National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oil removal contingency

  1. Contingency

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter discusses contingency guidelines to provide for a standard approach to determining project contingency and improve the understanding of contingency in the project management process.

  2. Oil, shrimp, mangroves: an evaluation of contingency planning for the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filho, I.P.

    1983-10-01

    The possibility of finding oil in the Gulf of Guayaquil has led several Ecuadorian agencies to prepare contingency plans to deal with the eventuality of an oil spill in the area. This report characterizes the importance of the oil and fisheries industries to the Ecuadorian economy, and describes the region where these activities may conflict. It also elaborates on the biological effects of oil in tropical environments, and on aspects of prevention, control/clean- up and oil spill contingency planning. Compensation for oil pollution damages and methods for damage assessment are also discussed herein.

  3. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  4. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  5. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  6. Innovative Approach Reduces Costs of Removing Contaminated Oil from Paducah

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Site | Department of Energy Innovative Approach Reduces Costs of Removing Contaminated Oil from Paducah Site Innovative Approach Reduces Costs of Removing Contaminated Oil from Paducah Site January 27, 2016 - 12:55pm Addthis When operating, one transformer could distribute enough power to provide electricity to approximately 6,300 average-sized homes. When operating, one transformer could distribute enough power to provide electricity to approximately 6,300 average-sized homes.

  7. Removal of metals from heavy oils with phosphorus - Alumina catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kukes, S.G.; Parrott, S.L.; Gardner, L.E. )

    1987-04-01

    Earlier it was found that various oil-soluble phosphorous compounds were active for vanadium removal from different crude oils. The phosphorous compounds preferentially reacted with low molecular weight vanadium species in the resin fraction and therefore the highest rate of vanadium removal was observed when the asphaltene fraction was partially or completely removed. Phosphorous compounds promoted the rate of vanadium removal during hydroprocessing over alumina in a trickle bed reactor. Some metal phosphates were prepared and tested for demetallization activity. Several mixed metal phosphates, such as Cr-Zr, Ni-Zr, Cu-Zr, V-Co-Zr, Fe-Co-Zr, Ni-Co-Zr, etc., exhibited high activity for both vanadium and nickel removal. These catalysts were found to possess HDM activity and activity maintenance comparable to conventional hydrotreating catalysts available commercially. The vanadium removal selectivity of the mixed metal phosphates was similar to that of the commercial catalyst, but much lower than that observed earlier for oil soluble phosphorous compounds. Since the lack of high vanadium selectivity for the mixed metal phosphates could be due to their transition metal component, they investigated the hydroprocessing of heavy oils over aluminas impregnated with different inorganic phosphorous compounds.

  8. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  9. Effects of Removing Restrictions on U.S. Crude Oil Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Effects of Removing Restrictions on U.S. Crude Oil Exports September 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Effects of Removing Restrictions on U.S. Crude Oil Exports i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval

  10. Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    The Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan (Contingency Plan) has been prepared for two counties in northwestern Colorado: Moffat County and Routt County. The Contingency Plan is provided in two parts, the Contingency Plan and the Emergency Response Action Plan (ERAP). The Contingency Plan provides information that should be helpful in planning to minimize the impact of an oil spill or hazardous material incident. It contains discussions of planning and response role, hazards identification, vulnerability analysis, risk analysis, cleanup, cost recovery, training, and health and safety. It includes information on the incident command system, notifications, response capabilities, emergency response organizations, evacuation and shelter-in-place, and immediate actions.

  11. Apparatus for removing oil and other floating contaminants from a moving body of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strohecker, J.W.

    1973-12-18

    The patent describes a process in which floating contaminants such as oil and solid debris are removed from a moving body of water by employing a skimming system which uses the natural gravitational flow of the water. A boom diagonally positioned across the body of water diverts the floating contaminants over a floating weir and into a retention pond where an underflow weir is used to return contaminant-free water to the moving body of water. The floating weir is ballasted to maintain the contaminant-receiving opening therein slightly below the surface of the water during fluctuations in the water level for skimming the contaminants with minimal water removal.

  12. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  13. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. . Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  14. Subtask 1.23 - Mercury Removal from Barite the Oil Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Holmes; Carolyn Nyberg; Katie Brandt; Kurt Eylands; Nathan Fiala; Grant Dunham

    2008-09-01

    Drilling muds are used by the oil and gas industry to provide a seal and to float rock chips to the surface during the drilling process. Barite (naturally occurring barium sulfate ore) is commonly used as a weighting agent additive in drilling muds because it is chemically nonreactive and has a high specific gravity (between 4.2 and 4.25 at 20 C). Because of environmental concerns, barite used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico must be certified to contain less than 1 mg/kg of mercury. Faced with these regulations, the U.S. Gulf Coast oil industry has looked to foreign sources of low-mercury barite, primarily India and China. These sources tend to have high-grade barite deposits and relatively inexpensive domestic transportation costs; as of late, however, U.S. purchasers have been forced to pay increasing costs for shipping to U.S. grinding plants. The objective of this project was to demonstrate two mercury removal techniques for high-mercury barite sources. Two barite samples of unique origins underwent processing to reduce mercury to required levels. The chemical treatment with dilute acid removed a portion of the mercury in both barite samples. The desired concentration of 1 mg/kg was achieved in both barite samples. An economic analysis indicates that thermal removal of mercury would not significantly add to the cost of barite processing, making higher-mercury barite a viable alternative to more expensive barite sources that contain lower concentrations of mercury.

  15. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls: A kinetic study of removal of PCBs from mineral oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippis, P. de; Scarsella, M.; Pochetti, F.

    1999-02-01

    A kinetic study was done of the dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) eliminated from contaminated dielectric oils by using the potassium poly(ethylene glycolate) (KPEG) process. Experimental runs at laboratory scale showed that the kinetics of the removal reaction was first-order for each PCB present and first-order with respect to the KPEG concentration. The PCB elimination grade was also affected by the KOH/PEG ratio. An exponential correlation was found between the kinetic constant for each congener and its respective gas chromatographic relative retention time.

  16. Identification of Severe Multiple Contingencies in Electric PowerSystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donde, Vaibhav; Lopez, Vanessa; Lesieutre, Bernard; Pinar, Ali; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan

    2006-06-14

    In this work, we propose a computationally feasible approachtodetect severe multiple contingencies. We pose a contingency analysisproblem using a nonlinear optimization framework, which enables ustodetect the fewest possible transmission line outages resulting ina systemfailure of specified severity, and the most severe system failure causedby removing a specified number of transmission lines from service.Illustrations using a three bus system and the IEEE ~;30 bus system aimto exhibit the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Visual Analytics for Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Pak C.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-20

    Contingency analysis is the process of employing different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to remove the threats. This application paper focuses on a class of contingency analysis problems found in the power grid management system. A power grid is a geographically distributed interconnected transmission network that transmits and delivers electricity from generators to end users. The power grid contingency analysis problem is increasingly important because of both the growing size of the underlying raw data that need to be analyzed and the urgency to deliver working solutions in an aggressive timeframe. Failure to do so may bring significant financial, economic, and security impacts to all parties involved and the society at large. The paper presents a scalable visual analytics pipeline that transforms about 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form for grid operators to examine different scenarios and come up with preventive or mitigation strategies to address the problems in a predictive and timely manner. Great attention is given to the computational scalability, information scalability, visual scalability, and display scalability issues surrounding the data analytics pipeline. Most of the large-scale computation requirements of our work are conducted on a Cray XMT multi-threaded parallel computer. The paper demonstrates a number of examples using western North American power grid models and data.

  18. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  19. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  20. Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-03-02

    GCA is a visual analytic tool for power grid contingency analysis to provide more decision support for power grid operations. GCA allows power grid operators to quickly gain situational awareness of power grid by converting large amounts of operational data to graphic domain with a color contoured map; identify system trend and foresee and discern emergencies by performing trending analysis; identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets by conducting clustering analysis; and identifymore » the best action by interactively evaluate candidate actions.« less

  1. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1992-06-10

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

  2. Preparation of RCRA contingency plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this guidance is to assist Department of Energy (DOE) field personnel in the preparation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) contingency plans as set forth in 40 CFR 264/265 Subpart D and 270.42. The guidance will assist personnel in evaluating and ensuring facility compliance with the contingency plan requirements.

  3. Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department works to ensure domestic and global oil supplies are environmentally sustainable and invests in research and technology to make oil drilling cleaner and more efficient.

  4. APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

    2006-03-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

  5. Title 40 CFR 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal...

  6. Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Utility operators run simulations with the Graphical Contingency Analysis tool at PNNL’s Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center. Utility operators run simulations with the Graphical Contingency Analysis tool at PNNL's Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center. Actual screen shots of the software tool show the contingencies for a utility in simulation as indicated by

  7. Computing contingency statistics in parallel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Janine Camille; Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Statistical analysis is typically used to reduce the dimensionality of and infer meaning from data. A key challenge of any statistical analysis package aimed at large-scale, distributed data is to address the orthogonal issues of parallel scalability and numerical stability. Many statistical techniques, e.g., descriptive statistics or principal component analysis, are based on moments and co-moments and, using robust online update formulas, can be computed in an embarrassingly parallel manner, amenable to a map-reduce style implementation. In this paper we focus on contingency tables, through which numerous derived statistics such as joint and marginal probability, point-wise mutual information, information entropy, and {chi}{sup 2} independence statistics can be directly obtained. However, contingency tables can become large as data size increases, requiring a correspondingly large amount of communication between processors. This potential increase in communication prevents optimal parallel speedup and is the main difference with moment-based statistics where the amount of inter-processor communication is independent of data size. Here we present the design trade-offs which we made to implement the computation of contingency tables in parallel.We also study the parallel speedup and scalability properties of our open source implementation. In particular, we observe optimal speed-up and scalability when the contingency statistics are used in their appropriate context, namely, when the data input is not quasi-diffuse.

