on documenting available design information such as, maximum module size, operation conditions, yields, utility requirements, outlet gas compositions, shale oil characteristics, etc. Cost information has also been included where available.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF IN-SITU RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wastewater Genera ted in Shale Oil Development 9 BattelleControl Technology for Shale Oil Wastewaters 9 11 inPhyllis Fox INTRODUCTION Oil shale retorting produces from

Ossio, Edmundo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Refining of shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The refining of shale oil is reviewed to assess the current state-of-the-art, especially as to the avaiability of technology suitable for operation on a commercial scale. Oil shale retorting processes as they affect the quality of the crude shale oil for refining, exploratory research on the character and refining of shale oil, and other published refining background leading to the present status are discussed. The initial refining of shale oil requires the removal of a large concentration of nitrogen, an added step not required for typical petroleum crude oils, and recently published estimates show that the total cost of refining will be high. Specific technoloy is reported by industry to be technically proven and available for commercial-scale refining. Although the refining will be more costly than that of petroleum, the viability of a shale oil industry will also be affected greatly by the technology and costs of producing the crude shale oil, environmental costs, and future price and tax treatment, and these are outside the scope of this study of refining.

Lanning, W.C.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condensate, on the other hand, leaves the retort as steam andSteam d Book Cliff, Utah Air d a Retort water and gas condensate

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Methods of Managing Water in Oil Shale Development - Energy ...  

This invention is a system and method of providing water management and utilization during the process of dewatering and retorting of oil shale. More ...

207

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale, Division of Oil, Gas and Shale Technology of the U.S.Shale, Division of Oil, Gas and Shale Technology of the U.S.shale oil, considerable amounts of process waters which originate from mineral dehydration, combustion, groundwater steam and moisture in the input gas.

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Shale oil cracking. 1. Kinetics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to determine kinetics for thermal cracking of shale oil vapor over shale. Cracking temperatures of 504 to 610/sup 0/C and residence times of 2 to 11 seconds were used. A first-order Arrhenius rate expression and stoichiometry were obtained. Also observed were changes in the oil quality. Cracking decreased the H/C ratio, increased the nitrogen content, and decreased the pour point of the oil. Gas-phase oil cracking is contrasted to liquid-phase oil coking as a loss mechanism in oil-shale retorting.

Burnham, A.K.; Taylor, J.R.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Oil shale: Technology status report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedingsof the 11th Oil Shale Symposium, 1978. J. W.MB_terial in Green River Oil Shale, U.S. Bur. lvlines Rept.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Division of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology to appropriateseven oil shale process waters including retort water, gas1d1i lc the gas condensate is condensed develop oil shale

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stabilization of Spent Oil Shales, EPA-600/'7-'78- 021, Feb.Impact Analysis for an Oil Shale Complex at Parachute Creek,from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedings of

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements in Oil Shale andOil-Shale Products. LERC RI 77-1, 1977. Bertine, K. K. andFrom A Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort. In: Procedings of

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedings ofthe 11th Oil Shale Symposium, 1978. J. W.MB_terial in Green River Oil Shale, U.S. Bur. lvlines Rept.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF IN-SITU RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phyllis Fox INTRODUCTION Oil shale retorting produces fromWaste Water from Oil Shale Processing" ACS Division of FuelEvaluates Treatments for Oil-Shale Retort Water," Industrial

Ossio, Edmundo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Oil shale and tar sands technology: recent developments  

SciTech Connect

The detailed, descriptive information in this book is based on US patents, issued since March 1975, that deal with the technology of oil shale and tar sands. The book contains an introductory overview of the subject. Topics included are oil shale retorting, in situ processing of oil shale, shale oil refining and purification processes, in situ processing of tar sands, tar sands separation processes.

Ranney, M.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Organic constituents in process water from the in-situ retorting of oil from oil-shale kerogen  

SciTech Connect

Capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) was performed on the acid, base, and neutral fractions of liquid- and particulate-phase methylene chloride extracts of a composite sample of raw process water collected from separator Tank 6 by the Laramie Energy Technology Center. Of the 160 extractable and chromatographable organic compounds tentatively identified, the following compound classes were found (listed in decreasing order of abundance): quinolines and lower fatty acids, aminoindoles, neutral oxygenated heterocyclics, pyridines, pyrroles, pyrazoles, phenols, and alkanes. Noticeably absent or in low concentration were alkyl benzenes and alkenes. Assuming 100% extraction efficiency, these organics constitute approximately 0.035% of the retort water; approximately 50% of this amount is represented by the quinolines, fatty acids, aminoindoles, and oxygenated heterocyclics. The following differences were noted in the composition of the particulate and liquid extracts of the neutral and base fractions, respectively: (1) alkanes are a major portion of the particulates, whereas oxygenated hereocyclics are most prominent in the liquid; and (2) aminoindoles are only a minor portion of the particulates, but are prominent in the liquid phase. The concentration of a compound occurring in both the liquid and particulate extracts is approximately 40 to 100 times higher in the liquid than in the particulate extract.

Raphaelian, L A; Harrison, W

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

LLNL oil shale project review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Livermore's oil shale project is funded by two budget authorities, two thirds from base technology development and one third from environmental science. Our base technology development combines fundamental chemistry research with operation of pilot retorts and mathematical modeling. We've studied mechanisms for oil coking and cracking and have developed a detailed model of this chemistry. We combine the detailed chemistry and physics into oil shale process models (OSP) to study scale-up of generic second generation Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) retorting systems and compare with results from our 4 tonne-per-day continuous-loop HRS pilot retorting facility. Our environmental science program focuses on identification of gas, solid and liquid effluents from oil shale processes and development of abatement strategies where necessary. We've developed on-line instruments to quantitatively measure trace sulfur and nitrogen compounds released during shale pyrolysis and combustion. We've studied shale mineralogy, inorganic and organic reactions which generate and consume environmentally sensitive species. Figures, references, and tables are included with each discussion.

Cena, R.J. (ed.)

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Oil-shale mining, Rifle, Colorado, 1944-1956  

SciTech Connect

The Rifle, Colorado, oil-shale project of the Bureau of Mines included three major divisions: (1) mining, (2) retorting, and (3) refining. The major functions of the mining program were to supply oil shale to the retorts, to devise mining procedures, and to develop an underground-mining method by which oil shale could be produced safely at an unusually low cost per ton. The selected mining procedures and direct mining costs were demonstrated by sustained test runs.

East, J.H. Jr.; Gardner, E.D.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

In situ recovery of shale oil  

SciTech Connect

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean oil shale deposit by excavating a columnar void having a vertically extending free face, drilling blasting holes adjacent to the columnar void and parallel to the free face, loading the blasting holes with explosive, and detonating the explosive in a single round to expand the shale adjacent to the columnar void toward the free face in layers severed in a sequence progressing away from the free face and to fill with fragmented oil shale the columnar void and the space in the in situ retort originally occupied by the expanded shale prior to the expansion. A room having a horizontal floor plan that coincides approximately with the horizontal cross section of the retort to be formed is excavated so as to intersect the columnar void. The blasting holes are drilled and loaded with explosive from the room. The room can lie above the columnar void, below the columnar void, or intermediate the ends of the columnar void. In one embodiment, the columnar void is cylindrical and the blasting holes are arranged in concentric rings around the columnar void. In another embodiment, the columnar void is a slot having one or more large parallel, planar vertical free faces, toward which the oil shale in the retort under construction can be explosively expanded. The blasting holes are arranged in planes parallel to these faces. The resulting retort generally has a cross section coinciding with the placement of the blasting holes and a height determined for the greater part by the vertical height of the columnar void. To form a retort having a large cross-sectional area, a plurality of columnar voids can be excavated and the shale in the retort expanded toward the respective columnar voids to form a continuous fragmented permeable mass of oil shale.

French, G.B.

1977-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W. A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements in Oil Shaleand Oil-Shale Products. LERC RI 77-1, 1977. Bertine, K. K.From A Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort. In: Procedings of

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Overview of LASL oil shale program  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is involved in a broad spectrum of oil shale-related activities for the US Department of Energy (DOE), including the bed preparation design of a modified in situ retort. This aspect of oil shale research has been identified by DOE as one of the limiting technologies impeding commerical, in situ development of oil shale. The retort bed must have uniform particle size, permeability, and void distributions to allow proper retorting and optimum resource recovery. Controlled fracturing using chemical explosives and carefully designed blasting schemes are the only feasible methods to attain this distribution. This approach to the bed preparation problem is a coordinated research program of explosives characterization, dynamic rock mechanics, predictive computer modeling, and field verification tests. The program is designed to develop the predictive fracturing capability required for the optimum rubbing of the shale.

Morris, W.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Pyrolysis kinetics for western and eastern oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oil yield and kinetic results are reviewed for Western (Colorado Mahogany zone) and Eastern (Sunbury and Ohio (Cleveland member)) oil shales for conditions ranging from those encountered in in-situ processing to those in fluidized-bed retorting. The authors briefly summarize kinetic models for the pyrolysis reactions. Oil yields from Eastern shale are much more sensitive to pyrolysis conditions than Western shale.

Burnham, A.K.; Coburn, T.T.; Richardson, J.H.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Shale oil cracking. 2. Effect on oil composition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results from spectroscopic investigations are presented that demonstrate the effect of oil cracking on shale oil composition. Techniques used include infrared spectroscopy, capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance. We show that cracking causes an increase in aromatic and alkene content of the oil. We compare our results for oils prepared in the laboratory with oils prepared in the TOSCO-II semi-works and in modified and true-in-situ combustion retorts. We demonstrate that the napthalene/2-methyl-naphthalene ratio is a good indicator of cracking conditions in an oil shale retort.

Burnham, A.K.; Sanborn, R.H.; Crawford, R.W.; Newton, J.C.; Happe, J.A.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Assessment of solid-waste characteristics and control technology for oil-shale retorting. Final report for September 1983-February 1985  

SciTech Connect

The report presents information on oil-shale deposits in the eastern and western parts of the United States, their geological subdivisions, locations, tonnage, and physical and chemical characteristics. Characteristics of solid and liquid wastes produced from various oil-shale-processing technologies and control methods are presented. Also included are results from an experimental study to construct liners and covers for disposal of spent shale. A compilation of available data on the auto-ignition potential of raw and spent shales indicates a similarity between raw-shale fines and bituminous coals.

Agarwal, A.K.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

RETORT ABANDONMENT -- ISSUES AND RESEARCH NEEDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Kalmbach, Inc. , C-b Shale Oil Venture: Hydrology, MineRetort abandonment for VMIS shale oil recovery is anWater Management In Oil Shale Mining, Golder Associates,

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil and grease is determined by passing a knoVln quantity ofOil shales contain organic material in a matrix which includes significant quantitiesoil shale retorting processes indicate that signifi·~· cant quantities

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

229

System for utilizing oil shale fines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Technological overview reports for eight shale oil recovery processes  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the document is to supply background information for evaluation of environmental impacts and pollution control technologies in connection with oil shale development. Six surface retorting processes selected for characterization were: (1) Union Oil Retort B, (2) Paraho, (3) TOSCO II, (4) Lurgi Ruhrgas, (5) Superior Oil, and (6) USBM Gas Combustion. In addition, two in-situ retorting activities were selected: (1) the Occidental modified in-situ retort, and (2) the true in-situ development programs of Laramie Energy Technology Center (DOE). Each overview report contains information on oil shale processing. General process descriptions, shale preparation requirements, equipment types, operating conditions, process products and by-products, physical and chemical characteristics, energy and water requirements, process stream characteristics, processed shale disposal requirements, and site-specific environmental aspects are included.

Shih, C.C.; Cotter, J.E.; Prien, C.H.; Nevens, T.D.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Oil shale technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

A survey of current technologies for production of oil from oil shale by in-situ retorting processes; their technical and economic readiness and requirements for further developments  

SciTech Connect

Four in-situ oil shale processes; Vertical Modified In-Situ (VMIS), Horizontal Modified In-Situ (HMIS), Geokinetics, and Equity have been reviewed with respect to their developmental histories, major advantages and disadvantages, present activities, major technical problems, and present states of development. The various processes are described in detail, and up-to-date experimental data has been summarized. The preliminary designs for commercialization have been developed in order to estimate capital and operating costs. Required selling prices and sensitivities have been determined as they relate to various parameters, such as oil yields, capital costs, operating costs, and economic incentives. The technologies for the various processes have been analyzed for the purpose of identifying areas of further required research and development. Programs of technological development have been suggested for each in-situ process. The results of various process evaluations have been compared, and the best near-term solutions have been determined for producing oil from oil shale using in-situ methods.

Cha, C.Y.; Chazin, D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Production of Shale Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intensive pre-project feasibility and engineering studies begun in 1979 have produced an outline plan for development of a major project for production of shale oil from private lands in the Piceance Basin in western Colorado. This outline plan provides a blueprint for the development of a 28,000 acre holding on Clear Creek in Garfield County, Colorado on property acquired by Standard Oil of California in the late 1940's and early 1950's. The paper describes these planning activities and the principal features of a proposed $5 billion project to develop facilities for production of 100,000 barrels per day of synthetic crude from oil shale. Subjects included are resource evaluation, environmental baseline studies, plans for acquisition of permits, plans for development of required retorting and mining technology and a preliminary description of the commercial project which will ultimately emerge from these activities. General financial impact of the project and the case for additional tax incentives to encourage it will be described.

Loper, R. D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Shale beneficiation and oil recovery from the concentrate  

SciTech Connect

A flow sheet and economic feasibility study of oil shale beneficiation and recovery shows that conceivable improvements in grinding, separation, and recovery could make a beneficiationbased system more attractive than conventional ore retorting, although current technology (based on ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting) is less attractive.

Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1972). E. D. York, Amoco Oil Co. , Research and DevelopmentOrganic Carbon Method •• Oil and Grease Measurements.Methods •• Sep~Pak Method of Oil and Grease Analysis.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Subject is oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The article reviews the current financial, legislative and regulatory problems of oil shale development. 2 refs.

Due, M.J.C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

HTGR application for shale-oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) utilizes a graphite-moderated core and helium as primary coolant. Developed for electric power production, the 842-MW(t) (330-MW(e)) Fort St. Vrain plant is currently operating at Platteville, Colorado. Studies have been performed that couple steam produced at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F) and 17 MPa (2500 psia) to two oil shale processes: the Paraho indirect retorting and the Marathon direct steam retorting. The plant, consisting of two 1170-MW(t) HTGR's, would also produce electric power for other shale operations. Results show economic and environmental advantages for the coupling.

Quade, R.N.; Rao, R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

HTGR application for shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) utilizes a graphite-moderated core and helium as primary coolant. Developed for electric power production, the 842-MW(t) (330-MW(e)) Fort St. Vrain plant is currently operating at Platteville, Colorado. Studies have been performed that couple steam produced at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F) and 17 MPa (2500 psia) to two oil shale processes: the Paraho indirect retorting and the Marathon direct steam retorting. The plant, consisting of two 1170-MW(t) HTGR's, would also produce electric power for other shale operations. Results show economic and environmental advantages for the coupling.

