Sample records for oil sands gilsonite

  1. Canadian Oil Sands: Canada An Emerging Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    (collectively "statements") with respect to: expectations regarding crude oil production, global energy demand1 Canadian Oil Sands: Canada ­ An Emerging Energy Superpower 0 University of Alberta February 8 Oil Sands Limited ("Canadian Oil Sands"), Syncrude Canada Ltd. ("Syncrude") and the oil sands industry

  2. Canadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    crude oil production, global energy demand, the estimated reserves and resources at Syncrude, views that the world will need oil for decades to come, the expectations regarding oil sands productive capacityCanadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage 0 #12;Forward looking information 1 In the interest

  3. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  4. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  5. Recovery of bitumen from oil sand by steam with chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamazaki, T.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, oil sand bitumen has become the center of attention as a possible oil energy substitute for the future. Until now, the development of oil sand has been performed by surface miing and conventional steam injection, these methods are limited in respect to resource recovery. A more effective method needs to be developed utilizing in situ recovery. In this study, a new attempt is made for the purpose of enhancing the recovery of bitumen from oil sand by adopting the method of injecting high pressure steam and chemicals such as solvents, surfactants, and others.

  6. Microstructural characterization of a Canadian oil sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinh, Hong Doan; Nauroy, Jean-François; Tang, Anh-Minh; Souhail, Youssef; 10.1139/T2012-072

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure of oil sand samples extracted at a depth of 75 m from the estuarine Middle McMurray formation (Alberta, Canada) has been investigated by using high resolution 3D X-Ray microtomography ($\\mu$CT) and Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy (CryoSEM). $\\mu$CT images evidenced some dense areas composed of highly angular grains surrounded by fluids that are separated by larger pores full of gas. 3D Image analysis provided in dense areas porosity values compatible with in-situ log data and macroscopic laboratory determinations, showing that they are representative of intact states. $\\mu$CT hence provided some information on the morphology of the cracks and disturbance created by gas expansion. The CryoSEM technique, in which the sample is freeze fractured within the SEM chamber prior to observation, provided pictures in which the (frozen) bitumen clearly appears between the sand grains. No evidence of the existence of a thin connate water layer between grains and the bitumen, frequently mentioned in th...

  7. Response of Oil Sands Derived Fuels in Diesel HCCI Operation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy 2007 DOE DEER Conference Oil sands fuels and refinery intermediates * Provided by Shell Canada (now Royal Dutch Shell) * 17 fuels and...

  8. Uncovering the Microbial Diversity of the Alberta Oil Sands through Metagenomics: A Stepping Stone for Enhanced Oil Recovery and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voordouw, Gerrit

    the genomes of the subsurface Heavy Oil and Tar Sands (HOTS) reservoirs; the oil sand mine tailings ponds1 Uncovering the Microbial Diversity of the Alberta Oil Sands through Metagenomics: A Stepping Stone for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Environmental Solutions Writing Team: Julia Foght1 , Robert Holt2

  9. Heat transfer and oil displacement models for tar sands reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, C.E.; Ward, G.D.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heat transfer model and one dimensional displacement model applicable to tar sands and heavy oils for use with a microcomputer are presented. The convective heat transfer model describes the temperature profiles in a thermal operation. The displacement model offers insight into the effect of process variables on the steam/oil or air/oil ratio of thermal operations. A method is presented for predicting the fuel burn in a fireflood.

  10. Air quality over the Canadian oil sands: A first assessment using satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boersma, Folkert

    to as "oil sands" (or "tar sands")­ are located in the Canadian province of Alberta (see Figure 1a). The oil development and operations [e.g., Kelly et al., 2010], including air quality and acid deposition. Combustion

  11. CO2 Mitigation Costs for Canada and the Alberta Oil Sands Justin David Anderson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    climate change and climate change regulation are heterogeneous. Canada, and her oil sands industry-Kyoto targets put forward by the opposition are predicted by the model. Oil sands upgrading/refining experiencesCO2 Mitigation Costs for Canada and the Alberta Oil Sands By Justin David Anderson Bachelor

  12. Oil Sands Feedstocks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment of OrderSUBCOMMITTEEEnergy0Department ofSands

  13. Nuclear Technology & Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear Technology & Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction A.E. FINAN, K. MIU, A.C. KADAK Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Nuclear Science the technical aspects and the economics of utilizing nuclear reactors to provide the energy needed

  14. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    metals; Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is...

  15. Hot alkaline treatment to stimulate and consolidate the heavy oil Bachaquero-01 sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valera Villarroel, Cesar Amabilis

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to verify experimentally whether sand consolidation by high-temperature alkaline treatment was possible in the heavy oil Bachaquero-01 reservoir. The experiments were conducted using sand samples from a core taken...

  16. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  17. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  18. Recovery of heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from underground formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, A.S.

    1989-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method of producing heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from an underground formation. The method consists of utilizing or establishing an aqueous fluid communication path within and through the formation between an injection well or conduit and a production well or conduit by introducing into the formation from the injection well or conduit hot water and/or low quality steam at a temperature in the range about 60{sup 0}-130{sup 0}C and at a substantially neutral or alkaline pH to establish or enlarge the aqueous fluid communication path within the formation from the injection well or conduit to the production well or conduit by movement of the introduced hot water or low quality steam through the formation, increasing the temperature of the injected hot water of low quality steam to a temperature in the range about 110{sup 0}-180{sup 0}C while increasing the pH of the injected hot water or low quality steam to a pH of about 10-13 so as to bring about the movement or migration or stripping of the heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation substantially into the hot aqueous fluid communication path with the formation and recovering the resulting produced heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation as an emulsion containing less than about 30% oil or bitumen from the production well or conduit.

  19. Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Oil Sands...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Sands Derived Fuels 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 2003deerneill.pdf More Documents & Publications Development...

  20. Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process localiser la chambre à vapeur. INTRODUCTION [1] Huge quantities of heavy oils (heavy oil, extra heavy oil. Larribau 64018 Pau Cedex, France Oil and Gas Science and Technology 2012, 67 (6), 1029-1039, doi:10

  1. Hydroconversion of heavy oils. [Residue of tar sand bitumen distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, D.

    1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for hydroconversion of feedstocks consisting essentially of at least one heavy hydrocarbon oil selected from the group consisting of residue of petroleum oil distillation and the residue of tar sand bitumen distillation to enhance the recovery of 350/sup 0/-650/sup 0/F boiling product fraction. The method comprises treating such feed stock with hydrogen at superatmospheric pressure and in the presence of finely divided active hydrogenation catalyst in consecutive reaction stages. An initial reaction stage is carried out at a temperature in the range of 780/sup 0/-825/sup 0/F, and a subsequent reaction stage is directly carried out after the initial reaction stage at a higher temperature in the range of 800/sup 0/F-860/sup 0/F, the temperature of the subsequent reaction stage being at least 20/sup 0/F higher than that of the initial reaction stage.

  2. Definition of heavy oil and natural bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, R.F.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Definition and categorization of heavy oils and natural bitumens are generally based on physical or chemical attributes or on methods of extraction. Ultimately, the hydrocarbon's chemical composition will govern both its physical state and the extraction technique applicable. These oils and bitumens closely resemble the residuum from wholecrude distillation to about 1,000/degree/F; if the residuum constitutes at least 15% of the crude, it is considered to be heavy. In this material is concentrated most of the trace elements, such as sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen, and metals, such as nickel and vanadium. A widely used definition separates heavy oil from natural bitumen by viscosity, crude oil being less, and bitumen more viscous than 10,000 cp. Heavy crude then falls in the range 10/degree/-20/degree/ API inclusive and extra-heavy oil less than 10/degree/ API. Most natural bitumen is natural asphalt (tar sands, oil sands) and has been defined as rock containing hydrocarbons more viscous than 10,000 cp or else hydrocarbons that may be extracted from mined or quarried rock. Other natural bitumens are solids, such as gilsonite, grahamite, and ozokerite, which are distinguished by streak, fusibility, and solubility. The upper limit for heavy oil may also be set at 18/degree/ API, the approximate limit for recovery by waterflood.

  3. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments are briefly described for the following tasks: environmental impact statement; coupled fluidized bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost examination study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; determine thickener requirements; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  4. Liquid phase oxidation kinetics of oil sands bitumen: Models for in situ combustion numerical simulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adegbesan, K.O.; Donnelly, J.K.; Moore, R.G.; Bennion, D.W.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiresponse kinetic models are established for the low-temperature oxidation (LTO) reaction of Athabasca oil sands bitumen. The models provide adequate description of the overall rate of oxygen consumption and of the reactions of the liquid phase bitumen components. The LTO models are suitable for use in the in situ combustion numerical simulators of oil sands.

  5. Sand pack residual oil saturations as affected by extraction with various solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Clarence

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Water Flood Extraction Test (Sand Packs J, K, L, and N) 8. Results of Water Flood Extraction Test (Sand Pack M) TABLES I. Behavior of Oils Mixed with Various Solvents 18 II. Sand and Sand Pack Properties III. Fluid Properties IV. Results of Water... solvents which do not alter the rock-fluM properties. The present work was performed on sand, packs composed of pure ~ Oica sand to provide wetting properties simflar to natural cores and to provide packs with reproducible characteristics. Fluids studied...

  6. Alberta bound : the interface between Alberta's environmental policies and the environmental management of three Albertan oil sands companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemphers, Nathan C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Athabasca Oil Sands, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, were for many years anomalous. Two oil sands operators developed their extraction techniques for 30 years, refining their technology before production became ...

  7. Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

  8. Pour-point depression of crude oils by addition of tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderberg, D.J.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for reducing the pour point of a crude oil which comprises adding a pour-point depressant selected from the group consisting of a raw tar sands bitumen and hydrotreated tar sands bitumen to form a blend possessing a relatively lower pour point.

  9. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, July--September, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report cites task number followed by a brief statement of each task and the action taken this quarter. The tasks are: NEPA environmental information statement; coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels, and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost estimation study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; development studies of disposal of sand by conveying or pumping of high solids concentration sand-water slurries; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  10. Technologies, markets and challenges for development of the Canadian Oil Sands industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacombe, Romain H.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an overview of the current status of development of the Canadian oil sands industry, and considers possible paths of further development. We outline the key technology alternatives, critical resource ...

  11. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

  13. alberta oil sands: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of maintenance example of strain softening material in the context of an underfoot environment for large mobile mining Joseph, Tim Grain 40 The effect of sand grain size...

  14. alberta oil sand: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of maintenance example of strain softening material in the context of an underfoot environment for large mobile mining Joseph, Tim Grain 40 The effect of sand grain size...

  15. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  16. Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, S.S.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  17. Integration of nuclear power with oil sands extraction projects in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finan, Ashley (Ashley E.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the largest oil reserves in the world is not in the Middle East or in Alaska, but in Canada. This fuel exists in the form of bitumen in Alberta's oil sands. While it takes a tremendous amount of energy to recover ...

  18. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  19. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil sands comprise 30% of the world’s oil reserves andthe crude oil reserves in Canada’s oil sands deposits are30% of total world oil reserves (Alboudwarej et al. , 2006)

  20. Thermally Induced Wettability Change During SAGD for Oil Sand Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unal, Yasin

    2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    and field pilot efforts are in progress to enhance oil recovery by using less energy and water for steam generation. These efforts are simplified with the contribution of numerical simulations to optimize the oil recovery of SAGD projects. Several critical...

  1. Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sufi, A.H.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil- water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in 2 parts. The first was to investigate changes in residual oil saturation with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in residual oil saturation was observed with temperature. A study on viscous instabilities also was performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It also was observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

  2. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    over Alberta oil sands mining operations Soc. , 81(7), 1537–over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C 2 –over Alberta oil sands mining operations Burstyn, I. ,

  3. In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

  4. Shale Oil and Gas, Frac Sand, and Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ;Bakken Oil Shale scope · Light, Sweet crude ­ ideal for automotive fuels and mid-size refineries (Midwest

  5. Oil shale, tar sands, and underground coal gasification. Quarterly progress report, July-September, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical progress made for the second quarter, July 1, 1983 through September 30, 1983 are described for three areas, oil shale, tar sand and underground gasification of coal. The oil shale program is divided into the following tasks: chemistry and physics; retort bed analysis; novel processing methods; and environmental impact mitigation. The tar sand investigation covers: recovery processes; preparation; novel processing methods; and environmental impact mitigation. Underground coal gasification covers: recovery processes; field project evaluation; novel processing methods; and environmental impact mitigation. An executive summary is provided for the three programs. 19 figures, 23 tables.

  6. Investigation of tar sand and heavy oil deposits of Wyoming for underground coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trudell, L.G.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review was conducted to identify and evaluate tar sand and heavy oil deposits of Wyoming which are potentially suitable for in situ processing with process heat or combustible gas from underground coal gasification (UCG). The investigation was undertaken as part of a project to develop novel concepts for expanding the role of UCG in maximizing energy recovery from coal deposits. Preliminary evaluations indicate six surface deposits and three shallow heavy oil fields are within 5 miles of coal deposits, the maximum distance judged to be feasible for UCG applications. A tar sand or heavy oil deposit in the northeast Washakie Basin is less than 250 feet above a zone of four coal seams suitable for UCG, and another deposit near Riverton appears to be interbedded with coal. Three shallow light oil fields found to be within 5 miles of coal may be amenable to application of UCG technology for enhanced oil recovery. Sufficient data are not available for estimating the size of Wyoming's tar sand and heavy oil resource which is suitable for UCG development. Additional investigations are recommended to more fully characterize promising deposits and to assess the potential resource for UCG applications. 54 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  8. Oil shale, tar sands, and underground coal gasification. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights of progress achieved during the quarter ending June 30, 1984 are summarized. This research involves three resource areas: oil shale, tar sands, and underground gasification of coal. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each section for inclusion in the Energy Database. (DMC)

  9. Naturally Saline Boreal Communities as Models for Reclamation of Saline Oil Sand Tailings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macdonald, Ellen

    mining. Key words: boreal forest, community ecology, oil sands, ordination, reclamation, salinity mining have saline soils; yet, they are required to have similar biodiversity and productivity mining, with anti- cipated rates of disturbance of 2,000 ha/yr (CONRAD 1999). Saline tailings are left

  10. Microstructural characterization of a Canadian oil sand D.H., Delage2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in dense areas porosity values compatible with in-situ log data and macroscopic laboratory determinations reservoirs in Western Canada and Eastern Venezuela basins. The laboratory characterisation of oil sands at depths ranging from 0 to 700 m (Butler 1997). This formation is underlain by shales and limestones

  11. Analysis of techniques for predicting viscosity of heavy oil and tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khataniar, S.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal recovery methods are generally employed for recovering heavy oil and tar sand bitumen. These methods rely on reduction of oil viscosity by application of heat as one of the primary mechanisms of oil recovery. Therefore, design and performance prediction of the thermal recovery methods require adequate prediction of oil viscosity as a function of temperature. In this paper, several commonly used temperature-viscosity correlations are analyzed to evaluate their ability to correctly predict heavy oil and bitumen viscosity as a function of temperature. The analysis showed that Ali and Standing`s correlations gave satisfactory results in most cases when properly applied. Guidelines are provided for their application. None of the correlations, however, performed satisfactorily with very heavy oils at low temperatures.

  12. Frequency dependent elastic properties and attenuation in heavy-oil sands: comparison between mea-sured and modeled data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) properties of heavy-oil sands over a range of frequencies (2 - 2000Hz) covering the seismic bandwidth. The results show reason- ably good agreement between the measured data and modeled response especially at non larger than that of conventional light oil. Current methods of produc- tion from heavy-oil reservoirs

  13. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (?m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  14. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.; Brame, Scott; Current, Caitlin J.

    2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  15. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

    2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  16. The effect of sand grain size distribution on the minimum oil saturation necessary to support in-situ combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, William Marvin

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Petroleum. Engineering THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Approved...

  17. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel combustion, especially coal and residential oil, andthe oil sands (r 2 combustion tracersand combustion sources on ethene and other alkenes at the oil

  18. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

  19. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the precipitate readily enables removal of asphaltenes. Thus, an upgraded crude low in heavy metal, sulfur and nitrogen is more conducive for further purification.

  20. Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sufi, A.H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil-water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation (S/sub or/) and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in two parts. The first was to investigate changes in S/sub or/ with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. Runs were terminated when the water-cut exceeded 99.8%. For these experiments, S/sub or/ decreased from 0.31 at 70/sup 0/F to 0.09 at 250/sup 0/F. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in S/sub or/ was observed with temperature; (0.11 at 70/sup 0/F and 0.085 at 186/sup 0/F). Temperature effects on irreducible water saturations were studied. A small increase in irreducibile water saturation was observed upon increasing the temperature. However, the same magnitude of change was observed by changing the flowrate. Upon increasing the oil flowrate, immediate water production was observed from the core indicating a change in the capillary end effect. By comparing the change in irreducible water saturation with rate and temperature, it was determined that the change was caused mainly by a change in the viscous force across the core. A study on viscous instabilities was also performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It was also observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction of bitumen free solids separated from Athabasca oil sand feed and hot water process tailings pond sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotlyar, L.S.; Sparks, B.D.; Woods, J.R.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Chemistry)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of strongly bound organic matter (SOM), in association with certain solids fractions, causes serious problems in the processability of Athabasca oil sands as well as in the settling and compaction of hot water process tailing pond sludge. It has been demonstrated that a substantial amount of this SOM can be separated from oil sands feed and sludge solids, after removal of bitumen by toluene, using a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method. The extracted material is soluble in common organic solvents which allows a direct comparison, between the SOM separated from oil sands and sludges, from the point of view of both gross analysis of the major compound types and detailed analysis of chemical structures.

  2. Olig sand, shallow oil zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Olig Sand Reservoirs, classified as part of the Shallow Oil Zone, were studied and evaluated. The reservoirs are located in Section 30R, T30S, R23E and Section 24Z, T30S, R22E, M.D.B. and M., all in Elk Hills Oil Field, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California. The three productive reservoirs studied cover an area of 255 acres, and originally contained 3311 MMCF of gas condensate in 4292 acre-feet of sand. The main reservoir, Fault Block I in Section 30R, has been on production since 1982 and is largely depleted. The reservoirs around wells 324-30R and 385-24Z should still be in a virgin state. They can be depleted either through those wells, when their service as Stevens Zone producers is completed, or by twin well replacements drilled specifically as Olig Sand completions. Thirty-six exhibits have been included to present basic data and study results in a manner that will enhance the readers's understanding of the reservoirs. These exhibits include six maps in the M-series, six sections in the S-Series, and fourteen figures in the F-Series, as well as ten tables. The Appendix includes miscellaneous basic data such as well logs, core analyses, pressure measurements, and well tests. The Calculations Section of the report develops and explains the analytical methods used to define well productivity, determine reserves, and schedule future production of those reserves. Although no MER recommendations have been made for these gas condensate reservoirs, recommended depletion schemes and schedules are presented. These schemes include one eventual recompletion and one new well to maximize present worth of these reservoirs which carry proved reserves of 289 MMCF and probable reserves of 853 MMCF, effective August 1, 1986. In addition, potential future testing is earmarked for wells 322-30R and 344-30R. 11 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nauroy, Jean-François; Guy, N; Baroni, Axelle; Delage, Pierre; Mainguy, Marc; 10.2516/ogst/2012027

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In thermally enhanced recovery processes like cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) or steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), continuous steam injection entails changes in pore fluid, pore pressure and temperature in the rock reservoir, that are most often unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sandstones. This in turn increases or decreases the effective stresses and changes the elastic properties of the rocks. Thermally enhanced recovery processes give rise to complex couplings. Numerical simulations have been carried out on a case study so as to provide an estimation of the evolution of pressure, temperature, pore fluid saturation, stress and strain in any zone located around the injector and producer wells. The approach of Ciz and Shapiro (2007) - an extension of the poroelastic theory of Biot-Gassmann applied to rock filled elastic material - has been used to model the velocity dispersion in the oil sand mass under different conditions of temperature and stress. A good agreement has been found between these pre...

  4. Upgrading of middle distillate fractions of syncrudes from athabasca oil sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, M.F.; Kriz, J.F.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Middle distillate fractions of syncrudes from Athabasca Oil Sands were evaluated for suitability as feedstocks in the catalytic conversion to diesel fuel meeting cetane number specifications. Hydrogenation of aromatic components to napthenes under severe conditions (380 to 400/sup 0/C, 2500 psig) using sulfided CoO/MoO/sub 3/ and NiO/WO/sub 3/ over ..cap alpha.. . Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in a previously described catalyst testing system. Reaction products were analyzed for aromatic carbon content using C/sup 13/ NMR spectroscopy and pseudo first order rate constants and activation energies (15.0 and 14.2 kcal 1 g-mole, respectively) were determined by regression analysis. At optimum conditions 97% aromatic conversion was obtained with the Ni-W catalyst. Product diesel fuel cetane number (42) was within specifications. Co-Mo catalyst was significantly less active.

  5. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

    2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah. Results obtained from analyzing the fractal structure of permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop and from core permeability data provided by Chevron from West Coalinga Field were used in distributing permeability values in 3D reservoir models. Spectral analyses and the Double Trace Moment method (Lavallee et al., 1991) were used to analyze the scaling and multifractality of permeability data from cores from West Coalinga Field. T2VOC, which is a numerical flow simulator capable of modeling multiphase, multi-component, nonisothermal flow, was used to model steam injection and oil production for a portion of section 36D in West Coalinga Field. The layer structure and permeability distributions of different models, including facies group, facies tract, and fractal permeability models, were incorporated into the numerical flow simulator. The injection and production histories of wells in the study area were modeled, including shutdowns and the occasional conversion of production wells to steam injection wells. The framework provided by facies groups provides a more realistic representation of the reservoir conditions than facies tracts, which is revealed by a comparison of the history-matching for the oil production. Permeability distributions obtained using the fractal results predict the high degree of heterogeneity within the reservoir sands of West Coalinga Field. The modeling results indicate that predictions of oil production are strongly influenced by the geologic framework and by the boundary conditions. The permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop, support a new concept for representing natural heterogeneity, which is called the fractal/facies concept. This hypothesis is one of the few potentially simplifying concepts to emerge from recent studies of geological heterogeneity. Further investigation of this concept should be done to more fully apply fractal analysis to reservoir modeling and simulation. Additional outcrop permeability data sets and further analysis of the data from distinct facies will be needed in order to fully develop

  6. Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1981-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.