  8. Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation Contingent...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Compensation Contingent Cost Allocation Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation Contingent Cost Allocation DOE published a Notice of Inquiry in the Federal...

  9. Hurricane Sandy Contingency Operation -- Increase in Micro-Purchase...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hurricane Sandy Contingency Operation -- Increase in Micro-Purchase and Simplified Acquisition Thresholds for Specific States and Counties Hurricane Sandy Contingency Operation -- ...

  10. Protective Force Contingency Planning Technical Standard

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE STANDARD PROTECTIVE FORCE CONTINGENCY PLANNING TECHNICAL STANDARD U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 DOE-STD-1213-2014 JULY 2014 ──────────────── CHANGE NOTICE NO.1 SEPTEMBER 2015 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE This page intentionally left blank. DOE-STD-1213-2014 i ATTACHMENT 1 Change Notice No. 1 DOE-STD-1213-2014 September 2015 Protective Force Contingency Planning

  11. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  12. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  13. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Allocation, Section 934 | Department of Energy Allocation, Section 934 Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934 LES comments in response to Notice of Inquiry on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934 PDF icon Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934 More Documents & Publications Public comment re Convention on

  14. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Section 934 Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934 LES comments in response to Notice of Inquiry on Convention on...

  15. Microsoft Word - MR_Contingency_Protocol_EM_FINAL.docx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    41210 1 EM Protocol for Application of Contingency and Management Reserve for the Acquisition of Capital Asset Projects This document provides guidance for the development and...

  16. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  17. Assessment of heavy oil conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleim, W.T.K.

    1983-08-01

    Removal of benzene insoluble asphaltene components greatly facilitates and improves the subsequent upgrading of residual oils, the desulfurization in particular. For the upgrading of Venezualean oils, the Aurobon process is still the only feasible solution.

  18. Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation Contingent Cost

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Allocation | Department of Energy Compensation Contingent Cost Allocation Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation Contingent Cost Allocation DOE published a Notice of Inquiry in the Federal Register (75 Fed. Reg. 43,945) requesting public comment on issues related to the funding obligations under the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) and Section 934 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) is a

  19. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  20. Hot Oiling Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-10-22

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that can be distributed as a compiled spreadsheet.

  1. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Page...

  2. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Pag...

  3. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil.

  4. Contingency contractor optimization. phase 3, model description and formulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Durfee, Justin D.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen

    2013-06-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  5. Contingency contractor optimization. Phase 3, model description and formulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Durfee, Justin D.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Detry, Richard Joseph; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen [Cornell University

    2013-10-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  6. Treatment of Difficult Waters: Arsenic Removal Silica Control...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Difficult Waters: Arsenic Removal Silica Control Carbon Capture and Enhanced Oil Recovery. Brady, Patrick Vane Abstract not provided. Sandia National Laboratories...

  7. Treatment of Difficult Waters: Arsenic Removal Silica Control...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Difficult Waters: Arsenic Removal Silica Control Carbon Capture and Enhanced Oil Recovery. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Treatment of Difficult Waters:...

  8. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Currently, most industries treat water to meet standards for direct discharge to surface water. The process includes a primary treatment to remove free oils and solids and ...

  9. Guide for Establishment of a Contingency Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-03-27

    The Guide was developed to provide assistance in ensuring continued safe and secure operation of DOE sites and facilities, protection of Departmental employees, and the public in the event of emergency situations involving the establishment and deployment of a contingency protective force and the conduct of sustained operations. Canceled by DOE N 251.80.

  10. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul P. Guss

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTecs Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Space and Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  11. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Guss, Robert Augdahl, Bill Nickels, Cassandra Zellers

    2008-04-16

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTecs Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  12. The United States remains unprepared for oil import disruptions. Volume I. summary: includes conclusions and recommendations. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-29

    The U.S. Government is almost totally unprepared to deal with disruptions in oil imports. Oil import disruptions--such as the 1973 oil embargo and the 1979 Iranian shortfall--pose a significant threat to national security, and the lack of effective contingency planning and program development to data is serious and requires immediate attention. The Government must make a determined commitment to emergency preparedness now, while oil markets are slack, to prepare for any future disruption.

  13. H. R. 3710: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow individuals a credit for expenditures to remove and replace underground home heating oil storage tanks in certain areas. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, November 17, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The bill would allow a tax credit in the amount equal to 25 percent of the removal and replacement expenditures made by the taxpayer during the taxable year, not to exceed 2000 dollars. The tank must be located at the principal residence of the taxpayer, be used to store heating oil for the residence, and be located in a critical aquifer protection area, as defined in the Public Health Service Act.

  14. Graphical Contingency Analysis for the Nation's Electric Grid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zhenyu (Henry) Huang

    2012-12-31

    PNNL has developed a new tool to manage the electric grid more effectively, helping prevent blackouts and brownouts--and possibly avoiding millions of dollars in fines for system violations. The Graphical Contingency Analysis tool monitors grid performance, shows prioritized lists of problems, provides visualizations of potential consequences, and helps operators identify the most effective courses of action. This technology yields faster, better decisions and a more stable and reliable power grid.

  15. Graphical Contingency Analysis for the Nation's Electric Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhenyu Huang

    2011-04-01

    PNNL has developed a new tool to manage the electric grid more effectively, helping prevent blackouts and brownouts--and possibly avoiding millions of dollars in fines for system violations. The Graphical Contingency Analysis tool monitors grid performance, shows prioritized lists of problems, provides visualizations of potential consequences, and helps operators identify the most effective courses of action. This technology yields faster, better decisions and a more stable and reliable power grid.

  16. Multi-contingency preprocessing for security assessment using physical concepts and CQR with classifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, R.H.; Malik, O.P.; Hope, G.S. ); Jingde Gao; Shiying Wang; Niande Xiang )

    1993-08-01

    A new method for preprocessing the outage lists for an Expert System for Security Assessment of power systems is presented in this paper. This method uses disturbing capability, structure and location classifications and CQR with Classifications (CQRC). Because this method avoids the traditional enumerative methods such as Automatic Contingency Selection, the number of contingencies can be reduced very sharply with heuristic common sense and rules of CQRC before numerical computing. So the double contingency problem or extremely heavy cost of computing can be tackled successfully. The proposed method along with an Automatic Contingency Analysis and Classification technique can assess the classified contingencies with basic physical concepts and without network simplification, minimize the number of missing harmful contingencies efficiently and give a clear accurate output.

  17. EVMS Training Snippet: 4.3 Management Reserve Versus Contingency and Budget Versus Funds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EVMS Training Snippet, sponsored by the Office of Project Management (PM) discusses the differences between Management Reserve and Contingency as well as the difference between Budget versus...

  18. Microsoft Word - Class_2_RCRA_Contingency_Plan_02_23_16_Draft

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... flood, lightning strike, tornado) occurs that involves TRU ... 264.51 Contingency plan design and implementation ... of equipment failure and power outages Part 2.10 ...

  19. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  20. Impact of oil in the tropical marine environment. Technical pub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cintron, G.; Lugo, A.E.; Martinez, R.; Cintron, B.B.; Encarnacion, L.

    1981-11-01

    Oil spills have a devastating effect on biologically rich coastal environments. This report investigates this problem, covering damage by oil to biological systems, the use of dispersants (toxicity and considerations for dispersant use), impact of oil and dispersants on coral reefs, impact of oil on seagrass beds and sandy beaches, impact of oil on mangroves (seedling survival and tolerance, regeneration, forest type vulnerability, and cleanup and recovery activities in mangroves), conclusions, and recommendations. The study concludes that coral reefs and seagrass beds may escape significant spill damage if pollution is not chronic and if dispersants are not used. Sandy and rocky shores may be severely impacted but recover quickly. Mangroves are the most vulnerable coastal ecosystem. Recommendations are that oil spill contingency plans must be prepared for all areas, and that the necessary equipment for the plans must be in place.

  1. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil volume estimate and the associated contingency costs. (authors)

  2. Microsoft Word - Appendix M_ContingencyTrees.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    M Groundwater Operable Unit Contingency Trees U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring Site LTS&M Plan July 2005 Doc. No. S0079000 Page M-3 Figure M-1. Validation and Statistical Evaluation Scheme Weldon Spring Site LTS&M Plan U.S. Department of Energy Doc. No. S0079000 July 2005 Page M-4 Figure M-2. Decision Tree for Objective 1 Data U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring Site LTS&M Plan July 2005 Doc. No. S0079000 Page M-5 Figure M-3. Decision Tree for Objective 2 Data Weldon

  3. Identification of Severe Multiple Contingencies in Electric PowerNetworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donde, Vaibhav; Lopez, Vanessa; Lesieutre, Bernard; Pinar, Ali; Yang,Chao; Meza, Juan

    2005-07-01

    In this paper we propose a two-stage screening and analysis process for identifying multiple contingencies that may result in very severe disturbances and blackouts. In a screening stage we form an optimization problem to find the minimum change in the network to move the power flow feasibility boundary to the present operating point and that will cause the system to separate with a user-specified power imbalance. The lines identified by the optimization program are used in a subsequent analysis stage to find combinations that may lead to a blackout. This approach is applied to a 30-bus system with encouraging results.