Quade, R.N.; Rao, R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) oil-shale research activities  

SciTech Connect

The paper is an overview of EPA's oil shale research activities. In spite of substantial cutbacks in the program, several new projects should not only be of interest to developers and researchers but also support future regulatory and permitting decisions by the Agency. New activities include: evaluation of the potential for using combusted Green River shale to adsorb SO2 as a primary sulfur control technology, preparation of a new Pollution Control Technical Manual on the Unishale B and C processes, and preparation of two state-of-the-art reports addressing planning and designs for retorted oil shale disposal and control of gaseous emissions from retorting. Activities that have been ongoing for some time include: investigation of leaching and hydraulic properties of retorted shales (including co-disposal of wastewater and shale), field tests of Stretford and caustic scrubbing for control of H2S in shale offgas, a compilation of available information on solid-waste characteristics for various retorting technologies, and assessment of retorted-shale as a liner for retorted shale disposal sites.

Bates, E.R.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Los Alamos environmental activities/oil shale effluents  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research are to determine the nature, magnitude, and time dependence of the major and trace element releases as functions of the raw shale mineralogy, retorting conditions, and spent shale mineral assemblages. These experimental studies will focus on retorting variable regimes characteristic of most retorting processes. As an adjunct objective, the relation of laboratory results to those obtained from both bench-scale and pilot-scale retorts, when both have been operated under similar retorting conditions, will be defined. The goal is to develop a predictive capability for spent shale chemistry as a function of the raw material feedstock and process parameters. Key accomplishments follow: completed an overview of health, environmental effects, and potential ''show stoppers'' in oil shale development; elucidated the importance of both raw material and process in the identity and behavior of spent shale wastes (Occidental raw and spent shales from the Logan Wash site); completed a balanced factorial design experiment to investigate the influence of shale type, temperature, and atmosphere on spent shale behavior; compared the behavior of spent shales from laboratory experiments with shales generated from MIS retorting by OOSI at Logan Wash, Colorado; completed a study of the partitioning of minerals, inorganics, and organics as a function of particle size in a raw shale from Anvil Points, Colorado; evaluated the application of the Los Alamos nuclear microprobe to the characterization of trace element residences in shale materials; established the use of chemometrics as a major tool for evaluating large data bases in oil shale research and for relating field and laboratory results; conceptualized and evaluated experimentally a multistaged leaching control for abandonment of underground retorts; and coordinated activities with other DOE laboratories, industry laboratories, and universities. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Peterson, E.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility  

SciTech Connect

The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF IN-SITU RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Division of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology of the U.S.Shale Retort Water by Electron Impact and Chemical Ioniz on from A Combined Gas

Ossio, Edmundo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Attrition and abrasion models for oil shale process modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As oil shale is processed, fine particles, much smaller than the original shale are created. This process is called attrition or more accurately abrasion. In this paper, models of abrasion are presented for oil shale being processed in several unit operations. Two of these unit operations, a fluidized bed and a lift pipe are used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycle-Solid (HRS) process being developed for the above ground processing of oil shale. In two reports, studies were conducted on the attrition of oil shale in unit operations which are used in the HRS process. Carley reported results for attrition in a lift pipe for oil shale which had been pre-processed either by retorting or by retorting then burning. The second paper, by Taylor and Beavers, reported results for a fluidized bed processing of oil shale. Taylor and Beavers studied raw, retorted, and shale which had been retorted and then burned. In this paper, empirical models are derived, from the experimental studies conducted on oil shale for the process occurring in the HRS process. The derived models are presented along with comparisons with experimental results.

Aldis, D.F.

1991-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

246

SHALE OIL--THE ELUSIVE ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An early settler in the valley of Parachute Creek in western Colorado built a log cabin, and made the fireplace and chimney out of the easily cut, locally abundant black rock. The pioneer invited a few neighbors to a house warming. As the celebration began, he lit a fire. The fireplace, chimney, and ultimately the whole cabin caught fire, and burned to the ground. The rock was oil shale. It was a sensational house warming! Oil shales are reported to have been set afire by lightning strikes. The Ute Indians of northwestern Colorado told stories of "mountains that burned. " Cowboys and ranchers of the region burned the dark rock in their fires, like coal. The flammable nature of the richer oil shales is basis for the title of a fascinating book by H. K. Savage (1967), The Rock That Burns. During oil shale enthusiasms in the early part of this century, stock promoters brought pieces of oil shale to Chicago street corners and set them afire. Clouds of smoke attracted crowds, and the promoters sold stock in oil shale companies. Nature of oil shale. Shale oil comes from oil shale, but oil shale is a misnomer. It is neither a true shale nor does it generally have any oil in it. It is better identified as organic marlstone, marl being a mixture of clay and calcium carbonate. The organic material is kerogen, derived from myriad organisms, chiefly plants. Savage (1967) notes the term "oil shale " is a promotional term: "The magic word 'oil ' would raise large sums of promotion money while organic marlstone wouldn't raise a dime." The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines oil shale as "organic-rich shale that yields substantial quantities of oil by conventional methods of destructive distillation of the contained organic matter, which employ low confining pressures in a closed retort system. " (Duncan and HC#98/4-1-1

M. King; Hubbert Center; Walter Youngquist

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

SciTech Connect

A process for making hydraulic cements from spent oil shale is described in this paper. Inexpensive cement is needed to grout abandoned in-situ retorts of spent shale for subsidence control, mitigation of leaching, and strengthening the retorted mass in order to recover oil from adjacent pillars of raw shale. A hydraulic cement was produced by heating a 1:1 mixture of Lurgi spent shale and CaCO{sub 3} at 1000 C for one hour. This cement would be less expensive than ordinary portland cement and is expected to fulfill the above requirements.

Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

250

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale Process Wastewater," in Analysis of Waters Associated with Alternate Fuel Production,shale during In in-situ processes, retort water its production

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Oil shale: a new set of uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

The discovery and delivery of North Sea oil has created an uncertain future for the British oil shale industry in spite of its lower price per barrel. While oil companies have long been interested in a secure shale oil source for chemical feedstocks, environmental concerns, mining difficulties, and inflated operating costs have counteracted the opportunity provided by the 1973 oil embargo. With the financial risks of oil shale mining and retorting too great for a single company, research efforts have shifted to a search for technologies that will be multistaged and less costly, such as in-situ mining, in-situ processing, and hydraulic fracturing. Successful testing and demonstration of these processes will determine the future commercial role of oil shales. 17 references and footnotes.

Schanz, J.J. Jr.; Perry, H.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Assessment and control of water contamination associated with shale oil extraction and processing. Work plan  

SciTech Connect

The work plan for Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's research on assessment and control of water contamination associated with shale oil extraction and processing is outlined. There are two tandem tasks in the program, a literature and information review and evaluation and an experimental effort. The experimental work will address environmental control technologies for retort and product water, contamination of ground water by abandoned in situ retorts, raw and spent shale leachates, fugitive emissions from background oil shale retorting, and aquifer bridging during or after shale oil extraction.

Wewerka, E.M.; Wagner, P.; Wanek, P.L.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Environmental research on a modified in situ oil shale task process. Progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress of the US Department of Energy's Oil Shale Task Force in its research program at the Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. facility at Logan Wash, Colorado. More specifically, the Task Force obtained samples from Retort 3E and Retort 6 and submitted these samples to a variety of analyses. The samples collected included: crude oil (Retort 6); light oil (Retort 6); product water (Retort 6); boiler blowdown (Retort 6); makeup water (Retort 6); mine sump water; groundwater; water from Retorts 1 through 5; retort gas (Retort 6); mine air; mine dust; and spent shale core (Retort 3E). The locations of the sampling points and methods used for collection and storage are discussed in Chapter 2 (Characterization). These samples were then distributed to the various laboratories and universities participating in the Task Force. For convenience in organizing the data, it is useful to group the work into three categories: Characterization, Leaching, and Health Effects. While many samples still have not been analyzed and much of the data remains to be interpreted, there are some preliminary conclusions the Task Force feels will be helpful in defining future needs and establishing priorities. It is important to note that drilling agents other than water were used in the recovery of the core from Retort 3E. These agents have been analyzed (see Table 12 in Chapter 2) for several constituents of interest. As a result some of the analyses of this core sample and leachates must be considered tentative.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining  

SciTech Connect

Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Constraints on the commercialization of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The problems and prospects for the commercialization of oil shale from surface retorting are examined. Commercialization refers to the process of private sector adoption of a technology for general use after most of the technological uncertainties have been resolved. Three categories of constraints and uncertainties can be identified: technical constraints relating to the performance characteristics of the technology; economic constraints on the ability of the technology to yield an acceptable rate of return to investors; and institutional constraints that arise from the organizational and political context in which commercialization takes place. Because surface retorting involves relatively well understood technologies, this study deals almost exclusively with economic and institutional constraints. At the present time, a government commercialization effort for oil shale surface retorting would not be likely to result in a viable industry in this century. Alternative oil shale technologies such as modified in situ processes offer prospects of lower shale oil costs, but are less well developed. Data on modified in situ processes are not abundant enough as yet to permit serious estimates of commercial-scale costs. Consequently, government decisions regarding the commercialization of modified in situ technologies should await the completion of further technical tests and an independent definitive plant design.

Merrow, E.W.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Expectations for Oil Shale Production (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain relatively large amounts of kerogen, which can be converted into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (petroleum liquids, natural gas liquids, and methane) by heating the rock, usually in the absence of oxygen, to 650 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (in situ retorting) or 900 to 950 degrees Fahrenheit (surface retorting) [60]. (Oil shale is, strictly speaking, a misnomer in that the rock is not necessarily a shale and contains no crude oil.) The richest U.S. oil shale deposits are located in Northwest Colorado, Northeast Utah, and Southwest Wyoming. Currently, those deposits are the focus of petroleum industry research and potential future production. Among the three States, the richest oil shale deposits are on Federal lands in Northwest Colorado.

Information Center

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

257

Review and analysis of oil shale technologies. Volume I. Oil shale deposits, mining methods, and environmental concerns  

SciTech Connect

This volume describes and discusses oil shale deposits of the U.S., applicable methods for mining the shale, and the environmental concerns associated with oil shale technologies. Mining is required to supply shale to the retorts of aboveground processes. The majority of oil shale mining is expected to be by the underground room-and-pillar method. Surface mining (i.e., open pit mining) may also be used to supply material for surface retorts and may be appropriate for up to 15 to 20% of the oil shale resources. Principal environmental issues unique to true and modified in situ oil shale processing include disposal of retort water and drill cuttings, migration of fluids during and after in situ processing, surface thermal changes, and hazardous materials that may be leached from spent shale. Other site-specific problems of in situ processing include off-gas emissions, fugitive dust generation, land disturbance, and water usage. The environmental issues are similar for oil shale surface processes, except for surface thermal changes. The degree of impact, however, is expected greater than that for either the true or the modified in situ process.

Jee, C.K.; White, J.D.; Bhatia, S.K.; Nicholson, D.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Oil shale up-date  

SciTech Connect

The development of large domestic oil shale resources in an environmentally acceptable manner is technically feasible. Such development is approaching economic attractiveness. It is an essential step in attacking the major national problem: increasing oil imports. Several things have been impeding oil shale development. First, until recently there has been a lack of viable technology. Second, environmental regulations are becoming increasingly restrictive. These have become so unrealistic that the bare undeveloped ground in oil shale country fails to comply. Most of this area is now classified as a nonattainment area. The third reason is economic uncertainty. This relates to price and other governmental controls which make it impossible to predict future conditions with enough confidence to justify private investments. In an effort to overcome this uncertainty, while retaining the impeding controls, all types of governmental incentives and supports are being proposed by the Administration, the Congress, and the industry. This study highlights the current status of the more prominent technologies. It suggest that the next logical step in their advancement is the construction and operation of single full-size retorts or modules.

Pforzheimer, H.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

In situ noncombustive microwave processing of oil shale. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A unified analytical examination of the products of microwave oil shale has been completed. A sample of subituminous Colorado coal was also included. Analysis systems have been planned, constructed and placed into operation so as to provide a definitive profile of the composition of gases, oil, and water released by the microwave heated oil shale and coal samples. In a previous NSF study, it was reported that microwave retorted oil shale produced large quantities of high BTU content gas. In the data presented in this report, using a modular microcoulometric analysis system, a definitive profile of the composition of the gases, oil, and water, released by the microwave retorted oil shale and coal show that the previous results are confirmed.

Wall, E.T.

1979-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Comparison of the Acceptability of Various Oil Shale Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While oil shale has the potential to provide a substantial fraction of our nation's liquid fuels for many decades, cost and environmental acceptability are significant issues to be addressed. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined a variety of oil shale processes between the mid 1960s and the mid 1990s, starting with retorting of rubble chimneys created from nuclear explosions [1] and ending with in-situ retorting of deep, large volumes of oil shale [2]. In between, it examined modified-in-situ combustion retorting of rubble blocks created by conventional mining and blasting [3,4], in-situ retorting by radio-frequency energy [5], aboveground combustion retorting [6], and aboveground processing by hot-solids recycle (HRS) [7,8]. This paper reviews various types of processes in both generic and specific forms and outlines some of the tradeoffs for large-scale development activities. Particular attention is given to hot-recycled-solids processes that maximize yield and minimize oil shale residence time during processing and true in-situ processes that generate oil over several years that is more similar to natural petroleum.

Burnham, A K; McConaghy, J R

2006-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Economic comparison of five process concepts for using eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This study compared costs of retorting eastern oil shales using western shale retorting technologies that need no more development with the cost of processing the same shales using technologies designed specifically for eastern shales. The eastern shale technologies need more development. The study was designed to answer the question: Does process development work need to be done for eastern oil shale or will the existing western techniques suffice. A calculation for a power plant that burned eastern oil shale to produce electricity was included in the study. The authors studied the following processes: the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) HYTORT (eastern shale process), the Paraho C-H (combination heated) (eastern shale process), the Paraho D-H (direct heated) (western shale process), the TOSCO II (western shale process), and power plant.

Parkinson, W.J.; Phillips, T.T.; Barnes, J.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Review and analysis of oil shale technologies. Volume 5. Appendixes and bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Seven appendices are included on: oil shale technology activities, ERDA oil shale program, method of assaying oil shale by a modified Fischer retort, environmental standards and regulations, supplemental information on various true in-situ processing steps, evaluation of in-situ oil shale experments by hot-film flow logging, and discounted cash flow rate of return method. The bibliography contains 133 references. (DLC)

Jee, C.K.; White, J.D.; Bhatia, S.K.; Nicholson, D.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Viewpoint on occupational health in the oil-shale industry  

SciTech Connect

In assessing the potential health and safety hazards which may be expected in a large-scale oil shale industry, the types of operations that will be utilized to extract oil from oil shale are examined. These are broadly characterized as mining, raw shale processing and handling, retorting and refining, and spent shale disposal. With few exceptions, these operations in shale oil production are similar to operations in existing industries. Health and safety risks and occupational health controls are also expected to be similar. To date medical studies on workers in the oil shale industry who have been exposed to shale dusts and oil products have indicated that the chief problem areas are pneumoconiosis and skin cancers. A broad viewpoint of the prospective occupational health problems in the oil shale industry can be obtained by reviewing similar activities and exposures in other industrial operations. This viewpoint would suggest that the prospective problems can be controlled adequately by conventional methods of worker protection. Several unique situations do exist in this industry. The mining and material handling of tonnages of oil shale exceeds any experience in other mining activities. This is a problem of scale. It seems unlikely that it will produce new safety problems. The in situ mining offers the unique situation of burning and abandoned underground retorts in near proximity to work forces preparing future in situ retorts. The potential of exposures to dusts, gases and vapors will simply have to be measured as such operations come on stream. Measurements made to date have not shown unique hazards to exist, although existing data are limited to demonstration-scale retorts burning one-at-a-time under normal conditions.