  7. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  8. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits: state-of-knowledge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1982-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Tar-sand petroleum-extraction procedures undergoing field testing for possible commercial application in the US include both surface (above-ground) and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface tar-sand systems currently being field tested in the US are thermal decomposition processes (retorting), and suspension methods (solvent extraction). Underground bitumen extraction procedures that are also being field tested domestically are in situ combustion and steam-injection. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with construction and operation of 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand surface and in situ facilities have been estimated and are summarized in this report. The principal regulations that commercial tar-sand facilities will need to address are also discussed, and environmental control technologies are summarized and wherever possible, projected costs of emission controls are stated. Finally, the likelihood-of-occurrence of potential environmental, health, and safety problems that have been determined are reviewed, and from this information inference is made as to the environmental acceptability of technologically feasible 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand oil-extraction procedures.

  9. Climate Change Policy and Canada's Oil Sand Resources: An Update and Appraisal of Canada's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    ) and there are minor deposits of oil shale on the eastern edge of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Alberta's oil

  10. Major heavy oil deposits are present in Lower Cretaceous strata of west-central Saskatchewan. The Winter Heavy Oil Pool (approximately 566 044 mmbl) consists of bitumen-rich sands from the AptianAlbian Dina and Cummings members of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT Major heavy oil deposits are present in Lower Cretaceous strata of west-central Saskatchewan. The Winter Heavy Oil Pool (approximately 566 044 mmbl) consists of bitumen-rich sands from-level rise (Cummings Member). Exploitable heavy oil reservoirs are contained within these incised valley

  11. Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's commercially proved technology to recover oil from the Athabasca oil sands, as practiced by Suncor and Syncrude, involves two major operations, namely: separation of the bitumen from the sand and upgrading of the bitumen to refinery oil. Significant amounts of petroleum coke are produced during the bitumen upgrading process. Suncor burns the bulk of its petroleum coke in boilers to fulfill the energy requirements of the entire operation, still meeting government regulations restricting the amount of sulfur dioxide that can be released to the environment. In contrast, Syncrude is able to burn only 20% of its coke production because of high sulphur dioxide emissions from elsewhere in its operations. The boiler ash (Fly ash) which contains appreciable amounts of metals, such as vanadium, nickel, titianium, iron, aluminum and other elements, is collected in the boiler hoppers and cyclones of the petroleum coke fired steam generation plants. There has been relatively little effort made towards the understanding of the chemical or physical nature of these materials. Knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of these materials will be helpful in assessing their beneficiation and potential use as fuel or metallurigcal coke and the feasibility of extracting some metals, especially Ni and V. In this communication the authors report studies of acid demineralization as a means of reducing ash content of these materials for /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  12. 5/20/09 9:14 AMPhysics in the oil sands of Alberta -Physics Today March 2009 Page 1 of 4http://ptonline.aip.org/journals/doc/PHTOAD-ft/vol_62/iss_3/31_1.shtml?type=PTFAVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    New Books New Products Letters Most popular articles Physics in the oil sands of Alberta March 2009 billion barrels. Over the past decade, production of crude oil from the oil sands has grown to well over 15/20/09 9:14 AMPhysics in the oil sands of Alberta - Physics Today March 2009 Page 1 of 4http

  13. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  14. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  15. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study, Appendix 3, Second Wilhelm Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 under Contract No. DE-ACO1-85FE60600 with the United States Department of Energy. This study Appendix III, the second Wilhelm Sand and it's sub units and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the U.S. Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can not additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs towards these ends. 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General Reservoir Study: Appendix 6, First Calitroleum Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 under Contract No. DE-ACO1-85FE60600 with the United States Department of Energy. This study, Appendix VI, addresses the first Calitroleum Sand and its sub units and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the U.S. Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers todevelop specific programs towards these ends. 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study: Appendix 7, Second Calitroleum Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 under Contract No. DE-AC0185FE60600 with the United States Department of Energy. This study, Appendix VII, the second Calitroleum Sand and its sub units and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the U.S. Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verfication. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing futuree recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs towards these ends. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study, Appendix 4, Fourth Wilhelm sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 with the United States Department of Energy. This study, Appendix IV, addresses the Fourth Wilhelm Sand and its sub units and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. Basic pressure production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs toward the end. 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash reduction of the cokes and fly ash samples derived from the Athabasca oil sands bitumen was attempted by dissolving the mineral matter in acids. The samples used for this investigation included Syncrude fluid coking coke, Suncor delayed coking coke and the two fly ash samples obtained from the combustion of these cokes. All samples were analyzed for C,H,N,O, and S before and after acid demineralization and the analyses results compared. Further, the ash from the samples before and after acid demineralization was analyzed for silica, alumina, iron titanium, nickel and vanadium to assess the acid leaching of these elements. CP/MAS, /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic study of the demineralized coke and fly ash samples was also attempted.

  20. Investigation of the thermal conductivity of unconsolidated sand packs containing oil, water, and gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gore, David Eugene

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree of EASTER OF SCIENCE August, lBSS Najor Subject: Petroleum Engineering INVESTIGATION OF THE THERNAI CONDUCTIVITY OF UNCONSOI IDATED SAND PACKS CONTAINING OII, WATER, AND GAS A Thesis By David E, Gore APProved as to style... expressed in degrees Fahrenheit, and, at 0 oF, , the abscissa would become ini'inite. This restriction does not limit the application of the data to petroleum reservoirs as the tem- perature normally encountered is in excess of 100 oF. The reservoir...

  1. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  2. Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.

  3. Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

  4. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General Reservoir Study, Executive Summary: Bittium, Wilhelm, Gusher, and Calitroleum Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 with the United States Department of Energy. The study addresses the Bittium Wilhelm, Gusher, and Calitroleum Sands and their several sub units and pools. A total of twenty-eight (28) separate reservoir units have been identified and analyzed. Areally, these reservoirs are located in 31 separate sections of land including and lying northwest of sections 5G, 8G, and 32S, all in the Elk Hills Oil Fileds, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County California. Vertically, the reservoirs occur as shallow as 2600 feet and as deep as 4400 feet. Underlying a composite productive area of about 8300 acres, the reservoirs originally contained an estimated 138,022,000 stock tank barrels of oil, and 85,000 MMCF of gas, 6300 MMCF of which occurred as free gas in the Bittium and W-1B Sands. Since original discovery in April 1919, a total of over 500 wells have been drilled into or through the zones, 120 of which were completed as Western Shallow Oil Zone producers. Currently, these wells are producing about 2452 barrels of oil per day, 1135 barrels of water per day and 5119 MCF of gas per day from the collective reservoirs. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent vertification. This study has successfully identified the size and location of all commercially productive pools in the Western Shallow Oil Zone. It has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoirs. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Oil Sands Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for the Clean Fuels Market to Utilize Alberta Bitumen % Upgrading Upstream Upgrading Refinery Upgrading T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Synthetic Crude T Wise Purvin & Gertz June 2005...

  6. Tar sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  7. Aviation turbine fuels from tar-sands bitumen and heavy oils. Part 3. Laboratory sample production. Interim technical report, 1 July 1983-30 September 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, H.F.; Johnson, C.A.; Benslay, R.M.; Sutton, W.A.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research and development project is to provide sample quantities of aviation turbine fuel derived from tar sands and heavy oil feedstocks for testing and evaluation in programs sponsored by the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL). Samples of specification JP-4 Mil-T-5624L, JP-8 Mil-T-83133A, and variable quality JP-4 samples were produced via pilot plant operations. Data generated from Phases I, II, and III, were used to 1) optimize the processing scheme, 2) generate process material and energy balances for a commercial-sized plant, and 3) provide a detailed final flow diagram of the processing scheme. A final economic analysis was performed based on all contract data available.

  8. Turbine fuels from tar-sands bitumen and heavy oil. Part 2. Phase II. Laboratory sample production. Interim report, 1 October 1983-31 October 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, A.F.; Elanchenny, V.; Schwedock, J.P.; Swesey, J.R.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of domestic tar-sands bitumens or heavy crude oils into aviation turbine fuels was studied in small scale equipment to demonstrate the process scheme consisting of hydrovisbreaking the bitumen or crude residuum follwed by catalytic hydrotreating or hydrocracking of the resultant naphtha or distillate fractions. Four different feedstocks were employed; two were bitumens (from Kentucky or Utah) and two were heavy crudes from California. Significant operating parameters were examined for each process step. Prototype naphtha and kerosene-type fuel samples compared well with JP-4 and JP-8 specifications, although fuels prepared from Utah bitumen (Sunnyside deposit) were deficient in freeze point. Initiation of Phase III, pilot-plant-scale evaluation of the process is recommended.

  9. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EOR continues to unlock oil resources. Oil & Gas Journal, [of conventional oil resource availability. Estimates ofthe tar sands and heavy oil resource in Figure 10. Note that

  10. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  11. No Oil: The coming Utopia/Dystopia and Communal Possibilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Timothy

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supplies of conventional oil, and exploitable supplies of alternative forms of oil and related hydrocarbons, including tar sands and oil shale. Because new supplies of conventional oil are declining steadily, there is quite a lot of activity in the oil... to exploit the huge deposits of oil sands in Canada. Oil sands and oil shale look good because they contain vast amounts of oil. The problem is that of turning the reserves, locked into other geological formations, into useful oil. According to current...

  12. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  13. SAND REPORT SAND2002-xxxx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istrail, Sorin

    SAND REPORT SAND2002-xxxx Unlimited Release August 2002 Discrete Optimization Models for Protein by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE

  14. Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production (crude refineryLand Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil Production and Oil Sands S O N I A Y E H and Alberta as examples for conventional oil production as well as oil sands production in Alberta

  15. Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining Permitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    " or "Gas" does not include any gaseous or liquid substance processed from coal, oil shale, or tar sands

  16. Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Waste oils offer a tremendous recycling potential. An important, dwindling natural resource of great economic and industrial value, oil products are a cornerstone of our modern industrial society. Petroleum is processed into a wide variety of products: gasoline, fuel oil, diesel oil, synthetic rubber, solvents, pesticides, synthetic fibres, lubricating oil, drugs and many more ' (see Figure 1 1. The boilers of Amercian industries presently consume about 40 % of the used lubricating oils collected. In Ontario, the percentage varies from 20 to 30%. Road oiling is the other major use of collected waste oils. Five to seven million gallons (50-70 % of the waste oil col1ected)is spread on dusty Ontario roads each summer. The practice is both a wasteful use of a dwindling resource and an environmental hazard. The waste oil, with its load of heavy metals, particularly lead, additives including dangerous polynuclear aromatics and PCBs, is carried into the natural environment by runoff and dust to contaminate soils and water courses.2 The largest portion of used oils is never collected, but disappears into sewers, landfill sites and backyards. In Ontario alone, approximately 22 million gallons of potentially recyclable lube oil simply vanish each year. While oil recycling has ad-114 Oil

  17. Uinta Basin Oil and Gas Development Air Quality Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Production EASTERN UTAH BLM Proposed Leasing for Oil Shale and Tar Sands Development "Indian Country" ­ Regulatory Authority Controlled by the Tribes and EPA Oil Shale Leasing Tar Sands Leasing "Indian Country

  18. Aviation turbine fuels from tar sands bitumen and heavy oils. Part 2. Laboratory sample production. Technical report, 1 April 1984-31 May 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, H.F.; Johnson, C.A.; Fabry, D.A.; Chaffin, M.H.; Sutton, W.A.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase II work performed on small bench-scale laboratory units was to validate the process variables identified in Phase I. As a part of this effort, samples (quantity 500 ML to 1000 ML) of JP4, JP8, were produced and submitted to AFWAL for their evaluation. Detailed characterizations of the tar sand feedstocks and product samples were performed. From the data generated in Phase II, specific goals and tests were outlined for Phase III of the program.

  19. Correlation of dynamic relative permeability frontal advance concepts and laboratory data for a system of water displacing oil from a multifluid saturated sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, George Ernest

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CALCULATED VALUES HOWEVERS AT THE Hl GH GAS SATURAT ION RANGE & AS SEEN IN FIGURE 8& THE USE OF TH I S ASSUMPTION TO CALCULATE BREAKTHROUGH TIME DID NOT YIELD RESULTS AS WELL AS THE ASSUMPTION THAT THE GAS PRESENT AFFECTS NE I THER OIL OR WATER... AS WELL AS METHOD 2 WHERE IT WAS AS- SUMED THAT THE GAS PRESENT HAD NO AFFECT ON E I THER OIL OR WATER RELATIVE PERMEAB IL I T I ES, F I GORE 9 I S A TYP I CAL CURVE SHOW I NG THE VAR I AT I ON I N PRODUCING WATER ? OIL RATIO WITH CUMULATIVE RECOVERY...

  20. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.and Biological Treatment of Shale Oil Retort Water, DraftPA (1979). H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by

  1. CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persoff, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas compressorThis process produces shale oil, a low BTU gas, and char,Oil Shale Process" in Oil Shale and Tar Sands, J. W. Smith

  2. EMPLOYMENT FACTS: THE KEYSTONE XL PIPELINE Under the forest in northern Alberta, Canada lie the world's largest deposits of so-called "tar sands,"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

    holding ponds of toxic sludge. Production of this oil is increasing and a growing amount of it is already the world's largest deposits of so-called "tar sands," sand mixed with thick, tar-like oil. To produce one barrel of heavy crude oil from tar sands requires strip mining the forest, extracting four tons of earth

  3. RAILROAD STRATEGY FOR CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT: Considering Public Policy and Pipeline Competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    of crude oil transportation by rail from the Alberta oil sands has been slower than the growth, stakeholders, and objectives for the bitumen transport system from the Alberta oil sands, and reviews: Existing railroad network: Some products shipped: Fig. 1: Predicted oil sands production growth

  4. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  5. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  6. Nigeria to step up tar sands activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nigerian government has directed its Ministry of Mines, Power and Steel to assume responsibility for the exploration and exploitation of tar sands deposits in Bendel, Ondo and Oyo States. The directive resulted from a survey report by the University of Ife's geological consultancy unit on bituminous sand deposits in the area. The statement said the government was satisfied that there were large commercial quantities of the sands in the three states. The survey had reported that Nigeria could recover between 31 and 40 billion barrels of heavy crude from the tar sand deposits. Exploration for hydrocarbons is currently going on in Anambra and Lake Chad basins as well as the Benue Trough. Apart from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Shell Petroleum and Gulf Oil have begun exploration activities in the Ondo area. Meanwhile, Nigeria has had to import heavy crude from Venezuela, for processing at the Kaduna refinery.

  7. Reservoir characterization of the upper Merecure and lower Oficina Formations sands in the Leona Este Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores Millan, Maria Carolina

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The "S5", "T" and "U1" sands, traditionally described as part of the lower section of the "Oficina" Formation, and the "U2" sand, as part of the upper interval of the "Merecure" Formation, contain the largest oil remaining ...

  8. Miocene sand distribution of the South Marsh Island and the Vermillion area, offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jingoo

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the Miocene sand distribution of offihore central Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico. Investigating the distribution of this sand, which plays an important role as a reservoir for oil and gas, contributes to petroleum exploration...

  9. SAND REPORT SAND2005-7937

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    systems, but remain unlikely given the difficulty in operating large infrastructures even with modern Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. The solution is management by distributed softwareSAND REPORT SAND2005-7937 Unlimited Release Printed January 2006 Agent-Based Control of Distributed

  10. SAND REPORT SAND2001-3515

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, William E.

    SAND REPORT SAND2001-3515 Unlimited Release Printed April 2002 DAKOTA, A Multilevel Parallel Object by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE

  11. SAND REPORT SAND2001-3796

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, William E.

    SAND REPORT SAND2001-3796 Unlimited Release Printed April 2002 DAKOTA, A Multilevel Parallel Object by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE

  12. SAND REPORT SAND2004-2871

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bochev, Pavel

    SAND REPORT SAND2004-2871 Unlimited Release August 19, 2004 A Mathematical Framework for Multiscale Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. #12;Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

  13. SAND REPORT SAND2003-0112

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuerschbach, Phillip

    SAND REPORT SAND2003-0112 Unlimited Release Printed January 2003 Cold War Context Statement Sandia of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National

  14. SAND REPORT SAND2003-3410

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    SAND REPORT SAND2003-3410 Unlimited Release Printed September 2003 Chemiresistor Microsensors for In-Situ Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds: Final LDRD Report Clifford K. Ho, Lucas K. Mc Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination

  15. SAND REPORT SAND2001-3514

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, William E.

    SAND REPORT SAND2001-3514 Unlimited Release Printed April 2002 DAKOTA, A Multilevel Parallel Object by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE

  16. SAND REPORT SAND2003-2927

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SAND REPORT SAND2003-2927 Unlimited Release Printed August 2003 An Overview of Trilinos Michael Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. #12;Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

  17. SAND REPORT SAND2004-1777

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Homer F.

    SAND REPORT SAND2004-1777 Unlimited Release Printed May 2004 Globalization techniques for Newton by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE

  18. SAND REPORT SAND2003-0799

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    SAND REPORT SAND2003-0799 Unlimited Release Printed March 2003 Field Demonstrations Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. #12;2 Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

  19. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  20. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Laramie, WY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  1. INTERCOMPARISON STUDY OF ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN RAW AND SPENT OIL SHALES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minor Elements ~n Oil Shale and Oil-Shale Products. LERC RI-Analytical Chemistry of Oil Shale and Tar Sands. Advan. inH. Meglen. The Analysis of Oil-Shale Materials for Element

  2. USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girvin, D.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minor Elements in Oil Shale and Oil-Shale Products. LERC RIChemistry of Tar Sands and Oil Shale, ACS, New Orleans.Constituent Analysis of Oil Shale and Solvent-Refined Coal

  3. Turbine fuels from tar-sands bitumen and heavy oil. Volume 2. Phase 3. Process design specifications for a turbine-fuel refinery charging San Ardo heavy crude oil. Final report, 1 June 1985-31 March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, A.F.; Swesey, J.R.; Magill, L.G.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engineering design was developed for a 50,000-BPSD grass-roots refinery to produce aviation turbine fuel grades JP-4 and JP-8 from San Ardo heavy crude oil. The design was based on the pilot-plant studies described in Phase III - Volume I of this report. The detailed plant design described in this report was used to determine estimated production costs.

  4. SAND78-1563

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to current standards. SAND78-1563 VIND CHARACTERISTICS FOR FIELD TESTING OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS Robert E. Akins Environmental Research Division Sandia...

  5. SAND90-7111

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. Gregorek Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43220 SNLA LIBRARY II lllll 1 III SAND90-7111 Printed April 1991...

  6. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  7. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West, C. : Highlighting heavy oil, Oilfield Rev. , 34–53,and enhancement of Mo-heavy oil interaction, Fuel, 83,sticky extra-heavy crude oil that is “unconventional”,

  8. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adewusi, V.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (NG))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  9. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  10. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  12. 1 What is Oil ? General information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    such as shale oil or synthetic crude oil from tar sands (see Table 4.1). A whole range of petroleum products69 1 What is Oil ? General information Petroleum is a complex mixture of liquid hydrocarbons in sedimentary rock. Coming from the Latin petra, meaning rock, and oleum, meaning oil, the word "petroleum

  13. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  14. SAND20096226 Unlimited Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plimpton, Steve

    SAND2009­6226 Unlimited Release Printed October 2009 Crossing the Mesoscale No-Man's Land via method and its variants are powerful tools for modeling materials at the mesoscale, meaning at length

  15. Strategic Significance of Americas Oil Shale Resource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heavy oil and tar sand, coal liquids, gas-to-liquids (GTL), hydrogen, gas hydrates, and renewable energy resources, as well as oil shale, which is the focus of this re- port....

  16. CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND927005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND92­7005 Unlimited Release UC­261 Fatigue of Fiberglass Wind Turbine Blade WIND TURBINE BLADE MATERIALS J.F. Mandell, R.M. Reed, D.D. Samborsky Montana State University Bozeman in wind turbine blades has been explored. Coupon testing was carried out under constant amplitude tensile

  17. SAND932591 Unlimited Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCurley, Kevin

    SAND93­2591 Unlimited Release First Printed October 1992 Revised October 29, 1993 Revised June 22. This new algorithm is called SHA­1. In this report we describe a portable and efficient implementation information used in their construction. \\Lambda This work was performed under U.S. Department of Energy

  18. Case study of a multiple sand waterflood, Hewitt Unit, OK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruble, D.B.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty-two sands in the Hewitt field have been flooded simultaneously by Exxon Co. U.S.A.'s Hewitt Unit, and a case history of the operations is detailed. A multiple sand waterflood project requires special optimization methods to improve oil recovery. Injection and production surveillance programs and optimization methods used are highlighted. These include injection wellbore design, injection distribution, production stimulation, polymer augmented injection, and infill drilling. Successful application of these techniques has increased ultimate recovery from this waterflood operation. 3 refs.

  19. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  20. Reservoir characterization of the upper Merecure and lower Oficina Formations sands in the Leona Este Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores Millan, Maria Carolina

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The "S5", "T" and "U1" sands, traditionally described as part of the lower section of the "Oficina" Formation, and the "U2" sand, as part of the upper interval of the "Merecure" Formation, contain the largest oil remaining reserves of the Leona Este...

  1. SAND88-1807

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember11-3779SAND88-1807 * UC-261 Unlimited

  2. SAND92-1381

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember11-3779SAND88-1807 * UC-261 Unlimited2-1

  3. SAND94-1057

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember11-3779SAND88-1807 * UC-261 Unlimited2-1c.1

  4. SAND94-3039

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember11-3779SAND88-1807 * UC-261

  5. An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs., 12 tabs.

  6. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  7. An Investigation for Disposal of Drill Cuttings into Unconsolidated Sandstones and Clayey Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mese, Ali; Dvorkin, Jack; Shillinglaw, John

    2000-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This project include experimental data and a set of models for relating elastic moduli/porosity/texture and static-to-dynamic moduli to strength and failure relationships for unconsolidated sands and clayey sands. The results of the project should provide the industry with a basis for wider use of oil base drilling fluids in water sensitive formations by implementing drill cutting injection into existing wells at abandoned formations and controlling fracture geometry to prevent ground water contamination.