  4. Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R; Bestor, Michael A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

  5. Salinity, temperature, oil composition, and oil recovery by waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.Q.; Morrow, N.R.

    1997-11-01

    The effect of aging and displacement temperatures and brine and oil composition on wettability and the recovery of crude oil by spontaneous imbibition and waterflooding has been investigated. This study is based on displacement tests in Berea sandstone with three crude oils and three reservoir brines (RB`s). Salinity was varied by changing the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS`s) of the synthetic brine in proportion. Salinity of the connate and invading brines can have a major influence on wettability and oil recovery at reservoir temperature. Oil recovery increased over that for the RB with dilution of both the initial (connate) and invading brine or dilution of either. Aging and displacement temperatures were varied independently. For all crude oils, water wetness and oil recovery increased with increase in displacement temperature. Removal of light components from the crude oil resulted in increased water wetness. Addition of alkanes to the crude oil reduced the water wetness, and increased oil recovery. Relationships between waterflood recovery and rate and extent of oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition are summarized.

  6. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  7. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa; Strausz, Otto; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Janiak, Jerzy; Pawlak, Wanda; Szymocha, Kazimierz; Turak, Ali A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  8. Method for reclaiming waste lubricating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A method for purifying and reclaiming used lubricating oils containing additives such as detergents, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure agents and the like and other solid and liquid contaminants by preferably first vacuum distilling the used oil to remove water and low-boiling contaminants, and treating the dried oil with a solvent mixture of butanol, isopropanol and methylethyl ketone which causes the separation of a layer of sludge containing contaminants, unspent additives and oxidation products. After solvent recovery, the desludged oil is then subjected to conventional lubricating oil refining steps such as distillation followed by decolorization and deodorization.

  9. Brushing up on oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, J.

    1995-12-01

    To be prepared for a range of oil spills, emergency response organizations must have an arsenal of powerful and adaptable equipment. Around the coastal United States, a network of oil spill cooperatives and emergency response organizations stand ready with the technology and the know-how to respond to the first sign of an oil spill. When the telephone rings, they may be required to mop up 200 gallons of oil that leaked off the deck of a ship or to contain and skim 2,000 gallons of oil from a broken hose at a loading terminal. In a few cases each year, they may find themselves responding to a major pollution incident, one that involves hundreds of people and tons of equipment. To clean an oil spill at a New Jersey marine terminal, the local cooperative used the Lundin Oil Recovery Inc. (LORI) skimming system to separate the oil and water and the lift the oil out of the river. The LORI skimming technology is based on sound principles of fluid management - using the natural movement of water instead of trying to fight against it. A natural feeding mechanism delivers oily water through the separation process, and a simple mechanical separation and recovery device - a brush conveyor - removes the pollutants from the water.

  10. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang, William A. Goddard, Yongchun Tang

    2005-05-05

    In the second year of this project, we continued our effort to develop low temperature decarboxylation catalysts and investigate the behavior of these catalysts at different reaction conditions. We conducted a large number of dynamic measurements with crude oil and model compounds to obtain the information at different reaction stages, which was scheduled as the Task2 in our work plan. We developed a novel adsorption method to remove naphthenic acid from crude oil using naturally occurring materials such as clays. Our results show promise as an industrial application. The theoretical modeling proposed several possible reaction pathways and predicted the reactivity depending on the catalysts employed. From all of these studies, we obtained more comprehensive understanding about catalytic decarboxylation and oil upgrading based on the naphthenic acid removal concept.

  11. The microbial upgrading of model heavy oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, I.A.; Patras, L.E. )

    1988-01-01

    The authors have isolated bacteria and used them to catalyze the removal of sulfur, nitrogen and nickel from model heavy oils and asphaltenes. Their paper will discuss their activity and reactor concepts. The concept of a membrane bioreactor for oil processing is introduced.

  12. Catalyst regeneration process including metal contaminants removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganguli, Partha S.

    1984-01-01

    Spent catalysts removed from a catalytic hydrogenation process for hydrocarbon feedstocks, and containing undesired metals contaminants deposits, are regenerated. Following solvent washing to remove process oils, the catalyst is treated either with chemicals which form sulfate or oxysulfate compounds with the metals contaminants, or with acids which remove the metal contaminants, such as 5-50 W % sulfuric acid in aqueous solution and 0-10 W % ammonium ion solutions to substantially remove the metals deposits. The acid treating occurs within the temperature range of 60.degree.-250.degree. F. for 5-120 minutes at substantially atmospheric pressure. Carbon deposits are removed from the treated catalyst by carbon burnoff at 800.degree.-900.degree. F. temperature, using 1-6 V % oxygen in an inert gas mixture, after which the regenerated catalyst can be effectively reused in the catalytic process.

  13. Public Comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Comments by International Group on Nuclear Liability (CIGNL), in response to U.S. Department of Energy Notice of Inquiry on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

  14. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  15. Contingency selection theory for steady-state security assessment of power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halpin, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis presents the theory and method for systematically finding the performance index (PI) which is used in Automatic Contingency Selection (ACS) algorithms. The purpose of the ACS algorithm is to determine whether a contingency has an impact on the security of the power system (such as out-of-limit conditions in the post-contigency operation) or not, in a computationally efficient manner. Since this is a binary decision problem, then the choice of the PI is equivalent ot the selection of a decision function which measures the impact of each contingency on the system performance in terms of giving out-of-limit conditions. This thesis shows how to select the PI together with a threshold value J/sub th/ so as to minimize the probability of misclassifying the contingency. The main contribution of this thesis is that it gives the theoretical foundation for designing more effective ACS algorithms. It shows that the selection of the PI is based on a statistical decision criteria such as the Bayes Risk Criterion, since one needs to examine the risk involved in misclassifying the contingency. This approach is used to find the PI for monitoring both the line flow, bus voltage and generator VAR limits. It is shown that when formulating the problem in the space of voltage magnitudes and phase angles then the problem of finding the PI which satisfies a specific contingency selection criteria can be stated as a set imbedding and volume maximization problem. These theoretical results are applied to the problem of tuning the weighting coefficients in the currently used PI's for analyzing either the real power flow or node voltage magnitude problems in order ot guarantee proper classification of the contingencies in terms of minimizing the probabilities of missing critial contingencies and false alarms.

  16. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  17. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda; Janiak, Jerzy S.; Turak, Ali A.; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  18. Silica Scaling Removal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaling Removal Process Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel technology to remove both dissolved and colloidal silica using small gel particles....

  19. EIS-0230: Resource Contingency Program, Hermiston Power Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepared this environmental impact statement (EIS) to analyze the environmental impacts of implementing a Resource Contingency Program near Hermiston, Oregon, one of three proposed locations to carry out this program, which allows BPA to acquire power to supply to its customers if and when needed. In September 1993, BPA published a Notice of Intent to prepare an EIS on projects at three sites and in October 1993 held public scoping meetings at each site. In February 1994, BPA released an Implementation Plan on the proposed scope of the EIS. A draft EIS on the three proposed projects was published in February 1995. BPA concluded that publication of the final EIS should be separated into two documents, and presented the final analysis of the impacts of the other two sites in another document. This EIS addresses three proposed alternatives: the proposed action, no action, and other actions. The proposed action is the acquisition of power from both units optioned at the Hermiston Power Project Plant site (only if there is a need for power at a future date), or wheeling of power by BPA if another party acquires the output. This EIS addresses the environmental effects of constructing and operating both units under option for power delivery to BPA."

  20. Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other Petroleum Products Natural Gas Coal Purchased Electricity Purchased Steam Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1986-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 0 0 0 0

  1. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  2. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  3. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  4. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  5. A Novel Application of Parallel Betweenness Centrality to Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Chavarra-Miranda, Daniel; Feo, John T.; Wong, Pak C.

    2010-04-19

    In Energy Management Systems, contingency analysis is commonly performed for identifying and mitigating potentially harmful power grid component failures. The exponentially increasing combinatorial number of failure modes imposes a significant computational burden for massive contingency analysis. It is critical to select a limited set of high-impact contingency cases within the constraint of computing power and time requirements to make it possible for real-time power system vulnerability assessment. In this paper, we present a novel application of parallel betweenness centrality to power grid contingency selection. We cross-validate the proposed method using the model and data of the western US power grid, and implement it on a Cray XMT system - a massively multithreaded architecture - leveraging its advantages for parallel execution of irregular algorithms, such as graph analysis. We achieve a speedup of 55 times (on 64 processors) compared against the single-processor version of the same code running on the Cray XMT. We also compare an OpenMP-based version of the same code running on an HP Superdome shared-memory machine. The performance of the Cray XMT code shows better scalability and resource utilization, and shorter execution time for large-scale power grids. This proposed approach has been evaluated in PNNLs Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). It is expected to provide a quick and efficient solution to massive contingency selection problems to help power grid operators to identify and mitigate potential widespread cascading power grid failures in real time.