Voelz, G.L.; Grier, R.S.; Hargis, K.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory oil shale project. Quarterly report, October-December 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this report, simulated modified in-situ (MIS) operations, chemical reaction studies and retort modelling are covered in detail. The MIS pilot retort studies include: runs S-23 and S-21; retort analysis by offgas data; estimated retorting rate based on inlet composition and flow rate; and carbon and sulfur balances. Chemical reaction studies cover gas-phase reactions where the rates of the water-gas shift reaction and combustion of CO and hydrocarbons were measured to develop simple kinetic schemes for gas-phase reactions in a combustion retort. Under the studies on heat of combustion, an equation was developed which relates the heat of combustion of Fischer assay spent shale to its composition. Field retort operation of Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's (RBOSC) Retort 0 run has been completed, and data are being analyzed.

Rothman, A.J. (ed.)

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature, type of shale and oil content of shale iscontent of the shale, and shale oil content of the rock cantemperatures. Lean and Rich Shale Oil shales vary in their

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Parametric analysis of in situ retorting options for NOSR 1  

SciTech Connect

A parametric analysis was performed in evaluating the vertical MIS technologies as a function of retort configuration, shale grade, oil yield, costs and resource compatibility. Two basic retorting scenarios were evaluated: MIS retorting alone, and MIS/surface retorting combination. In all cases the raw shale oil was upgraded to produce refinery feedstock grade shale oil. Based on an assessment of the NOSR 1 resource, it is determined that in situ grades of 20 gpt with surface retorting grades of 37.5 gpt can be supported by the resource for the production of 50,000 BPD of shale oil over at least 20 to 25 years plant life. However, based on the current level of development of MIS technology, it is believed 80% in situ retort yields are not possible. It is concluded that the NOSR resource is not configured for current MIS retorting technologies to be a viable alternative to surface retorting technologies.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Process of treating oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A process of destructively distilling oil shale is described consisting in subjecting the oil shale containing aluminum to the action of heat and pressure to destructively distill it and separate the light oil constituents. Chlorine gas is simultaneously passed through the hot oil shale countercurrent to the direction of movement of the oil shale.

Egloff, G.

1927-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

269

Potential small-scale development of western oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Synthetic fuels. Independent has practical oil-shale operation  

SciTech Connect

Geokinetics Inc., Salt Lake City, has been developing a relatively inexpensive process to develop lean shale resources in Utah since 1975. The firm has produced almost 50,000 bbl of shale oil during the past 6 years at its test site south of Vernal, Utah. Geokinetics is projected to produce eventually 109 million bbl of shale oil from its Utah properties at a cost of ca. $30/bbl. The Low Front End Cost (Lofreco) Process, with its small scale, modular construction, and low front end capital load, can develop oil shale under conditions inhibiting firms with big, capital intensive technologies. Lofreco entails blasting a thin shale bed to create a highly permeable in situ retort. The oil shale is ignited via air injection wells, and low pressure blowers provide air to create a fire front that covers the pay section. The front moves horizontally through the fracture shale bed, with hot combustion gases heating the shale to yield shale oil which drains to the bottom of the sloped retort. The oil is recovered via small, conventional pumping units.

Williams, B.

1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

271

Western states enhanced oil shale recovery program: Shale oil production facilities conceptual design studies report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report analyzes the economics of producing syncrude from oil shale combining underground and surface processing using Occidental's Modified-In-Situ (MIS) technology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hot Recycled Solids (HRS) retort. These retorts form the basic technology employed for oil extraction from oil shale in this study. Results are presented for both Commercial and Pre-commercial programs. Also analyzed are Pre-commercialization cost of Demonstration and Pilot programs which will confirm the HRS and MIS concepts and their mechanical designs. These programs will provide experience with the circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), the MIS retort, the HRS retort and establish environmental control parameters. Four cases are considered: commercial size plant, demonstration size plant, demonstration size plant minimum CFBC, and a pilot size plant. Budget cost estimates and schedules are determined. Process flow schemes and basic heat and material balances are determined for the HRS system. Results consist of summaries of major equipment sizes, capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates and economic analyses. 35 figs., 35 tabs.

Not Available

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

Hines, A.L.

1980-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

gas and billion barrels (Bbbl) of shale oil for each major shale formation. Risked Recoverable Gas and Oil, reported in trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of shale gas and

274

General model of oil shale pyrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A mathematical model for pyrolysis of Green River oil shale is developed from previous experiments on oil, water, and gas evolution and oil cracking over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. Reactions included are evolution of 5 gas species, oil, and water from kerogen, clay dehydration, oil coking and cracking, and evolution of H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ from char. Oil is treated in eleven boiling-point fractions in order to treat the competition between oil coking and evaporation, and to evaluate the effect of oil cracking on the boiling point distribution of the oil. The kinetics and product yields calculated by the model are compared to experimental results for pyrolysis conditions ranging from isothermal fluid-bed to high-pressure slow-heating-rate retorting.

Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Gulf Shale Oil Upgrading Process technology  

SciTech Connect

A description of the Gulf Shale Oil Hydrotreating Process, which is designed for upgrading full range shale oil to premium quality synthetic crude, is presented. The process consists of two sections: a low severity pretreating section which stabilizes the raw oil, removes iron, arsenic, trace metals and particulates, and sulfur; and a twostage, high severity hydrotreating section which completes the upgrading. The second section hydrotreats the bulk oil to a specified nitrogen content, allowing for a quality FCC feedstock in the 650F+ (343C+) residue. The main reactor effluent is flashed with subsequent hydrotreating of the flash vapor oil to achieve a low nitrogen level in the naphtha and middle distillate. The benefit of this flash configuration is hydrogen addition selectivity which maximizes syncrude quality while minimizing overall hydrogen consumption; this selectivity relationship is detailed. Finally, the product quality of the syncrudes produced with the Gulf Shale Oil Hydrotreating Process using shale oils derived from three different retort technologies and for Western and Eastern shales are discussed.

Jones, W.; Antezana, F.J.; Cugini, A.V.; Lyzinski, D.; Miller, J.B.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Economic comparison of five process concepts for using eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This study compared costs of retorting eastern oil shales using western shale retorting technologies that need no more development with the cost of processing the same shales using technologies designed specifically for eastern shales. The eastern shale technologies need more development. The study was designed to answer the question: does process development work need to be done for eastern oil shale or will the existing western techniques suffice. A calculation for a power plant that burned eastern oil shale to produce electricity was included in the study. We studied the following processes: the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) HYTORT (eastern shale process), the Paraho C-H (combination heated) (eastern shale process), the Paraho D-H (direct heated) (western shale process), the TOSCO II (western shale process), and power plant. It was concluded that, without further development, western shale retorting processes are not adequate for use with eastern shale. The HYTORT process produces oil at a cost nearly competitive with oil from western shale however.

Parkinson, W.J.; Phillips, T.T.; Barnes, J.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Characterization of contaminants in oil shale residuals and the potential for their management to meet environmental quality standards. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Some general aspects of various oil shale processes developed for scale-up to commercial size modular units are described. The overall magnitude of an envisioned commercial shale oil operation and the magnitude of resulting potentially polluting residues in particular solid residues from retorting oil shale and associated operations and wastewater from retort streams and other sources are considered. The potential problems ensuing from self-oxidation of stockpiles of oil shale and from residual carbonaceous retorted oil shale disposed above ground and/or from in situ retorting operations are examined. Some methods for managing self-heating processes are suggested. The most plausible method of avoiding potential self-heating for retorted oil shale is to oxidize as much as possible of the organic carbon present by utilizing a process that will produce low carbon or carbon-free retorted oil shale residues. In the case of unretorted oil shale, the dimensions and shapes of the stockpiles should be designed such that heat build-up is eliminated or kept to a minimum.

Schmidt-Collerus, J.J.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Diesel fuels from shale oil. [Review of selected research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-boiling shale oil produced from Rocky Mountain oil shale can be reduced in molecular weight by recycle thermal cracking and by coking. Selected research on the production of diesel fuels from shale oil is reviewed. Diesel fuels of good quality have been made from cracked shale oil by acid and caustic treating. Diesel oil made by this process performed acceptably in an in-service test for powering a railroad engine in a 750-hour test. Better quality diesel fuels were made by hydrogenation of a coker distillate. Even better quality diesel fuels, suitable also for use as high-quality distillate burner fuels, have been made by hydrocracking of a crude shale oil from underground in-situ retorting experiments.

Cottingham, P.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Co-combustion Character of Oil Shale and Its Semi-coke on CFB Bench  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Semi-coke is by-product from oil shale retorts and it is important to burn it in CFB furnace. But limited to the inflammable combustion traits, co-combustion of semi-coke with raw oil shale would be meaningful. Experimental research on co-combustion ... Keywords: combustion, distribution, semi-coke, temperature

Sun Baizhong; Huang Zhirong

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Market assessment for shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study identified several key issues on the cost, timeliness, and ease with which shale oil can be introduced into the United States' refining system. The capacity of the existing refining industry to process raw shale oil is limited by the availability of surplus hydrogen for severe hydrotreating. The existing crude oil pipeline system will encounter difficulties in handling raw shale oil's high viscosity, pour point, and contaminant levels. The cost of processing raw shale oil as an alternate to petroleum crude oil is extremely variable and primarily dependent upon the percentage of shale oil run in the refinery, as well as the availability of excess hydrogen. A large fraction of any shale oil which is produced will be refined by the major oil companies who participate in the shale oil projects and who do not anticipate problems in processing the shale oil in their refineries. Shale oil produced for sale to independent refiners will initially be sold as boiler fuel. A federal shale oil storage program might be feasible to supplement the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Based on refinery configurations, hydrogen supply, transportation systems, and crude availability, eleven refineries in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 2A and 2B have been identified as potential processors of shale oil. Based on refining technology and projected product demands to the year 2000, shale oil will be best suited to the production of diesel fuel and jet fuel. Tests of raw shale oil in boilers are needed to demonstrate nitrogen oxide emissions control.

Not Available

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Market enhancement of shale oil: The native products extraction technology  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of enhancing shale oil commercialization through SO/NPX technology. Specific objectives were: (1) To determine the properties and characteristics of fractions isolable from shale oil utilizing separation sequences which are based on thermodynamic considerations; (2) To identify product streams of market value for promising technology development; (3)To conduct technology development studies leading to a shale oil extraction and processing sequence which promises economic enhancement of shale oil commercialization; (4) To develop an analytical methodology and model for obtaining engineering design data required for process development; (5) To estimate the economics of SO/NPX including the potential for enhancing the profitability of a commercial-scale shale oil MIS retort.

Bunger, J.W. (Bunger (James W.) and Associates, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); DuBow, J.B. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Shale oil production system reference case study. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Material balances, utility balances, and overall processing schemes were developed for two reference shale oil production systems. For both cases, crushed and sized oil shale is fed into a mix of surface retorts specified for this study, which handle both coarse and fine ore. Case 1A produces an upgraded crude product suitable for refinery feedstock, and Case 1B produces a crude shale oil. The reference system uses room-and-pillar mining, three different types of retorts not unlike those proposed for the White River Shale Project on Federal Lease Tracts U-a and U-b, a straightforward upgrading of the raw shale oil to a refinery feedstock syncrude, and pipeline transportation of that product. In addition to the production of an upgraded product, there is also a modified system for producing raw shale oil that is minimally upgraded for pipeline transportation purposes. The capital cost estimate for the two reference cases has 26 cost elements, excluding, for example, any land or finance costs. A more complete list of excluded cost elements is provided in Section VII. The two distinct cases, production of raw and upgraded shale oil, were included to avoid foreclosing the issue of on- or off-site upgrading. The difference in estimated capital cost ($795M vs. $875M) amounts to about 10 percent.

Not Available

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Method of detonating explosives for fragmenting oil shale formation toward a vertical free face  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a method for explosively expanding oil shale formation toward a limited void volume provided by a void excavated in a retort site in formation containing oil shale, wherein said void has at least one vertical free face, the improvement comprising the steps of: placing explosive in a roiw of blasting holes in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent such a vertical free face, said blasting holes being mutually spaced apart along the length of the void; and detonating explosive in the blasting holes in a single round in a time delay sequence progressing along the length of the row of blasting holes for explosivelyexpanding formation in said remaining portion of unfragmented formation toward such vertical free face for forming at least a portion of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort.

Hutchins, N.; Ridley, R.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Empirical characterization of oil shale fragmentation experiments  

SciTech Connect

Shale oil recovery rates that can be achieved in underground in situ retorts can be strongly influenced by the shale breakage and fragment-size distribution achieved during rubblization. Since the fragmentation pattern in the retort is a direct result of the blast design used for rubblization, the characterizing blast parameters should be carefully selected. Explosives should be matched to the host material and blast geometries properly chosen so that the required fragmentation results are achieved at optimum costs. Special attention must be directed to selecting blast parameters that produce uniform bed permeability, suppression of fines, proper fragment size distribution, and minimal damage to the retort walls and ceiling. The influence of joints and natural fractures should also be known. In instances where the requisite blasting parameters are unknown, they should be determined from test blasts. Small and intermediate size cratering and bench blast experiments are being made to determine critical depths, volume crater constants, and fragment-size distribution scaling constants for Piceance Creek Basin oil shale. The small tests are made using PETN explosive in meter-sized blocks. The intermediate-sized tests are on the ten-to-twenty foot scale using an ANFO explosive. The experiments are designed to investigate the adequacy of using empirical scaling laws to describe the influence of bedding plane orientation, burden distance, explosive energy release, and borehole diameter on blast results. Crater volumes, sieved fragment-size distributions, free surface velocities, and explosive detonation velocities are measured. Data are treated using a Livingston type performance evaluation based on explosive volume to determine critical and optimum depths. Measured fragment-size distributions are interpreted using empirical scaling techniques.

Schmidt, S.C.; Edwards, C.L.; Oliver, R.; Johnson, J.N.; Wapner, P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Oil shale mining processing, uses, and environmental impacts. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning oil shale mining and retorting, uses, and related environmental aspects. References discuss pyrolyzed, gasified, and combusted oil shales. Product yields and oil quality, socioeconomic impacts, exploration, reclamation of mined lands, and waste disposal are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Perform research in process development for hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales: Volume 2, Expansion of the Moving-Bed Hydroretorting Data Base for Eastern oil shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive data base was developed for six Eastern oil shales: Alabama Chattanooga, Indiana New Albany, Kentucky Sunbury, Michigan Antrim, Ohio Cleveland, and Tennessee Chattanooga shales. The data base included the hydroretorting characteristics of the six shales, as well as the retorting characteristics in the presence of synthesis gas and ionized gas. Shale gasification was also successfully demonstrated. Shale fines (20%) can produce enough hydrogen for the hydroretorting of the remaining 80% of the shale. The amount of fines tolerable in a moving bed was also determined. 16 refs., 59 figs., 43 tabs.