  8. Relationships of seismic amplitudes and gas content of the Miocene Amos Sand, Mobile Bay area, offshore Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reif, L.T. (Mobil Oil Company, New Orleans, LA (United States)); Kinsland, G.L. (Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobil Oil Company has collected three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data over Mary Ann field in the Mobile Bay area, Alabama. Although the survey was designed and collected so as to image the deeper Norphlet Sands, amplitude anomalies in the image of the shallow Miocene Amos Sand are evident. Relationships are developed between the seismic amplitudes and net feet of gas in the Amos Sand at the few existing wells. These relationships are used to predict net feet of gas everywhere in the area of the seismic survey. The result is a contoured map of net feet of gas in the Miocene Amos Sand in Mary Ann field.

  9. Method of separating oil or bitumen from surfaces covered with same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keane, J.

    1987-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of separating oil or bitumen from tar or oil sand without a surfactant is described which comprises the steps of: (a) grinding the sand in the presence of a predetermined amount of a halohydrocarbon solvent to reduce lumps of the sand to a finely divided sand grains and dissolve the oil or bitumen covering the sand grains to form a solution containing a predetermined concentration of the oil or bitumen; (b) after step (a), mixing the finely divided sand grains and the oil or bitumen solution formed in step (a) with water, (c) adding additional halohydrocarbon solvent to the water-wet sand produced in step (b) in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce the strength and thickness of the membrane-like material; and (d) mixing additional water with the mixture produced in step (c) under conditions of agitation of the sand grains sufficient to remove entrapped oil or bitumen solution from the water sand, thereby obtaining free-flowing, water-wet sand particles.

  10. Acoustic sand detector for fluid flowstreams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beattie, Alan G. (Corrales, NM); Bohon, W. Mark (Frisco, TX)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The particle volume and particle mass production rate of particulate solids entrained in fluid flowstreams such as formation sand or fracture proppant entrained in oil and gas production flowstreams is determined by a system having a metal probe interposed in a flow conduit for transmitting acoustic emissions created by particles impacting the probe to a sensor and signal processing circuit which produces discrete signals related to the impact of each of the particles striking the probe. The volume or mass flow rate of particulates is determined from making an initial particle size distribution and particle energy distribution and comparing the initial energy distribution and/or the initial size distribution with values related to the impact energies of a predetermined number of recorded impacts. The comparison is also used to recalibrate the system to compensate for changes in flow velocity.

  11. Moving Canadian Oil to Markets: The Economic Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Handbook 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 Crude Oil and Condensate Oil Sands Natural Gas NGLs Sulphur Natural Gas Conventional Crude Oil Coal Bitumen Billionof2002$ PV of energy natural resouces in 2011 of the economy and prosperity · But this requires additional transportation infrastructure to access higher value

  12. A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils POLARIS Applied Sciences, Inc. (2013) Abstract Diluted bitumen (dilbit) crude oil represents a range of oils produced from bitumen extracted from oil sands

  13. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  14. Swartz: Oil on the coasts? 'We will never, ever get By SALLY SWARTZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Swartz: Oil on the coasts? 'We will never, ever get it off.' By SALLY SWARTZ Posted: 7:58 p the Deepwater Horizon oil spill for a long time, a geologist who worked for the oil industry told Martin County great, Mr. Egan said. "But scratch the surface of the sand, and you hit tar. Oil got into the food chain

  15. Turbine fuels from tar sands bitumen and heavy oil. Volume 1. Phase 3. Pilot plant testing, final design, and economics. Final report, 1 June 1985-31 March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, A.F.; Carson, T.C.; Magill, L.G.; Swesey, J.R.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pilot-plant-scale demonstration of an upgrading/refining scheme to convert bitumen or heavy crude oil into high yields of specification-quality aviation turbine fuel was performed. An atmospheric residue from San Ardo (California) crude was converted under hydrovisbreaking conditions to synthetic crude for further refining. Naphtha cuts from the straight run and synthetic crude were combined, catalytically hydrotreated, then hydrocracked. Products from these operations were combined to produce two prototype specification fuels (JP-4 and JP-8) as well as two heavier, variable-quality fuels. An engineering design (Volume II) was developed for a 50,000 BPSD grass-roots refinery, from the pilot-plant operations. Capital investment and operating costs were estimated, and fuel manufacturing costs projected. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  16. Effect of wettability on light oil steamflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes NIPER`s research on four interrelated topics for Light Oil Steamflooding. Four interrelated topics are described: The methodology for measuring capillary pressure and wettability at elevated temperature, the use of silylating agents to convert water-wet Berea sandstones or unconsolidated quartz sands to oil-wetted surfaces, the evaluation of the thermal hydrolytic stability of these oil-wet surfaces for possible use in laboratory studies using steam and hot water to recover oil, and the effect of porous media of different wettabilities on oil recovery where the porous media is first waterflooded and then steamflooded.

  17. Effect of wettability on light oil steamflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes NIPER's research on four interrelated topics for Light Oil Steamflooding. Four interrelated topics are described: The methodology for measuring capillary pressure and wettability at elevated temperature, the use of silylating agents to convert water-wet Berea sandstones or unconsolidated quartz sands to oil-wetted surfaces, the evaluation of the thermal hydrolytic stability of these oil-wet surfaces for possible use in laboratory studies using steam and hot water to recover oil, and the effect of porous media of different wettabilities on oil recovery where the porous media is first waterflooded and then steamflooded.

  18. Exploration for heavy crude oil and natural bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, R.F. (U.S. Geological Survey (US))

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book discusses heavy oil and tar sand reserves which are enormous. Focus in on regional resources worldwide; characterization, maturation, and degradation; geological environments and migration; exploration methods; exploration histories; and recovery.

  19. From the hills to the mountain. [Oil recovery in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, J.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oil reserves at Elk Hills field, California, are listed as amounting to 835 million bbl. There is 12 times that amount lying in shallow sands in the San Joaquin Valley, although the oil is much heavier and requires more refining before use. Improved recovery techniques have enabled higher rates of recovery for heavy oil than in the past. Some of these techniques are described, including bottom-hole heating, steam injection, and oil mining. Bottom-hole heating alone raised recovery rates for heavy oil to 25%, and steam injection raised rates to 50%. It is predicted that oil mining may be able to accomplish 100% recovery of the heavy oil.

  20. Polymer treatments for D Sand water injection wells: Sooner D Sand Unit Weld County, Colorado. Final report, April 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, T.J.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer-gel treatments in injection wells were evaluated for improving sweep efficiency in the D Sandstone reservoir at the Sooner Unit, Weld County, Colorado. Polymer treatments of injection wells at the Sooner Unit were expected to improve ultimate recovery by 1.0 percent of original-oil-in-place of 70,000 bbl of oil. The Sooner D Sand Unit was a demonstration project under the US Department of Energy Class I Oil Program from which extensive reservoir data and characterization were obtained. Thus, successful application of polymer-gel treatments at the Sooner Unit would be a good case-history example for other operators of waterfloods in Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs in the Denver Basin.

  1. Norway, Canada, the United States, and the Tar Sands James Hansen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Norway, Canada, the United States, and the Tar Sands 9 May 2013 James Hansen Today 36 Norwegian development, given the fact that Norway saves much of its oil earnings for future generations and given the fact that Norway is not likely among the nations that will suffer most from climate change. I wonder

  2. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  3. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Sand Filters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sand filters are beds of granular material, or sand, drained from underneath so that pretreated wastewater can be treated, collected and distributed to a land application system. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation...

  4. Compression and Creep of Venice Lagoon Sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanzeni, Alex

    A laboratory test program was conducted to evaluate the one-dimensional (1D) compression and creep properties of intact sand (and silty-sand) samples from a deep borehole at the Malamocco Inlet to the Venice Lagoon. The ...

  5. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Sand Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sand filters are beds of granular material, or sand, drained from underneath so that pretreated wastewater can be treated, collected and distributed to a land application system. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation...

  6. WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the biological mechanisms responsible for wastewater treatment. The first part of the study, conducted on site93/0096 WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS TREATMENT YIELDS, LOCALISATION OF THE BIOMASS Domestic wastewater treatment by infiltration-percolation is a process that becomming common in France

  7. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  8. Of the estimated 5 million barrels of crude oil released into the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Of the estimated 5 million barrels of crude oil released into the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, a fraction washed ashore onto sandy beaches from Louisiana to the Florida panhandle. Researchers at the MagLab compare the detailed molecular analysis of hydrocarbons in oiled sands from

  9. Combustion Assisted Gravity Drainage (CAGD): An In-Situ Combustion Method to Recover Heavy Oil and Bitumen from Geologic Formations using a Horizontal Injector/Producer Pair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahnema, Hamid

    2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion assisted gravity drainage (CAGD) is an integrated horizontal well air injection process for recovery and upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen from tar sands. Short-distance air injection and direct mobilized oil production are the main...

  10. Exploration for heavy crude oil and natural bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy oil and tar sand reserves are enormous, and this 700-page volume breaks the topic down into six emphasis areas of: regional resources worldwide; characterization, maturation, and degradation; geological environments and migration; exploration methods; exploration histories; and recovery. An appendix presents a guidebook to Santa Maria, Cuyama, Taft-McKettrick, and Edna oil districts, Coast Ranges, California.

  11. Modelling the costs of non-conventional oil: A case study of Canadian bitumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Méjean, A; Hope, Chris

    in conventional deposits. The longer- term problem of climate change arises from the fuller and longer-term use of coal, and of unconventional deposits such as heavy oils, tar sands and oil shales.” (Grubb, 2001) As conventional oil becomes scarcer, the transport... , it is not mobile at reservoir conditions, (Cupcic, 2003): density Oil shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock rich in organic matter, (USGS, 2005): oil shales contain kerogen, which is a solid, insoluble organic material...

  12. Alvenus oil spill debris disposal and the potential of land treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Kenneth Gregory

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The spill generated 50, 717 cubic meters of oil-contaminated sand which was deposited on Galveston Island at four separate locations -- Airport Site A, Airport Site B, County Site and Seawall Site. The sites received 1, 250 m l 5, 700 m ; 8, 640 m... ; and 50, 717 m of oil- 3. 3, 3 contaminated sand, respectively. The debris at these sites remained sparsely vegetated during a two-year observation period. Oil-contaminated sand at the Seawall Site was placed just behind the dune line at the west end...

  13. FY 80 heavy oil program. Second quarterly report, April 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayland, J.R.; Fox, R.L.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research and development efforts in support of the heavy oil program reservoir access and alternate extraction activities that were initiated last quarter have been continued and expanded. The development of a short course on the utilization of specialized drilling technology to heavy oil sands has been investigated. The steam quality sampler is undergoing laboratory testing. A special report on possible application of sand control methods to heavy oil steam injection tests has been prepared. The first stage of the analysis of R.F. and microwave heating has been completed. The results of a series of laboratory experiments on in situ hydrogenation are presented.

  14. athabasca oil sand: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Petrographic, lithogeochemical and short-wavelength-infrared (more) Stewart, Paul C. 2015-01-01 58 Graphite-bearing and graphite-depleted basement rocks in the Dufferin...

  15. athabasca oil sands: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Petrographic, lithogeochemical and short-wavelength-infrared (more) Stewart, Paul C. 2015-01-01 58 Graphite-bearing and graphite-depleted basement rocks in the Dufferin...

  16. CO? mitigation costs for Canada and the Alberta Oil Sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Justin David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The threat of climate change proposes difficult problems for regulators and decision-makers in terms of uncertainties, varying exposures to risks and different attitudes towards risk among nations. Impact and cost assessments ...

  17. Numerical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing in Oil Sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal hydro-mechanical fracture nite element model is developed, which is able to ..... c) Fluid velocity: Darcy's law, in general index form, is given by: vi = Kij.

  18. Process for increasing the bitumen content of oil sands froth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tipman, R.N.; Rajan, V.S.V.; Wallace, D.

    1993-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the removal of solids and water from a feed bituminous froth containing bitumen, solids and water in a gravity settling vessel have an existing bituminous froth layer floating on a quiescent body of water defining a bitumen-water interface therebetween comprising the steps of heating the feed bituminous froth to a temperature in the range of 85 to 100 C, feeding the heated froth into the body of water at a level below the bitumen-water interface whereby water and solids contained in the feed froth separate from the froth and the bitumen rises to accumulate in the existing bituminous froth layer, discharging solids-containing under flow from the vessel, monitoring the level of the bitumen-water interface and controlling the discharge of solids-containing under flow responsive to the monitoring of the bitumen-water interface at a rate such that the said interface is maintained at an effective level above the level at which the feed bituminous froth is fed into the body of water, and recovering a bitumen-enriched layer as an overflow.

  19. File:OilSands.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife Energy Park at Methil Jump to:Methane.pdf Jump

  20. Sesame fertilization on lakeland sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huerta, Ramon Moreno

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ma/or Sub]ect: Agronomy SESAME FERTILIZATION ON LAKELAND SAND A Thesis RAMON HUERTA M. Approved as to style and content hy: Chairssn of Conunittee Head of partment January 1961 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express his sincere... difference was approached in the third. 8 Ye s 1. 856 + 0, 0509 X 16 POUEDS GF SULFUR PER ACRE Figure 4. Effect of sulfur on yield of sesame seed, winter of 1958-59. The data result1ng fram the sulfur effect during the winter of 1958-59 crop...

  1. SAND 2004-0281P

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved: 5-13-14 FEDERALAmerica High EnergyNationalSpring 2014 NationalFallSAND

  2. technology offer SandTES -High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szmolyan, Peter

    technology offer SandTES - High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage key words: High Temperature Energy Storage | Fluidized Bed | Sand | The invention consists of a fluidized bed with internal heat together with Dr. Eisl of ENRAG GmbH. Background Thermal energy storage (TES) systems are essential

  3. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. (BHP Petroleum, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  4. Video camera log used for water isolation in the Main Body B pool, Elk Hills field, Kern Co., California -- Water and oil identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starcher, M.G.; Murphy, J.R.; Alexander, P.D.; Whittaker, J.L.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Main Body B reservoir in the Elk Hills Field is a peripherally waterflooded, +400 ft thick series of layered, turbidite Stevens sands. Permeability variation between layers adversely affects the vertical sweep, resulting in production from lower permeability oil sands dominated by production from higher permeability sands. This paper discusses the unique use of various tools to identify water zones to isolate and oil zones to stimulate. Tools used to identify water and oil entry are discussed with respect to their capabilities of identifying oil and water entry into the wellbore.

  5. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    growth. For data on world oil consumption and long- term oilOil Production Domestic Oil Consumption a variety of

  6. Environmental survey - tar sands in situ processing research program (Vernal, Uintah County, Utah). [Reverse-forward combustion; steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Q.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research will be done on the reverse-forward combustion and steam injection for the in-situ recovery of oil from tar sands. This environmental survey will serve as a guideline for the consideration of environmental consequences of such research. It covers the construction phase, operational phase, description of the environment, potential impacts and mitigations, coordination, and alternatives. (DLC)

  7. Video Matching Peter Sand and Seth Teller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouhyoung, Ming

    Video Matching Peter Sand and Seth Teller MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence robotic motion control systems that would normally be used to ensure registra- tion of multiple video due to moving people, changes in lighting, and/or different exposure settings. e-mail: {sand

  8. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-7744

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-7744 Unlimited Release Printed December 2006 Supersedes SAND2006-2161 Dated of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National

  9. SANDIA REPORT SAND2000-2094

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2000-2094 Unlimited Release Printed August 2000 Application of the Smart, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. #12;August 2000 i SAND2000-2094 Unlimited Release Printed August 2000 Application

  10. SANDIA REPORT SAND99-2758

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND99-2758 Unlimited Release Printed November 1999 Modeling Decomposition Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. #12;Inside front cover (disclaimer goes here) 2 #12;SAND99-2758 Unlimited Release Printed

  11. SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-1000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-1000 Unlimited Release Printed September 2012 Project Report: A Survey for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account · · UNITED STATES OF AM ERICA 2 #12;SAND2012-1000 Unlimited Release Printed September 2012 Project Report

  12. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17401

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17401 Unlimited Release Printed September 2014 Wave Energy Converter (WEC States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2014-17401 Unlimited Release Printed September 2014 Wave Energy Converter

  13. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-2864

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-2864 Unlimited Release Printed March 2014 User Guidelines and Best Practices to apply Dakota to a simulation problem. This SAND report consti Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  14. Shock response of dry sand.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (,; ); Chhabildas, Lalit C.. (..); Vogler, Tracy John; Brown, Justin L.

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamic compaction of sand was investigated experimentally and computationally to stresses of 1.8 GPa. Experiments have been performed in the powder's partial compaction regime at impact velocities of approximately 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 km/s. The experiments utilized multiple velocity interferometry probes on the rear surface of a stepped target for an accurate measurement of shock velocity, and an impedance matching technique was used to deduce the shock Hugoniot state. Wave profiles were further examined for estimates of reshock states. Experimental results were used to fit parameters to the P-Lambda model for porous materials. For simple 1-D simulations, the P-Lambda model seems to capture some of the physics behind the compaction process very well, typically predicting the Hugoniot state to within 3%.

  15. Potential turbine fuels from western Kentucky tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, H.F.; Johnson, C.A.; Sutton, W.A.; Benslay, R.M. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (USA))

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The declining quality of petroleum is a particular problem for aviation turbine fuels. Since these fuels are required to meet stringent corrosion, thermal stability and purity specification, very little in the way of contaminants or heteroatoms can be tolerated. However, heavier and more sour crude supplied result in lower straight-run turbine fuel yields, higher sulfur contents, and higher aromatic contents. While all turbine fuels were originally prepared from high quality stocks by distillation, many commercial and military fuels now require hydrotreatment to meet specifications. The work described in this program extrapolates these present trends to very heavy feedstocks. Tar sands bitumen and heavy crude oils are low API gravity, high viscosity hydrocarbonaceous materials commonly exhibiting high levels of heteroatomic species, high metals content and high levels of asphaltenes, plus water and solids not readily separated by conventional technology without dilution. Tar sands bitumen is highly cyclic with many polycyclic rings and naphthenic constituents. Sulfur is primarily in thiophenic structures, with nitrogen included in the ring structure. Asphaltenes are in high proportion, with a large amount of sulfur, nitrogen and metallic inclusions. Each of these characteristics represent specific concerns to refiners.

  16. Characterization of various bitumen samples from tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Bornais, J.; Hutchison, R.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have investigated twenty three bitumen samples obtained using different separation methods such as: ultracentrifugation, Dean-Stark extraction, solvent extraction employing vigorous agitation, hot water separation and the Solvent Extraction Spherical Agglomeration technique. These samples were extracted from oil sand feedstocks of different grades, Suncor sludge pond tailings and mineral agglomerates obtained form the Solvent Extraction Spherical Agglomeration process. All of the bitumen samples were examined on a comparative basis using various analytical techniques. These included: fractionation into asphaltenes and maltenes: elemental analyses; molecular weight determination using vapour pressure osmometry and gel permeation chromatography, infrared, proton and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Proton /sup 13/C n.m.r. spectroscopic data were used to determine the distribution of various types of hydrogens and carbons in the samples. These data were also used to derive various molecular parameters in order to investigate average molecular structures of different bitumen samples and some of their asphaltene fractions.

  17. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The North Slope of Alaska has large (about 20 billion barrels) deposits of viscous oil in Ugnu, West Sak and Shraeder Bluff reservoirs. These shallow reservoirs overlie existing productive reservoirs such as Kuparuk and Milne Point. The viscosity of the Ugnu reservoir on top of Milne Point varies from 200 cp to 10,000 cp and the depth is about 3300 ft. The same reservoir extends to the west on the top of the Kuparuk River Unit and onto the Beaufort Sea. The depth of the reservoir decreases and the viscosity increases towards the west. Currently, the operators are testing cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) in Ugnu, but oil recovery is expected to be low (< 10%). Improved oil recovery techniques must be developed for these reservoirs. The proximity to the permafrost is an issue for thermal methods; thus nonthermal methods must be considered. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methods for the Ugnu reservoir on the top of Milne Point. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation was developed for a viscous oil (330 cp) where as an alkaline-surfactant formulation was developed for a heavy oil (10,000 cp). These formulations were tested in one-dimensional and quarter five-spot Ugnu sand packs. Micromodel studies were conducted to determine the mechanisms of high viscosity ratio displacements. Laboratory displacements were modeled and transport parameters (such as relative permeability) were determined that can be used in reservoir simulations. Ugnu oil is suitable for chemical flooding because it is biodegraded and contains some organic acids. The acids react with injected alkali to produce soap. This soap helps in lowering interfacial tension between water and oil which in turn helps in the formation of macro and micro emulsions. A lower amount of synthetic surfactant is needed because of the presence of organic acids in the oil. Tertiary ASP flooding is very effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. This chemical formulation includes 1.5% of an alkali, 0.4% of a nonionic surfactant, and 0.48% of a polymer. The secondary waterflood in a 1D sand pack had a cumulative recovery of 0.61 PV in about 3 PV injection. The residual oil saturation to waterflood was 0.26. Injection of tertiary alkaline-surfactant-polymer slug followed by tapered polymer slugs could recover almost 100% of the remaining oil. The tertiary alkali-surfactant-polymer flood of the 330 cp oil is stable in three-dimensions; it was verified by a flood in a transparent 5-spot model. A secondary polymer flood is also effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. The secondary polymer flood recovered about 0.78 PV of oil in about 1 PV injection. The remaining oil saturation was 0.09. The pressure drops were reasonable (<2 psi/ft) and depended mainly on the viscosity of the polymer slug injected. For the heavy crude oil (of viscosity 10,000 cp), low viscosity (10-100 cp) oil-in-water emulsions can be obtained at salinity up to 20,000 ppm by using a hydrophilic surfactant along with an alkali at a high water-to-oil ratio of 9:1. Very dilute surfactant concentrations (~0.1 wt%) of the synthetic surfactant are required to generate the emulsions. It is much easier to flow the low viscosity emulsion than the original oil of viscosity 10,000 cp. Decreasing the WOR reverses the type of emulsion to water-in-oil type. For a low salinity of 0 ppm NaCl, the emulsion remained O/W even when the WOR was decreased. Hence a low salinity injection water is preferred if an oil-in-water emulsion is to be formed. Secondary waterflood of the 10,000 cp heavy oil followed by tertiary injection of alkaline-surfactants is very effective. Waterflood has early water breakthrough, but recovers a substantial amount of oil beyond breakthrough. Waterflood recovers 20-37% PV of the oil in 1D sand pack in about 3 PV injection. Tertiary alkali-surfactant injection increases the heavy oil recovery to 50-70% PV in 1D sand packs. As the salinity increased, the oil recovery due to alkaline surfactant flood increased, but water-in-oil emulsion was p

  18. Characterization of various bitumen samples from tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Bornais, J.; Hutchison, R.A.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bitumen is a complex mixture of a large of number of organic molecules. The composition of bitumen and the nature of their various individual components has been the subject of considerable research during the past two decades. Various modes of extraction of bitumen from oil sands such as heat, extreme mechanical force, chemical agents and solvents could significantly affect some properties of bitumen. Variations in the composition of the oil sands feed stock could also affect the properties of the extracted bitumen. However, the most commonly used analytical techniques such as elemental analyses, density and viscosity cannot detect small compositional differences in the various samples of bitumen. With developments in instrumentation and techniques the structural characterization of complex petroleum fractions employing high resolution proton and 13/sub C/ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is becoming more popular. The parameters describe structural features, such as the fraction of carbon that is aromatic, the number and length of alkyl substituents in an average molecule, the percentage of aromatic carbons that are substituted and the number of aromatic rings per molecule. Given sufficient data these parameters can provide useful characterization of a hydrocarbon mixture. In the authors' laboratories, the authors have collected a number of bitumen samples obtained from different feedstocks employing a variety of extraction techniques. It was of interest to investigate any differences between these samples from different sources. This paper reports a detailed investigation of average structural parameters by the combined use of elemental analyses, molecular weight determinations and proton and 13/sub C/NMR spectroscopy. A total of twenty three butimen samples have been studied.