  6. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  7. Turbomachinery debris remover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krawiec, Donald F.; Kraf, Robert J.; Houser, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for removing debris from a turbomachine. The apparatus includes housing and remotely operable viewing and grappling mechanisms for the purpose of locating and removing debris lodged between adjacent blades in a turbomachine.

  8. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

    2004-04-28

    In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

  9. OIl Speculation

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of investor flows and financial market conditions on returns in crude-oil futures markets. ... for returns in US and emerging-economy stock markets, a measure of the balance-sheet ...

  10. Oil shale retorting with steam and produced gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, L.S. Jr.; Wheaton, L.D.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a process for retorting oil shale in a vertical retort. It comprises introducing particles of oil shale into the retort, the particles of oil shale having a minimum size such that the particles are retained on a screen having openings 1/4 inch in size; contacting the particles of oil shale with hot gas to heat the particles of oil shale to a state of pyrolysis, thereby producing retort off-gas; removing the off-gas from the retort; cooling the off-gas; removing oil from the cooled off-gas; separating recycle gas from the off-gas, the recycle gas comprising steam and produced gas, the steam being present in amount, by volume, of at least 50% of the recycle gas so as to increase the yield of sand oil; and heating the recycle gas to form the hot gas.

  11. Microbial desulfurization of Eastern oil shale: Bioreactor studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maka, A.; Akin, C.; Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    The removal of sulfur from Eastern oil shale (40 microns particle size) slurries in bioreactors by mixed microbial cultures was examined. A mixed culture that is able to remove the organic sulfur from model sulfur compounds presenting coal as well as a mixed culture isolated from oil shale enrichments were evaluated. The cultures were grown in aerobic fed-batch bioreactors where the oil shale served as the source of all nutrients except organic carbon. Glucose was added as an auxiliary carbon source. Microbial growth was monitored by plate counts, the pH was checked periodically, and oil shale samples were analyzed for sulfur content. Results show a 24% reduction in the sulfur content of the oil shale after 14 days. The settling characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined in the presence of the microbes. Also, the mixing characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, Kurt Edward; Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  13. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  14. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  15. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  16. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  17. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  18. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  19. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Schedule Contingency Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report represents the schedule contingency evaluation done on the FY-93 Major System Acquisition (MSA) Baseline for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (EPP). A Schedule Contingency Evaluation Team (SCET) was established to evaluate schedule contingency on the MSA Baseline for the INEL ERP associated with completing work within milestones established in the baseline. Baseline schedules had been established considering enforceable deadlines contained in the Federal Facilities Agreement/Consent Order (FFA/CO), the agreement signed in 1992, by the State of Idaho, Department of Health & Welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The evaluation was based upon the application of standard schedule risk management techniques to the specific problems of the INEL ERP. The schedule contingency evaluation was designed to provided early visibility for potential schedule delays impacting enforceable deadlines. The focus of the analysis was on the duration of time needed to accomplish all required activities to achieve completion of the milestones in the baseline corresponding to the enforceable deadlines. Additionally, the analysis was designed to identify control of high-probability, high-impact schedule risk factors.

  20. Computing contingency statistics in parallel : design trade-offs and limiting cases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Janine Camille; Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Statistical analysis is typically used to reduce the dimensionality of and infer meaning from data. A key challenge of any statistical analysis package aimed at large-scale, distributed data is to address the orthogonal issues of parallel scalability and numerical stability. Many statistical techniques, e.g., descriptive statistics or principal component analysis, are based on moments and co-moments and, using robust online update formulas, can be computed in an embarrassingly parallel manner, amenable to a map-reduce style implementation. In this paper we focus on contingency tables, through which numerous derived statistics such as joint and marginal probability, point-wise mutual information, information entropy, and {chi}{sup 2} independence statistics can be directly obtained. However, contingency tables can become large as data size increases, requiring a correspondingly large amount of communication between processors. This potential increase in communication prevents optimal parallel speedup and is the main difference with moment-based statistics (which we discussed in [1]) where the amount of inter-processor communication is independent of data size. Here we present the design trade-offs which we made to implement the computation of contingency tables in parallel. We also study the parallel speedup and scalability properties of our open source implementation. In particular, we observe optimal speed-up and scalability when the contingency statistics are used in their appropriate context, namely, when the data input is not quasi-diffuse.

  1. Computing contingency statistics in parallel : design trade-offs and limiting cases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David C.; Bennett, Janine C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-03-01

    Statistical analysis is typically used to reduce the dimensionality of and infer meaning from data. A key challenge of any statistical analysis package aimed at large-scale, distributed data is to address the orthogonal issues of parallel scalability and numerical stability. Many statistical techniques, e.g., descriptive statistics or principal component analysis, are based on moments and co-moments and, using robust online update formulas, can be computed in an embarrassingly parallel manner, amenable to a map-reduce style implementation. In this paper we focus on contingency tables, through which numerous derived statistics such as joint and marginal probability, point-wise mutual information, information entropy, and X{sup 2} independence statistics can be directly obtained. However, contingency tables can become large as data size increases, requiring a correspondingly large amount of communication between processors. This potential increase in communication prevents optimal parallel speedup and is the main difference with moment-based statistics (which we discussed in [1]) where the amount of inter-processor communication is independent of data size. Here we present the design trade-offs which we made to implement the computation of contingency tables in parallel.We also study the parallel speedup and scalability properties of our open source implementation. In particular, we observe optimal speed-up and scalability when the contingency statistics are used in their appropriate context, namely, when the data input is not quasi-diffuse.

  2. Device for removing blackheads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkovich, Tamara

    1995-03-07

    A device for removing blackheads from pores in the skin having a elongated handle with a spoon shaped portion mounted on one end thereof, the spoon having multiple small holes piercing therethrough. Also covered is method for using the device to remove blackheads.

  3. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the precipitate readily enables removal of asphaltenes. Thus, an upgraded crude low in heavy metal, sulfur and nitrogen is more conducive for further purification.

  4. Effect of temperature, salinity and oil composition on wetting behavior and oil recovery by waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.Q.; Morrow, N.R.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of aging and displacement temperatures, and brine and oil composition on wettability and the recovery of crude oil by spontaneous imbibition and waterflooding has been investigated. This study is based on displacement tests in Berea Sandstone using three distinctly different crude oils and three reservoir brines. Brine concentration was varied by changing the concentration of total dissolved solids of the synthetic brine in proportion to give brine of twice, one tenth, and one hundredth of the reservoir brine concentration. Aging and displacement temperatures were varied independently. For all crude oils, water-wetness and oil recovery increased with increase in displacement temperature. Tests on the effect of brine concentration showed that salinity of the connate and invading brines can have a major influence on wettability and oil recovery at reservoir temperature. Oil recovery increased over that for the reservoir brine with dilution of both the initial (connate) and invading brine or dilution of either. Removal of light components from the crude oil resulted in increased water-wetness. Addition of alkanes to the crude oil reduced the water-wetness, and increased oil recovery. Relationships between waterflood recovery and wettability are summarized.

  5. Process for removing polymer-forming impurities from naphtha fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kowalczyk, Dennis C.; Bricklemyer, Bruce A.; Svoboda, Joseph J.

    1983-01-01

    Polymer precursor materials are vaporized without polymerization or are removed from a raw naphtha fraction by passing the raw naphtha to a vaporization zone (24) and vaporizing the naphtha in the presence of a wash oil while stripping with hot hydrogen to prevent polymer deposits in the equipment.

  6. Process for removing polymer-forming impurities from naphtha fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kowalczyk, D.C.; Bricklemyer, B.A.; Svoboda, J.J.

    1983-12-27

    Polymer precursor materials are vaporized without polymerization or are removed from a raw naphtha fraction by passing the raw naphtha to a vaporization zone and vaporizing the naphtha in the presence of a wash oil while stripping with hot hydrogen to prevent polymer deposits in the equipment. 2 figs.

  7. Removal of Hazards Key to Paducah Site Deactivation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PADUCAH, Ky. – Deactivation workers at EM’s Paducah Site completed a significant step toward preparing key facilities for future demolition by removing hundreds of thousands of gallons of lubricating oil from the site’s uranium enrichment process buildings.

  8. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  9. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  10. Integrated State Estimation and Contingency Analysis Software Implementation using High Performance Computing Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yousu; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-31

    Power system simulation tools are traditionally developed in sequential mode and codes are optimized for single core computing only. However, the increasing complexity in the power grid models requires more intensive computation. The traditional simulation tools will soon not be able to meet the grid operation requirements. Therefore, power system simulation tools need to evolve accordingly to provide faster and better results for grid operations. This paper presents an integrated state estimation and contingency analysis software implementation using high performance computing techniques. The software is able to solve large size state estimation problems within one second and achieve a near-linear speedup of 9,800 with 10,000 cores for contingency analysis application. The performance evaluation is presented to show its effectiveness.