Not Available

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Oil shale mining, processing, uses, and environmental impacts (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1970--Mar 1976. [231 abstracts  

SciTech Connect

Exploration, mining, retorting, chemistry, thermal studies, environmental impacts, and policies relating to oil shale research are discussed. A few abstracts deal with the production of synthetic fuels from shale oil and the economics of oil shale operations. (Contains 231 abstracts) (GRA)

Hundemann, A.S.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Motor gasoline from shale oil. [Review of selected research on upgrading shale gasoline  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Shale oil produced from oil shale of the Rocky Mountain region by many of the usual retorting processes consists mainly of high boiling compounds of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen; less than half of the oil consists of hydrocarbons. Selected research on the upgrading of shale oil is reviewed. Thermal cracking of the oil followed by acid and caustic treating of the gasoline fraction has produced stable gasolines with low to moderate octane numbers. Hydrogenating the raw crude oil has produced higher yields of stable gasolines, also with low to moderate octane numbers. The yields and octane numbers of the gasolines are dependent on the hydrogenation temperatures used. Low-octane hydrogenated gasoline has been catalytically reformed over platinum-containing catalyst to produce high-octane motor fuel.

Cottingham, P.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project was to investigate the feasibility of the chemically assisted in situ retort method for recovering shale oil from Colorado oil shale. The chemically assisted in situ procedure uses hydrogen chloride (HCl), steam (H{sub 2}O), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at moderate pressure to recovery shale oil from Colorado oil shale at temperatures substantially lower than those required for the thermal decomposition of kerogen. The process had been previously examined under static, reaction-equilibrium conditions, and had been shown to achieve significant shale oil recoveries from powdered oil shale. The purpose of this research project was to determine if these results were applicable to a dynamic experiment, and achieve penetration into and recovery of shale oil from solid oil shale. Much was learned about how to perform these experiments. Corrosion, chemical stability, and temperature stability problems were discovered and overcome. Engineering and design problems were discovered and overcome. High recovery (90% of estimated Fischer Assay) was observed in one experiment. Significant recovery (30% of estimated Fischer Assay) was also observed in another experiment. Minor amounts of freed organics were observed in two more experiments. Penetration and breakthrough of solid cores was observed in six experiments.

Ramierz, W.F.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

Status of commercial oil shale development in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The status of the 19 existing oil shale projects that were established to produce shale oil for commercial sale divides the projects into four status categories: (1) site-initiated projects with construction schedules, (2) site-initiated projects without schedules, and (4) proposed projects without construction schedules. Among the findings are that retort technologies most likely to be developed and tested at commercial scale over the next 10 years are those that will receive Synthetic Fuels Corporation backing, that production capacity projections represent the most optimistic rather than the most likely scenario, that the industry will exploit about 12 billion of the estimated 3.8 trillion barrels of reserves, and that the three factor most affecting production are the market price of crude oil, successful demonstration of retort technologies, and production costs. 2 figures, 6 tables.

Barnes, H.H.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Oil shale: potential environmental impacts and control technology. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio (IERL-Ci) has performed research related to oil shale processing and disposal since 1973. This research is in support of the Clean Air Act, The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act. Potential environmental impacts from oil shale development activities have been identified and potential control technologies are being evaluated through a combination of laboratory and field tests on actual oil shale waste streams. This paper discusses recent results from this program. Included are field test results on control of sulfur gases at Occidental Oil Shale's Logan Wash Site and Geokinetic's Kamp Kerogen Site, wastewater treatability studies on retort water and gas condensate at Logan Wash, and results of laboratory and field testing on raw and retorted oil shales.

Bates, E.R.; Liberick, W.W.; Burckle, J.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Market assessment for shale oil  

SciTech Connect

This study identified several key issues on the cost, timeliness, and ease with which shale oil can be introduced into the United States' refining system. The capacity of the existing refining industry to process raw shale oil is limited by the availability of surplus hydrogen for severe hydrotreating. The existing crude oil pipeline system will encounter difficulties in handling raw shale oil's high viscosity, pour point, and contaminant levels. The cost of processing raw shale oil as an alternate to petroleum crude oil is extremely variable and primarily dependent upon the percentage of shale oil run in the refinery, as well as the availability of excess hydrogen. A large fraction of any shale oil which is produced will be refined by the major oil companies who participate in the shale oil projects and who do not anticipate problems in processing the shale oil in their refineries. Shale oil produced for sale to independent refiners will initially be sold as boiler fuel. A federal shale oil storage program might be feasible to supplement the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Based on refinery configurations, hydrogen supply, transportation systems, and crude availability, eleven refineries in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 2A and 2B have been identified as potential processors of shale oil. Based on refining technology and projected product demands to the year 2000, shale oil will be best suited to the production of diesel fuel and jet fuel. Tests of raw shale oil in boilers are needed to demonstrate nitrogen oxide emissions control.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Oil shale health and environment research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While there have been sporadic efforts to demonstrate certain shale oil extraction technologies in recent years, none of the techniques have been thoroughly analyzed to determine the extent of potential occupational health impacts and even those technologies that have been demonstrated cannot be regarded as typical of a scaled-up, fully mature industry. Industrial hygiene studies have served to identify operations within certain technologies where mitigating methods can and should be applied to protect the industrial populations. Judging from data developed by on-site sampling it is probable that, with the possible exception of MIS techniques, oil shale mining presents no unique problems that cannot be handled with state-of-the-art control procedures. The conditions that may exist in a mine where in situ retorts are being simultaneously prepared, burned and abandoned have not as yet been defined. The probability of combined exposures to spent shale dusts and fugitive emissions in the form of vapors and gases added to the potential for skin exposure to product oils and other liquid effluents raises more complex questions. It has been shown by both epidemiological evidence and experimental data gathered both in the US and in foreign industries that crude shale oil and some of its products carry a higher carcinogenic potential than most of the natural petroleums. Preliminary data suggest that this particular hazard may be almost self-eliminating if hydrotreating, in preparation for refining, is universally practiced. The determination of specific hazards should be done on a technology-specific basis since it is highly probable that the biological activity of most of the products and by-products of shale oil production is process-specific.

Holland, L.M.; Tillery, M.I.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Evaluation of the pollution abatement technologies available for treatment of wastewater from oil shale processing  

SciTech Connect

A review covers the conventional and in-situ oil shale processing technologies and their status of development; the sources and characteristics of the wastewaters from oil shale retorting operation, from leaching of spent shale, from cooling tower and boiler blowdowns, from oil refining operations, from saline aquifer, and from minor sources, such as from air pollution control equipment, runoff from dust control, and sanitary wastewaters; and wastewater treatment methods applicable for treating wastewater from oil shale processes including physical, chemical, biological, and tertiary treatment methods and specific processes for removing specific pollutants (e.g., phenols, cyanides, heavy metals) from wastewaters. 31 references.

Sung, R.D.; Prien, C.H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

products, percent: Oil Gas Spent Shale TOTAL Average tracecontent of the gases for the lean shale exceeded that for

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, October-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting and fluid-flow technologies required to prepare a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. The first section of this report details the continued planning for the DOE/Sandia/Los Alamos joint rock fragmentation program, including preliminary designs for the first stemming tests and the blasting mat experiment. Section I also describes our current and planned computer modeling program for rock fracture, tracer flow, and oil shale retorting. The second section presents three papers, two on computer modeling and theory and one on oil shale field experiments. The first describes the Bedded Crack Model and its theoretical basis. The second discusses a two-dimensional numerical model of underground oil shale retorting that fully couples retorting chemistry with fluid and heat flow. This paper condenses the code documentation manual, which will be published separately with a user's guide. The third paper focuses on the empirical characterization of 200 cratering experiments conducted in Piceance Creek Basin oil shale, evaluates scaling laws as a tool to predict large-scale experiment results, and investigates the influence of geology and shale grade on rock fragmentation.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Explosive engineering problems from fragmentation tests in oil shale at the Anvil Points Mine, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the modified in situ retort (MIS) method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The field test program included single-deck, single-borehole experiments to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-deck, multiple-borehole experiments to evaluate some practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation technique to diagnose the blast event. This paper discusses some explosive engineering problems encountered, such as electric cap performance in complex blasting patterns, explosive and stem performance in a variety of configurations from the simple to the complex, and the difficulties experienced when reversing the direction of throw of the oil shale in a subscale retort configuration. These problems need solutions before an adequate MIS retort can be created in a single-blast event and even before an experimental mini-retort can be formed. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Assessment of oil-shale technology in Brazil. Final technical report, October 27, 1980-July 27, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The development of an oil shale industry in the United States will require the solution of a variety of technical, economic, environmental, and health and safety problems. This assessment investigates whether US oil shale developers might benefit from the experience gained by the Brazilians in the operation of their Usina Prototipo do Irati oil shale demonstration plant at Sao Mateus do Sul, and from the data generated from their oil shale research and development programs. A chapter providing background information on Brazil and the Brazilian oil shale deposits is followed by an examination of the potential recovery processes applicable to Brazilian oil shale. The evolution of the Brazilian retorting system is reviewed and compared with the mining and retorting proposed for US shales. Factors impacting on the economics of shale oil production in Brazil are reviewed and compared to economic analyses of oil shale production in the US. Chapters examining the consequences of shale development in terms of impact on the physical environment and the oil shale worker complete the report. Throughout the report, where data permits, similarities and differences are drawn between the oil shale programs underway in Brazil and the US. In addition, research areas in which technology or information transfer could benefit either or both countries' oil shale programs are identified.

1981-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

303

Recycle and reuse of oil-shale water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil shale processes require a substantial water supply and produce wastes in water-short areas. As such, wastewater processing and water reuse are required. In the article presented, wastewater treatment concepts were identified and evaluated that can renovate retort water for recycle as high-grade makeup water. Evaporation/concentration of the retort water is feasible when the seed-slurry scale-control process is utilized. Pilot evaporator tests confirmed that conclusion. The Resource Conservation Company developed retort-water treatment system was discussed, and the authors found it to have the following advantages: (1) high-quality distillate was produced; (2) it was immune to moderate fluctuations in wastewater composition; and (3) waste volumes were significantly reduced, thereby minimizing final disposal costs. (JMT)

Mukhopadhyay, D.; Fosberg, T.M.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Oil shale technical data handbook  

SciTech Connect

This is a reference book to provide information for the evaluation of appropriate technology for shale oil development. The oil resource is defined, and the properties of shale and the oil and gas derived from it are listed. Recovery technologies compatible with the particular resource are also described. Discussion of various aspects of shale oil development, such as mining, materials handling, beneficiation, upgrading, waste-water treatment, and spent shale disposal, are also presented. Available design information dealing with maximum module size, operating conditions, yields, utility requirements, etc. is documented. (BLM)

Nowacki, P. (ed.)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Oil shale mining, processing, uses, and environmental impacts (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1964--Mar 1976. [223 abstracts  

SciTech Connect

Exploration, mining, retorting, chemistry, environmental impacts, and policies relating to oil shale research are covered. Abstracts discuss such things as oil shale air and water pollution control, production of synthetic fuels, use of spent oil shale in road construction, identification of research and development priorities, and in situ recovery of shale oil. (This updated bibliography contains 223 abstracts, 87 of which are new entries to the previous edition.) (GRA)

Hundemann, A.S.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Germany 51 254 700 ... June 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources 18

308

Staggered array of explosives for fragmented oil shale formation toward a vertical free face  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale formation is explosively expanded toward a limited void volume for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. In one embodiment, a void in the form of a vertical slot is excavated within a retort site, leaving at least one portion of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent to a vertical free face of the slot. Explosive is placed in at least two rows of vertical blasting holes in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation adjacent the vertical free face. The blasting holes in each row are mutually spaced apart along the length of the slot and longitudinally offset from blasting holes in the next adjacent row, and the row of blasting holes extends generally parallel to the vertical free face. Explosive in the blasting holes is detonated in a time delay sequence starting near one end of the slot and progressing along the length of the slot for explosively expanding formation in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation toward the vertical free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort.

Hutchins, N.M.; Studebaker, I.G.

1980-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

309

Staggered array of explosives for fragmented oil shale formation toward a vertical free face  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale formation is explosively expanded toward a limited void volume for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. In one embodiment, a void in the form of a vertical slot is excavated within a retort site, leaving at least one portion of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent a vertical free face of the slot. Explosive is placed in at least 2 rows of vertical blasting holes in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation adjacent the vertical free face. The blasting holes in each row are mutually spaced apart along the length of the slot and longitudinally offset from blasting holes in the next adjacent row, and the row of blasting holes extends generally parallel to the vertical free face. Explosive in the blasting holes is detonated in a time delay sequence starting near one end of the slot and progressing along the length of the slot for explosively expanding formation in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation toward the vertical free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. 31 claims.

Studebaker, I.G.; Hutchins, N.M.

1980-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

310

Cytogenetic effects of shale-derived oils and related by-products in mice  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cytogenetic effects of exposure to crude shale oil by either skin painting or intraperitoneal injectional and transplacental exposure of embryos to water derived from surface retort processing of shale oil were analyzed. Exposure to crude shale oils from two sources, Paraho and Occidental, by skin painting had essesntially no effect on the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. Intraperitoneal injection of the Paraho crude shale oil increased the frequency of chromosome damage in bone marrow cells at all three doses tested (0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, and 2.0 ml/kg). Metaphase analysis of cells from embryos at day 12 gestation from females that had been exposed to 1% Paraho retort water ad libitum from day 1 of gestation indicated that clastogenic compounds present in this water can cross the placenta and induce chromosomal damage in embryonic cells.

Meyne, J.; Deaven, L.L.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Shale oil is braced for a big role  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in the development of the oil shale industry is examined. A review of experimental work by Occidental Shale Oil, Inc. shows that the company is preparing retorts no. 7 and no. 8 to be fired simultaneously - then the next step is a full-scale 55,000-bpd plant the company plans to start up in the mid-1980s. Estimates of the costs of shale oil production vary, but it will probably cost $10 to $15 per barrel less than synthetic fuel made from coal. The large number of plants that will be required to produce a significant amount of oil may inhibit the development of the industry. There are an estimated 28 trillion barrels of oil locked up in US shale deposits in at least 13 states. Most of this is too lean for economic recovery, but in a 17,000-square-mile area at the intersection of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming lie the world's largest known deposits of shale containing more than 25 gallons of oil per ton. The modified in-situ processing of oil shale developed by Occidental, its financial aspects, and the commerical viability of the process are discussed. Competing technologies are noted. Environmental impact - perhaps the greatest unknown - is discussed briefly, as is the marky problem of water rights and the necessary political trade-offs. (MCW)

Nulty, P.