  19. SAND2005-5940 Unlimited Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regueiro, Richard A.

    and performance, tunneling construction, oil and natural gas production, and depleted reservoirs used

  20. A finite element analysis of pneumatic-tire/sand interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    A finite element analysis of pneumatic-tire/sand interactions during off-road vehicle travel M pneumatic tire and sand during off-road vehicle travel. Keywords Finite element analysis, Road vehicles and for other tire/sand combinations. Since the finite element analysis of the tire/sand interaction enables

  1. New method for sand control and well stimulation in unconsolidated dirty sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aslesen, K.S.; Short, C.J.; Terwilliger, P.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new technique, the Solder Glass sand consolidation well completion method, has been developed which allows unlimited drawdown and improves productivity in wells completed in unconsolidated formations containing shales and clays. This technique eliminates the problems of sand production and fines migration by artificially consolidating a volume of reservoir sand near the wellbore. The consolidation is resistant to high temperature, chemical attack, and degradation resulting from high velocity fluid flow. Additionally, porosity and permeability in the consolidated volume of reservoir sand are improved as a result of irreversible dehydration of clays. 12 refs.

  2. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  3. Crude oil and shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrotra, A.K. [Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

    1995-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This year`s review on crude oil and shale oil has been prepared by classifying the references into the following main headings: Hydrocarbon Identification and Characterization, Trace Element Determination, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties, Viscosity, and Miscellaneous Topics. In the two-year review period, the references on shale oils were considerably less in number than those dealing with crude oils. Several new analytical methodologies and applications were reported for hydrocarbon characterization and trace element determination of crude oils and shale oils. Also included in this review are nine U.S., Canadian British and European patents. 12 refs.

  4. Oil shale retorting with steam and produced gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, L.S. Jr.; Wheaton, L.D.

    1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for retorting oil shale in a vertical retort. It comprises introducing particles of oil shale into the retort, the particles of oil shale having a minimum size such that the particles are retained on a screen having openings 1/4 inch in size; contacting the particles of oil shale with hot gas to heat the particles of oil shale to a state of pyrolysis, thereby producing retort off-gas; removing the off-gas from the retort; cooling the off-gas; removing oil from the cooled off-gas; separating recycle gas from the off-gas, the recycle gas comprising steam and produced gas, the steam being present in amount, by volume, of at least 50% of the recycle gas so as to increase the yield of sand oil; and heating the recycle gas to form the hot gas.

  5. Hydrotreating the native bitumen from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah was hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variables. The process variables investigated included reactor pressure (11.2--16.7 MPa); reactor temperature (641--712 K) and liquid hourly space velocity (0.19--0.77 h{sup {minus}1}). The hydrogen/oil ratio, 890 m{sup 3} m{sup {minus}3} was fixed in all experiments. A sulphided Ni-Mo on alumina hydrodenitrogenation catalyst was used in these studies. The deactivation of the catalyst, 0.2 {degree}C/day, was monitored by thedecline in the API gravity of the total liquid product with time on-stream at a standard set of conditions. The effect of temperature, WHSV, and pressure on denitrogenation, desulphurization, and metals removalwere studied and apparent kinetic parameters determined. The effect of process variables on residue conversion and Conradson carbon residue reduction were also investigated.

  6. Catalyst poisoning during tar-sands bitumen upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carruthers, J.D.; Brinen, J.S.; Komar, D.A.; Greenhouse, S. [CYTEC Industries, Stamford, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of hydrotreating catalysts are used in commercial heavy oil upgrading facilities. One of these, a CoO/MoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst has been evaluated in a pilot plant CSTR for Tar-Sands Bitumen upgrading. Following its use in a test of 200 hours duration, the catalyst was removed, de-oiled, regenerated by air-calcination to remove the coke, and then re-tested. Samples of the coked, fresh and regenerated catalyst were each examined using surface analytical techniques. ESCA and SIMS analysis of the coked and regenerated catalyst samples show, as expected, significant contamination of the catalyst with Ni and V. In addition, the SIMS analysis clearly reveals that the edges of the catalyst pellets are rich in Ca, Mg and Fe while the Ni, V and coke are evenly distributed. Regeneration of the catalyst by calcination removes the carbonaceous material but appears not to change the distribution of the metal contaminants. Retesting of the regenerated catalyst shows a performance similar to that of the fresh catalyst. These data serve to support the view that catalyst deactivation during early use is not due to the skin of Ca and Mg on the pellets but rather via the poisoning of active sites by carbonaceous species.

  7. Hydrotreating the native bitumen from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah was hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variables. The process variables investigated included reactor pressure (11.2--16.7 MPa); reactor temperature (641--712 K) and liquid hourly space velocity (0.19--0.77 h[sup [minus]1]). The hydrogen/oil ratio, 890 m[sup 3] m[sup [minus]3] was fixed in all experiments. A sulphided Ni-Mo on alumina hydrodenitrogenation catalyst was used in these studies. The deactivation of the catalyst, 0.2 [degree]C/day, was monitored by thedecline in the API gravity of the total liquid product with time on-stream at a standard set of conditions. The effect of temperature, WHSV, and pressure on denitrogenation, desulphurization, and metals removalwere studied and apparent kinetic parameters determined. The effect of process variables on residue conversion and Conradson carbon residue reduction were also investigated.

  8. A study of miscible displacement of oil by means of micellar solution injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharifi-Monfared, Fereidoon

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were used to displace oil from porous media in both secondary and tertiary mis~ible 1'looding processes. The models were saturated with low or high viscosity oil and connate water for the experimental work, Six representative runs will be di s c us... was to study the effective- ness of micellar solutions in recovery of oil from porous media. The models used were: (a) linear sandstone cores, (b) a linear model packed with various sands, and (c) a five spot model packed with sand. Models saturated...

  9. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Hopson, Dr Janet L [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Jia [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  10. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana; Rebecca Holt

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Unconventional fuel development will require scarce water resources. In an environment characterized by scarcity, and where most water resources are fully allocated, prospective development will require minimizing water use and seeking to use water resources in the most efficient manner. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater provides just such an opportunity. Conjunctive use includes two main practices: First, integrating surface water diversions and groundwater withdrawals to maximize efficiency and minimize impacts on other resource users and ecological processes. Second, conjunctive use includes capturing surplus or unused surface water and injecting or infiltrating that water into groundwater aquifers in order to increase recharge rates. Conjunctive management holds promise as a means of addressing some of the West's most intractable problems. Conjunctive management can firm up water supplies by more effectively capturing spring runoff and surplus water, and by integrating its use with groundwater withdrawals; surface and groundwater use can be further integrated with managed aquifer recharge projects. Such integration can maximize water storage and availability, while simultaneously minimizing evaporative loss, reservoir sedimentation, and surface use impacts. Any of these impacts, if left unresolved, could derail commercial-scale unconventional fuel development. Unconventional fuel developers could therefore benefit from incorporating conjunctive use into their development plans. Despite its advantages, conjunctive use is not a panacea. Conjunctive use means using resources in harmony to maximize and stabilize long-term supplies â?? it does not mean maximizing the use of two separate but interrelated resources for unsustainable short-term gains â?? and it cannot resolve all problems or provide water where no unappropriated water exists. Moreover, conjunctive use may pose risks to ecological values forgone when water that would otherwise remain in a stream is diverted for aquifer recharge or other uses. To better understand the rapidly evolving field of conjunctive use, this Topical Report begins with a discussion of Utah water law, with an emphasis on conjunctive use issues. We contrast Utahâ??s approach with efforts undertaken in neighboring states and by the federal government. We then relate conjunctive use to the unconventional fuel industry and discuss how conjunctive use can help address pressing challenges. While conjunctive management cannot create water where none exists, it does hold promise to manage existing resources in a more efficient manner. Moreover, conjunctive management reflects an important trend in western water law that could provide benefit to those contemplating activities that require large-scale water development.

  11. Analytical mesoscale modeling of aeolian sand transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Lämmel; Anne Meiwald; Klaus Kroy

    2014-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the mesoscale structure of aeolian sand transport, based on a recently developed two-species continuum model. The calculated sand flux and important average characteristics of the grain trajectories are found to be in remarkable agreement with field and wind-tunnel data. We conclude that the essential mesoscale physics is insensitive to unresolved details on smaller scales and well captured by the coarse-grained analytical model, thus providing a sound basis for precise and numerically efficient mesoscale modeling of aeolian structure formation.

  12. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  13. Skin friction for steel piles in sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulaiman, Ibrahim Hikmat

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MOVEMENT 4) For dry pile tests at initial void ratio of 0. 63, the assumption of a Coulomb type failure applies and the envelope is shown in Figure 23. The skin friction computed is the total friction caused by applied load. and. the static load caused... Sand 43 22. Skin Friction-Chamber Pressure Ratio Versus Pile Movement for Dense Dry Sand 44 23 ~ 24. Mohr Envelope for Skin Friction Measured. and Assumed. Pile Deformation 49 25 ~ Computed and Actual Load-Movement Curves for Test Pile 1 26...

  14. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  15. Displacement of oil from reservoir rock using high molecular weight polymer solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barzi, Houshang

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    underground reservoirs by the injection of water containing chemicals to increase its viscosity. Some laboratory research and field trials have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of viscous water in dis- placing oil from reservoir rock.... ia. Twenty-eight experiments were conducted. In twenty-two experiments oil was displaced from un- consolidated sand packs using polymers with viscosity that ranged from 160 cp to 3 cp. In five experiments crude oil was displaced. from...

  16. The investigation of the effects of wettability on residual oil after water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burja, Edward Oscar

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flooding, " Producers Monthly, (1951), 15-16, 15. 6. Schilthuis, Ralph J. : "Connate Water in Oil and Gas Sands, " Trans. AIME. , (1938), 127, 199-214. 7. Bartell, F. E. : "Function of Water in the Production of Oil from Reservoirs?" Report, API...: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING 1953 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. Summary . 2. Introduction 3. Review of Literature . 4. Description of Materials 16 Cores 16 Oil, Gas and Brine 18 Surface Active Chemicals 19 Crystals 22 5. Description of Procedure...

  17. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

  18. LLNL oil shale project review: METC third annual oil shale contractors meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R.J.; Coburn, T.T.; Taylor, R.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory combines laboratory and pilot-scale experimental measurements with mathematical modeling of fundamental chemistry and physics to provide a technical base for evaluating oil shale retorting alternatives. Presented herein are results of four research areas of interest in oil shale process development: Recent Progress in Solid-Recycle Retorting and Related Laboratory and Modeling Studies; Water Generation During Pyrolysis of Oil Shale; Improved Analytical Methods and Measurements of Rapid Pyrolysis Kinetics for Western and Eastern Oil Shale; and Rate of Cracking or Degradation of Oil Vapor In Contact with Oxidized Shale. We describe operating results of a 1 tonne-per-day, continuous-loop, solid-recycle, retort processing both Western And Eastern oil shale. Sulfur chemistry, solid mixing limits, shale cooling tests and catalyst addition are all discussed. Using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, we measure individual species evolution with greater sensitivity and selectivity. Herein we discuss our measurements of water evolution during ramped heating of Western and Eastern oil shale. Using improved analytical techniques, we determine isothermal pyrolysis kinetics for Western and Eastern oil shale, during rapid heating, which are faster than previously thought. Finally, we discuss the rate of cracking of oil vapor in contact with oxidized shale, qualitatively using a sand fluidized bed and quantitatively using a vapor cracking apparatus. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative- Residential Heat Pump Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative offers a heat pump loan program to eligible residential members. To qualify, members must have had power with Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative for at least...

  20. athabasca tar sands: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tar sands resources are estimated at 60 to 80 unknown authors 2 Request received (from Norway, regarding e-mail titled "Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands"): Thanks. I have seen them in...

  1. Figure 1. Typical Slow Sand Filter Schematic Supernatant Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figure 1. Typical Slow Sand Filter Schematic Headspace Supernatant Water Schmutzdecke Raw water Supernatant drain Filter drain & backfill Sand media Support gravel Drain tile Adjustable weir Overflow weir Vent Control valve Treated Water Effluent flow control structure Overflow Assessing Temperature

  2. Laboratory investigations of effective flow behavior in unsaturated heterogeneous sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    Laboratory investigations of effective flow behavior in unsaturated heterogeneous sands D, Lyngby Abstract. Two-dimensional unsaturated flow and transport through heterogeneous sand was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of five homogeneous

  3. University of Minnesota UMore Park Sand and Gravel Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    for the extraction or mining of sand, gravel, stone, or other nonmetallic minerals, other than peat, which

  4. Wind-Blown Sand: Threshold of Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swann, Christy Michelle

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ....................................................................................... 43 13 Bedload trap designed for this study .................................................................................. 45 14 Schematic of internal adjustable chimney adjusted to the height of the surface... predicting the threshold for wind-blown sand in natural environments are rooted in the original wind tunnel work of Bagnold (1936). He introduced an empirically-calibrated model of the threshold using shear velocity, 𝑢?: a height independent variable...

  5. CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND97-3002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    presents a detailed analysis of the results from fatigue studies of wind turbine blade composite materials are evident in the range of materials currently used in many blades. A preliminary evaluation of knockdownsCONTRACTOR REPORT SAND97-3002 Unlimited Distribution UC-1210 DOE/MSU COMPOSITE MATERIAL FATIGUE

  6. SANDIA REPORT SAND2003-8550

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2003-8550 Unlimited Release Printed October 2003 Stationarity Results Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation

  7. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-0905

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bochev, Pavel

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-0905 Unlimited Release Printed February, 2007 Blended Atomistic Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04

  8. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17474

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17474 Unlimited Release Printed September 2014 Investigation of Wave Energy for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved

  9. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-5315

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-5315 Unlimited Release Printed August 2006 A generating set direct search, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security. #12;Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

  10. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-6422

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-6422 Printed October 2007 Resolving the Sign Ambiguity in the Singular Value States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration

  11. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-3257

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-3257 Unlimited Release Printed May 2007 Nonlinearly-Constrained Optimization for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. Approved

  12. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-5315

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-5315 ct search ian algorithm for combination of nstraints . M. Lewis, and V,for the United States Departmentof Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL;Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia

  13. SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-0857

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-0857 Unlimited Release Printed February 2009 An Optimization Approach for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. Approved

  14. SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-3119

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-3119 Unlimited Release Printed May 2011 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE

  15. SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-6670

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-6670 Unlimited Release Printed October 2009 Generalized Bad of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National

  16. SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-0501

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-0501 Unlimited Release Printed February 2013 Vessel Cold-Ironing Using of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National

  17. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-2706

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-2706 Unlimited Release Printed May 2007 Cross-Language Information Retrieval States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy

  18. SANDIA REPORT SAND2005-6864

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2005-6864 Unlimited Release Printed November 2005 Robust Large-scale Parallel for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. Approved

  19. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-6702

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-6702 Unlimited Release Printed November 2007 Tensor Decompositions Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security. #12;Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

  20. SANDIA REPORT SAND2008-6553

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2008-6553 Unlimited Release Printed October 2008 Asynchronous parallel hybrid States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy

  1. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-4466

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howle, Victoria E.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-4466 Unlimited Release Printed July 2006 The Effect of Boundary Conditions Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04

  2. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-16840

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-16840 Unlimited Release Printed August 2014 Investigation of Wave Energy for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved

  3. SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-8055

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-8055 Unlimited Release Printed February 2004 Revisiting Asynchronous of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National

  4. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-7592

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-7592 2006 Efficient MATLAB computations with sparse and factored tensorsWaUonunder A #12;Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United StatesDepartment of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE:This report was prepared as an accountof work sponsoredby an agency

  5. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-2161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-2161 Unlimited Release Printed June 2006 Temporal Analysis of Social for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. Approved

  6. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-4055

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-4055 Unlimited Release Printed October 2006 DAKOTA, A Multilevel Parallel Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04

  7. SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-3487

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-3487 Unlimited Release Printed July 2004 A Preliminary Report Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL

  8. SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-1877

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-1877 Unlimited Release Printed March 2011 Making Tensor Factorizations Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE

  9. SANDIA REPORT SAND99-2953

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND99-2953 Unlimited Release Printed November 1999 a Shaped-Charge Parallel by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract laboratories #12;Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

  10. SANDIA REPORT SAND2008-5844

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2008-5844 Unlimited Release Printed September 2008 Concurrent Optimization for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. Approved

  11. SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-4494

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-4494 Unlimited Release Printed July 2009 Algebraic Connectivity and Graph of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National

  12. SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-6391

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-6391 Unlimited Release Printed December 2004 APPSPACK 4.0: Asynchronous for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. Approved

  13. SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-4130

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-4130 Unlimited Release DAKOTA JAGUAR 2.1 User's Manual Brian M. Adams Ethan, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved

  14. SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-2789

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-2789 Printed April 2013 New Wholesale Power Market Design Using Linked of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored Forward Markets A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program Leigh S. Tesfatsion, C´esar A. Silva

  15. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17460

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17460 Unlimited Release Printed September 2014 Wave Energy Converter Effects for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public

  16. SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-6574

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Lucas C.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-6574 Unlimited Release Printed January 4, 2005 Sensitivity Technologies Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04

  17. SANDIA REPORT SAND 2011-3446

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND 2011- 3446 Unlimited Release Printed October 2011 Phoenix: Complex Adaptive for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public

  18. SANDIA REPORT SAND2003-8516

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2003-8516 Unlimited Release Printed September 2003 Optimizing and Empirical Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL

  19. SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-4596

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-4596 Unlimited Release Printed September 2004 Sensors for Environmental Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL

  20. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-6286

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-6286 Unlimited Release Printed October 2006 Solution-Verified Reliability, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security. #12;Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

  1. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-4621

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-4621 Unlimited Release Printed August 2006 Asynchronous parallel generating Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation

  2. SANDIA REPORT SAND2005-0336

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2005-0336 Unlimited Release Printed Month/Year FY04 Field Evaluations of an In Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL

  3. SANDIA REPORT SAND2001-0643

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2001-0643 Unlimited Release Printed March 2001 Review of Chemical Sensors for In of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further

  4. SANDIA REPORT SAND98-2668

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND98-2668 Unlimited Release Reprinted December 1998 G. Richard Eisler, Paul S 94550 for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 Approved for public for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Cor- poration, a Lockheed Martin Company. NOTICE

  5. SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-5805

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-5805 Unlimited Release Printed September 2009 Efficient Algorithms for Mixed of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National

  6. SANDIA REPORT SAND2010-1422

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2010-1422 Unlimited Release Printed March 2010 Poblano v1.0: A Matlab Toolbox States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy

  7. SAND93-2591 Unlimited Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCurley, Kevin

    was performed under U.S. Department of Energy contract number DE-AC04-76DP00789. This report has been revisedSAND93-2591 Unlimited Release First Printed October 1992 Revised October 29, 1993 Revised June 22. In this report we describe a portable and efficient implementation of SHA-1 in the C language. Performance

  8. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-1423

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shashkov, Mikhail

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-1423 Unlimited Release Printed March 2007 A Multi-Scale Q1/P0 Approach for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved

  9. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-2079

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-2079 Unclassified Unlimited Release Printed April 2006 Multilinear algebra for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. Approved

  10. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-16610

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehoucq, Rich

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-16610 Unlimited Release Printed August 2014 Installing the Anasazi Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE

  11. SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-0339

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-0339 Unlimited Release Printed February 28, 2013 Proceedings States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy

  12. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-2161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-2161 Unlimited Release Printed April 2006 Temporal Analysis of Social for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. Approved

  13. SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-5187

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-5187 Unlimited Release Printed October 2004 MATLAB Tensor Classes for Fast of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National

  14. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-6135

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-6135 Unlimited Release Printed November 2006 Extension /ith Corre Hypercube National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither

  15. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-7592

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-7592 Unlimited Release Printed December 2006 Efficient MATLAB computations of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National

  16. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17400

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17400 Unlimited Release Printed September 2014 Investigation of Wave Energy Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL

  17. SANDIA REPORT SAND99-1941

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuerschbach, Phillip

    SANDIA REPORT SAND99-1941 Unlimited Release 828, ,-.-,,LS :xico 87185 and Livermore, California for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release: further

  18. SANDIA REPORT SAND2008-6109

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2008-6109 Unlimited Release Printed September 2008 Proceedings of the 2008 Sandia for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. Approved

  19. SANDIA REPORT SAND2005-4548

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2005-4548 Unlimited Release Printed July 2005 Higher-Order Web Link Analysis States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy

  20. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-2761

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howle, Victoria E.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-2761 Unlimited Release Printed May 2007 A Taxonomy and Comparison of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National

  1. SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-2081

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2006-2081 Unclassified Unlimited Release Printed April 2006 Multilinear operators Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security. #12;Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

  2. SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-6764

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolda, Tamara G.