  11. Land subsidence caused by fluid removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Subsidence caused by the removal of both fluids and solids is a world-wide environmental problem. The extraction of coal, natural gas, oil, fresh water, brine, etc, have all caused subsidence at various times and locations. Although subsidence related to oil and geothermal field operations is relatively rare, it has caused severe problems in the past and currently. In porous media, the surface is held stable by underground support from the matrix rocks and the pore fluids. Upon the production of reservoir fluids, pore fluid pressure drops and the portion of geostatic loading borne by the pore fluids is transferred to rock matrix. This increase in load causes both elastic and inelastic deformation of the skeletal structure of the reservoir being produced. Pore volume is lost, the reservoir decreases in the vertical dimension, and subsidence might occur at the surface. As soon as subsidence is detected, most observers try to estimate the maximum that might occur. This prediction has proved to be a very difficult proposition owing to geologic complexities and unknown petrophysical data. Seven examples of subsidence in oil and geothermal operations show many similarities, such as high porosity, large fluid removal, limited arching in the structure, large width to depth ratios, usually poor cementation, grabens and normal faulting, and coincidence of time and place of fluid removal and subsidence. None of these are critical, but the result in a field that has most of these properties often is surface subsidence. Reservoir compaction in situ has been measured by two methods: (1) casing joint length changes and (2) the location of radioactive bullets shot into the formation. Casing joint measurements, although having accuracy limitations, usually furnish data as to the degree of compaction without previous planning.

  12. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  13. Continuous sulfur removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.; Ryu, J.

    1994-04-26

    A continuous process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream using a membrane comprising a metal oxide deposited on a porous support is disclosed. 4 figures.

  14. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  15. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  16. Hydrogen Removal From Heating Oil of a Parabolic Trough Increases...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Parabolic trough power plants use concentrated solar thermal energy to generate ...

  17. Innovative Approach Reduces Costs of Removing Contaminated Oil...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In compliance with the Toxic Substance Control Act, the Fluor Paducah Deactivation Project ... an existing product on the site," Fluor Paducah Deactivation Project Deputy ...

  18. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PDF icon PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified Business Operations General Support

  19. Oil and Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil and Gas Oil and Gas R&D focus on the use of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, including associated environmental challenges Contact thumbnail of Business ...

  20. Oil Security Metrics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.

    2005-03-06

    A presentation to the IWG GPRA USDOE, March 6, 2005, Washington, DC. OSMM estimates oil security benefits of changes in the U.S. oil market.

  1. Crude Oil | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oil fields to fuel distribution terminals. Different components of this system (e.g., crude oil import terminals, refineries, transmission pipelines, and tank farms) can be ...

  2. Arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  3. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.

    1994-10-04

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith. 8 figs.

  4. Drum lid removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pella, Bernard M.; Smith, Philip D.

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  5. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith.

  6. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  7. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George W. Huber, Aniruddha A Upadhye, David M. Ford, Surita R. Bhatia, Phillip C. Badger

    2012-10-19

    This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8 µm were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments with model AFBO excluding guaiacol were also conducted. NF membranes showed retention factors of glucose greater than 80% and of acetic acid less than 15% when operated at transmembrane pressures near 60 bar. Task 3.0 Acid Removal by Catalytic Processing It was found that the TAN reduction in bio-oil was very difficult using low temperature hydrogenation in flow and batch reactors. Acetic acid is very resilient to hydrogenation and we could only achieve about 16% conversion for acetic acid. Although it was observed that acetic acid was not responsible for instability of aqueous fraction of bio-oil during ageing studies (described in task 5). The bimetallic catalyst PtRe/ceria-zirconia was found to be best catalyst because its ability to convert the acid functionality with low conversion to gas phase carbon. Hydrogenation of the whole bio-oil was carried out at 125°C, 1450 psi over Ru/C catalyst in a flow reactor. Again, negligible acetic acid conversion was obtained in low temperature hydrogenation. Hydrogenation experiments with whole bio-oil were difficult to perform because of difficulty to pumping the high viscosity oil and reactor clogging. Task 4.0 Acid Removal using Ion Exchange Resins DOWEX M43 resin was used to carry out the neutralization of bio-oil using a packed bed column. The pH of the bio-oil increased from 2.43 to 3.7. The GC analysis of the samples showed that acetic acid was removed from the bio-oil during the neutralization and recovered in the methanol washing. But it was concluded that process would not be economical at large scale as it is extremely difficult to regenerate the resin once the bio-oil is passed over it. Task 5.0 Characterization of Upgraded Bio-oils We investigated the viscosity, microstructure, and chemical composition of bio-oils prepared by a fast pyrolysis approach, upon aging these fuels at 90ºC for periods of several days. Our results suggest that the viscosity increase is not correlated with the acids or char present in the bio-oils. The viscosity increase is due to formation of high molecular weight polymeric species over time. Our work also suggests that hydrogenation of the samples is beneficial in eliminating the viscosity increase. Task 6.0 Commercialization Assessment Renewable Oil International LLC (ROI) was responsible for Task 6.0, œCommercialization Assessment. As part of this effort ROI focused on methods to reduce char carryover in the vapor stream from the fast pyrolysis reactor and residence time of the vapor in the reactor. Changes were made in the bio-oil recovery methodology and a reactor sweep gas used to reduce vapor residence time. Cyclones were placed in the vapor stream to reduce char particulate carryover. Microfiltration of the bio-oil was also researched to remove char particulate from the bio-oil. The capital cost for these improvements would be less than 2% of the total plant capital cost.

  8. Condensate removal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maddox, James W.; Berger, David D.

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  9. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  10. World Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    World Crude Oil Prices (Dollars per Barrel) The data on this page are no longer available.

  11. Analytical methods for removing radiological constituents prior to organic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakonson, K.; Monagle, M.; Cournoyer, M.

    1997-12-31

    Within the Department of Energy (DOE), there is a need to analyze mixed waste materials (i.e. materials that are contaminated with both radiological and hazardous components). As part of the technical support the Organic Analysis Group provides for programs within Los Alamos National Laboratory, methods are under development for radiologically contaminated oil samples being tested for polychlorinated biphenyls and other semivolatile constituents. Radionuclides are removed from oil samples by filtering the samples through a commercials available solid phase extraction cartridge. An aliquot of the eluent is then analyzed to quantitate the residual radioactivity.

  12. CORROSIVITY AND COMPOSITION OF RAW AND TREATED PYROLYSIS OILS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, Jim; Howell, Michael; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Sam; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-10-14

    Fast pyrolysis offers a relatively low cost method of processing biomass to produce a liquid product that has the potential for conversion to several types of liquid fuels. The liquid product of fast pyrolysis, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, contains a high oxygen content primarily in the form of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. These oils are typically very acidic with a Total Acid Number that is often in the range of 50 to 100, and previous studies have shown this material to be quite corrosive to common structural materials. Removal of at least some of the oxygen and conversion of this oil to a more useful product that is considerably less corrosive can be accomplished through a hydrogenation process. The product of such a treatment is considered to have the potential for blending with crude oil for processing in petroleum refineries. Corrosion studies and chemical analyses have been conducted using as produced bio-oil samples as well as samples that have been subjected to different levels of oxygen removal. Chemical analyses show treatment affected the concentrations of carboxylic acids contained in the oil, and corrosion studies showed a positive benefit of the oxygen removal. Results of these studies will be presented in this paper.

  13. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  14. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  15. Upgrading of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Upgrading of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) March 22, 2015 Bio-Oil Technology Area Review Principal Investigator : Zia Abdullah Organization: Battelle Memorial Institute 1 ...

  16. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  17. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Thin target zone Disconnected target zones Controlled fractures GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Tight Oil has Significant Energy Security Impacts Tight oil production growth ...

  18. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  19. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel`s ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical ``more competitive`` world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader`s judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy`s potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy`s inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US`s primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  20. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  1. Electrochemically assisted paint removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, R.; Hydock, D.M.; Burleigh, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    A method to remove paint coatings from metal and other electronically conductive substrates is being studied. In particular, the remediation of objects coated with lead based paints is the focus of research. The approach also works very well with automotive coatings and may be competitive with sandblasting. To achieve debonding of the coating, the deteriorated or artifically damaged surface of the object is cathodically polarized. The object can be immersed in a benign aqueous electrolyte for treatment, or the electrolyte can be retained in an absorbent pad covering the surface to be treated.

  2. Mercury removal sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  3. Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo Return to: Manufacturing Home Page Fuel Oil Facts Oil Price Effect Fuel Switching Actual Fuel Switching Storage Capacity Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing Why Look at Fuel Oil?...

  4. South American oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  5. Sound Oil Company

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Ward Oil Co., 24 DOE 81,002 (1994); see also Belcher Oil Co., 15 DOE 81,018 (1987) ... months relief because of flood); Utilities Bd. of Citronelle-Gas, 4 DOE 81,205 (1979) ...

  6. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to 2.84 per gallon. That's down 1.22 from a year ago, based on the ...

  7. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to 2.97 per gallon. That's down 1.05 from a year ago, based on the ...

  8. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to 3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  9. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 2.91 per gallon. That's down 1.10 from a year ago, based on the ...