1979-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

312

Fifth symposium on oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at symposium May 2-3, 1968 at Denver, discusses legal and economic problems facing federal policy toward oil shale deposits exploitation, processing of oil shale above surface and in situ and underground mining methods and equipment to be used.

1968-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

313

Shale oil: potential for electric power fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the status of the oil shale industry and the impact it will have on the electric power industry in the years 1990 to 2000. The nontechnical problems are not addressed in detail as they have been suitably dealt with elsewhere. The available technologies for producing shale oil are reviewed. The major problem most processes face today is scale-up to commercial size. An industry of nearly 400,000 BPD is anticipated for 1990. The industry could grow to 1,000,000 BPD by the year 2000 with the introduction of second generation processes in the 1990s. The availability of shale oil may have a direct impact on the electric power industry initially. As the refineries improve their ability to handle shale oil, the availability of this fuel to the electric power industry for direct firing will decrease. The offgas from the oil shale industry could be of major importance to the electric power industry. One-quarter to one-third of the energy produced by the oil shale industry will be in the form of offgas (the gas produced in the retorting process). This will usually be a low Btu gas and therefore likely to be utilized on site to make electricity. The high yield of distillate fuels from shale oil could be important to the utility industry's demand for distillate fuels in peak shaving power generation. In addition to the potential supply implications, a shale oil industry and the people to support it will represent a substantial increase in power generation required in the shale oil region.

Gragg, M.; Lumpkin, R.E.; Guthrie, H.D.; Woinsky, S.G.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Wastewater treatment in the oil-shale industry  

SciTech Connect

Because of the stringent state and federal standards governing the discharge of wastes into local waters and the limited water supplies in this area, an oil shale industry will probably reuse process effluents to the maximum extent possible and evaporate the residuals. Therefore, discharge of effluents into surface and ground waters may not be necessary. This paper reviews the subject of wastewater treatment for an oil shale industry and identifies key issues and research priorities that must be resolved before a large-scale commercial industry can be developed. It focuses on treatment of the waters unique to an oil shale industry: retort water, gas condensate, and mine water. Each presents a unique set of challenges.

Fox, J.P.; Phillips, T.E.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Present trends in Estonian-Russian work on oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The Estonian oil-shale basin lies near Leningrad. The Baltic region of Russia has always been deficient in fuel and hydroelectric power, and in the post-war years Russia has used oil shale of occupied Estonia to meet these 2 demands. Kukersite oil shale is found in thick calcareous Late Ordovician beds of marine origin which lie throughout the basin at depths varying form 0 to 300 m. Shale layers with thicknesses from 0.6 to 0.7 m and up are considered commercial. Shale beds with an aggregate thickness of 3 m are also common throughout the basin. The Russians have developed more than 10 large underground mines and several open-pit mines whose total annual output in 1966 reached 25 million metric tons. Russia's new energy-chemical and complex-utilization of oil shale processing may offer some economic advantage. These 2 fields--the chemical processing and the waste product utilization--are the areas where the Russians are doing much research, developing new methods, and adapting many petrochemical technologies to shale-chemical processes. This information and the Russian experience with the successful new solid-heat exchanger large-capacity retort should be quite useful to the U.S.A. (49 refs.)

Cieslewicz, W.J.

1967-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Economics of shale oil production by radio frequency heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual facility for the production of shale oil by radio frequency(rf) heating has been designed to evaluate the economic feasibility of this technique. In the proposed procedure, the shale is processed in situ without being rubbed or explosively fractured. Metal electrodes inserted in a set of vertical drill holes are energized by a group of rf oscillators. The holes bound a block of shale that is to be retorted. The electric field is developed in such a way that heating within the block is almost uniform, and heating outside the block is very low. Retorting of the shale results in a pressure buildup of the hydrocarbon fluids. The oil and gas move horizontally (parallel to bedding planes), then down the electrode holes to a collection manifold. The facility schedule is planned so that off-peak electric power from existing generating stations can be used to operate the oscillators. Thus, the cost of power and the capital requirements for the facility are held to a minimum. Oil production costs and capital requirements indicate that the proposed procedure is economically attractive. The two principal costs are purchase of electric power and mining operations. The largest capital requirement is oscillators and associated electrical equipment.

Mallon, R.G.

1980-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

319

Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

testing their above-ground shale oil retorting technology.and Miller, G. A. Oil shales and carbon dioxide. Science, [D. J. and Cecchine, G. Oil shale development in the United

Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Selected Abstracts & Bibliography of International Oil Spill Research, through 1998  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1984): 91 Key words: oil shale, Colorado, industrial plantof arsenic from retorted oil shale. In Rep No DOE/Pp IV1-IV36, 1982 ($27 00) (Oil Shale Environmental Research

Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research & Development Program Electronic Bibliography

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

General model of oil shale pyrolysis. Revision 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A mathematical model for pyrolysis of Green River oil shale is developed from previous experiments on oil, water, and gas evolution and oil cracking over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. Reactions included are evolution of 5 gas species, oil, and water from kerogen, clay dehydration, oil coking and cracking, and evolution of H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ from char. Oil is treated in eleven boiling point fractions in order to treat the competition between oil coking and evaporation, and to evalute the effect of oil cracking on the boiling point distribution of the oil. The kinetics and product yields calculated by the model are compared to experimental results for pyrolysis conditions ranging from isothermal fluid-bed to high-pressure slow-heating-rate retorting.

Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

Not Available

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development Unconventional Fuels Conference University of Utah May 17, 2011 #12;#12;Domestic Oil Shale Resources Primary oil shale resources in the U.S. are in the Green River Formation in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. 72 % of this oil shale resource is on Federal

Utah, University of

325

Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

Chappell, W.R.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Catalytic hydroprocessing of shale oil to produce distillate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are presented of a Chevron Research Company study sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to demonstrate the feasibility of converting whole shale oil to a synthetic crude resembling a typical petroleum distillate. The synthetic crude thus produced can then be processed, in conventional petroleum-refining facilities, to transportation fuels such as high octane gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The raw shale oil feed used is a typical Colorado shale oil produced in a surface retort in the so-called indirectly heated mode. It is shown that whole shale oil can be catalytically hydrodenitrified to reduce the nitrogen to levels as low as one part per million in a single catalytic stage. However, for economic reasons, it appears preferable to denitrify to about 0.05 wt % nitrogen. The resulting synthetic crude resembles a petroleum distillate that can be fractionated and further processed as necessary in conventional petroleum refining facilities. Shale oil contains about 0.6% sulfur. Sulfur is more easily removed by hydrofining than is nitrogen; therefore, only a few parts per million of sulfur remain at a product nitrogen of 0.05 wt %. Oxygen contained in the shale oil is also reduced to low levels during hydrodenitrification. The shale oil contains appreciable quantities of iron and arsenic which are also potential catalyst poisons. These metals are removed by a guard bed placed upstream from the hydrofining catalyst. Based on correlations, the naphthas from the shale oil hydrofiner can readily be upgraded to high octane gasolines by catalytic reforming. The middle distillate fractions may require some additional hydrofining to produce salable diesel or jet fuel. The technology is available, and pilot plant studies are scheduled to verify diesel hydrofiner performance.

Sullivan, R.F.; Stangeland, B.E.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Evaluation of land disposal and underground injection of shale oil wastewaters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results indicate that the salinity of retort water, the principal wastewater generated by shale oil recovery operations, will be too high in most cases for irrigation of cover crops needed for effective stabilization by land disposal. Furthermore, large storage lagoons would be required to hold the retort water during the long winters encountered in the oil shale regions of Colorado, Wyoming and Utah. Land disposal cannot be carried out during prolonged periods of freezing weather. Additional problems which may arise with land disposal include air pollution from volatile constituents and groundwater pollution from refractory organics and dissolved salts in the retort water. Pretreatment requirements include the removal of ammonia which is present at toxic concentrations in retort water. Underground injection of retort water may be permitted in regions possessing favorable geological characteristics. It is anticipated that this method would be used as a last resort where effective or resonably priced treatment technology is not available. Regulatory restraints are expected to limit the use of underground injection for disposal of highly polluted shale oil wastewaters. Proving the confinement of injected wastes, a frequently difficult and expensive task, will be required to assure protection of drinking water resources.

Mercer, B.W.; Campbell, A.C.; Wakamiya, W.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Method of detonating explosives for fragmenting oil shale formation toward a vertical free face  

SciTech Connect

An oil shale formation is explosively expanded toward a limited void volume for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation. A void in the form of a narrow vertical slot is excavated within a retort site, leaving at least one portion of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent a vertical free face of the slot. Explosive is placed in a row of vertical blasting holes in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation adjacent the vertical free face. The blasting holes are mutually spaced apart along the length of the slot, and the row of blasting holes extends parallel to the vertical free face. Explosive in the blasting holes is detonated in a time delay sequence starting near one end of the slot and progressing along the length of the slot for explosively expanding the formation in the vertical free face. A fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale is formed in an in situ oil shale retort. 34 claims.

Hutchins, N.M.; Ridley, R.D.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Proceedings of the Morocco-United States oil shale colloquium, October 1980  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this oil shale colloquium are: energy situation; geology and research; mining activities; direct combustion; retorting; refining; commercial variability of byproduct production; environmental control technologies; and commercial products. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

Eaton, Scott J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Summary of the oil shale fragmentation program at Anvil Points Mine, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the modified in situ retort (MIS) method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The test program included single-deck, single-borehole tests to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-borehole, multiple-deck explosive tests to evaluate practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation techniques to diagnose the blasting event. This paper will present an outline of the field program, the type of instrumentation used, some typical results from the instrumentation, and a discussion of explosive engineering problems encountered over the course of the program. 4 references, 21 figures, 1 table.

Dick, R.D.; Young, C.; Fourney, W.L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

SPP/CPM excavate bulk sample of Stuart oil shale for testing  

SciTech Connect

Southern Pacific Petroleum N.L. and Central Pacific Minerals N.L. of Australia continue to evaluate retorting technologies suitable for the processing of Stuart oil shale. A sample of 400 Kg of Kerosene Creek oil shale was shipped to UMATAC in Calgary, Alberta for bench testing of the TACIUK process. The objective of the bench scale testing program is to evaluate the process and to determine whether pilot plant tests should be undertaken in the existing 5 ton per hour plant located in Calgary. Preliminary results of the bench scale work were encouraging. In preparation for the 5 ton per hour pilot plant program a bulk sample is being extracted from a box cut in the Kerosene Creek seam. During the same period, Esso completed a series of trials of Rundle Kerosene Creek shale in the Exxon Shale Retort pilot plant at Baytown, Texas. At the Rundle site, data collection concerned with waste management studies is in progress.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Zeng, Li-Wen (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Naval Reserves Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities The Fossil Energy program in oil shale focuses on...

335

Oil Shale Research in the United States | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil Shale Research in the United States Oil Shale Research in the United States Profiles of Oil Shale Research and Development Activities In Universities, National Laboratories,...

336

Oil shale deposits of Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Oil-shale deposits occur in several areas of Thailand. Perhaps the most important deposit occurs at Mae Sod in Tak Province, West Thailand. Other well-known deposits are Li in Lamphum Province, Ko Kha District, Lampang Province, and Krabi in the southern peninsular region. The geological age of all these deposits is late Tertiary, as demonstrated by the presence of the fossils from the oil shale of the Mae Sod series, e.g., fish of the Ostariophysian family Cyprinidae.

Chakrabarti, A.K.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Pyrolysis of oil shale: the effects of thermal history on oil yield  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of thermal history on the oil yield of a powdered, 22-gallon-per-ton Colorado shale was studied by heating to test temperature at Fischer assay rate (12/sup 0/C/min), holding a test temperature for varying times up to 33 d, and finally heating to 500/sup 0/C at 12/sup 0/C/min. Test temperatures covered the range of 150 to 450/sup 0/C. Both autogenous (self-generated) and inert sweep gas atmospheres were used. Under autogenous atmospheres at test temperatures of 250/sup 0/C or below, yields obtained were 100 percent of Fischer assay. Heating at 300 to 425/sup 0/C resulted in yield losses, maximizing at 19 percent after a 33-d exposure at 350/sup 0/C. Yield losses are accompanied by increased char in the retorted shale and by production of oil that is lower in density and nitrogen content, and higher in hydrogen. In the inert gas sweep experiments, increasing flow rates gave increased oil yields, approaching 100 percent assay. This is attributed to reduced thermal degradation of oil in the retort. The total yield appears to be determined by the temperature-time exposure of the liberated oil and is not affected by the thermal history of the kerogen. The results indicate that the high gas sweep rates planned for in-situ retorting will be advantageous to oil yield. (auth)

Stout, N.D.; Koskinas, G.J.; Raley, J.H.; Santor, S.D.; Opila, R.J.; Rothman, A.J.

1976-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

338

Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI`s archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory oil shale: Quarterly report, October-December 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A unique mass spectrometry (MS) method for the study of water formation during oil shale batch pyrolysis was recently discussed. Water evolution observations differ from what others have reported, necessitating a detailed quality assurance study. That study is discussed in this report, along with the water calibration techniques that have been used to obtain quantitative data from our Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (TQMS) - which normally provides qualitative information. The rate of pyrolysis of raw shale and the rate of combustion of retorted shale in a new apparatus which allows C and H mass balances have been measured. Thus, the fraction of the raw shale organic C that is pyrolyzed and burned can be measured. The shale sample is fluidized with an inert gas which sweeps the pyrolysis gases out of the pyrolyzer and into a tube furnace where they are burned with oxygen. The concentrations of carbon dioxide and steam produced by this oxidation are measured on-line by means of a mass spectrometer. Following pyrolysis, the organic C and H which remain in the retorted shale are burned in the same fluidized bed by adding oxygen to the fluidizing gas. An experiment has also been conducted to find out if indeed Green River shale can be retorted in half the time generally used. The LLNL pilot retort was used, and the pyrolysis appears to have been completed when pyrolysis time at 500/sup 0/ was reduced from 3 m to 1.5 m. The evidence is the fact that the combustor temperature, which is sensitive to the carbon content of the retorted shale, did not increase when pyrolysis time was reduced.

Lewis, A.E. (ed.)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Minimum bed parameters for in situ processing of oil shale. Second quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the second in a series of quarterly reports on the Minimum Bed Parameters for In Situ Processing of Oil Shale Program (FE Control No. 4-79 ET 14165.000). It describes activities during the period January 1 to March 31, 1980, including modification of the laboratory retorting system to eliminate problems with the ignition and product collecttion systems and the successful retorting of a 16% void sample. The sample consisted of a 7.6 cm diameter by 23 cm competent core of oil shale with three 0.64 cm slices of material removed parallel to the axis of the cylinder. The 1.4 cm thick slabs constituted 70% of the sample volume, while oil shale rubble (-.32 + .16 cm) was used to occupy nearly half the remaining volume (14%), leaving 16% void. The sample was instrumented, sealed in an insulated retort vessel, ignited with hot (700/sup 0/C) air, and combustion-retorted with air. The observed retorting rate was 10 cm/hr, the local heating rate near the block surface in the retorting zone was 18/sup 0/C/min, and peak temperatures were about 825/sup 0/C. Temperature profiles across the retort cross-section indicated some limited heat loss. Oil yield was 92% of Fischer Assay. Results of block retort model calculations (without rubble in the fracture) are in good agreement with those observed, namely a retorting rate of 12 cm/hr, a local heating rate of 7/sup 0/C/min, peak temperatures around 900/sup 0/C, and a yield of 90% FA.