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-6764 Unlimited Release Printed October 2009 Scalable Tensor Factorizations States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy

  3. DRIVEN PIPE PILES IN DENSE SAND BYRON BYRNE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Byron

    DRIVEN PIPE PILES IN DENSE SAND BYRON BYRNE GEOMECHANICS GROUP THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA #12;Driven Pipe Piles in Dense Sand Byron Byrne Geomechanics Group The University of Western Australia #12;Driven Pipe Piles in Dense Sand Byron Byrne Geomechanics Group The University of Western Australia

  4. Well completion process for formations with unconsolidated sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, David K. (Kingwood, TX); Mondragon, III, Julius J. (Redondo Beach, CA); Hara, Philip Scott (Monterey Park, CA)

    2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for consolidating sand around a well, involving injecting hot water or steam through well casing perforations in to create a cement-like area around the perforation of sufficient rigidity to prevent sand from flowing into and obstructing the well. The cement area has several wormholes that provide fluid passageways between the well and the formation, while still inhibiting sand inflow.

  5. Western gas sands project. Status report, 1 July-31 July, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress of the government-sponsored projects, directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States, is summarized. A subcontract was approved between Gas Research Institute and M.D. Wood, Inc. to obtain information on hydraulic fracture length. A meeting was held with Superior Oil Company during July to discuss possible sites for the multi-well experiment. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work toward the assessment of fracture fluid effects on post fracture test times. A full report of the Seismic Formation Mapping Program will be issued by Sandia after review and editing have been completed.

  6. Liquid-phase Processing of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil using Pt/HZSM-5 Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page A.1 Fluidization experiments on -30 +40 US Mesh size refractory sand at actual operating temperatures ........................................................ 124 B.1 Schematic diagram of the fluidized bed reactor... .................................................................................... 99 25 Some of the properties of the high-boiling fraction (HBF) of the crude bio-oil and upgraded HBF?s subjected to different treatments ........ 101 A.1 Observed minimum fluidization of refractory sand in fluidized-bed reactor...

  7. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  8. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

  9. The spontaneous ignition potential of a super-light crude oil S.A. Abu-Khamsin*, A. Iddris1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    including 1748C initial temperature, 7340 kPa reactor pressure, 40% oxygen in the oxidant gas and 26 h, oxidant gas ¯ux, oxygen concentration in the oxidant gas, initial oil and water saturations and reactor pressure were varied to determine the set of conditions that would cause the sand±oil mixture to ignite

  10. Bitumen and heavy oil upgrading in Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrones, J.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is presented of the heavy oil upgrading industry in Canada. Up to now it has been based on the processing of bitumen extracted from oil sands mining operations at two sites, to produce a residue-free, low sulfur, synthetic crude. Carbon rejection has been the prime process technology with delayed coking being used by Suncor and FLUID COKING at Syncrude. Alternative processes for recovering greater amounts of synthetic crude are examined. These include a variety of hydrogen addition processes and combinations which produce pipelineable materials requiring further processing in downstream refineries with expanded capabilities. The Newgrade Energy Inc. upgrader, now under construction in Regina, will use fixed-bed, catalytic, atmospheric-residue, hydrogen processing. Two additional products, also based on hydrogenation, will use ebullated bed catalyst systems: the expansion of Syncrude, now underway, is using the LC Fining Process whereas the announced Husky Bi-Provincial upgrader is based on H-Oil.

  11. Bitumen and heavy oil upgrading in Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrones, J. (Chrones Engineering Consultants Inc., 111 Lord Seaton Road, Willowdale, Ontario (CA)); Germain, R.R. (Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority, Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is presented of the heavy oil upgrading industry in Canada. Up to now it has been based on the processing of bitumen extracted from oil sands mining operations at two sites, to produce a residue-free, low sulphur, synthetic crude. Carbon rejection has been the prime process technology with delayed coking being used by Suncor and FLUID COKING at Syncrude. Alternative processes for recovering greater amounts of synthetic crude are examined. These include a variety of hydrogen addition processes and combinations which produce pipelineable materials requiring further processing in downstream refineries with expanded capabilities. The Newgrade Energy Inc. upgrader now under construction in Regina, will use fixed-bed, catalytic, atmospheric-residue, hydrogen processing. Two additional projects, also based on hydrogenation, will use ebullated bed catalyst systems; the expansion of Syncrude, now underway, is using the LC Fining Process whereas the announced Husky Bi-Provincial upgrader is based on H-Oil.

  12. A full field model study of the East Velma West Block Sims Sand Unit reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolling, J.D.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A full-field numerical model of the East Velma West Block Sims Sand Unit (EVWBSSU) reservoir was developed. From the history-matched model, field performance predictions were made for continued waterflood and various operating scenarios under the present CO/sub 2/ injection scheme. Results include the effect of CO/sub 2/ pipeline supply rate, allocation of CO/sub 2/ and water to injection wells, and uncertain parameters on reservoir performance. From these projections it was concluded that the amount of injected CO/sub 2/ required to produce an incremental barrel of oil over waterflood was not strongly dependent on CO/sub 2/ pipeline supply rate or allocation of injected fluids to injection wells. This conclusion seems reasonable mechanistically because the miscible displacement was dominated by gravity, the areal variation in predicted updip oil saturation was not great, and the continuous injection coupled with high permeability updip caused uniform distribution of CO/sub 2/.

  13. Characterization of Nickel and Vanadium compounds in tar sand bitumen by petroporphyrin quantitation and size exclusion chromatography coupled with element specific detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Jones, E.L.; Bennett, J.A.; Biggs, W.R.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tar sands represent a tremendous untapped resource for transportation fuels. In the United States alone, over 60 billion barrels of bitumen are estimated to be in place. In order to use this bitumen, it must be somehow separated from the sand. The resulting bitumen is of low quality, and generally will require at least some refining. Typical refinery upgrading methods include fluid catalytic cracking, thermal visbreaking, and residuum hydroconversion. Most of these methods utilize metals-sensitive catalyst. The metals bound in the bitumen are deleterious to catalytic processing, causing rapid deactivation through poisoning and pore mouth plugging. Like heavy crude oil residua, tar sand bitumens have high concentrations of Ni and V. The types of complexes of Ni and V have been studied for heavy crude oils, and can be placed in two broad categories: the metallopetroporphyrins and the metallononporphyrins. The metallopetroporphyrins have been studied extensively. For understanding the behavior of the metals in processing, size exclusion chromatography coupled with element specific detection by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (SEC-HPLC-ICP) has been applied to several heavy crude oils, residua, and processed products along with separated fractions of feeds and products. These results have shown general important size-behavior features of the metallopetroporphyrins and metallo-nonporphyrins associated with individual feed characteristics. Because of the importance of the metals in a downstream process methods, the authors have applied several of the metallopetroporphyrin and metallo-nonporphyrin examination technique to extracted bitumen from selected tar sands.

  14. Stratified chaos in a sand pile formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ate Poortinga; Jan G. Wesseling; Coen J. Ritsema

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Sand pile formation is often used to describe stratified chaos in dynamic systems due to self-emergent and scale invariant behaviour. Cellular automata (Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model) are often used to describe chaotic behaviour, as simulating physical interactions between individual particles is computationally demanding. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art parallel implementation of the discrete element method on the graphical processing unit to simulate sand pile formation. Interactions between individual grains were simulated using a contact model in an Euler integration scheme. Results show non-linear self-emergent behaviour which is in good agreement with experimental results, theoretical work and self organized criticality (SOC) approaches. Moreover, it was found that the fully deterministic model, where the position and forces on every individual particle can be determined every iteration has a brown noise signal in the x and y direction, where the signal is the z direction is closer to a white noise spectrum.

  15. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locke, T.K. [ed.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  16. EA-1581: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bureau of Land Management, with DOE’s Western Area Power Administration as a cooperating agency, was preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct, operate, and maintain the Sand Hills Wind Energy Facility on private and federal lands in Albany County, Wyoming. If the proposed action had been implemented, Western would have interconnected the proposed facility to an existing transmission line. This project has been canceled.

  17. Water quality for secondary and tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michnick, M.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key element in many secondary and tertiary oil recovery processes is the injection of water into an oil-bearing formation. Water is the fluid which displaces the oil in the pore space of the rock. A successful waterflood requires more than the availability of water and the pumps and piping to inject the water into the formation. It requires an understanding of how water enters the oil bearing formation and what happens once the injected water comes into contact with the rock or sand, the oil, and the water already in the reservoir. Problems in injectivity will arise unless care and constant monitoring are exercised in the water system for a flood operation. This study examines water availability and quality in relation to waterflooding.

  18. Soil stabilization using oil-shale solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Archeological Engineering)

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil-shale solid wastes are evaluated for use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in durability and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern oil shale appears to be feasible for soil stabilization only if limestone is added during combustion. Testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented and the mechanisms of spent-shale cementation are discussed.

  19. Help for declining natural gas production seen in the unconventional sources of natural gas. [Eastern shales, tight sands, coal beds, geopressured zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staats, E.B.

    1980-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil imports could be reduced and domestic gas production increased if additional gas production is obtained from four unconventional resources-eastern Devonian shales, tight sands, coal beds, and geopressured zones. Gas produced from these resources can help maintain overall production levels as supplies from conventional gas sources gradually decline. The eastern shales and western sands are the chief potential contributors in the near term. Further demonstrations of coal bed methane's recovery feasibility could improve the prospects for its production while future geopressured methane production remains speculative at this time.

  20. Comparisons of hydrocarbon and nitrogen distributions in geologically diverse tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, S.A.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of bitumens from different tar sand deposits are generally significantly different and affect the utilization of the resource. The chemical and physical properties of bitumen are a result of maturation reactions on the varied organic sediments. For example, saturated hydrocarbon distributions have been related to the geochemical history of organic matter. Very paraffinic or sometimes paraffinic-naphthenic distributions in organic matter are derived from a nonmarine depositional environment. More aromatic and paraffinic-naphthenic hydrocarbon distributions are derived from organic matter deposited in a marine environment. The characteristics of the bitumen also influence the potential for recovery and subsequent processing of the material. For example, saturated hydrocarbons contribute to the high pour points of recovered oils. The origin and composition of an oil influence its viscosity, API gravity, and coke formation during processing, particularly under low-temperature oxidation conditions. The objective of this work is to determine the chemical and physical properties of several samples of bitumen from geologically diverse tar sand deposits. The compound-type distributions and LTD properties of these bitumens are discussed relative to the depositional environment and processing potential of the organic matter.

  1. The potential use of tar sand bitumen as paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of several tar sand asphalts prepared in past studies by several different investigators were compared with each other and with the properties of petroleum asphalts. These results were reviewed and discussed with regard to the potential use of tar sand bitumen in pavement applications. The data show that tar sand bitumen has good potential for use in highway pavements that meet today's performance specifications. No deficiencies in the tar sand asphalts were found that would be expected to seriously affect performance. On the other hand, the data indicate that some tar sand asphalts may have superior aging characteristics, being relatively resistant to oxidative age hardening compared with typical petroleum asphalts. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared using two tar sand asphalts also showed acceptable strength properties and excellent resistance to moisture-induced damage.

  2. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  3. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  4. auriferous alluvial sands: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STATES OF AMERICA 12; SAND2002-xxxx Unlimited Release Printed August 2002 by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under...

  5. The new small-angle diffractometer SAND at IPNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, R.K.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Epperson, J.E.; Trouw, F.; Kleb, R.; Wozniak, D.; Leach, D.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new small-angle neutron diffractometer SAND is undergoing commissioning at IPNS pulsed source. This paper provides details of the design and expected performance of this instrument.

  6. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-3416 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SAND2014-3416 Unlimited Release Printed April 2014 Safety, Codes and Standards for Hydrogen Installations: Hydrogen Fueling System Footprint Metric Development A.P. Harris,...

  7. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  8. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  9. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATION OF SP&NDS SUBJECTED TO DTNAMIC LOADING A Tucsis By Gary N. Reeves Submitted to the Grad ate Coll Ee of the T xas AGM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the deEree of MASTER OF SCIPNCE AuBust 19G7 Major... Subject: Civil EnEineering LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF SANDS SUBJECTED TO DYNAMIC LOADING A Thesis by Gary N. Reeves Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Department Membe Me er August 1967 ACIINOWLEDGR&J. 'NTS I...

  10. Sand Mountain Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistma AG Jump to:EnergysourceRamon, California:Sand Mountain

  11. Sand Bluff Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey Jump to:WY)Project JumpSanMiguel, California:Sand

  12. Variation in grain shape and surface textures of fine guartz sands in the South Texas Eolian Sand Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sims, Donald Ralph

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    action on sand grains. Samples were taken from 4 transects subnormal to the prevailing wind direction at approximately 20 mile intervals. Two quartz-grain shape types were recognized in the fine sand fraction: one consisted of predominately angular... and 45 miles southward from Baffin Bay to Port Mansfield (Figure 1). The major factors affecting the formation and accumulation of the South Texas Eolian Sand Sheet are a prevailing wind from the east-southeast, a semi-arid climate and a source...

  13. TESTING OF TMR SAND MANTIS FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krementz, D; William Daugherty, W

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Screening tests of Sand Mantis candidate materials selected for erosion resistance have been completed. The results of this testing identified that over a relatively short period of operation (<1 hour), measurable erosion will occur in each of the candidate zoom tube materials given equal operating exposure. Additionally, this testing has shown that erosion of the rubber discharge hose directly downstream of the vehicle could be expected to limit the service life of the discharge hose. On the basis of these test results, SRNL recommends the following; {lg_bullet} redesign of critical system components (e.g., zoom tube, discharge hose) should be conducted to improve system characteristics relative to erosion and capitalize on the results of this testing, {lg_bullet} continued efforts to deploy the Sand Mantis should include testing to better define and optimize operating parameters, and gain an understanding of system dynamics, {lg_bullet} discontinue wear testing with the selected materials pending redesign of critical system components (1st recommendation) and inclusion of other candidate materials. The final selection of additional candidate materials should be made following design changes, but might include a Stellite alloy or zirconia.

  14. Process for upgrading tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholic, D.B.; Reagan, W.J.

    1989-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for upgrading a charge of a tar sand bitumen concentrate containing mineral matter including fine particles which comprises contacting the charge in a riser in the presence of a low boiling organic solvent diluent with finely divided attrition-resistant particles of a hot fluidizable substantially catalytically inert solid which is substantially chemically inert to a solution of mineral acid. The contact of the charge with the particles is at high temperature and short contact time to vaporize the high hydrogen containing components of the bitumen, the period of time being less than that which induces substantial thermal cracking of the charge, at the end of the time separating the vaporizing product from the fluidizable particles. The fluidizable particles now bear a deposit of both combustible solid, adherent particles of fine particles of mineral matter and metals. The particles of inert solid are passed with deposit of combustibles and fine particles of mineral matter to a regenerator to oxidize the combustible portion of the deposits, removing at least a portion of deposit of mineral matter and metals by removing the inert solid from the regenerator and contacting removed inert solid with a hot mineral acid, and recirculating fluidizable solid depleted at least in part of deposited mineral matter to contact with incoming charge of tar sand bitumen concentrate and diluent.

  15. Solvent extraction of bitumen from tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoon, A.Y.; Thomas, S. [Univ. of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the measurement of mass transfer rates for the extraction of bitumen from tar sands using organic solvents. The experiment was carried out in an agitated vessel using a six-blade turbine mixer on a laboratory scale. To facilitate the determination of absolute mass transfer coefficients, tar sands were specially prepared in the form of spherical particles so that mass transfer area can be computed. The variables investigated in the study included: (1) solvent type (kerosene, toluene, benzene), (2) stirrer speed, 25 rpm to 1000 rpm, and (3) particle diameter, 0.4 cm to 1.2 cm. The results indicated that solvency power varied markedly with the various solvents used and that high aromatic content promoted rapid dissolution when compared with paraffinic solvents. The mass transfer rates increased with increasing stirrer speed in accordance with the relationship: k {alpha} N{sup 0.56} where k is the mass transfer coefficient and N the stirrer speed. Increasing particle diameter also resulted in decreased mass transfer rates. The results were satisfactorily correlated in terms of a Frossling type equation, Sh {alpha} Re{sub p}{sup a}Sc{sup b}.

  16. Heavy Oil Program. Quarterly progress report No. 1, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayland, J. R.; Bartel, L. C.; Johnson, D. R.; Fox, R. L.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and development efforts in support of the DOE Heavy Oil RD and D Program in reservoir access were initiated. Preliminary activities in the survey of sand control, drilling, and fracturing techniques in heavy oil formations are described. The continued development of a high temperature packer for use in steam injection applications is presented. A new application of controlled source audio magnetotelluric survey to developing thermal fronts from in situ combustion and steam drive is described.

  17. Oil recovery by carbon dioxide injection into consolidated and unconsolidated sandstone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Fwu-Jin Frank

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a displacement effic1ency approaching 100 percent. (3) Carbon Dioxide neither achieves direct miscible displacement at practical reservoir pressures, like LPG, nor depend upon the presence of light hydrocarbons in the reservoir oil. A f1eld... strong function of pore size dis- tribution, probably contributed a great effect on the oil displacement effic1enc1es between the consolidated sandstone core and the unconsolidated sand pack. 4. No significant over-riding effect of carbon dioxide...

  18. New applications for enzymes in oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.E.; McKay, I.D. [Cleansorb Ltd., Yateley (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enzymes have been previously used as gel breakers. In these applications, the enzyme removes a chemical which is no longer required, such as biopolymers in filter cakes after drilling or in frac gels after the frac has occurred. Enzymes are now used to produce useful oilfield chemicals in-situ for acidizing, sand consolidation and water shutoff applications. Enzyme-based processes for generating other useful oil-field chemicals, including minerals, gels and resins, are being developed, and these applications are discussed.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF BYPASSED OIL RESERVES USING BEHIND CASING RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Conner; Jeffrey A. Blesener

    2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Tubing and rods of the S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.1 well were pulled and the well was prepared for running of Schlumberger's Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool (CHFR) in selected intervals. The CHFR tool was successfully run and data was captured. The CHFR formation resistivity readings were compared to original open hole resistivity measurements. Separation between the original and CHFR resistivity curves indicate both swept and un-swept sand intervals. Both watered out sand intervals and those with higher remaining oil saturation have been identified. Due to the nature of these turbidite sands being stratigraphically continuous, both the swept and unswept layers have been correlated across to one of the four nearby offset shallow wells. As a result of the cased hole logging, one well was selected for a workover to recomplete and test suspected oil saturated shallow sand intervals. Well S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.2 was plugged back with cement excluding the previously existing production interval, squeeze cemented behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Bell'' zone and placed on production to develop potential new oil reserves and increase overall well productivity. Prior workover production averaged 3.0 BOPD for the previous six-months from the original ''Meyer'' completion interval. Post workover well production was increased to 5.3 BOPD on average for the following fifteen months. In December 2005, a bridge plug was installed above the ''Bell'' zone to test the ''Foix'' zone. Another cement squeeze was performed behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Foix'' zone and placed on production. The ''Foix'' test has produced water and a trace of oil for two months.

  20. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  1. Fluid escape from reservoirs: implications from cold seeps, fractures and injected sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Adriano

    Abstract Fluid escape from reservoirs: implications from cold seeps, fractures and injected sands fluids escape from hydrocarbon reservoirs through permeable networks of fractures, injected sands. Within fractures and injected sands, oxidation of chained hydrocarbons supplies bicarbonate to the co

  2. Characterization of nickel and vanadium compounds in tar sand bitumen by UV-VIS spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography coupled with element specific detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Jones, E.L.; Bennett, J.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Biggs, W.R. (Chevron Research Co., Richmond, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previously, the authors examined the Ni and V in heavy crude oils, residua, and processed products by several metal speciation techniques to ascertain molecular structure and processing behavior. Two classes of metal compounds were found - metallopetroporphyrins and metallo-nonprophyrins - each having unique reactivity during processing. In efforts to better understand the binding of metals in the oil medium, they now examine NI and V in tar sand bitumens. The bitumen was solvent extracted from the sand matrix and was separated by column chromatography and the petroporphyrin content was quantitated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The petroporphyrin contents ranged from virtually none to over 36% of the total metals. Asphalt Ridge (Utah) has primarily Ni petroporphyrins; Big Clifty (Kentucky) and Athabasca (Canada) have primarily V petroporphyrins; Arroyo Grande and McKittrick (California) have roughly equal amounts of both types; and Sunnyside (Utah) has virtually none of either.

  3. Biocalcification of Sand through Ureolysis Chiung-Wen Chou1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    . A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the changes in geomechanical properties of sand attributable that the bacterial cells effectively improved the geomechanical properties of the sand. Growing cells improved and have a tremendous effect on the composition, properties, and geomechanical behavior of earth materials

  4. ALUMINOSILICATE-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    ALUMINOSILICATE-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS By JORGE ANTONIO JEREZ transport experiments; Dr. Barbara Williams and Jason Shira from University of Idaho for providing access-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS Abstract by Jorge Antonio Jerez Briones, Ph.D. Washington

  5. BENEFICIAL UTILIZATION OF USED FOUNDRY SANDS AS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    and state environmental agencies began to pay increasing attention to industrial pollution, safety and wasteBENEFICIAL UTILIZATION OF USED FOUNDRY SANDS AS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS By Tarun R. Naik Director - 6696 Fax: (414) 229 - 6958 #12;-2- Beneficial Utilization of Used Foundry Sands as Construction

  6. Mechanic Waves in Sand, 3d Simulations O Mouraillea,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luding, Stefan

    Mechanic Waves in Sand, 3d Simulations O Mouraillea, , W A Mulderb & S Ludinga a Particle propagation. The propagation of rotational energy in itself is studied as well. The control on the inter in granular materials. #12;Wave propagation, MD-Simulations 2 1. Introduction Sand, like other granular

  7. Multispecies Reactive Tracer Test in a Sand and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multispecies Reactive Tracer Test in a Sand and Gravel Aquifer, Cape Cod, Massachusetts United;Multispecies Reactive Tracer Test in a Sand and Gravel Aquifer, Cape Cod, Massachusetts Part 2 Transport- effectiveness for prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources; protection

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION First Collection Records of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SHORT COMMUNICATION First Collection Records of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From (2011); DOI: 10.1603/ME10170 ABSTRACT The phlebotomine sand ßies Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia) shannoni (Dyar species were collected from ultraviolet CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control light traps during a state

  9. Household scale slow sand filtration in the Dominican Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donison, Kori S. (Kori Shay), 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Slow sand filtration is a method of water treatment that has been used for hundreds of years. In the past two decades, there has been resurgence in interest in slow sand filtration, particularly as a low-cost, household-scale ...