  10. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  11. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  12. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  13. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  14. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  15. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  16. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  17. Rubber stopper remover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stitt, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    A device for removing a rubber stopper from a test tube is mountable to an upright wall, has a generally horizontal splash guard, and a lower plate spaced parallel to and below the splash guard. A slot in the lower plate has spaced-apart opposing edges that converge towards each other from the plate outer edge to a narrowed portion, the opposing edges shaped to make engagement between the bottom of the stopper flange and the top edge of the test tube to wedge therebetween and to grasp the stopper in the slot narrowed portion to hold the stopper as the test tube is manipulated downwardly and pulled from the stopper. The opposing edges extend inwardly to adjoin an opening having a diameter significantly larger than that of the stopper flange.

  18. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  19. US Crude oil exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014 EIA Energy Conference U.S. Crude Oil Exports July 14, 2014 By Lynn D. Westfall U.S. Energy Information Administration U.S. crude oil production has grown by almost 50% since 2008 and is up by 1.0 million b/d (14%) since April of 2013 U.S. crude oil production million barrels of oil per day Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration Lynn Westfall, 2014 EIA Energy Conference, U.S. Crude Oil Exports, July 14, 2014 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990

  20. Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method will be investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. During this first quarter the selection of base for pretreatment and extraction (Task 1) has been completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. About 40% of sulfur is removed from IBC-108 coal using 5% NaOH for pretreatment followed by linseed oil oxidation in air and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction.

  1. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  2. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  3. removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    removal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

  4. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  5. Protection #1: Remove the Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remove the Source Protection #1: Remove the Source The 3 Protections = Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Waste being removed from MDA-B inside a metal building Excavation of waste from MDA-B thumbnail of Removing the source means excavating contaminants, sorting these by waste type, and transporting to a disposal area in which contaminants are contained. RELATED IMAGES http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7388/9571274521_679fe1e34a_t.jpg Enlarge http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3726/9571272211_6873a5717f

  6. Removal to Maximum Extent Practical

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary Notes from 1 November 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Removal of Highly Radioactive Radionuclides/Key Radionuclides to the Maximum Extent Practical

  7. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  8. Removal of aqueous rinsable flux residues in a batch spray dishwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slanina, J.T.

    1992-02-01

    An alkaline detergent solution used in an industrial dishwasher was evaluated to remove aqueous rinsable flux residues on printed wiring boards (PWBs) after hot air solder leveling and hot oil solder dip and leveling. The dishwasher, a batch cleaning process, was compared to an existing conveyorized aqueous cleaning process. The aqueous soluble flux residues from both soldering processes were removed with a solution of a mild alkaline detergent dissolved in hot deionized (DI) water.

  9. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. Technical progress report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.

    1995-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During the second quarter, working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S, 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different extraction solvents were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 100[degrees]C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents. During this third quarter the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different temperatures, and different reaction times were completely examined. The effects of alkali on sulfur removal were further investigated. Best organic sulfur removal reaches 34% using ammonia pretreatment, then oil and finally aqNA2CO3 extraction.

  10. Crude Oil Characteristics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy is continuing to develop a better understanding of scientific questions associated with the production, treatment, and rail transportation of crude oils, including Bakken crude oil. To support this effort, the DOE - in collaboration with the Department of Transportation’s Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) will focus on the portion of the effort described in the Crude Oil Characteristics Sampling, Analysis and Experiment (SAE) Plan. The work contained in this SAE plan is intended to fill knowledge gaps based on recommendations on research needed to improve understanding of transport-critical crude oil and especially tight crude oil properties from the Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport recently completed by Sandia National Laboratory.

  11. Tritium contamination and decontamination of sealing oil for vacuum pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeishi, T.; Kotoh, K.; Kawabata, Y.; Tanaka, J.I.; Kawamura, S.; Iwata, M.

    2015-03-15

    The existence of tritium-contaminated oils from vacuum pumps used in tritium facilities, is becoming an important issue since there is no disposal way for tritiated waste oils. On recovery of tritiated water vapor in gas streams, it is well-known that the isotope exchange reaction between the gas phase and the liquid phase occurs effectively at room temperature. We have carried out experiments using bubbles to examine the tritium contamination and decontamination of a volume of rotary-vacuum-pump oil. The contamination of the pump oil was made by bubbling tritiated water vapor and tritiated hydrogen gas into the oil. Subsequently the decontamination was processed by bubbling pure water vapor and dry argon gas into the tritiated oil. Results show that the water vapor bubbling was more effective than dry argon gas. The experiment also shows that the water vapor bubbling in an oil bottle can remove and transfer tritium efficiently from the tritiated oil into another water-bubbling bottle.

  12. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  13. The Social Costs to the U.S. of Monopolization of the World Oil Market, 1972-1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the U.S. over the period 1972-1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the U.S. and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972-1991 period to a hypothetical ''more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing U.S. oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US. oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing the economic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC Cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972-1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$ ($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  14. Vegetable oil fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, D.

    1981-04-01

    In this article, the future role of renewable agricultural resources in providing fuel is discussed. it was only during this century that U.S. farmers began to use petroleum as a fuel for tractors as opposed to forage crop as fuel for work animals. Now farmers may again turn to crops as fuel for agricultural production - the possible use of sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil as substitutes for diesel fuel is discussed.

  15. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Efficient recovery of our nation's fossil fuel resources in an environmentally safe manner requires the development and application of new technologies that address the ...

  16. Refiner Crude Oil Inputs

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Refiner Crude Oil Inputs Refiner Gross Inputs Refiner Operable Capacity ... Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, ...

  17. Oil & Gas Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    needed to predict and quantify potential risks associated with oil and gas resources in shale reservoirs that require hydraulic fracturing or other engineering measures to produce. ...

  18. Upgrading heavy gas oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, S.; Reese, D.D.

    1986-05-20

    A method is described of neutralizing the organic acidity in heavy gas oils to produce a neutralization number less than 1.0 whereby they are rendered suitable as lube oil feed stocks which consists essentially of treating the heavy gas oils with a neutralizing amount of monoethanolamine to form an amine salt with the organic acids and then heating the thus-neutralized heavy gas oil at a temperature at least about 25/sup 0/F greater than the boiling point of water and for a time sufficient to convert the amine salts to amides.

  19. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2001 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  20. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  1. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  2. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun

    1994-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that EBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During this first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer has been eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal has been confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions revealed. These reactions between the oxygen, oil, hydroperoxides, and coal are hydroperoxide formation, which is catalyzed by the coal surface and by heat, an unknown coal-hydroperoxide reaction, and oil polymerization. Additionally, diffusion phenomena must be playing a role because oil polymerization occurs, but the importance of diffusion is difficult to assess because less polymerization occurs when coal is present. The first task has been completed and we are now ready to determine the ability of linseed oil hydroperoxides to oxidize organic sulfur in EBC 108 coal.

  3. Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana; Rebecca Holt 29 ENERGY...

  4. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-15

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

  5. An experiment in contingent valuation: Willingness to pay for stormwater management. [Homeowners in Baltimore County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The contingent valuation (CV) method is a technique used frequently in benefit-cost analysis to estimate the economic value of non-market goods such as environmental quality. In CV, surveys are used to ask people about their willingness to pay for a good in a hypothetical market situation. In this application, homeowners in Baltimore County were asked about their willingness to pay (WTP) for programs to control pollutants in urban stormwater runoff designed to achieve, respectively, 4% and 1% reductions in nutrient loadings to the Chesapeake Bay. The main variation comprised alternate descriptions of the payment vehicle. Tests show that the mean WTP by means of property taxes does not differ significantly from mean WTP via user charges. This result was somewhat surprising because of other evidence that the respondents believe strongly that user charges are fairer than property taxes. A best estimate of the benefits to homeowners in Baltimore County of controlling nutrient loads for urban stormwater is from $1.2 to $4.2 million annually, depending on the reduction objective.

  6. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  7. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  8. Oil Refund Decisions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During the period 1973 through 1981, the Federal government imposed price and allocation controls of crude oil and refined petroleum products, such as gasoline and heating oil. During that period and for many years afterwards, the DOE had an enforcement program. When a firm was found to have overcharged, the DOE generally required the firm to make refunds to its customers.

  9. Hydroprocessing catalysts for heavy oil and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satriana, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Hydroprocessing catalysts, as described in over 230 processes covered in this book, are hydrogenation catalysts used in the upgrading of heavy crudes and coal to products expected to be in great demand as the world's primary oil supplies gradually dwindle. The techniques employed in hydroprocessing result in the removal of contaminants, the transformation of lower grade materials such as heavy crudes to valuable fuels, or the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous solids into gaseous or liquid fuel products. All of these techniques are, of course, carried out in the presence of hydrogen. Some of the brightest energy prospects for the future lie in heavy oil reservoirs and coal reserves. Heavy oils, defined in this book as having gravities of < 20/sup 0/API, are crudes so thick that they are not readily extracted from their reservoirs. However, processing of these crudes is of great importance, because the US resource alone is enormous. The main types of processing catalysts covered in the book are hydrorefining catalysts plus some combinations of the two. Catalysts for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials to gaseous or liquid fuels are also covered. The primary starting material for these conversions is coal, but wood, lignin, oil shale, tar sands, and peat are other possibilities. The final chapter describes the preparation of various catalyst support systems.