Tyner, C.E.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Aerosol sampling and characterization in the developing US oil-shale industry  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol sampling and characterization studies of workplace air were conducted at four demonstration-scale oil shale facilities located in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah. These facilities consisted of an underground mining/aboveground retorting facility, two modified in situ retorting facilities with associated underground mining, and a true in situ retorting facility. Emphasis was placed on study of the retorting phase of operation at these facilities. Aerosol samples were collected on filter media by high volume air samplers, low volume portable sampling pumps with or without cyclone pre-separators, and cascade impactors. Samples were analyzed to determine total and respirable dust concentrations, particle size distributions, free silica content, total benzene or cyclohexane extractables, and selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Total and respirable dust were observed to range from very low to very high concentrations, with significant free silica content. Measurable levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also observed at each of the facilities.

Hargis, K.M.; Tillery, M.I.; Gonzales, M.; Garcia, L.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

Adams, D.C.

1993-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

343

Oil-shale material properties  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical properties of oil shale have been under examination at Sandia since 1975 in a program which has involved laboratory and field experimentation along with complementary analytical activities. The dependence of the fragmentation phenomenon on strain rate is important in explosive applications because strain rates realized in typical blasting events extend over a wide range. The model has been used to calculate a variety of explosive geometries in oil shale, with results compared to small- and large-scale experiments, including a small block test with 80 g of explosive and a field test with 5 kg explosive.

Kipp, M.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Australian developments in oil shale processing  

SciTech Connect

This study gives some background on Australian oil shale deposits, briefly records some history of oil shale processing in the country and looks at the current status of the various proposals being considered to produce syncrudes from Australian oil shales. 5 refs.

Baker, G.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, July--September 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to determine the feasibility and estimate the economics of hydroprocessing four synthetic fuels to distillate fuels, including high octane gasoline, using presently available technology. The feedstocks include three coal-derived synthetic crudes and shale oil. The first feedstock is Paraho crude shale oil, produced in the indirect-heated mode. The feed was received less than three weeks before the end of the quarter. The work to date consists of analyses of the shale oil. Results are incomplete. However, there is no reason to believe that this shale oil is atypical of Paraho shale oil prepared by the indirect-heated mode of retorting. Currently available technology is being studied to determine the appropriate methods for removal of fines and water to prepare the whole shale oil feed for hydrofining.

Sullivan, R.F.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

H/sub 2/S evolution from Colorado oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most of the sulfur in oil shale occurs in pyrite and a smaller amount is contained in the kerogen. It is demonstrated that the major source of H/sub 2/S during oil shale pyrolysis is from the reaction of pyrite with organic matter. Results are presented for the evolution of H/sub 2/S from Colorado oil shale heated at 5/sup 0/C/min under autogenous (self-generated), argon, steam, and hydrogen atmospheres at atmospheric pressure. In an autogenous atmosphere, most of the H/sub 2/S is evolved between 400 and 500/sup 0/C. Addition of finely ground pyrite increases the amount but does not change the evolution profile of H/sub 2/S. In an argon atmosphere, however, added pyrite causes a substantial increase in H/sub 2/S evolution only between 475 and 525/sup 0/C. Similar reaction characteristics were observed with large-grained natural pyrite in a Tract C-a oil shale. These results also demonstrate the importance of intimate contact between the pyrite and organic material. In a steam atmosphere, pyrite is oxidized to iron oxides and the H/sub 2/S evolution increases substantially. In some samples, essentially all the initial sulfur is evolved as H/sub 2/S at temperatures below 800/sup 0/C. Finally, we discuss the thermodynamic limitations on the observed reactions under retort conditions.

Burnham, A.K.; Bey, N.K.; Koskinas, G.J.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation A broad range of new technologies is emerging, aimed at the efficient, economic, and sustainable production of fuels from oil shale resources. A number of these hybrid oil shale technologies are focused on development of near-surface oil shale resources. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the near surface oil shale resource in the Green River Formation that is amenable to commercial development using such hybrid technology. Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - 338M_Geothermal_Project_Descriptions Oil Shale Research in the United States

348

Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 8. Health effects of oil shale development  

SciTech Connect

Information on the potential health effects of a developing oil shale industry can be derived from two major sources: (1) the historical experience in foreign countries that have had major industries; and (2) the health effects research that has been conducted in the US in recent years. The information presented here is divided into two major sections: one dealing with the experience in foreign countries and the second dealing with the more recent work associated with current oil shale development in the US. As a result of the study, several observations can be made: (1) most of the current and historical data from foreign countries relate to occupational hazards rather than to impacts on regional populations; (2) neither the historical evidence from other countries nor the results of current research have shown pulmonary neoplasia to be a major concern, however, certain types of exposure, particularly such mixed source exposures as dust/diesel or dust/organic-vapor have not been adequately studied and the lung cancer question is not closed; (3) the industry should be alert to the incidence of skin disease in the industrial setting, however, automated techniques, modern industrial hygiene practices and realistic personal hygiene should greatly reduce the hazards associated with skin contact; and (4) the entire question of regional water contamination and any resultant health hazard has not been adequately addressed. The industrial practice of hydrotreating the crude shale oil will diminish the carcinogenic hazard of the product, however, the quantitative reduction of biological activity is dependent on the degree of hydrotreatment. Both Soviet and American experimentalists have demonstrated a correlation betweed carcinogenicity/toxicity and retorting temperature; the higher temperatures producing the more carcinogenic or toxic products.

Rotariu, G.J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Bakken Shale Oil Production Trends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the conventional reservoirs decrease in discovering, producing and reserving, unconventional reservoirs are more remarkable in terms of discovering, development and having more reserve. More fields have been discovered where Barnett Shale and Bakken Shale are the most recently unconventional reservoir examples. Shale reservoirs are typically considered self-sourcing and have very low permeability ranging from 10-100 nanodarcies. Over the past few decades, numerous research projects and developments have been studied, but it seems there is still some contention and misunderstanding surrounding shale reservoirs. One of the largest shale in the United State is the Bakken Shale play. This study will describe the primary geologic characteristics, field development history, reservoir properties,and especially production trends, over the Bakken Shale play. Data are available for over hundred wells from different companies. Most production data come from the Production Data Application (HDPI) database and in the format of monthly production for oil, water and gas. Additional 95 well data including daily production rate, completion, Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT), pressure data are given from companies who sponsor for this research study. This study finds that there are three Types of well production trends in the Bakken formation. Each decline curve characteristic has an important meaning to the production trend of the Bakken Shale play. In the Type I production trend, the reservoir pressure drops below bubble point pressure and gas releasingout of the solution. With the Type II production trend, oil flows linearly from the matrix into the fracture system, either natural fracture or hydraulic fracture. Reservoir pressure is higher than the bubble point pressure during the producing time and oil flows as a single phase throughout the production period of the well. A Type III production trend typically has scattering production data from wells with a different Type of trend. It is difficult to study this Type of behavior because of scattering data, which leads to erroneous interpretation for the analysis. These production Types, especially Types I and II will give a new type curve matches for shale oil wells above or below the bubble point.

Tran, Tan

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) Oil Shale Pilot Plant status report  

SciTech Connect

The authors are studying aboveground oil shale retorting and have developed the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) process as a generic, second-generation, rapid pyrolysis retorting system in which recycled shale is the solid heat carrier. In 1984-87, they operated a 1 ton-per-day HRS pilot plant to study retorting chemistry in an actual recirculation loop, Cena (1986). In 1989 they upgraded their laboratory pilot plant to process 4 ton-per-day of commercially sized shale, which will allow them, for the first time, to study pyrolysis and combustion chemistry using the full particle size, to produce enough oil for detailed characterization studies, to study environmental consequences, and to begin answering the many bulk solid handling questions concerning scale-up of the HRS process. In this paper the authors report on the status of their pilot plant operations. They have operated the facility circulating raw shale at ambient temperature and dolomite at elevated temperature. They plan the first hot shale run in November 1990. 5 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Cena, R.J.; Thorsness, C.B.

1990-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

351

DOE oil shale reference sample bank: Quarterly report, July-September 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The DOE Oil Shale Program was restructured in FY84 to implement a 5-year period of basic and applied research in the study of the phenomena involved in oil shale pyrolysis/retorting. The program calls for the study of two reference shales per year for a period of 5 years. Consequently, the program calls for the identification, acquisition, processing, characterization, storage, disbursement, and record keeping for ten reference shales in a period of 5 years. Two FY86 and one FY87 reference shales have been acquired, processed and stored under inert gas. The Eastern shale, designated E86, was obtained from the Clegg Creek Member of the New Albany Shale at a quarry near Louisville, Kentucky in the first quarter of FY86. The FY86 Western Shale was obtained from the Exxon Colony Mine, located near Parachute, Colorado, during the first quarter of FY86. The FY87 Western Shale was obtained from the Tipton Member of the Green River Formation near Rock Springs, Wyoming during the fourth quarter of FY87. Partial distributions of the FY86 shale have been made to DOE and non-DOE contractors. Complete descriptions of the FY87 Western reference shale locale, shale processing procedures and analytical characterization are provided in this report. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Owen, L.B.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Hugoniots of Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Standard experimental shock wave techniques were used to obtain Hugoniots of Anvil Points oil shale as functions of richness and orientation in the pressure regime encountered in the near-field region of an explosion. The shock response was found to be sensitive to kerogen content but independent of bedding orientation relative to the direction of shock propagation. A two-component model combining the inferred dynamic parameters for the end members (kerogen and mineral matrix) is adequate to predict the Hugoniots of oil shale of any arbitrary composition. Hence, the Hugoniots, as for other material properties, can be ultimately uniquely related to the oil yield. Preliminary dynamic results from samples obtained from other sites in Colorado and Wyoming indicate that this is generally true within the accuracy required for predictive explosive rock breakage calculations. 7 figures.

Carter, W.J.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

James W. Bunger

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States June 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 June 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources 1 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or

355

Analysis of Paraho oil shale products and effluents: an example of the multi-technique approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Inorganic analysis of solid, liquid and gaseous samples from the Paraho Semiworks Retort was completed using a multitechnique approach. The data were statistically analyzed to determine both the precision of each method and to see how closely the various techniques compared. The data were also used to determine the redistribution of 31 trace and major elements in the various effluents, including the offgas for the Paraho Retort operating in the direct mode. The computed mass balances show that approximately 1% or greater fractions of the As, Co, Hg, N, Ni, S and Se are released during retorting and redistributed to the product shale oil, retort water or product offgas. The fraction for these seven elements ranged from almost 1% for Co and Ni to 50 to 60% for Hg and N. Approximately 20% of the S and 5% of the As and Se are released. The mass balance redistribution during retorting for Al, Fe, Mg, V and Zn was observed to be no greater than .05%. These redistribution figures are generally in agreement with previous mass balance studies made for a limited number of elements on laboratory or smaller scale pilot retorts. 7 tables.

Fruchter, J. S.; Wilkerson, C. L.; Evans, J. C.; Sanders, R. W.

1979-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

356

Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI's archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used by Los Alamos National Laboratory in fragmentation experiments in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Discussed are the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used to evaluate the explosive fragmentation experiments in oil shale at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines in Colorado. These experiments were conducted to investigate some of the many parameters that control the fragmenting or rubblizing of oil shale in preparation for subsurface retorting. Framing and TV cameras were used to study the size and speed of the ejected shale fragments. Stress and accelerometer gauges provided quantitative data about the explosively induced stress field in the rock. The CORRTEX technique was used to determine the detonation velocity of the explosive and the induced fracture velocity in the oil shale. Postshot measurements included the crater dimensions and rubble size distribution. In addition preshot and postshot geological mapping was done to relate fractures and joints to crater size and shape.

Edwards, C.L.; Adams, T.F.; Dick, R.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Geokinetics In Situ Shale Oil Recovery Project. Second annual report, March, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project is being conducted at a field site located 70 miles south of Vernal, Utah. Because of the remote location of the site, and its poor accessibility over unpaved roads, a fully self-contained field camp was constructed to support the project and provide living quarters for the field crew. Eighteen in-situ retorts have been constructed, ranging in size from 330 tons to 46,000 tons. Eleven of these retorts have been burned, and a total of 5400 barrels of shale oil have been recovered. Oil shale thicknesses of 30 feet, and cross-sectional areas of 3800 square feet have been successfully blasted. The results have been encouraging, and the project will continue to scale up its size of the operation in 1979.

Lekas, M.A.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

International developments in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An overview of oil shale research and development outside the US provides a status report on technology approaches under active consideration in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, West Germany, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Soviet Union, Thailand, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. The status report covers the development plans and project costs of industrial projects. The technologies under consideration include the Fushun, Galoter, Kiviter, Lurgi, and Petrosix processes. 10 references.

Uthus, D.B.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Oil shale: acceleration of its development. Technical report. [Evaluation of proposal  

SciTech Connect

Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Paraho Development Corporation, has submitted a proposal to the Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves of the Department of the Navy for the acceleration of oil shale development. The proposal was prepared after a series of meetings and discussions with various representatives of the Department of Interior and the Department of the Navy who are associated with oil shale development and/or the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR). The general thrust of the proposal is the expansion and extension of an existing oil shale research project utilizing the Paraho oil shale retort process. The project is being conducted under a lease arrangement with the Department of the Interior which includes the use of oil shale from the NOSR. This evaluation will discuss the DEI proposal in terms of the justification, the feasibility, required implementation action, and several special considerations for the Department of the Navy.' The discussion is based on the substance of DEI's proposal and independent investigations in several areas associated with the proposed effort. (GRA)

Trabandt, C.A.

1974-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Oil shale mining and the environment. [Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Experimental mining of oil shale, to date, has been conducted only in the shallow Mahogany Zone and has utilized only the room and pillar mining method. The U.S. Bureau of Mines is planning a demonstration mine in the deep, thick oil-shale deposits in Colorado. This study describes the 4 mining concepts that are planned for demonstration and the interrelationship of these concepts and the environment. The environmental aspects of oil-shale development also are discussed.

Rajaram, V.; Kauppila, T.A.; Bolmer, R.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects: Shale Oil Upgrading Utilizing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Companies providing oil samples of at least five (5) gallons include Chevron, Oil Shale Exploration Company (OSEC), and Red Leaf Resources, Inc. Background Work performed...

363

Contribution of thiosulfate to COD and BOD in oil shale process wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Thiosulfate accounted for a significant portion of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (7 to 20%) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (14 to 41%) of the four oil shale process waters studied. As such, accurate measurement of the thiosulfate oxygen demand of retort water is critical in assessing its environmental impacts on receiving waters and in designing biological treatment systems to treat it. The contribution of thiosulfate to the COD of oil shale retort waters can be accurately measured in a standard COD test. The BOD of thiosulfate in retort water is more difficult to determine and may require the development of a special thiosulfate acclimated seed. Thiosulfate recovery of a known thiosulfate spike ranged from 92 to 100% in the COD test and from 64 to 119% in the BOD test. Considerable variability in recovery was found between the process waters studied. When determining the BOD of oil shale process waters, care must be taken to insure a viable population of thiosulfate oxidizing bacteria.