  10. Completion methods in thick, multilayered tight gas sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogueri, Obinna Stavely

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Tight gas sands, coal-bed methane, and gas shales are commonly called unconventional reservoirs. Tight gas sands (TGS) are often described as formations with an expected average permeability of 0.1mD or less. Gas production rates from TGS reservoirs...

  11. Completion methods in thick, multilayered tight gas sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogueri, Obinna Stavely

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Tight gas sands, coal-bed methane, and gas shales are commonly called unconventional reservoirs. Tight gas sands (TGS) are often described as formations with an expected average permeability of 0.1mD or less. Gas production rates from TGS reservoirs...

  12. www.nasa.gov WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE ACCESS CAPABILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and missile launch, tracking, and recovery · Nuclear effects testing · High-speed sled track · Directed energy weapons testing · Climatic and dynamic environments testing · Atmospheric research · Electronicwww.nasa.gov WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE ACCESS CAPABILITIES SUMMARY White Sands Test Facility (WSTF

  13. Heats of dissolution of tar sand bitumen in various solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ensley, E.K.; Scott, M.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissolution of tar sand bitumen from a tar sand matrix was examined using three solvents: (1) dichloromethane, a polar-polarizable solvent; (2) toluene, a nonpolar-polarizable solvent; and (3) hexane, a nonpolar-nonpolarizable solvent. The dichloromethane had the highest dissolution energy, followed by toluene, with hexane having the lowest dissolution energy. These data were combined with heat of dissolution of recovered bitumen and heat of wetting of spent sand to calculate the bonding energy between bitumen and the mineral matrix. The interfacial bonding energy between tar sand bitumen and the mineral matrix was found to be in the region of 0 to 0.09 cal/g of bitumen, which is very small. This conclusion may find application in recovery of energy or bitumen from bitumen-wet tar sand deposits. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Gas Well Drilling and Water Resources Regulated by the Pennsylvania Oil and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    used in drilling and fracking · Recent increase in permit fee to fund new DEP enforcement · Permit fluids ­ return fluids from fracking ­ mixture of water, sand and chemicals Production fluids ­ fluids, manganese, barium, arsenic, etc.) Surfactants/detergents Total suspended solids Oil/Grease Fracking

  15. Utilizing asphaltene pyrolysis to predict pyrolysis kinetics of heavy crude oil and extractable native bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected heavy crude oils and extracted tar sand bitumens were separated into asphaltene and maltene fractions. The whole feeds and fractions were then examined by micropyrolysis at nominal constant heating rates from 1 to 50{degrees}C/min from temperatures of 250 to 650{degrees}C to establish evolution behavior, pyrolysate yields, and kinetics of evolution.

  16. Geological evaluation of San Diego Norte Pilot Project, Zuata area, Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Rojas, I.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The San Diego Norte Pilot Project consists of twelve inclined wells (7 producing wells 300 m (984 ft) apart, plus 5 observation wells) drilled from a cluster, to study the production and compaction behavior under steam soak (huff and puff) of the Tertiary heavy crude oil reservoirs of the Zuata area. This area is located within the Orinoco Heavy Oil belt of Venezuela. A geological model was needed as a base for the reservoir studies and to understand the geological setting. This model was constructed from extensive log information, seismic lines, well samples, and cores. The reservoir sands are friable with an average porosity of 34% and permeabilities ranging from 1 to 7 ..mu..m/sup 2/ (1 to 7 darcys). The sands were deposited in meander belts that stacked up forming multistory bodies. Point bars and channel fills account for 80-90% of the total sand. These sands are internally heterogeneous, sinuous and elongated, and larger than the 1 km/sup 2/ area covered by the project. The topmost two productive sands, which together average 22 m (72 ft), show the best porosities and permeabilities and are isolated by thick clays that make them suitable for selective steam injection. In the project, the oil has a density of about 1.0 g/cm/sup 3/ (10/sup 0/ API) and fills all the sands down to the oil-water contact. The depth of this contact is controlled by regional faults. Based on core compressibility tests, compaction is expected to be the principal production mechanism that could increase the expected primary recovery of 4 to 12% by huff and puff steam injection, leading to a possible recovery of 0.64 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ (4 million bbl) in six years with four cycles of steam injection. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  17. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  18. Tax credit for tight-sands gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schugart, G.L.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a $3 per barrel tax credit, which is tied to crude oil prices, in the Windfall Profits Tax (WPT) for producing fuels from certain unconventional sources. Concentrating on the tight gas formations section of qualifying fuels, the author examines the tax credit and certain factors natural gas producers may want to consider in deciding on whether to choose the tax credit or the incentive prices of the Natural Gas Policy Act. The decline in oil prices is significant enough to provide some producers an opportunity to take advantage of the tax credit. They should do some tax planning by calculating the estimated break-even point for NGPA incentive prices and the nonconventional gas production tax credit.

  19. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    over time even if the oil market were perfectly competitive.a big role in world oil markets, that era is long past.and re?ning oil and delivering it to the market. We could

  20. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appeared in the world oil market in the last fifteen years.have on the world oil markets and international relationsthe stability of the oil markets. 11 This literature,

  1. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China made an Iranian oil investment valued at $70 billion.across Iran, China’s oil investment may exceed $100 billionthese involving investment in oil and gas, really undermine

  2. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),the faster its growth in oil demand over the last half ofthe income elasticity of oil demand to fall signi?cantly.

  3. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    current pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentthis point, China’s demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supply inand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

  4. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

  5. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crudein predicting quarterly real oil price change. variable real

  6. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq KuwaitEIA Table 1.2, “OPEC Crude Oil Production (Excluding Lease2008, from EIA, “Crude Oil Production. ” Figure 16. U.S.

  7. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unfettered access to oil resources including the possibleChina’s search for oil resources around the world. However,a survey of China’s oil resources, while others focus

  8. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

  9. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

  10. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

  11. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in U.S. real GDP and oil consumption, 1949-2006. slope =Historical Chinese oil consumption and projection of trend.1991-2006: Chinese oil consumption in millions of barrels

  12. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait,day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.and the peak in U.S. oil production account for the broad

  13. Identification and delineation of low resistivity, low permeability reservoirs using qualitative sidewall sample log k * S[sub O] relationships in the western shallow oil zone, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beacom, E.K.; Kornreich, I.S. (System Technology Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 500 wells, including wells producing from the deeper Miocene Stevens sands, penetrate the Western Shallow Oil Zone (Pliocene Etchegoin Formation) at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve in California. The Western Shallow Oil Zone Gusher and Calitroleum sands are very fine grained, silty and pyritic and are interbedded with silty shales. Electric logs generally show 1[1/2]-2[1/2] ohm-meters of deep resistivity and the spontaneous potential displays little or no response to the sands. However, approximately 180 wells in each of the mapped productive sands have sidewall sample data to visually inspect the rock for hydrocarbons. Each productive interval within the Western Shallow Oil Zone has two or more pools. The most exploited (and most heavily drilled) of these pools is at the western end of the Eastern anticline. The pools on the Western anticline have few tests and production is limited and generally commingled. In order to identify productive intervals and to delineate the areal extent of these sands, qualitative assessment of sidewall sample data was done and maps of log permeability times oil saturation were prepared for each zone. The analysis showed large amounts of unexploited hydrocarbons in the Western pools. Complete exploitation of the Gusher and Calitroleum sands will recover in excess of 11 million additional barrels of 38 degree gravity oil.

  14. Identification and delineation of low resistivity, low permeability reservoirs using qualitative sidewall sample log k * S{sub O} relationships in the western shallow oil zone, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beacom, E.K.; Kornreich, I.S. [System Technology Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 500 wells, including wells producing from the deeper Miocene Stevens sands, penetrate the Western Shallow Oil Zone (Pliocene Etchegoin Formation) at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve in California. The Western Shallow Oil Zone Gusher and Calitroleum sands are very fine grained, silty and pyritic and are interbedded with silty shales. Electric logs generally show 1{1/2}-2{1/2} ohm-meters of deep resistivity and the spontaneous potential displays little or no response to the sands. However, approximately 180 wells in each of the mapped productive sands have sidewall sample data to visually inspect the rock for hydrocarbons. Each productive interval within the Western Shallow Oil Zone has two or more pools. The most exploited (and most heavily drilled) of these pools is at the western end of the Eastern anticline. The pools on the Western anticline have few tests and production is limited and generally commingled. In order to identify productive intervals and to delineate the areal extent of these sands, qualitative assessment of sidewall sample data was done and maps of log permeability times oil saturation were prepared for each zone. The analysis showed large amounts of unexploited hydrocarbons in the Western pools. Complete exploitation of the Gusher and Calitroleum sands will recover in excess of 11 million additional barrels of 38 degree gravity oil.

  15. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, China’s demand Oil

  16. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    historical data for claiming to be able to predict oil pricehistorical data. The second is to look at the predictions of economic theory as to how oil prices

  17. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007”. comparison, Mexico used 6.6— Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexico’s Cantarell,

  18. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  19. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  20. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate gels that were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels maintained gel integrity in linear corefloods after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution at 125 F. At 175 F, Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels were not stable either with or without subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-pol

  1. Improved oil recovery using horizontal wells at Elk Hills, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangle, F.J.; Schultz, K.L.; McJannet, G.S.; Ezekwe, N.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eight horizontal wells have been drilled and completed in a steeply dipping Stevens sand reservoir in the Elk Hills field, Kern County, California. The subject reservoir, called the Stevens 26R, is a turbidite channel sand deposit one mile wide, three miles long, and one mile deep. Formation beds have a gross thickness up to 1,500 feet and dips as high as 60 degrees on the flanks. The original oil column of 1,810 feet has been pulled down to 200 feet by continual production since 1976. The reservoir management operating strategy has been full pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection since 1976. The steep dip of the formation makes gravity drainage the dominant drive mechanism. Additionally, improved recovery is coming from cycling dry gas through the large secondary gas cap region. The prudent placement of the horizontal wells above the oil/water contact promises to improve oil recovery and extend the operating life of the reservoir. Field results are given to compare the performance of the horizontal wells with the conventional wells. The horizontal wells produce at higher rates, lower draw downs, and lower gas/oil ratio which will extend the life of the project and result in higher recovery.

  2. aeolian sand transport: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus...

  3. aeolian sands underlain: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus...

  4. asian sand dust: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus...

  5. Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity."Journal of Hydrology 472-473:159-168. doi:10.1016j.jhydrol.2012.09.021 Authors: G Wang W Um...

  6. Kellogg and Russ Forest projects. 2002 Project sand highlights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kellogg and Russ Forest projects. 2002 Project sand highlights MacCready Reserve a new property of insects Galeerucella calmariensis,and G.pusilla to control purple loosestrife on May 13. #12;New Project

  7. Tree Harvest in an Experimental Sand Ecosystem: Plant Effects on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Tree Harvest in an Experimental Sand Ecosystem: Plant Effects on Nutrient Dynamics and Solute control during this interval. During the 1st year after harvest, K concentrations tripled in shallow soil

  8. The potential use of tar sand bitumen as paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper several research reports describing the preparation of potential paving asphalts from tar sand bitumen are reviewed and the results of the studies compared. The tar sand asphalts described in the studies were prepared from 1) hot water-recovered bitumen from deposits near San Luis Obispo, California (Edna deposits), and deposits near Vernal and Sunnyside, Utah; and 2) bitumen recovered from the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposits near Vernal, Utah, by both in situ steamflood and in situ combustion recovery processes. Important properties of the tar sand asphalts compare favorably with those of specification petroleum asphalts. Laboratory data suggest that some tar sand asphalts may have superior aging characteristics and produce more water-resistant paving mixtures than typical petroleum asphalts.

  9. Study of properties of sand asphalt using a torsional rheometer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasula, Lavan Kumar Reddy

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The modeling of Sand Asphalt and experiments to measure their rheological properties are of vital concern to many industrial processes especially highway and roadway pavement construction industry. A variety of hot mix ...

  10. Bathymetric evolution of sand bed forms under partially standing waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landry, Blake Jude

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted in a large wave flume where the interaction between water waves and a movable sand bed were investigated. Monochromatic and poly- chromatic waves of specified amplitudes and period were generated ...

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE Drag reduction using superhydrophobic sanded Teflon surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Drag reduction using superhydrophobic sanded Teflon surfaces Dong Song · Robert J- phobic surfaces with random surface microstructure. These superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated was found to produce the largest pressure drop reduction. 1 Introduction Superhydrophobic surfaces can

  12. Acoustic detection of Immiscible Liquids in Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, Jil T.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Seifert, Patricia K.; Nihei, Kurt T.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory cross-well P-wave transmission at 90 kHz was measured in a 61 cm diameter by 76 cm tall water-saturated sand pack, before and after introducing a non-aqueous phase organic liquid (NAPL) (n-dodecane). In one experiment NAPL was introduced to form a lens trapped by a low permeability layer; a second experiment considered NAPL residual trapped behind the front of flowing NAPL. The NAPL caused significant changes in the travel time and amplitude of first arrivals, as well as the generation of diffracted waves arriving after the direct wave. The spatial variations in NAPL saturation obtained from excavation at the end of the experiment correlated well with the observed variations in the P-wave amplitudes and travel times. NAPL residual saturation changes from NAPL flow channels of 3 to 4% were detectable and the 40 to 80% NAPL saturation in the NAPL lens was clearly visible at acoustic frequencies. The results of these experiments demonstrate that small NAPL saturations may be more easily detected with amplitude rather than travel time data, but that the relationships between the amplitude changes and NAPL saturation maybe more complex than those for velocity.

  13. Process for upgrading tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholic, D.B.; Reagan, W.J.

    1989-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for upgrading a charge of a tar sand bitumen concentrate containing metal impurities, colloidal calcium-containing clay and water. It consists of contacting the charge in a riser contacting zone in the presence of a low boiling organic solvent with hot fluidizable attrition-resistant substantially catalytically-inert microspheres, which are 20 to 150 microns in diameter and are composed of previously calcined kaolin clay. The contact takes place at high temperature and short contact time, which permits vaporization of the high hydrogen containing components of the bitumen. The period of time is less than that which induces substantial thermal cracking of the charge. At the end of the time the vaporized produce is separated from the microspheres of calcined kaolin clay, the microspheres of calcined kaolin clay now bearing a deposit of combustible solid, metal impurities and adherent particles of colloidal calcium-containing clay originally contained in the bitumen concentrate, immediately reducing the temperature of the vaporized product to minimize thermal cracking and recovering the product for further refining to produce one or more premium products.

  14. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  15. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant oil, but contrary to early reports, the area does not contain the huge volumes of heavy oil that, along with the development of steam and in situ combustion as oil production technologies, sparked the area`s oil boom of the 1960s. Recovery of this heavy oil has proven economically unfeasible for most operators due to the geology of the formations rather than the technology applied to recover the oil. The geology of the southern Midcontinent, as well as results of field projects using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) methods to produce the heavy oil, was examined based on analysis of data from secondary sources. Analysis of the performance of these projects showed that the technology recovered additional heavy oil above what was produced from primary production from the consolidated, compartmentalized, fluvial dominated deltaic sandstone formations in the Cherokee and Forest City basins. The only projects producing significant economic and environmentally acceptable heavy oil in the Midcontinent are in higher permeability, unconsolidated or friable, thick sands such as those found in south-central Oklahoma. There are domestic heavy oil reservoirs in other sedimentary basins that are in younger formations, are less consolidated, have higher permeability and can be economically produced with current TEOR technology. Heavy oil production from the carbonates of central and wester Kansas has not been adequately tested, but oil production is anticipated to remain low. Significant expansion of Midcontinent heavy oil production is not anticipated because the economics of oil production and processing are not favorable.

  16. Petrological comparison of some tertiary and quaternary sands from Brazos and adjourning counties, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsik, William Clinton

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    //ipyramids of quartz in the Catahoula sands differ- / / entiates them from P ~ternary sands. The Claiborne sands contain much , , ' / muscovite. Volcarj g glass is common in the Jackson sends. / Angular-s+' gular roundness ratios vary for both Tertiary... and / / / Quaternary sar g. Occasional angular-subangular ratio va1ues in excess / / of 2. 00 are saracteristic of the Quaternary sands. / / Glaua' gite is more common in Tertiary than in Quaternary sands. / / / Add' Lional petrological studies of the clay...

  17. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  18. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption would be reduced and incentives for production increased whenever the price of crude oil

  19. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a novel alkaline-steam well completion technique for the containment of the unconsolidated formation sands and control of fluid entry and injection profiles. (5) Installation of a 2100 ft, 14 inch insulated, steam line beneath a harbor channel to supply steam to an island location. (6) Testing and proposed application of thermal recovery technologies to increase oil production and reserves: (a) Performing pilot tests of cyclic steam injection and production on new horizontal wells. (b) Performing pilot tests of hot water-alternating-steam (WAS) drive in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Perform a pilot steamflood with the four horizontal injectors and producers using a pseudo steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process. (8) Advanced reservoir management, through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring and evaluation.

  1. Increasing waterflood reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. Annual report, March 21, 1995--March 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, D.; Clarke, D.; Walker, S.; Phillips, C.; Nguyen, J.; Moos, D.; Tagbor, K.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project uses advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three- dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturation sands will be stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as short radius and ultra-short radius laterals. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  2. Potential for substitution of geothermal energy at domestic defense installations and White Sands Missile Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakewell, C.A.; Renner, J.L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal resources that might provide substitute energy at any of 76 defense installations are identified and evaluated. The geologic characteristics and related economics of potential geothermal resources located at or near the 76 installations were estimated. The geologic assessment identified 18 installations with possible geothermal resources and 4 Atlantic Coastal Plain resource configurations that represented the alternatives available to East Coast bases. These 18 locations and 4 resource configurations, together with 2 possible resources at the White Sands Missile Range and a potential resource at Kings Bay, Georgia, were examined to determine the relative economics of substituting potential geothermal energy for part or all of the existing oil, gas, and electrical energy usage. Four of the military installations - Mountain Home, Norton, Hawthorne, and Sierra - appear to be co-located with possible geothermal resources which, if present, might provide substitute energy at or below current market prices for oil. Six additional locations - Ellsworth, Luke, Williams, Bliss, Fallon, and Twentynine Palms - could become economically attractive under certain conditions. No geothermal resource was found to be economically competitive with natural gas at current controlled prices. Generation of electric power at the locations studied is estimated to be uneconomic at present.

  3. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venezuelan Oil Industry Total Wells Drilled and InvestmentWells Drilled and Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industryopenness of the oil sector to foreign investment contributes

  5. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is described below. Data Crude oil production data is fromproductivity measure is crude oil production per worker, andwhich is measured as crude oil production per worker, is

  6. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal drilling, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  7. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal continuity, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  8. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . .2.6: Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico 350 Productivity

  9. Application of turbidite facies of the Stevens Oil Zone for reservoir management, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; Thompson, T.W. [Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States); McJannet, G.S. [Dept. of Energy, Tupman, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed depositional model for the uppermost sand reservoirs of the Stevens Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, California, contains three facies: turbidite channel-fill sand bodies, overbank Sandstone and mudstone, and pelagic and hemipelagic siliceous shale. Sand bodies are the primary producing facies and consist of layered, graded sandstone with good permeability. The presence of incipient anticlines with subsea relief in the late Miocene resulted in deposition of lenticular and sinuous sand Was within structurally created channels. Relief of these structural channels was low when the earliest sand bodies were deposited, leading to a wide channel complex bounded by broad overbank deposits of moderate to low permeability. As deposition proceeded, increased structural relief constrained the channels, resulting in narrower sand body width and relatively abrupt channel terminations against very low permeability siliceous shale. With post-Miocene uplift and differential compaction, stratigraphic mounding of sand bodies helped create structural domes such as the 24Z reservoir. Stratigraphic traps including the 26R reservoir were also created. Such traps vary in seal quality from very effective to leaky, depending on the lateral transition from sand bodies to siliceous shale. Application of the Elk Hills turbidity model (1) provides a framework for monitoring production performance in the 24Z and Northwest Stevens waterflood projects; and for tracking gas migration into and out of the 26R reservoir, (2) helps b identify undeveloped locations in the 26R reservoir ideally suited for horizontal wells, (3) has led to the identification of two new production trends in the 29R area, and (4) makes possible the development of exploration plays in western Elk Hills.

  10. Application of turbidite facies of the Stevens Oil Zone for reservoir management, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; Thompson, T.W. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); McJannet, G.S. (Dept. of Energy, Tupman, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed depositional model for the uppermost sand reservoirs of the Stevens Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, California, contains three facies: turbidite channel-fill sand bodies, overbank Sandstone and mudstone, and pelagic and hemipelagic siliceous shale. Sand bodies are the primary producing facies and consist of layered, graded sandstone with good permeability. The presence of incipient anticlines with subsea relief in the late Miocene resulted in deposition of lenticular and sinuous sand Was within structurally created channels. Relief of these structural channels was low when the earliest sand bodies were deposited, leading to a wide channel complex bounded by broad overbank deposits of moderate to low permeability. As deposition proceeded, increased structural relief constrained the channels, resulting in narrower sand body width and relatively abrupt channel terminations against very low permeability siliceous shale. With post-Miocene uplift and differential compaction, stratigraphic mounding of sand bodies helped create structural domes such as the 24Z reservoir. Stratigraphic traps including the 26R reservoir were also created. Such traps vary in seal quality from very effective to leaky, depending on the lateral transition from sand bodies to siliceous shale. Application of the Elk Hills turbidity model (1) provides a framework for monitoring production performance in the 24Z and Northwest Stevens waterflood projects; and for tracking gas migration into and out of the 26R reservoir, (2) helps b identify undeveloped locations in the 26R reservoir ideally suited for horizontal wells, (3) has led to the identification of two new production trends in the 29R area, and (4) makes possible the development of exploration plays in western Elk Hills.