  10. oil and gas portfolio reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas & Oil Program Research Portfolio Reports The Office of Fossil Energy (FE)... focus areas: Unconventional Oil & Gas Resources; Ultra-Deepwater; and Small Producers. ...

  11. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  12. Section 46: Removal of Waste

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in and around the WIPP site, the EPA did not identify any significant changes in the planning and execution of the DOE's strategy for removal of waste since the 1998...

  13. Impact of oil shortage on plastic medical supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G.B.; Kline, B.

    1981-03-01

    There is good evidence that production of plastic medical equipment may be a minuscule fraction of the overall petrochemical industry; yet, it is not immune to serious supply shortfall in an oil shortage crisis of either economic or military nature. In support of this allegation, researchers have introduced documented evidence that the US health care industry experienced plastic supply shortfall in the form of increased lead time and cost as a direct result of the 1973-1974 embargo. The industry was fortunate in that there was some cushion effect from residual inventories and that the embargo did not last longer. As a further example, it has been shown that the British industry was not so fortunate; it experienced definite signs of medical plastic shortfall and reaction by the medical profession. The US industry, from manufacturer to consumer, lacks contingency planning in spite of lessons learned from the last embargo. Contrary to the apparent consensus of popular opinion, plan is more than a four-lettered word. More planning and implementation is required if the US health care industry is to be ready to cope with the next oil shortage crisis.

  14. Ion Removal - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Ion Removal Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's ion removal technology leverages the ability of phosphazene polymers discriminate between water and metal ions, which allows water to pass through the membrane while retaining the ions. Description The inherent chemical and thermal stability of the phosphazene polymers are an added strengths for separating and

  15. Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method is being investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. During the first quarter the selection of base fro pretreatment and extraction was completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. During the second quarter the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC-108 coal was further tested by pretreating the coal with two base concentrations at four different times followed by treatment with linseed oil at 125{degrees}C for three different times and finally washing with 5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and methanol. During this third quarter more experimental parameters were systematically varied in order to study the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC- 108 coal.

  16. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  17. China shows increasing interest in heavy oil and oil sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    China and Canadian and US groups are cooperating in several areas to develop the heavy oil, asphalt, and oil sand deposits of China. The agreements dealing with exploration and upgrading are briefly described. The majority of the paper describes the occurrences of heavy oil, asphalt, and oil sands in China. 1 figure.

  18. Heavy oil upgrading for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, B.E.; Johnson, D.R.; Lasher, J.S.; Hung, C. )

    1989-01-01

    The Chevron RDS Hydrotreating Process and the Gulf Resid HDS Process were pioneers in this field, beginning with the startup of the first resid desulfurization unit in 1969. The merger of Chevron Corporation with Gulf Oil Corporation resulted in a versatile new RDS Hydrotreating technology which utilizes the best features of the original Chevron and Gulf processes. Continuing improvements in the catalyst and in process configuration have greatly increased the capability of combined Chevron RDS hydrotreating to provide deeper demetalation (HDM), denitrification (HDN), Ramscarbon removal (HDR), desulfurization (HDAS), and greater cracking conversion (HCR) while processing more difficult feedstocks. future. The process is detailed by the authors.

  19. Resource Contingency Program - Oregon : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hermiston Power Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. In 1990, to cover the outer range of potential load growth with new resources, BPA embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP). Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later, if and when it is needed. The decision to acquire any of these option energy projects to fulfill statutory supply obligations will be influenced by Federal system load growth, the outcome of BPA`s Business Plan, required operational changes in Columbia-Snake River Hydroelectric facilities, and the loss of major generating resources. In September 1993, three option development agreements were signed with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop, Washington, and near Hermiston, Oregon. Together these three projects could supply BPA with 1,090 average megawatts (aMW) of power. Under these agreements, sponsors are obtaining permits and conducting project design work, and BPA is completing this EIS process. In September 1993, BPA published a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on these three proposed gas-fired combustion turbine projects and held public scoping meetings in October 1993 at each site. In February 1994, BPA released an Implementation Plan on the proposed scope of the EIS. A draft EIS on the three proposed projects was published in February 1995. The impacts of the Chehalis and Satsop projects located in Washington State will be covered in one EIS document, while the impacts of the Hermiston project located in Oregon are covered in this final EIS document. It is BPA`s intent to continue to base the analysis of impacts on the assumption that all three projects may be constructed at some point in the future.

  20. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotariu,, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We recognize that the rate of development, the magnitude of development, and the technology mix that will actually take place remain uncertain. Although we emphasize that other energy and mineral resources besides oil shale may be developed, the conclusions reached in this study reflect only those impacts that would be felt from the oil shale scenario. Socioeconomic impacts in the region reflect the uneven growth rate implied by the scenario and will be affected by the timing of industry developments, the length and magnitude of the construction phase of development, and the shift in employment profiles predicted in the scenario. The facilities in the southern portion of the oil shale region, those along the Colorado River and Parachute Creek, show a peak in the construction work force in the mid-1980s, whereas those f acil it i es in the Piceance Creek Bas into the north show a construction peak in the late 1980s. Together, the facilities will require a large construction work force throughout the decade, with a total of 4800 construction workers required in 1985. Construction at the northern sites and second phase construction in the south will require 6000 workers in 1988. By 1990, the operation work force will increase to 7950. Two important characteristics of oil shale development emerge from the work force estimates: (1) peak-year construction work forces will be 90-120% the size of the permanent operating work force; and (2) the yearly changes in total work force requirements will be large, as much as 900 in one year at one facility. To estimate population impacts on individual communities, we devised a population distribution method that is described in Sec. IV. Variables associated with the projection of population impacts are discussed and methodologies of previous assessments are compared. Scenario-induced population impacts estimated by the Los Alamos method are compared to projections of a model employed by the Colorado West Area Council of Governments. Oil shale development in the early decade, as defined by the scenario, will produce growth primarily

  1. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Dennis L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hackel, Lloyd; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Dane, C. Brent; Mrowka, Stanley

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  2. Removal - An alternative to clearance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feinhals, J.; Kelch, A.; Kunze, V.

    2007-07-01

    This presentation shows the differences between the application of clearance and removal, both being procedures for materials leaving radiation protection areas permanently. The differentiation will be done on the basis of the German legislation but may be also applicable for other national legislation. For clearance in Germany two basic requirements must be given, i.e. that the materials are activated or contaminated and that they result from the licensed use or can be assigned to the scope of the license. Clearance needs not to be applied to objects in Germany which are to be removed only temporarily from controlled areas with the purpose of repair or reuse in other controlled areas. In these cases only the requirements of contamination control apply. In the case of removal it must either be proved by measurements that the relevant materials are neither activated nor contaminated or that the materials result from areas where activation or contamination is impossible due to the operational history considering operational procedures and events. If the material is considered neither activated nor contaminated there is no need for a clearance procedure. Therefore, these materials can be removed from radiation protection areas and the removal is in the responsibility of the licensee. Nevertheless, the removal procedure and the measuring techniques to be applied for the different types of materials need an agreement from the competent authority. In Germany a maximum value of 10% of the clearance values has been established in different licenses as a criterion for the application of removal. As approximately 2/3 of the total mass of a nuclear power plant is not expected to be contaminated or activated there is a need for such a procedure of removal for this non contaminated material without any regulatory control especially in the case of decommissioning. A remarkable example is NPP Stade where in the last three years more than 8600 Mg were disposed of by removal and only 315 Mg were released by clearance, even before the decommissioning licensing procedure was finished. (authors)

  3. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  4. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ... 2:52:09 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...

  5. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector A photovoltaic (PV) module ...

  6. Heavy Water Test Reactor Dome Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    A high speed look at the removal of the Heavy Water Test Reactor Dome Removal. A project sponsored by the Recovery Act on the Savannah River Site.

  7. Nuclear Material Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Material Removal Once weapons-usable nuclear material is no longer required, the Office of Nuclear Material Removal works with global partners and facilities to ...

  8. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection 2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated...

  9. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector Title: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, ...

  10. Heating Oil Reserve History

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Creation of an emergency reserve of heating oil was directed by President Clinton on July 10, 2000, when he directed then-Energy Secretary Bill Richardson to establish a two million barrel home...

  11. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to 2.84 per gallon, down 5.4 cents from last week

  12. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20.86 20.67 20.47 20.24 20.32 19.57 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  13. Oil Market Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

  14. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  15. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  16. Oil shale research in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

    1989-01-01

    There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

  17. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly progress report], December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.; Ho, K.K.

    1995-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During this second quarter working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S. 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different extraction solvents, and different temperatures were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 1OO{degree}C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents.

  18. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  19. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net Inputs of Motor Gasoline Blending Components Net Inputs of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of GTAB Blending Components Net Inputs of All Other Blending Components Net Inputs of Fuel Ethanol Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline (Excl.

  20. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  1. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  2. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  3. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  4. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Processing...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Total Products Other Liquids Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum ...

  5. removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    80 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The HEU was transported via two air shipments to a...

  6. System for utilizing oil shale fines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harak, Arnold E.

    1982-01-01

    A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

  7. United Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Oil Company Place: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Product: Vegetable-Oil producer Biodiesel producer based in Pittsburgh, PA...