Wong, A. L.; Mercer, B. W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Water application related to oil shale listed  

SciTech Connect

A water right application filed by the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. is reported for surface waters and ground water in Rio Blanco County, Colorado.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Developments in oil shale in 1983  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale development activities continued at a somewhat restricted pace during 1983. The activities reflect the continued soft economic environment in the petroleum industry. A limited number of projects are active, and research is continuing on processes, materials handling, mining techniques, and resource evaluation. Past oil shale development papers have highlighted resources and activities in several states in the eastern and western portions of the United States. This paper highlights Australian oil shale geology and developments and Canadian oil shale geology and developments. 5 figures, 1 table.

Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.; Hutton, A.C.; Macauley, G.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

367

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

20 to 40% of the oil shale, and explosively rubblizing andCEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P, K, Mehta Civil Engineering

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Economic variables in production of oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The oil-shale production cost estimates reported by the National Petroleum Council in Dec. 1972, as part of an overall study of the U.S. energy situation are the most recent publicly available data on oil-shale economics. Using the basic NPC costs, this study examines several important parameters affecting shale oil's economic viability. Other factors pertinent to consideration of oil shale as a domestic fuel source, such as the leasing of federal oil shale lands, water availability, and environmental restraints are reviewed.

Cameron, R.J.

1973-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation A broad range of new technologies is emerging, aimed at the efficient, economic, and sustainable production of fuels from oil shale resources. A number of these hybrid oil shale technologies are focused on development of near-surface oil shale resources. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the near surface oil shale resource in the Green River Formation that is amenable to commercial development using such hybrid technology. Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - 338M_Geothermal_Project_Descriptions Before the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power

371

Oil Shale Research in the United States | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Research in the United States Oil Shale Research in the United States Profiles of Oil Shale Research and Development Activities In Universities, National Laboratories, and Public...

372

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Oil Shale Reserves...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil Shale Reserves Site - 013 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Naval Oil Shale Reserves Site (013 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site...

373

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identified in Oil Shale and Shale Oil. list." 1. Preliminaryrisks of large scale shale oil production are sufficient tofound in oil shale and shale oil by EMIC and ETIC, has

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor Elements in Oil Shale and Oil Shale Products. LERCfor Use 1n Oil Shale and Shale Oil. OSRD-32, 1945. Jeris, J.Water coproduced with shale oil and decanted from it is

Farrier, D.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Method and apparatus for distilling oil shale  

SciTech Connect

In an oil shale retrort there is the combination of a plurality of interconnected hollow sections, each having a flat bottom, the bottom surfaces of the sections lying in different planes and being inclined at an angle greater than the angle of repose for powdered oil shale whereby oil shale will flow by the action of gravity alone. Means are located at the juncture of each of the sections for abruptly changing the direction of flow of the shale whereby the velocity is reduced.

White, C.O.

1929-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

376

Oil shale oxidation at subretorting temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Green River oil shale was air oxidized at subretorting temperatures. Off gases consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water were monitored and quantitatively determined. A mathematical model of the oxidation reactions based on a shrinking core model has been developed. This model incorporates the chemical reaction of oxygen and the organic material in the oil shale as well as the diffusivity of the oxygen into the shale particle. Diffusivity appears to be rate limiting for the oxidation. Arrhenius type equations, which include a term for oil shale grade, have been derived for both the chemical reaction and the diffusivity.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Water-related impacts of in-situ oil shale processing  

SciTech Connect

This study discusses the water-related impacts of an in-situ oil shale industry located in the Upper Colorado River Basin. It focuses on a 50,000 barrel per day industry based on the modified in-situ process and located in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. It reviews the history of oil shale development in the United States and the reserves, geology, and characteristics of domestic oil shales. In-situ technologies that have been tested or are under active consideration for commercialization are reviewed, and their commercial potential is evaluated. The existing hydrology and water quality of the Upper Colorado River Basin is surveyed as is water use and the statuatory framework for water availability and water quality for in-situ oil shale development. The major environmental problem of in-situ processing, groundwater disruption from in-situ leachates and large-scale dewatering, is analyzed, pertinent experimental results are summarized and interpreted, and recommendations are made for additional research. Methods to control groundwater disruption are identified and discussed and preliminary cost projections are developed. Finally, the reuse, treatment and disposal of effluents produced by in-situ retorting - retort water, gas condensate, mine waters, and others - are discussed.

Fox, J.P.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Active oil shale operations: Eastern Uinta Basin  

SciTech Connect

A Utah Geological and Mineral survey Map of the Eastern Uinta Basin is presented. Isopach lines for the Mahogany oil shale are given, along with the locations of active oil shale operations and the land ownership (i.e. federal, state, or private).

Ritzma, H.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Indirect heating pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hot, non-oxygenous gas at carefully controlled quantities and at predetermined depths in a bed of lump oil shale provides pyrolysis of the contained kerogen of the oil shale, and cool non-oxygenous gas is passed up through the bed to conserve the heat

Jones, Jr., John B. (Grand Junction, CO); Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO)

1978-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method for extracting an oil content from oil shale. [ultrasonic waves  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for extracting an oil content from oil shale by compressing powdery grains of oil shale while applying ultrasonic waves to these powdery grains to separate the oil content from the powdery grains of oil shale.

Lee, J.

1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

382

Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, April-June 1982  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to prepare a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. The first section of this report describes the progress in our experimental work at Anvil Points Mine in cooperation with the Oil Shale Consortium, Sandia National Laboratories, and Science Applications, Inc. It details further studies in explosive characterization and in validation of numerical calculation techniques. It also discusses the development of a physical theory for the determination of permeability and describes the file experiments conducted this quarter. The second section focuses on the cratering experiments at the Colony Mine and the influence of site-specific geology on oil shale fragmentation experiments. 40 figures, 1 table.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Applications for a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor in oil shale processing  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of a study concerning possible applications for a high temperature gas cooled reactor as a process heat source in oil shale retorting and upgrading. Both surface and in situ technologies were evaluated with respect to the applicability and potential benefits of introducing an outside heat source. The primary focus of the study was to determine the fossil resource which might be conserved, or freed for higher uses than furnishing process heat. In addition to evaluating single technologies, a centralized upgrading plant, which would hydrotreat the product from a 400,000 bbl/day regional shale oil industry was also evaluated. The process heat required for hydrogen manufacture via steam reforming, and for whole shale oil hydrotreating would be supplied by an HTGR. Process heat would be supplied where applicable, and electrical power would be generated for the entire industry.

Sinor, J.E.; Roe, D.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical definition of oil-shale facies in the lower Parachute Creek Member of Green River Formation, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of two drill cores penetrating the lower Saline zone of the Parachute Creek Member (middle L-4 oil-shale zone through upper R-2 zone) of the Green River Formation in north-central Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, indicate the presence of two distinct oil-shale facies. The most abundant facies has laminated stratification and frequently occurs in the L-4, L-3 and L-2 oil-shale zones. The second, and subordinate facies, has ''streaked and blebby'' stratification and is most abundant in the R-4, R-3 and R-2 zones. Laminated oil shale originated by slow, regular sedimentation during meromictic phases of ancient Lake Uinta, whereas streaked and blebby oil shale was deposited by episodic, non-channelized turbidity currents. Laminated oil shale has higher contents of nahcolite, dawsonite, quartz, K-feldspar and calcite, but less dolomite/ankerite and albite than streaked and blebby oil shale. Ca-Mg-Fe carbonate minerals in laminated oil shale have more variable compositions than those in streaked and blebby shales. Streaked and blebby oil shale has more kerogen and a greater diversity of kerogen particles than laminated oil shale. Such variations may produce different pyrolysis reactions when each shale type is retorted.

Cole, R.D.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

RETORT WATER PARTICULATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effluents from In Situ Oil Shale Processing. Proceedings ofDecomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II, Carbonate Minerals.1 Presented at the Oil Shale Sampling, Analysis and Quality

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource and Technology Development

390

Assay products from Green River oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Data from 66 material-balanced assays conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laramie Energy Technology Center, and The Oil Shale Corporation were compiled and analyzed to determine the pyrolysis stoichiometry for Green River formation oil shales originating in and near the Mahogany zone. Shale samples came from four sites in Colorado and one in Utah, and ranged in oil content from 12 to 258 L/Mg (3 to 62 gal/ton). Average values and pairwise correlation coefficients are reported for all data (except sulfur analyses) available on the shales, e.g., elemental analyses of shales and oils, distribution of organic carbon in products, gas composition, and some ratios of elemental composition. The wide range of organic carbon contents made it possible to demonstrate the sensitivity of assay product distribution to oil shale grade. A linear correlation for shale grade as a function of weight percent organic carbon in raw shale is presented. An average stoichiometry for pyrolysis of the organic material is also calculated and compared with others available in the literature.

Singleton, M.F.; Koskinas, G.J.; Burnham, A.K.; Raley, J.H.

1982-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

391

Unconventional oil market assessment: ex situ oil shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis focused on exploring the economic limitations for the development of western oil shale. The analysis was developed by scaling a known process and… (more)

Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Sweep efficiency modeling of modified in-situ retorts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple two-dimensional flow model is used to illustrate the effects of different porosity and permeability distributions and retort geometries on sweep efficiency during modified in-situ oil shale retorting. Results of these case studies, two emphasizing different retort geometries and porosity distributions and one a study of nonuniform flow around a single, large block, are presented. The most interesting is a simulation of the flow field and resultant retort front movement for Occidental Petroleum Company Retort 5. A porosity/permeability distribution was chosen based on reported tracer data. The results of the model calculation indicate a sweep efficiency of about 55%. From these data an estimate can be made of the amount of oil degradation from burning, cracking, and coking. 17 figures.

Gregg, M.L.; Campbell, J.H.

1980-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

393

Gasification characteristics of eastern oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is evaluating the gasification characteristics of Eastern oil shales as a part of a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and HYCRUDE Corporation to expand the data base on moving-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Gasification of shale fines will improve the overall resource utilization by producing synthesis gas or hydrogen needed for the hydroretorting of oil shale and the upgrading of shale oil. Gasification characteristics of an Indiana New Albany oil shale have been determined over temperature and pressure ranges of 1600 to 1900/sup 0/F and 15 to 500 psig, respectively. Carbon conversion of over 95% was achieved within 30 minutes at gasification conditions of 1800/sup 0/F and 15 psig in a hydrogen/steam gas mixture for the Indiana New Albany oil shale. This paper presents the results of the tests conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor to obtain reaction rate data and in a continuous mini-bench-scale unit to obtain product yield data. 2 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

RETORT WATER PARTICULATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effluents from In Situ Oil Shale Processing. Proceedings ofDecomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II, Carbonate Minerals.Suspension of Spent Shale Fines and Oil~ Oil shale becomes

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Review and analysis of oil shale technologies. Volume IV. Aboveground or surface technology  

SciTech Connect

A technical description and evaluation of retorting methods and scale-up scenarios of four representative methods are presented. The methods described and evaluated include the processes developed by the Bureau of Mines (BOM), the Union Oil Company ''B,'' Petrosix, Paraho, TOSCO II, and the Superior Oil Company. For a future economic analysis, scale-up (ranging from 55,000- to 58,000-bbl/day production rate) scenarios are presented for BOM's Gas Combustion retort (GCR), Union ''B,'' Paraho, and TOSCO II retorting processes. In general, the six aboveground processes selected are in an advanced stage of development as compared with in situ processes and several of them are ready for commercial-scale demonstration. There are, however, a few areas that still need further research and development before demonstration can be undertaken. Specific areas of research cannot be defined at this time because process information needed to identify these areas is mostly proprietary. The technical evaluation reveals that the aboveground retorting processes are viable with high scale oil recovery yields. The processes, however, have been tested only at the pilot or semiworks scale and need to be demonstrated on full-scale modules. The scale-up scenarios of the representative processes reveal that the logistics of the mining-to-processing operation will be a major problem at high production rates. For example, a nominal crude shale oil production rate of about 50,000 bbl/day will require mining at a rate exceeding present large-scale mining rates. The TOSCO II retorting process is the most energy intensive among Paraho, Union ''B,'' and BOM's GCR because of its complexity, which annuls the benefit of less mining. The TOSCO II process, however, is still an attractive process, providing the technique is used with another technique to enhance resource utilization.

Jee, C.K.; White, J.D.; Bhatia, S.K.; Nicholson, D.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Insulated dipole antennas for heating oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Insulated dipole antennas in the HF band are potentially useful in heating shale i n s i t u to extract oil. To help evaluate the efficiency of such antennas

John P. Casey; Rajeev Bansal

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and INTRODUCTION Oil shale production by vertical modified1 aspects of oil shale production air, solid waste, andimpacts of oil shale production, and to develop information

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Broad spectrum inorganic and organic analytical techniques provide the best approach for the initial characterization of the complex samples encountered in working with new energy technologies such as oil shale retorting and solvent refining of coal. In complex samples, analyses are facilitated by techniques, such as neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence, that are relatively insensitive to matrix effects. A comparative organic constituent analysis of the crude shale oil and coal liquid samples analyzed in this study showed that the coal liquids contained higher concentrations of aromatic compounds including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The coal liquids were considerably richer in phenols than was the shale oil. N-heterocyclics were present in higher concentration in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics were found to be common in coal liquids but negligible in this shale oil. Measurable amounts of the heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se were found in effluent streams from oil shale retorting. The process water also contained significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. The raw oil shale was enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg, and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. Most were concentrated in the mineral residue. Only Br was not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements remaining in significant amounts were U, Ta, Cr and Zn. We have not yet measured the trace elements and gaseous and particulate samples from the solvent-refined coal plant. 10 tables.

Fruchter, J.S.; Laul, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Ryan, P.W.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen properties. SCMs can be by-products from various industries or of natural origin, such as shale. Oil shale correctly, give a material with some cementitious properties known as burned oil shale (BOS). This study

Dalang, Robert C.

400

High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Environmental control costs for oil shale processes  

SciTech Connect

The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P.Cement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,203 (1974), E. D. York, Amoco Oil Co. , letter to J, P. Fox,

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves To ensure sufficient fuel for the fleet, the Government began withdrawing probable oil-bearing...

404

Oil shale. environmental and health issues  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and health issues include the solid-waste disposal problem; the possibility of the release of toxic and carcinogenic constituents into the environment; water requirements in a water-poor area; the potential air pollution problems; the low resource utilization of some of the processes; and the relative energy production compared with energy input. Such issues arise from the fact that it takes 1.5 tons of oil shale to make 1 bbl of oil, which, for a 1 million bbl/day industry, would require the processing of 480 million tons/yr of shale and would produce 390 million tons/yr of spent shale. The various oil shale processing technologies are briefly described.