  11. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents the work done during the year of May 8, 1987 to June 9, 1988. This year was the first year of a five-year program. The overall objective of the latter is to advance the technologies for recovering bitumen from the tar sands by thermal and water assisted extraction means and upgrading of bitumen to synthetic crude, and conversion of bitumens to specialty products such as asphalt and resins to levels where realistic evaluations of technical and commercial potential can be made. Additionally, it is desired to have the data at a level which is adequate for design of pilot plants of appropriate size deemed necessary for commercial scale-up of the various processes being studied. The main areas for studies covered in this report are modelling and optimization of the hydropyrolysis process for upgrading bitumens, bitumen recovery by pyrolysis of the circle Cliffs tar sands in a fluid bed, pyrolysis of Whiterocks tar sand in a rotary kiln, modelling of the combustor in the coupled fluidized bed with interbed heat transfer using heat pipes, development of superior diluents for use in the water extraction of Utah's tar sands, and fractionation and characterization of the bitumens from Asphalt Ridge and Sunnyside tar sands. 169 refs., 60 figs., 31 tars.

  12. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2002-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through June 2002, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V post-steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the Third Quarter 2002, the project team essentially completed implementing the accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project developed in March 2002 and is proceeding with additional related work. The project team has completed developing laboratory research procedures to analyze the sand consolidation well completion technique and will initiate work in the fourth quarter. The Tar V pilot steamflood project terminated hot water injection and converted to post-steamflood cold water injection on April 19, 2002. Proposals have been approved to repair two sand consolidated horizontal wells that sanded up, Tar II-A well UP-955 and Tar V well J-205, with gravel-packed inner liner jobs to be performed next quarter. Other well work to be performed next quarter is to convert well L-337 to a Tar V water injector and to recomplete vertical well A-194 as a Tar V interior steamflood pattern producer. Plans have been approved to drill and complete well A-605 in Tar V in the first quarter 2003. Plans have been approved to update the Tar II-A 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and run sensitivity cases to evaluate the accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Well work related to the Tar II-A accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan began in March 2002 with oil production increasing from 1009 BOPD in the first quarter to 1145 BOPD in the third quarter. Reservoir pressures have been increased during the quarter from 88% to 91% hydrostatic levels in the ''T'' sands and from 91% to 94% hydrostatic levels in the ''D'' sands. Well work during the quarter is described in the Reservoir Management section. The post-steamflood production performance in the Tar V pilot project has been below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations and the loss of a horizontal producer a second time to sand inflow that are being addressed in the fourth quarter. As the fluid production temperatures exceeded 350 F, our self-imposed temperature limit, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001 and converted to cold water injection on April 19, 2002.

  14. Libyan oil industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddams, F.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of the growth and progress of Libya's oil industry since the first crude oil discovery in 1961 are: (1) relations between the Libyan government and the concessionary oil companies; (2) the impact of Libyan oil and events in Libya on the petroleum markets of Europe and the world; and (3) the response of the Libyan economy to the development of its oil industry. The historical review begins with Libya's becoming a sovereign nation in 1951 and traces its subsequent development into a position as a leading world oil producer. 54 references, 10 figures, 55 tables.

  15. The displacement of oil from unconsolidated sands by high temperature fluid injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, A. K. M. Sakhawat

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeability Summary of Waterflood at 72 F ? Run No ~ 2 Summary of Waterflood at 150 F ? Run No. 3 Summary of Waterflood at 255 F Run No ~ Summary of Waterflood at 150 F - Run No ~ 6 o Page 46 VIII Summary of Waterflood at 200 F - Run No ~ 8 1X X XI... XII Sussnary of Waterflood at 150 F - Run No ~ 9 Summary of Waterflood at 72 F ~ Run No. 10 0 Summary of Waterflood at 235 F ? Run No ~ 12 Summary of Waterflood at 295 F - Run No 13 0 50 51 A BS TRA CT Considerable interest in the application...

  16. Microsoft Word - EXT-11-23239_IntegofOilSands&HTGR_Final_102511...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 Figure 17. Effect of variations in key economic parameters on the price of heat. ... 23 Figure 18. Electricity price, ...

  17. Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Oil Sands...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    measuring cycloparaffins are not as well developed as those for aromatics Canadian refinery streams have been sampled and are currently being characterized in preparation for a...

  18. Ensemble-approaches for clustering health status of oil sand pumps F. Di Maio a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    expected to operate with high levels of reliability, availability, and safety although they run in adverse/3, 20133 Milano, Italy, enrico.zio@polimi.it b Smart Engineering Asset Management Laboratory (SEAM), MEEM year. Traditional maintenance strategies can be applied, but they provide insufficient warning

  19. Response of Oil Sands Derived Fuels in Diesel HCCI Operation | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingof Enhanced Dr. JuliaPOINTRespondof Energy

  20. Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of Energy Advisory Board FollowSection 3161L-1

  1. BETO-Funded Study Finds Increased Carbon Intensity from Canadian Oil Sands

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s ReplyApplication ofTribal Renewable EnergyFuell u e R iInvention Wins|

  2. Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Oil Sands Derived

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard | Department ofEmily Knouse About Us

  3. REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appanna, Vasu

    , the majority of applied microbiologi- cal methods of enhanced oil recovery also dete- riorates oil and appearsREVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived products: a review Natalia A. Yemashova January 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil

  4. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S. [NDE Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  5. Operations research applied to a sand and gravel plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordes, Alfred Henry

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRAVEL BIN 2 Gat)6 GRAVE L BIN 4 SCREEN 3 DECK 2 ( GO TO Fig. 2) Figure 1. Diagram of the Primary Gravel Circuit Gate 2 Gate 1 16 ROTARY WASHER ( main circuit) Gate 6 17 SCREEN 3 DECK 1 20 SCREEN 3 DECK 2 28 22 GRAVEL BIN 4 GRA VEL...- veyor is used as a method for dewatering the sand product and elevating the product out of the sand bins and into storage bins for loading. Circuit Gates The gates 1 through 6 are' embedded in the circuits to provide for partial changes of flow...

  6. Behavior of a full scale tieback wall in sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Moonkyung

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEHAVIOR OP A PULL SCALE TIEBACK WALL IN SAND A Thesis by MOONKYUNG CHUNG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major... Subject: Civil Engineering BEHAUIOR OF A FULL SCALE TIEBACR WALL IN SAND A Thesis MOONKYUNG CHUNG Approved as to style and content by ean-Louis Briaud hair of Committee) Derek V. Morris (Member) Christo her C. Mathewson (Member) Jam T. P. ao...

  7. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S. (comp.)

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  8. SAND96-2345 Distribution Unlimited Release Category UC-261

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember11-3779SAND88-1807 * UC-2613 SAND96-2345

  9. Using Oils As Pesticides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott; Metz, Bradley

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum and plant-derived spray oils show increasing potential for use as part of Integrated Pest Management systems for control of soft-bodied pests on fruit trees, shade trees, woody ornamentals and household plants. Sources of oils, preparing...

  10. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an alternative investment strategy to buying oil today andinvestments necessary to catch up. This was the view o?ered by oilinvestment strategy. date t) in order to purchase a quantity Q barrels of oil

  11. Gas and Oil (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

  12. Shale oil demetallization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, M. A.

    1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace metals, particularly As, Fe and Ni, are removed from hydrocarbonaceous oils, particularly shale oil by contacting the shale oil with quadrolobe alumina with or without a processing gas such as hydrogen or nitrogen at 500/sup 0/ F. to 800/sup 0/ F. at 250 to 750 psig and LHSV of 0.4 to 3.0 to deposit a portion of said trace metal onto said alumina and recover an oil product having substantially reduced amounts of trace metal.

  13. Oil Peak or Panic?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this balanced consideration of the peak-oil controversy, Gorelick comes down on the side of the optimists.

  14. Characterization of nickel and vanadium compounds in tar sand bitumen by petroporphyrin quantitation and size exclusion chromatography coupled with element specific detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Jones, E.L.; Bennett, J.A.; Biggs, W.R.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previously, we have examined the Ni and V in heavy crude oils, residua, and processed products by several metal speciation techniques to ascertain molecular structure and processing behavior. Two classes of metal compounds were found/--/metallopetroporphyrins and metallo-nonporphyrins/--/each having unique reactivity during processing. In efforts to better understand the binding of metals in the oil medium, we have now examined Ni and V in tar sand bitumens. The bitumen was solvent extracted from the sand matrix and was separated by column chromatography to quantitate petroporphyrin content. The petroporphyrin contents ranged from virtually none to over 36% of the total metals. Asphalt Ridge (Utah) has primarily Ni petroporphyrins; Big Clifty (Kentucky) and Athabasca (Canada) have primarily V petroporphyrins; Arroyo Grande and McKittrick (California) have roughly equal amounts of both types; and Sunnyside (Utah) has virtually none of either. Size characteristic profiles (SEC-HPLC-ICP) were generated for the extracted bitumens. The profiles are generally bimodal in shape and resemble several different specific heavy crude oils and residua. For examples, Arroyo Grande and McKittrick appear to be similar to Kern River (California) 650/degree/F+ residuum, while Athabasca resembles Morichal (Venezuela) 650/degree/F+ residuum. These results will be discussed in terms of generalized profile and petroporphyrin behavior. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics Products 23. Sloan dolomite quarry 24. Weiser gypsum quarry Oil Fields 1. Blackburn field 2. North WillowMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  16. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  17. Exploiting heavy oil reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    North Sea investment potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Beneath the waves in 3D Aberdeen the potential of heavy oil 8/9 Taking the legal lessons learned in the north Sea to a global audience 10 potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Aberdeen: A community of science AT WORK FOR THE ENERGY SECTOR ISSUE

  18. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  19. Oils and source rocks from the Anadarko Basin: Final report, March 1, 1985-March 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philp, R. P. [School of Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research project investigated various geochemical aspects of oils, suspected source rocks, and tar sands collected from the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. The information has been used, in general, to investigate possible sources for the oils in the basin, to study mechanisms of oil generation and migration, and characterization of depositional environments. The major thrust of the recent work involved characterization of potential source formations in the Basin in addition to the Woodford shale. The formations evaluated included the Morrow, Springer, Viola, Arbuckle, Oil Creek, and Sylvan shales. A good distribution of these samples was obtained from throughout the basin and were evaluated in terms of source potential and thermal maturity based on geochemical characteristics. The data were incorporated into a basin modelling program aimed at predicting the quantities of oil that could, potentially, have been generated from each formation. The study of crude oils was extended from our earlier work to cover a much wider area of the basin to determine the distribution of genetically-related oils, and whether or not they were derived from single or multiple sources, as well as attempting to correlate them with their suspected source formations. Recent studies in our laboratory also demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight components(C{sub 4}-C{sub 80}) in oils and waxes from drill pipes of various wells in the region. Results from such a study will have possible ramifications for enhanced oil recovery and reservoir engineering studies.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. McInerney; S.K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee

    2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at biosurfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (about 10 mg/l). Below this concentration, the IFT values were high. At biosurfactant concentrations from 10 to 40 mg/l, the IFT was 1 mN/m. As the biosurfactant concentration increased beyond 40 mg/l, IFT decreased to about 0.1 mN/m. At biosurfactant concentrations in excess of 10 mg/l, residual oil recovery was linearly related to biosurfactant concentration. A modified mathematical model that relates oil recovery to biosurfactant concentration adequately predicted the experimentally observed changes in IFT as a function of biosurfactant concentration.

  1. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to compile data on reservoirs that contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range, contain at least ten million barrels of oil currently in place, and are non-carbonate in lithology. The reservoirs within these constraints were then analyzed in light of applicable recovery technology, either steam-drive or in situ combustion, and then ranked hierarchically as candidate reservoirs. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I presents the project background and approach, the screening analysis, ranking criteria, and listing of candidate reservoirs. The economic and environmental aspects of heavy oil recovery are included in appendices to this volume. This study provides an extensive basis for heavy oil development, but should be extended to include carbonate reservoirs and tar sands. It is imperative to look at heavy oil reservoirs and projects on an individual basis; it was discovered that operators, and industrial and government analysts will lump heavy oil reservoirs as poor producers, however, it was found that upon detailed analysis, a large number, so categorized, were producing very well. A study also should be conducted on abandoned reservoirs. To utilize heavy oil, refiners will have to add various unit operations to their processes, such as hydrotreaters and hydrodesulfurizers and will require, in most cases, a lighter blending stock. A big problem in producing heavy oil is that of regulation; specifically, it was found that the regulatory constraints are so fluid and changing that one cannot settle on a favorable recovery and production plan with enough confidence in the regulatory requirements to commit capital to the project.

  2. Acoustic emission and compaction creep of quartz sand at subcritical stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenz, Steven Christopher

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -assisted mechanisms. We have investigated the role of cracking during creep compaction of quartz sand by monitoring acoustic emissions (AE). Experiments on water saturated St. Peter quartz sand packs (255 ± 60 []m grain size, initial porosity ~32%) and quartz powder...

  3. Solvent and water/surfactant process for removal of bitumen from tar sands contaminated with clay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guymon, E.P.

    1990-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for removing bitumen from a tar sand contaminated with clay. It comprises: obtaining a tar sand consisting of bitumen and clay mixed with sand; introducing the tar sand into a stripper vessel; dissolving the bitumen with a solvent, the solvent also removing the clay from the sand into a liquid medium formed with the solvent and bitumen; removing the liquid medium from the sand; and washing the sand with water to which a nonionic surface active agent has been added to remove residual bitumen from the sand, the surfactive agent comprising a linear alcohol having carbon atoms within the range on the order of about eight to fifteen carbon atoms and ethoxylate units on the carbon atoms within the range on the order of about two to eight ethoxylate units, the surfactant being present in the water in an effective amount less than about 0.5 percent by volume.

  4. Air Quality Impact Study for UMore Park Sand and Gravel Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    Air Quality Impact Study for UMore Park Sand and Gravel Resources University of Minnesota Rosemount Elliott Hendrickson Inc. Air Quality Impact Study for UMore Park Sand and Gravel Resources UOFMN 103496 ...........................................................................3 2.8 Air Emissions

  5. Depositional environment of the "stringer sand" member, Lower Tuscaloosa Formation (Cretaceous), Mallalieu field, Mississippi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Billy Charles

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with the lower Unit being subdivided into an upper "sand and shale section" a middle "marine section", and a lower "massive sand section". The Mississippi Geological Society (1957) subdivided the subsurface Tuscaloosa Group into the Upper, Marine, and Lower...) described the Lower Tuscaloosa Formation of southern Mississippi as a unit of "rapidly alternating sands and shales of shallow marine origin, overlying a nearly unbroken sand sec- tion of still shallower marine or continental origin". Braunstein ai. so...

  6. The application of triaxial compression tests to the design of sand-asphalt paving mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, Leo J

    1940-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Changes in Sand. Orading upon the JLngle of Internal Friction III. Effect of the Initial Void Ratio upon ths ' ingle of Internal friction (Pine Sand. ) . . . . . . . Page 31 35 IV. Xffect oi Dust on the Angle of Internal Jriction in Sand Nixes... after Failure . . , 24 S. Nffsct of Changes in Sand. Grading on the Angle of Internal Friction . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Relation between ths Angle of Internal Friction ank Initial Yolk Ratio (Fine Sank...

  7. COSTS MODELS IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF SAND CASTING PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COSTS MODELS IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF SAND CASTING PRODUCTS Nicolas PERRY Ass. Prof., IRCCy.Bernard@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Abstract: In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization

  8. forControl,DynamicalSyste sandComputation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhmedov, Azer

    "Optimization and Control Theory for Smart (Power) Grids" ESB 1001 April 2 Mustafa Khammash, UCSB 3:00 PM John Lygeros, ETH Zurich 11:00 AM "Stochastic Model Predictive Control: Tractability and HFH 4164Center forControl,DynamicalSyste m sandComputation CC DC Coordinator: Prof. Mustafa Khammash

  9. SAND AND GRAVEL MINING IN COLORADO RIPARIAN HABITATS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reclamation Specialist Colorado Division of Mined Land Reclamation 723 Centennial Building 1313 Sherman Reclamation Board (MLRB) administers the Colo rado Mined Land Reclamation Act of 1976. This law requires types of mining including sand and gravel mining. The Mined Land Reclamation Division (MLRD

  10. Noise Impact Study for UMore Park Sand and Gravel Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    the sand and gravel mining operation. Mineral extraction is proposed on approximately 1,722 acres of land/landfill lining, clearing and grubbing, mineral extraction, material transporting, material processing including materials to and from the proposed extraction site, importation of non toxic compactable material

  11. Numerical and analytical modeling of sanding onset prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Xianjie

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    results vary with the selection of one or another rock strength criterion. In this work, we present four commonly used rock strength criteria in sanding onset prediction and wellbore stability studies: Mohr-Coulomb, Hoek-Brown, Drucker-Prager, and Modified...

  12. SAND2003-8146C Symposium on Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    SAND2003-8146C Symposium on Thin Films ICM-9 9th International Conference on the Mechanical FRACTURE OF THIN GOLD FILMS N. R. Moody, D. P. Adams*, M. J. Cordill**, D. F. Bahr**, A. A. Volinsky of interfacial fracture energies of thin gold films as a function of film thickness is presented in this paper

  13. Solvent extraction process for recovering bitumen from tar sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, C.R.; Clifford, R.K.

    1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for recovering bitumen from tar sand which comprises: (a) preparing a mixture containing divided tar sand and an organic solvent the ratio of the solvent to the bitumen in the tar sand is at least 2 parts solvent to 1 part bitumen form a bitument/solvent phase with a viscosity low enough to facilitate the physical separation of a significant portion of the bitumen/solvent phase from the mineral matrix of the tar sand; (b) separating by physical means at least a portion of the bitumen/solvent phase from the mineral matrix; (c) mixing the separated mineral matrix of step (b) with additional solvent in a washing stage to recover bitumen remaining with the mineral matrix; (d) introducing the recovered solvent/bitumen mixture from wash step (c) back into step (a); (e) recovering organic solvent from the mineral matrix of step (c) using an aqueous/organic solvent froth flotation phase separation where the majority of the mineral matrix remains with the aqueous phase; (f) recycling the solvent recovered from the phase separation of step (e) back to the washing step of (c); (g) separating bitumen from the bitumen/solvent phase of step (b); and (h) returning solvent collected from step (g) back to step (a).

  14. SANDIA REPORT SAND95-8224 " UC-406

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND95-8224 " UC-406 Unlimited Release k Printed April 1995 Optimal Control of a CVD of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored or subcontractors. This report has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE

  15. SANDIA REPORT SAND95-8223 q UC-404

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by coupling the OPT++ optimization library to the TAC02D finite element heat transfer code. The optimizationSANDIA REPORT SAND95-8223 q UC-404 Unlimited Release Printed April 1995 , . Optimal Heat Transfer UC-404 Optimal Heat Transfer Design of Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactors Christopher D. Moen

  16. SAND962331 Distribution Unlimited Release Category UC405

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devine, Karen

    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been madeSAND96­2331 Distribution Unlimited Release Category UC­405 Printed September 1996 MPSalsa A FINITE

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. In the last quarter, we have developed streamline generation and convection subroutines for miscible gas injection. The WAG injection algorithms are being developed. We formulated a four-phase relative permeability model based on two-phase relative permeabilities. The new relative permeability formulations are being incorporated into the simulator. Wettabilities and relative permeabilities are being measured. Plans for the next quarter includes modeling of WAG injection in streamline based simulation, relative permeability studies with cores, incorporation of complex well-architecture.

  18. Implementing Per Bak's Sand Pile Model as a Two-Dimensional Cellular Automaton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Implementing Per Bak's Sand Pile Model as a Two-Dimensional Cellular Automaton Leigh Tesfatsion 21 January 2009 Econ 308 Presentation Outline · Brief review: What is a Cellular Automaton? · Sand piles and "self-organized criticality" · Algorithmic description of Per Bak's sand pile model as a two

  19. Geochemical Evidence for an Eolian Sand Dam across the North and South Platte Rivers in Nebraska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loope, David B.

    Geochemical Evidence for an Eolian Sand Dam across the North and South Platte Rivers in Nebraska that the Nebraska Sand Hills once migrated across the North and South Platte rivers and dammed the largest tributary of the South Platte River, have compositions intermediate between the Nebraska Sand Hills (quartz

  20. Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets David Jon by raindrop impacts. We use high-speed imaging of drop impacts on dry sand to describe the drop (2007), Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets, J

  1. The drilling of a horizontal well in a mature oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the drilling of a medium radius horizontal well in the Bartlesville Sand of the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma by Rougeot Oil and Gas Corporation (Rougeot) of Sperry, Oklahoma. The report includes the rationale for selecting the particular site, the details of drilling the well, the production response, conclusions reached, and recommendations made for the future drilling of horizontal wells. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: SAND2015-1328M

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and gas utilities, and other industries that employ combustion models. A paper...

  3. An investigation of the effects of wettability on oil recovery after water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boykin, Robert Stith

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    may be held in the reservoir by capi13sry foroes. Their results fram an investigation cf the adhesion of crude oil to the sand surface showed that some crudes exhibited & mnoh greatA!x' affinity fer silica than others~ This they attribute... was kept at, 500 psi. and at 100 degrees F. by a thermostated water bath. mercury pump was connected to a small oil reservo1r and was used to measure the volume of the droplets formed, The steel tip vas carefully machined to a uniform diameter...

  4. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability trends. The Lower Grandstand sand consists of two coarsening-upward shoreface sands sequences while the Upper Grandstand consists of a single coarsening-upward shoreface sand. Each of the shoreface sands shows a distinctive permeability profile with high horizontal permeability at the top getting progressively poorer towards the base of the sand. In contrast, deltaic sandstones in the overlying Ninuluk are more permeable at the base of the sands, with decreasing permeability towards the sand top. These trends impart a strong permeability anisotropy to the reservoir and are being incorporated into the reservoir model. These observations also suggest that horizontal wells should target the upper part of the major sands. Natural fractures may superimpose another permeability pattern on the Umiat reservoir that need to be accounted for in both the simulation and in drilling. Examination of legacy core from Umiat field indicate that fractures are present in the subsurface, but don't provide information on their orientation and density. Nearby surface exposures of folds in similar stratigraphy indicate there are at least three possible fracture sets: an early, N/S striking set that may predate folding and two sets possibly related to folding: an EW striking set of extension fractures that are parallel to the fold axes and a set of conjugate shear fractures oriented NE and NW. Analysis of fracture spacing suggests that these natural fractures are fairly widely spaced (25-59 cm depending upon the fracture set), but could provide improved reservoir permeability in horizontal legs drilled perpendicular to the open fracture set. The phase behavior of the Umiat fluid needed to be well understood in order for the reservoir simulation to be accurate. However, only a small amount of Umiat oil was available; this oil was collected in the 1940’s and was severely weathered. The composition of this ‘dead’ Umiat fluid was characterized by gas chromatography. This analysis was then compared to theoretical Umiat composition derived using the Pedersen method with original Umiat

  5. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  6. A Fork in the Road We stand at a fork in the road. Conventional oil and gas supplies are limited. We can move

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    A Fork in the Road We stand at a fork in the road. Conventional oil and gas supplies are limited the dirtiest tar sands and tar shales, hydrofracking for gas, continued mountain-top removal and mechanized to society. We must collect a gradually rising fee from fossil fuel companies at the source, the domestic

  7. THE WASTE OIL INFLUENCE AND RISKS ON ENVIRONMENT IN REFER TO BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajfa Musemi?; Azra Baši?

    The main impurities usually present in used oil are various organic acid, polymer residua, metal particles arisen by wear and tear parts of lubricated equipment like: lead, chromium, nickel, cadmium, aluminum, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mercaptans, various halogenated compounds, soot, sand, dust and microbes. In addition, but with less frequency, waste oils may contain high-harmful polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated terphenyls (PCT) or polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). Waste oil can have a number of significant, short-term and long-term impacts on the environment if they are treated or managed in an uncontrolled manner. Oil prevents the penetration of oxygen into the water, thereby makes violation the conditions of life of many species. Taking into account that Bosnia and Herzegovina interspersed with a large number of surface and groundwater, and paying attention to the fact that water contains only 1-2 mg per liter of lubricating oils are not suitable for drinking, it is obvious that the risks short-and long-term impact for the entire huge living world are present. An existing initial database of oil distributors, importers, manufacturers and users in Bosnia and Herzegovina has been analyzed, on the base of the lubricants related practice waste oil generation. Key words: waste oil, risks, environmental impact assessment, PCBs.

  8. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  9. World Oil: Market or Mayhem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world oil market is regarded by many as a puzzle. Why are oil prices so volatile? What is OPEC and what does OPEC do? Where are oil prices headed in the long run? Is “peak oil” a genuine concern? Why did oil prices ...

  10. Near Shore Submerged Oil Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Near Shore Submerged Oil Assessment September 2010 In the context of the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, submerged oil refers to near shore oil which has picked up sediments from very different physical and chemical processes. In this spill, the oil was released more than 5

  11. Oil spill response resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muthukrishnan, Shankar

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and development program. Title VIII concerns the amendments to the Trans Alaska Pipeline System Act. Title I deals with probably the most important part of OPA-90 ? liability and compensation. Claim procedures, federal authority, financial responsibility... minimum. LITERATURE REVIEW From the time that oil was discovered, drilled and transported, oil spills have been occurring. As long as crude oils and petroleum products are transported across the seas by ships or pipelines, there is the risk of spillage...

  12. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    disruptions, and the peak in U.S. oil production account foroil increased 81.1% (logarithmically) between January 1979 and the peak

  13. Oil and Gas (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

  14. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that address the unique nature and challenging locations of many of our remaining oil and natural gas accumulations. The National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL)...

  15. Shredded tires and rubber-sand as lightweight backfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.H.; Salgado, R.; Lovell, C.W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering] [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering; Bernal, A. [GeoHidra, Caracas (Venezuela)] [GeoHidra, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing interest in utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has opened the possibility of constructing reinforced soil structures with unconventional backfills. Scrap tires are a high-profile waste material for which several uses have been studied, including the use of shredded tires as backfill. A triaxial testing program was conducted to investigate the stress-strain relationship and strength of tire chips and a mixture of sand and tire chips. The test results and additional information from the literature were used in the numerical modeling of wall backfills, both unreinforced and reinforced with geosynthetics. The numerical modeling results suggest tire shreds, particularly when mixed with sand, may be effectively used as a backfill.

  16. Simultaneous upgrading of tar sand bitumen and coal by corefining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsich, C.R.; Donaldson, W.I.

    1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process is described for simultaneously corefining a mixture of comminuted coal and tar sand bitumen to form a liquid refinery feed stock, having improved hydrocarbon content and viscosity and reduced organo-metallic and metal components, which process comprises: (a) combining bitumen substantially separated from tar sands with comminuted raw coal at a coal to liquid weight ratio of from about 1:2 to about 1 to 50 to form a slurry mixture; (b) subjecting the slurry mixture resulting from step (a) to hydrocracking conditions in the absence of added catalyst to produce off-gases and a mixture of co-refined bitumen and coal liquid and coal ash residues; and (c) recovering the corefined improve coal-bitumen liquid as a refinery feedstock.

  17. SAND 2009-0463P DAKOTA 101DAKOTA 101

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SAND 2009-0463P DAKOTA 101DAKOTA 101 C lib tiCalibration http://www.cs.sandia.gov/dakota Learning: osborne1 analytic test problem, with i = 1,...,33: i ii dxsdxsdxsxrxrxf 1 )( 2 )()( 2 )()( 2 (more coming soon) 4 #12;Example Data Set (osborne1)Example Data Set (osborne1) 1 2 1 1.2 0.8 0 4 0

  18. EA-1978: Sand Creek Winds, McCone County, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is preparing an EA to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the proposed Sand Creek Winds Project, a 75-MW wind farm between the towns of Circle and Wolf Point in McCone County, Montana. The proposed wind farm would interconnect to Western’s existing Wolf Point to Circle 115-kV transmission line approximately 18 miles north of Wolf Point.

  19. An experimental investigation of sand transport in inclined eccentric annuli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClellan, John Christopher

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Ihoyo and Tomren mentioned above. Also noted was the effect of a cuttings bed sliding, in inclinations up to the 60-degree range, after circulation was stopped. Other researchers have also noted this effect and the incipient dangers to drilling... suspension, heterogeneous suspension, saltation, clusters, dunes, continuous moving beds, and stationary beds. Similar to the author's research, they used sand particles continuously circulated at a set concentration. In their conclusions they state: 1...

  20. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reserves. In the data, crude oil reserve addi- tions consistForce and Proven Reserves in the Venezuelan Oil Industry .such as crude oil production, proved reserves, new reserves,

  1. Oil and Gas Production (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A State Oil and Gas Council regulates and oversees oil and gas production in Missouri, and conducts a biennial review of relevant rules and regulations. The waste of oil and gas is prohibited. This...

  2. The Legacy of Oil Spills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevors, J. T.; Saier, M. H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    010-0527-5 The Legacy of Oil Spills J. T. Trevors & M. H.workers were killed, and oil has been gushing out everday. It is now June, and oil continues to spew forth into

  3. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  4. Post Retort, Pre Hydro-treat Upgrading of Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Various oil feedstocks, including oil from oil shale, bitumen from tar sands, heavy oil, and refin- ery streams were reacted with the alkali metals lithium or sodium in the presence of hydrogen or methane at elevated temperature and pressure in a reactor. The products were liquids with sub- stantially reduced metals, sulfur and nitrogen content. The API gravity typically increased. Sodi- um was found to be more effective than lithium in effectiveness. The solids formed when sodium was utilized contained sodium sulfide which could be regenerated electrochemically back to so- dium and a sulfur product using a "Nasicon", sodium ion conducting membrane. In addition, the process was found to be effective reducing total acid number (TAN) to zero, dramatically reduc- ing the asphaltene content and vacuum residual fraction in the product liquid. The process has promise as a means of eliminating sulfur oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. The process al- so opens the possibility of eliminating the coking process from upgrading schemes and upgrad- ing without using hydrogen.

  5. Assessment of the KE Basin Sand Filter Inventory In Support of Hazard Categorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, Steven B.; Young, Jonathan

    2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978, the water cleaning system for the KE Basin was upgraded by adding a sand filter and ion exchange columns. Basin water containing finely divided solids is collected by three surface skimmers and pumped to the sand filter. Filtrate from the sand filter is further treated in the ion exchange modules. The suspended solids accumulate in the sand until the pressure drop across the filter reaches established operating limits, at which time the sand filter is backwashed. The backwash is collected in the NLOP, where the solids are allowed to settle as sludge. Figure 2-1 shows a basic piping and instrumentation diagram depicting the relationship among the basin skimmers, sand filter, and NLOP. During the course of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of the K-Basins, the sand filter and its media will need to be dispositioned. The isotopic distribution of the sludge in the sand filter has been estimated in KE Basin Sand Filter Monolith DQO (KBC-24705). This document estimates the sand filter contribution to the KE hazard categorization using the data from the DQO.

  6. OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Qian; J. Wang; S. Li

    In this paper history, current status and forecast of Chinese oil shale indus-try, as well as the characteristics of some typical Chinese oil shales are given.

  7. Petroleum Oil | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Petroleum Oil Petroleum Oil The production of energy feedstock and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass and agricultural...

  8. Synthetic aircraft turbine oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, R.

    1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprising a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a polyhydroxy anthraquinone, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester and a dialkyldisulfide.

  9. Shale oil by 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaac, E.D.; Svoboda, D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial processing of oil shale is currently being carried out in two countries, these being Manchuria and Estonia. Germany, Israel, Australia, Brazil and the United States are planning commercial development of oil shale during the 1980's. In the United States, developers currently pursuing production facilities in the Piceance Basin in Colorado are the Union Oil Company; Colony Development Company, now owned by Tosco and Exxon; Occidental Oil Shale Inc.; The Rio Blanco Shale Company (Amoco and Gulf) CA Tract; The Cathedral Bluff's Oil Shale Company (Oxy and Tenneco) at CB tract; The Anvil Points Bureau of Mines Site under the direction of DOE which has been leased to the Paraho Development Company to optimize their process; and Superior Oil. Superior Oil plans to recover Negcolite and Dowsonite that are associated with their oil shale. The processes used by these companies are described briefly. These are the Union B process, Tosco II process, Paraho process, and Occidental process. It is estimated that between 400,000 to 500,000 barrels per day (63,600 to 79,500 m/sup 3//day) production would be achieved by 1990 if all of the effects on the infrastructure are planned for and constructed in an orderly manner.

  10. Marathon Oil Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Marine oil shale from the Shenglihe oil shale section in the Qiangtang basin, northern Tibet, China, was dated by the Re-Os technique using Carius Tube digestion, Os distillation, Re extraction by acetone and ICP-MS measure-ment. An isochron was obtained giving an age of 101±24 Ma with an initial

  11. Oil Quantity : The histori

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    model for Prudhoe Bay. Figure 11: Historical Prudhoe Bay oil production data, modeled economically Production (million bbl per Month) Historical Production Best Fit (Hist. Tax w/ELF, Ref. P) High Price 120 140 160 19 Oil Quantity Con Wel N E A N N ng Results e Bay : The histori Bay over tim : Prudhoe Ba

  12. amaro mineral sand: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foreign investment: Coal 45 1 Oil 4.7 6 Industrial minerals: Cement 42 1 Fluorspar 55 1 Rare earths 85 1 Metals: Aluminum 452 Mineral-filled polypropylene: Improvement of scratch...

  13. Evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flood performance, springer ''A'' sand, NE Purdy Unit, Garvin County, OK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, M.J.; Beaty, W.G.; Simlote, V.N.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes and presents results of an overall program of monitoring and evaluation of a carbon dioxide flood being conducted in the Northeast Purdy Springer ''A'' Sand Unit in Garvin County, Oklahoma. The response of one specific five-spot pattern is described through detailed reservoir simulation utilizing data from observation well logging, pressure transient analysis, carbon dioxide injection profiling, sampling of produced fluids, and monitoring of production rates. A reservoir description satisfying primary, secondary and tertiary performance is also described in detail. History matching of the carbon dioxide flood performance is being utilized to define the effects on reservoir performance of waterblocking, viscous fingering and residual oil saturation to carbon dioxide flooding. These parameters are not laboratory defined. Sensitivity work was conducted to design the best process. In-situ saturation changes obtained from an observation well logging program are presented and correlated with model calculated saturation changes and indicate that oil is being mobilized as predicted by the simulator. A comparison of carbon dioxide injection profiles to water injection profiles and the results of observation well logging indicates that the carbon dioxide is flooding certain reservoir layers that were not waterflooded. The model reservoir description was modified to include these layers. Results of compositional analyses of produced fluids are presented.

  14. A New Stochastic Modeling of 3-D Mud Drapes Inside Point Bar Sands in Meandering River Deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Yanshu, E-mail: yys6587@126.com [Yangtze University, School of Geosciences (China)] [Yangtze University, School of Geosciences (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The environment of major sediments of eastern China oilfields is a meandering river where mud drapes inside point bar sand occur and are recognized as important factors for underground fluid flow and distribution of the remaining oil. The present detailed architectural analysis, and the related mud drapes' modeling inside a point bar, is practical work to enhance oil recovery. This paper illustrates a new stochastic modeling of mud drapes inside point bars. The method is a hierarchical strategy and composed of three nested steps. Firstly, the model of meandering channel bodies is established using the Fluvsim method. Each channel centerline obtained from the Fluvsim is preserved for the next simulation. Secondly, the curvature ratios of each meandering river at various positions are calculated to determine the occurrence of each point bar. The abandoned channel is used to characterize the geometry of each defined point bar. Finally, mud drapes inside each point bar are predicted through random sampling of various parameters, such as number, horizontal intervals, dip angle, and extended distance of mud drapes. A dataset, collected from a reservoir in the Shengli oilfield of China, was used to illustrate the mud drapes' building procedure proposed in this paper. The results show that the inner architectural elements of the meandering river are depicted fairly well in the model. More importantly, the high prediction precision from the cross validation of five drilled wells shows the practical value and significance of the proposed method.

  15. Oil removal from water via adsorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, William Edward

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION I I. LITERATURE REVIEW Significance of Oil Spill Proble. ". . s Growth of Marine Commerce Superport Oil Spills Oil Spills and the Law Oil Spill Control Methods Physical Removal of Oil III. MATERIALS... IV Table V Table VI Significant Facts about Major Oil Spills Viscosity of Test Oils Determined by Capillary Viscometer Percent of Oil Remaining in Water After Removal of Oil-Carrier Combination Maximum Oil Adsorption Capacity for Light Crude...

  16. Petrographic, stratigraphic, and structural study of the Smackover gray sand (Jurassic) in north Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miciotto, S.A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas-producing gray sand, a dark gray to black, very fine-grained sand, occurs as 3 sand tongues in the lower member of the Smackover Formation in the subsurface of Bossier, Webster, Claiborne, and Lincoln parishes, Louisiana. A Flaser-bedded silty shale facies indicates deposition on a mid-tidal flat environment. Smackover deposition during the Jurassic in the study area was located on the gently dipping slope between a broad coastal shelf to the north and a basin to the south. The gray sand was deposited over the Norphlet formation and Louann salt before flowage and swelling of the Louann salt began. Uplift and swelling of the Louann salt later in the Jurassic created growing anticlines; sediment slumped off the structural highs of the growing salt anticlines into basinal muds and silts. The Smackover gray sand continues to challenge exploration geologists because of the lateral pinch out of its sand tongues. 11 references.

  17. 5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for gasoline, diesel and other petroleum products. This chapter provides an overview of world oil trends agreements on export routes have limited development. Petroleum production in the United States, including half of petroleum supplies to the United States. OPEC petroleum production also increased in 1994

  18. The effect of temperature on a variable permeability, two-stage sand consolidation technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barger, Blane Rene

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consolidation processes. In 1961, Hower con- ducted large scale sand consolidation tests to determine the reasons of successes and failures for chemical sand consolidation efforts. He con- cluded that most failures were due to i mproper completion procedures... of Petroleum Technolo (December 1977) 1664, 1672. 2. Brooks, F. A. , Muecke, T. W. , Ri ckey, W. P. , Kerver, J. K. : "Externally Catalyzed Epoxy for Sand Control, " Journal of Petroleum Technology (June 1974) 589-594. 3. Hower, W. F. : "Large Scale...

  19. Determining sand-body geometries for waterflood reservoirs: Examples from Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreisa, R.D.; Pinero, E. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waterflood projects require an accurate knowledge of reservoir geometry and well-to-well continuity. However, sandstones with thin, multiple-pay zones can be extremely difficult to correlate with confidence. Two case studies of Pennsylvanian sandstones in Oklahoma illustrate how a model for the depositional history of such reservoirs can be an effective tool for determining reservoir continuity. In contrast, correlation criteria such as similar wireline log signatures and relative sand-body thicknesses are not reliable in many situations. In Southwest Logan field (Beaver County), 5 to 15-ft thick reservoir sands formed as shallow marine sand ridges. Their dimensions were approximated from height-to-width ratios of modern sand ridges. Then the reservoir sands were mapped using wireline logs and core data. Individual reservoir sands were approximately 1-2 km wide and stacked en echelon vertically. Thus, a line-drive waterflood pattern oriented parallel to the axes of the ridges is recommended. Tatums field (Carter County) consists of 5 to 50-ft thick sandstones deposited in various deltaic environments. Distributary channel sands have good continuity downdip, but are narrow and lenticular across depositional strike. Crevasse splay and other bay-fill sands were deposited marginal to the channels and are extremely discontinuous. This depositional model can be used to improve flood patterns for these sands, leading to improved sweep efficiency. In both examples, for effective mapping, the depositional facies models have been used to register reservoir quality and wireline log signatures.

  20. Study of pore pressure variation during liquefaction using two constitutive models for sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taiebat, Mahdi; Shahir, Hadi; Pak, Ali

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of liquefiable sand in the centrifuge test. Keywords: Fullyof Liquefaction Analyses by Centrifuge Studies - Laboratory18. [19] Tan TS, Scott RF. Centrifuge scaling considerations

  1. Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

    2002-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

  2. Spot-Oiling Johnsongrass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Fred C.; Norris, M. J.; Rea, H. E.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kerosene or diesel fuel oil reduced the stand of the grass 95 percent following 4 applications in each of 4 tests. Ten thousand gallons of this mixture were used at College Station for crown-oiling scattered second gowth Johnsongrass in 49 1 acres... and kerosene kill tender second-growth ~hnsongrass when temperatures are high. lowever, they are slow in killing the grass uring low temperatures and when the grass .ears the boot stage. Oil-soluble dinitro and :her proved fortifiers can be added to diesel...

  3. Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Perry; Magali Mauchand; Alain Bernard

    2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

  4. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  5. PDC bit proves effective at South Graham Deese Sand unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preslar, P.L.; McDermaid, D.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past two years, Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bits have gained acceptance in the United States with many spot applications in soft to medium hard formations. Diamond Compact Bits were chosen by Tenneco's Mid-Continent Division Drilling Department to be used at its South Graham Deese Sand Unit in Southern Oklahoma. Drilling in the field is complicated by a plunging anticline which has caused deviation problems in excess of 20. Previous wells were drilled in 24 days, excluding completion time, using conventional rotary bits and applying light bit weight to control deviation. Presently, by using a PDC bit, similar wells can be drilled in as little as 10 days.

  6. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  7. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  8. User`s manual for SNL-SAND-II code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J.W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, in the process of characterizing the neutron environments at its reactor facilities, has developed an enhanced version of W. McElroy`s original SAND-II code. The enhanced input, output, and plotting interfaces make the code much easier to use. The basic physics and operation of the code remain unchanged. Important code enhancements include the interfaces to the latest ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 dosimetry-quality cross sections and the ability to use silicon displacement-sensitive devices as dosimetry sensors.

  9. SAND97-8490 UC-404 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember11-3779SAND88-1807 * UC-2613

  10. SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-3779 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember11-3779SAND88-1807.VUQ.SAUQ.P6.02;3779

  11. SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-9011 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember11-3779SAND88-1807.VUQ.SAUQ.P6.02;3779011

  12. Use of oil-emulsion mud in the Sivells Bend Field: Gas and gas condensate operations for the independent producer. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Echols, Walter Harlan

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Deyartnsnh or Stndszk kdriser) LIBRARY A A M COLLESE OF TEXAS USE OF OIL EHULSICM 1%D Ig THE SIVELL8 HEEB FIEKB GAS AHD Gkg COHDENSkTE OPERATIOES FOR THE IEMPEMDEHT PRODUCER Prior Pah1Leatione Accepted in Id. su of Thesis HALTER HARLAN ECHOLS I I I..., Iuc, printed in USA 2 USE OP OIL-EMULSION MUD IN THE SIVELLS BEND I&IELD sand fields in North Texas indicate that they are rather consistently of the dis- solved gas-drive type, resulting in short flowing lives, comparatively long pumping lives...

  13. Oil shale research in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

  14. Production of Shale Oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loper, R. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intensive pre-project feasibility and engineering studies begun in 1979 have produced an outline plan for development of a major project for production of shale oil from private lands in the Piceance Basin in western Colorado. This outline plan...

  15. Oil Market Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

  16. Appraisal of the tight sands potential of the Sand Wash and Great Divide Basins. Final report, June 1989--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The volume of future tight gas reserve additions is difficult to estimate because of uncertainties in the characterization and extent of the resource and the performance and cost-effectiveness of stimulation and production technologies. Ongoing R&D by industry and government aims to reduce the risks and costs of producing these tight resources, increase the certainty of knowledge of their geologic characteristics and extent, and increase the efficiency of production technologies. Some basins expected to contain large volumes of tight gas are being evaluated as to their potential contribution to domestic gas supplies. This report describes the results of one such appraisal. This analysis addresses the tight portions of the Eastern Greater Green River Basin (Sand Wash and Great Divide Subbasins in Northwestern Colorado and Southwestern Wyoming, respectively), with respect to estimated gas-in-place, technical recovery, and potential reserves. Geological data were compiled from public and proprietary sources. The study estimated gas-in-place in significant (greater than 10 feet net sand thickness) tight sand intervals for six distinct vertical and 21 areal units of analysis. These units of analysis represent tight gas potential outside current areas of development. For each unit of analysis, a ``typical`` well was modeled to represent the costs, recovery and economics of near-term drilling prospects in that unit. Technically recoverable gas was calculated using reservoir properties and assumptions about current formation evaluation and extraction technology performance. Basin-specific capital and operating costs were incorporated along with taxes, royalties and current regulations to estimate the minimum required wellhead gas price required to make the typical well in each of unit of analysis economic.

  17. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  18. Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)], Casteel, J. [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

    1997-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  19. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pride, S.R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic wavesbe expected to enhance oil production. INTRODUCTION The hopethe reservoir can cause oil production to increase. Quite

  20. Water Heaters (Storage Oil) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil) Water Heaters (Storage Oil) Water Heater, Storage Oil - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Storage Electric)...