Chappell, W.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Review of air quality assessment studies and definitions of some research needs for the emerging oil shale technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the air quality assessment programs that have been conducted by the various private and government sponsored developers who propose to extract energy from the oil shale. These studies have ranged from regional comprehensive baseline and environmental impact studies over several years' period to intermittant localized small scale air quality monitoring programs. A review of the environmental programs, their location, retorting type, and extent of environmental program undertaken is given.

Parker, G.B.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and l BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California.

Tiernan, Joan E. (38 Clay Ct., Novato, CA 94947)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of a number of sensitive and precise methods for the determination of trace elements, heavy element species and organic compounds in materials from an oil shale research retort process and from a solvent-refined coal pilot plant operation are discussed. The methods were chosen both for their sensitivity, and also for their relative freedom from interference effects. Coal liquids contain much higher concentrations of aromatic compounds, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA's). A larger relative fraction of the pna's in shale oil are alkyl substituted. Coal liquids are also considerably higher in phenols (28 percent) than is shale oil (2 percent). N-heterocyclics are present in higher concentration (greater than 8 percent) in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics are common in coal liquids but negligible in shale oil. Inorganic elements and speciation measurements indicate significant amounts of the toxic heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se in effluent oil water and gas streams. In addition, the process water contains significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. Raw oil shale is highly enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. The majority of trace elements are concentrated by the process into the mineral residue. Only Br and Hg are not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements still remaining in significant amounts are U, Ta, Cr, and Zn.

Fruchter, J.S.; Petersen, M.R.; Laul, J.C.; Ryan, P.W.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Oil shale resources of the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The resource of potential oil represented by Green River Formation oil shale on Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1 (NOSR No. 1) in the southeast corner of Colorado's Piceance Creek Basin is evaluated in detail. NOSR No. 1 is the site of intensive long-term oil-shale development studies and is the source of innumerable oil-shale samples for all manner of testing. A brief history of these studies is presented. This oil-shale resource is defined from oil-yield assay data on 33 cores plotted as histograms and correlated into cross sections. Contour maps of thickness, richness and oil resource in place are presented for the Mahogany Zone, the rich zone in the Mahogany zone, and for 2 units beneath and 5 units above the Mahogany zone. Total oil shale resource on NOSR No. 1 is 20.4 billion barrels of which 17.4 billion barrels are particularly suitable for development by vertical modified in-place processes. A previously unknown Mahogany zone outcrop providing much additional development access is described. Now under sole control of the US Department of Energy (DOE), NOSR No. 1 offers DOE a unique site for oil shale testing and development.

Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Trudell, L.G.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

The Union Oil Company of California Parachute Creek Oil Shale Program  

SciTech Connect

The country's first commercial oil shale project will begin operation this year. This writeup describes Union's program for commercial oil shale production.

Jackson, R.M.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor Elements in Oil Shale and Oil-Shale Products. LERC RIChemistry of Tar Sands and Oil Shale, ACS, New Orleans.Constituent Analysis of Oil Shale and Solvent-Refined Coal

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

INTERCOMPARISON STUDY OF ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN RAW AND SPENT OIL SHALES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor Elements ~n Oil Shale and Oil-Shale Products. LERC RI-Analytical Chemistry of Oil Shale and Tar Sands. Advan. inFischer Assay of Standard Oil-Shale Sample. Preprints, Div.

Fox, J.P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

curtain and that the cost per square foot of curtain is notcurtains may cost between $6.30 and $13.50 per square foot.The costs calculated in Table 28, $8 per square foot, are

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

leaching and addresses subsidence and resource recovery asgroundwater disruption, subsidence, and resource recovery--predict inci~ deuces of subsidence, and there are presently

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Comparative mammalian genetic toxicology of shale oil products assayed in vitro and in vivo  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to determine the relative toxicity and mutagenicity (genetic toxicity) of crude and hydrotreated shale oil products from the Paraho surface retort. This was achieved by applying a battery of bioassays emphasizing mammalian systems and having both in vitro (cell culture supplemented with microsomes to allow metabolic activation) and short-term in vivo components. The results may be compared with the results from bioassays conducted in other laboratories to obtain a basis to estimate health hazards to humans.

Timourian, H.; Carrano, A.; Carver, J.; Felton, J.S.; Hatch, F.T.; Stuermer, D.S.; Thompson, L.H.

1980-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

415

Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

Looney, Mark Dean (Houston, TX); Lestz, Robert Steven (Missouri City, TX); Hollis, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Wigand, Marcus (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

416

Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

Looney, Mark Dean (Houston, TX); Lestz, Robert Steven (Missouri City, TX); Hollis, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Wigand, Marcus (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

417

Recent trends in oil shale. I. History, nature, and reserves  

SciTech Connect

To understand the current level of oil shale development and to anticipate some of the problems that will govern the growth rate of the domestic shale oil industry, this bulletin will discuss these issues in three parts. In this MIB, the nature of oil shale is discussed and a brief history of oil shale development is presented. The worldwide and domestic oil shale resources are described, with emphasis on recent geologic exploration of the Green River formation. Part II will cover oil shale mining and fuel extraction while Part III will discuss technical problems of shale oil refining and some economic and social problems of oil shale development. An extensive bibliography is provided. (MCW)

Sladek, T.A.

1974-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

A study on the Jordanian oil shale resources and utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jordan has significant oil shale deposits occurring in 26 known localities. Geological surveys indicate that the existing deposits underlie more than 60% of Jordan's territory. The resource consists of 40 to 70 billion tones of oil shale

Ahmad Sakhrieh; Mohammed Hamdan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Analysis of oil-shale products using a multitechnique approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Inorganic analysis of solid, liquid, particulate, and gaseous samples from the Paraho Semiworks Retort was completed using a multi-technique approach. Most of the techniques used instrumental methods, so that interferences from chemically complex matrices could be minimized. In many cases, analytical techniques were altered or improved in order to make them applicable to oil shale samples. The techniques employed for most of the analyses were a combination of instrumental neutron activation, energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and dc plasma emission spectroscopy. Additional analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption, cold vapor atomic absorption, and radiochemical activation. The data were statistically analyzed to determine the precision of each method and to see how closely the various techniques compared. Better than 10% comparisons between two or more of the techniques were obtained for analyses of Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Si, U, V, and Zn. Better than 20% comparisons were obtained for Cd, Cr, Mo and Ti. Systematic differences of about 15 to 20% between x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation determinations of arsenic were noted, with the neutron activation being generally higher. The environmentally interesting elements B, Hg, and Se could be reliably determined by only one method, so intercomparisons could not be made. Fluorine could not be reliably determined by any technique (selective ion electrode, colorimetry) that we tried. The data were also used to construct mass balances for 31 trace and major elements in the various effluents, including the offgas for the Paraho retort operating in the direct mode.

Fruchter, J.S.; Evans, J.C.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Characterization of hydrotreated TOSCO shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A shale oil that had been produced by the TOSCO-II process and hydrotreated was characterized according to its hydrocarbon and other functional compound composition. The oil was separated by distillation, adsorption chromatography, acid and base extraction, and gel permeation chromatography into fractions suitable for mass spectral characterization. The oil was composed largely of saturate hydrocarbons with the remainder being mostly monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. Very small amounts of heterocompounds were present.

Vogh, J.W.; Holmes, S.A.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Woodward, P.W.; Dooley, J.E.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil shale retort" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Economic enhancement of Western shale oil upgrading  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A proof-of-concept study for a novel shale oil refining process was undertaken. This project promises reduced upgrading costs, thereby making shale oil development more feasible for commercialization. The process consists of distillation of raw shale oil into a distillate and residue portion, cracking of the residue by hydropyrolysis, and selective hydrotreating of narrow boiling cuts from the total distillate. Based on models and experimental data, the end product slate is projected to be 34% naphtha, 57% middle distillate, and 10.3% atm residue + coke. Hydrogen addition is 1.3% or 800 scf/bbl. These results are considerably improved over conventional processing, which gives 14% naphtha, 41% middle distillate, and 48.2% residue + coke and hydrogen addition of 3.2% or 2000 scf/bbl. More quantitative data and preliminary economics will be obtained in the next phase of study. 13 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Bunger, J. W.; Ryu, H.; Jeong, S. Y.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Colorado oil shale: the current status, October 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A general background to oil shale and the potential impacts of its development is given. A map containing the names and locations of current oil shale holdings is included. The history, geography, archaeology, ecology, water resources, air quality, energy resources, land use, sociology, transportation, and electric power for the state of Colorado are discussed. The Colorado Joint Review Process Stages I, II, and III-oil shale are explained. Projected shale oil production capacity to 1990 is presented. (DC)

Not Available

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the plant location. Water produced by surface processesF, Zn, and Ni. Retort waters produced by surface retorts arewater); the volume of water produced is sufficient to meet

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Oil shale programs. Tenth quarterly report, April 1978--June 1978  

SciTech Connect

Work is being performed under three programs: diagnostic and rock mechanics support for the Laramie In Situ-Oil Shale program, advanced instrumentation and field projects for in-situ oil shale processing, and in-situ oil shale bed preparation study.

Stevens, A.L. (ed.)

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale #12;About Red Leaf Resources 2006 Company commercial development field activities #12;Highlights Proven, Revolutionary Oil Shale Extraction Process Technology Significant Owned Oil Shale Resource #12;· The executive management team of Red Leaf Resources

Utah, University of

426

Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin The purpose of this paper is...

427

Prototype oil-shale leasing program. Volume I. Regional impacts of oil shale development. [Colorado, Wyoming, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This action would make available for private development up to 6 leases of public oil shale lands of not more than 5,120 acres each. Two tracts are located in each of the states of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Oil shale development would produce both direct and indirect changes in the environment of the oil shale region in each of the 3 states where commercial quantities of oil shale resources exist.

1973-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

428

Synthetic fuels from US oil shales: a technical and economic verification of the HYTORT process. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to fully demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the HYTORT process concept as it applies to both Eocene and Devonian shales. Achievement of this objective will significantly widen the nation's synthetic fuels resource base by adding a new resource - Devonian shale - to the list of possible feedstocks for a synthetic fuels industry. It will also establish a high-efficiency alternative to conventional retorting of Western oil shales. Research at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has led to the development of the HYTORT process concept, which can be applied to the resources of Devonian shales of the Eastern United States as well as to Western shales, to produce oil or combustible gas at costs competitive with or less than those for retorting of Colorado shales. The HYTORT process concept has been successfully scaled up through small-scale laboratory equipment, a bench-scale unit capable of processing 100 pounds of shale per hour, and a Process Development Unit (PDU) with a shale capacity of 1 ton/hr. In addition, preliminary process design and economic analysis work shows that the HYTORT process exhibits attractive efficiency and economics.

Not Available

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 6: oil-shale development in the Piceance Creek Basin and potential water-quality changes  

SciTech Connect

This report brackets the stream quality changes due to pre-mining pumping activites required to prepare oil shale lease Tracts C-a and C-b for modified in situ retorting. The fluxes in groundwater discharged to the surface were identified for Tract C-b in a modeling effort by another laboratory. Assumed fluxes were used for Tract C-a. The quality of the groundwater aquifers of the Piceance Basin is assumed to be that reported in the literature. The changes are bracketed in this study by assuming all premining pumping is discharged to the surface stream. In one case, the pumped water is assumed to be of a quality like that of the upper aquifer with a relatively high quality. In the second case, the pumped water is assumed to come from the lower aquifer. Complete mixing and conservation of pollutants was assumed at sample points at the White River and at Lees Ferry of the Colorado River. A discussion of possible secondary effects of oil shale and coal mining is presented. In addition, a discussion of the uncertainties associated with the assumptions used in this study and alternative uses for the water to prevent stream contamination by oil shale development is provided.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Thermal conversion of oil shale into recoverable hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrocarbons is accomplished by pyrolysis of oil shale with controlled removal of the resulting layer of spent oil-shale residue. A procedure is described for the in situ thermal conversion of oil shale wherein fluidized abrasive particles are employed to foster improved hydrocarbon production, in amount and kind, by a controlled partial removal of the layer of spent oil shale which results from application of flowing fluids to heat exposed surfaces of the oil shale to release hydrocarbons. (5 claims)

Slusser, M.L.; Bramhall, W.E.

1969-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

431

Western oil shale conversion using the ROPE copyright process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing to develop the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process to recover liquid hydrocarbon products from oil shale, tar sand, and other solid hydrocarbonaceous materials. The process consists of three major steps: (1) pyrolyzing the hydrocarbonaceous material at a low temperature (T {le} 400{degrees}C) with recycled product oil, (2) completing the pyrolysis of the residue at a higher temperature (T > 400{degrees}C) in the absence of product oil, and (3) combusting the solid residue and pyrolysis gas in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor to produce process heat. Many conventional processes, such as the Paraho and Union processes, do not use oil shale fines (particles smaller than 1.27 cm in diameter). The amount of shale discarded as fines from these processes can be as high as 20% of the total oil shale mined. Research conducted to date suggests that the ROPE process can significantly improve the overall oil recovery from western oil shale by processing the oil shale fines typically discarded by conventional processes. Also, if the oil shale fines are co-processed with shale oil used as the heavy recycle oil, a better quality oil will be produced that can be blended with the original shale oil to make an overall produce that is more acceptable to the refineries and easier to pipeline. Results from tests conducted in a 2-inch process development unit (PDU) and a 6-inch bench-scale unit (BSU) with western oil shale demonstrated a maximum oil yield at temperatures between 700 and 750{degrees}F (371 and 399{degrees}C). Test results also suggest that the ROPE process has a strong potential for recovering oil from oil shale fines, upgrading shale oil, and separating high-nitrogen-content oil for use as an asphalt additive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

Cha, C.Y.; Fahy, L.J.; Grimes, R.W.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, October-December 1981  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to prepare a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. The first section of this report outlines our experimental work at the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado with the Oil Shale Consortium sponsored by six major oil companies and managed by Science Applications, Inc. It details our proposed studies in explosive characterization and describes our progress in numerical calculation techniques to predict fracture of the shale. A detailed geologic characterization of two Anvil Points experiment sites is related to previous work at Colony Mine. The second section focuses on computer modeling and theory. One paper describes our latest generation of the stress wave code SHALE, its three-dimensional potential, and the slide line package for it. The second paper details how new bedded crack model calculations demonstrate agreement between predictions and field data. The final paper discusses a general stress-rate equation that takes energy dependence into account. 13 figures.

Morris, W.A.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Morphological investigations of fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust  

SciTech Connect

A review of morphological investigations carried out to clarify the pathogenicity of industrial dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of lungs of workers in the oil shale industry taken at necropsies showed that the inhalation of oil shale dust over a long period (more than 20 years) may cause the development of occupational pneumoconiotic changes in oil shale miners. The pneumoconiotic process develops slowly and is characterized by changes typical of the interstitial form of pneumoconiotic fibrosis in the lungs. Emphysematous changes and chronic bronchitis also occur. The average chemical content of oil shale as well as of samples of oil shale dust generated during mining and sorting procedures is given. The results of experiments in white rats are presented; these studies also indicate a mild fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

Kung, V.A.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z