  8. Microsoft Word - Heating Oil Season.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4-2015 Heating Oil Season Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Trigger Mechanism (Cents per Gallon, Except Where Noted) Week Residential Heating Oil Price Average Brent Spot Price...

  9. Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves Key Challenges: Seismic imaging methods, vital in our continuing search for deep offshore oil and gas...

  10. Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources The United States has significant natural gas and oil reserves. But many of these resources are increasingly harder to...

  11. Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources The United States has significant natural gas and oil reserves. But many of these resources are increasingly harder to ...

  12. Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an inexpensive method to remove organic sulfur from pyrite-free and mineral-free coal using base, air, and readily available farm products. This is accomplished by treating coals with impregnating coals with polyunsaturated offs, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they produce no noxious products and improve burning qualities of the solid products. IBC-108 coal, (contains only 0.4% pyrite and 2.7% organic sulfur) was first treated with Na{sub 4}OH at two different concentrations and four different times, and with NH{sub 4}OH at two different concentrations and two different temperatures. Pretreating IBC-108 coal with bases removes 13% to 23% of the sulfur, and NaOH is a better treatment than NH{sub 4}OH in most of the experiments. Higher temperatures, higher base concentrations, and longer treatment times remove more sulfur. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is more effective than NaOH for oil extraction after the oil treatment. To test for effectiveness of sulfur removal, eight coal samples were treated with NaOH (two concentrations at four different times) were further treated with linseed oil at three temperatures, four different times, and two oil to coal ratios. The combination of NaOH pretreatment, then oil treatment, followed by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction, removes 23% to 50% of the sulfur. The best result is achieved by pretreating with 5% NaOH for 20 hr (23% sulfur removal) followed by oil treatment at 100{degrees}C for 5 hr with a 1:1 oil to coal ratio (50% sulfur removal in total). More sulfur is removed with a 1:1 oil to coal ratio than a 1:10 ratio under most conditions.

  13. Method and apparatus for converting and removing organosulfur and other oxidizable compounds from distillate fuels, and compositions obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Alessandro, Robert N.; Tarabocchia, John; Jones, Jerald Andrew; Bonde, Steven E.; Leininger, Stefan

    2010-10-26

    The present disclosure is directed to a multi-stage system and a process utilizing said system with the design of reducing the sulfur-content in a liquid comprising hydrocarbons and organosulfur compounds. The process comprising at least one of the following states: (1) an oxidation stage; (2) an extraction state; (3) a raffinate washing stage; (4) a raffinate polishing stage; (5) a solvent recovery stage; (6) a solvent purification stage; and (7) a hydrocarbon recovery stage. The process for removing sulfur-containing hydrocarbons from gas oil, which comprises oxidizing gas oil comprising hydrocarbons and organosulfur compounds to obtain a product gas oil.

  14. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Information Program. Update 2, August 1981, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: a summary report, July 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    In July 1980, the Office of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Information issued an initial report called Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: A Summary Report, July 1980. The purpose of this report was to provide State and local governments with current information about offshore oil and gas resources and onshore activity in the area extending from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Cape Canaveral, Florida. This information was designed to assist in socioeconomic planning for the onshore impacts of oil and gas development in the affected areas. This report, Update 2, discusses Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities and their onshore impacts for the period of February 1981 to August 1981. Because of the minimal offshore oil- and gas-related activity in the South Atlantic Region, the onshore impacts are also minimal. Very little, if any, development has occurred as a result of exploration or development. Even though the South Atlantic OCS does contain large areas with hydrocarbon potential, little optimism has been generated by exploration associated with Lease Sale 43. Lease Sale 56 included tracts with geologic conditions more favorable to the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, especially the deepwatr tracts, but industry showed moderate interest in the first deepwater lease sale. The level of nearshore and onshore activity may increase with exploration associated with Lease Sale 56. More permanent onshore development will be contingent on the outcome of exploration efforts.

  15. Massive Hanford Test Reactor Removed - Plutonium Recycle Test...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Massive Hanford Test Reactor Removed - Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor removed from Hanford's 300 Area Massive Hanford Test Reactor Removed - Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor removed ...

  16. Part 3: Removal Action | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3: Removal Action Part 3: Removal Action Question: When may removal actions be initiated? Answer: Removal actions may be initiated when DOE determines that the action will prevent, minimize, stabilize, or eliminate a risk to health or the environment. The NCP specifies that the determination that a risk to health or the environment is appropriate for removal action should be based on: actual or potential exposure of humans, animals, or the food chain the presence of contained hazardous

  17. Using contingent valuation to explore willingness to pay for renewable energy: A comparison of collective and voluntary payment vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan H.

    2002-07-28

    Some of the most basic questions about the organization and functioning of society involve issues raised by the existence of public goods. With respect to environmental public goods, how should funds used to support environmental improvement be collected and used? In particular, are collective, mandatory payments superior to voluntary, charitable payments due to the possibility of free riding? And to what degree should the government be involved in spending these funds: should the government directly fund environmental improvement projects or should the private sector be used to collect funds and determine funding priorities? This report explores these questions from the perspective of renewable energy: wind, geothermal, biomass, hydropower, and solar. In particular, this report analyzes the payment preferences of U.S. households through the implementation of a large-scale contingent valuation (CV) survey of willingness to pay (WTP) for renewable energy. Renewable energy can be supported through a mandatory ''tax'' on electric bills or through voluntary payments via green power marketing; the government may or may not be heavily involved in the collection and expenditure of such funds. The question of how households prefer to pay for renewable energy is therefore highly relevant. The primary objective of this study is to explore variations in stated WTP for renewable energy under the following four payment and provision contexts: (1) A mandatory increase in the electricity bills of all customers, the funds from which are collected and spent by the government on renewable energy projects. (2) A voluntary increase in the electricity bills of those customers who choose to pay, the funds from which are collected and spent by the government on renewable energy projects. (3) A voluntary increase in the electricity bills of those customers who choose to pay, the funds from which are collected and spent by electricity suppliers on renewable energy projects. (4) A mandatory increase in the electricity bills of all customers, the funds from which are collected and spent by electricity suppliers on renewable energy projects. These payment and provision scenarios are consistent with contemporary forms of support for renewable energy. The first scenario--mandatory payments and government provision--is consistent with a system-benefits charge policy, a policy that has been adopted in 15 U.S. states. The third scenario--voluntary payments to an electricity supplier--is consistent with competitive green power marketing. The fourth scenario--mandatory payments through electricity suppliers--is consistent with a renewables portfolio standard, a policy adopted in thirteen U.S. states as of mid 2003. The second scenario--voluntary payments and government provision--has only been used in a limited fashion in the United States. In addition to having contemporary policy relevance, these four contingent valuation scenarios allow one to distinguish differences in stated WTP based on: (1) the payment method--is WTP affected by whether payments are to be made collectively or voluntarily? and (2) the provision arrangement--does the manner in which a good is provided, in this case through the government or the private sector, affect stated WTP? A split-sample, dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey of 1,574 U.S. residents was developed and implemented to test the sensitivity of stated WTP to these variables at three different payment levels, or bid points. Three secondary objectives also influenced research design, and are discussed in this report. First, this study indirectly and tentatively evaluates the importance of ''participation expectations'' in contingent valuation surveys: specifically, are individuals who state a WTP for renewable energy more likely to think that others will also contribute? Such relationships are commonly discussed in the sociology, social psychology, and marketing literatures, and are also frequently referenced in the collective action literature, but have yet to be tested thoroughly in a contingent valuation co

  18. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the average household heating with oil will experience a 41% drop in heating oil expenditures this ...

  19. International Oil and Gas Board International Oil and Gas Board...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Petroleum Company Syrian Petroleum Company Damascus Syria Syria http www spc sy com en production activities1 en php Yemen Ministry of Oil and Minerals Yemen Ministry of Oil and...

  20. History of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The history of oil shale in the United States since the early 1900's is detailed. Research on western oil shale probably began with the work of Robert Catlin in 1915. During the next 15 years there was considerable interest in the oil shales, and oil shale claims were located, and a few recovery plants were erected in Colorado, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Montana. Little shale soil was produced, however, and the major oil companies showed little interest in producing shale oil. The early boom in shale oil saw less than 15 plants produce a total of less than 15,000 barrels of shale oil, all but about 500 barrels of which was produced by the Catlin Operation in Nevada and by the US Bureau of Mines Rulison, Colorado operation. Between 1930 and 1944 plentiful petroleum supplies at reasonable prices prevent any significant interest in shale oil, but oil shortages during World War II caused a resurgence of interest in oil shale. Between 1940 and 1969, the first large-scale mining and retorting operations in soil shale, and the first attempts at true in situ recovery of shale oil began. Only 75,000 barrels of shale oil were produced, but major advancements were made in developing mine designs and technology, and in retort design and technology. The oil embargo of 1973 together with a new offering of oil shale leases by the Government in 1974 resulted in the most concentrated efforts for shale oil production to date. These efforts and the future prospects for shale oil as an energy source in the US are discussed.

  1. Industrial lead paint removal specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader as to some of the pertinent rules and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) that may effect an industrial lead paint removal project. The paper discusses a recommended schedule of procedures and preparations to be followed by the lead paint removal specification writer when analyzing the possible impact of the project on the environment, the public and workers. Implications of the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) along with hazardous waste handling, manifesting, transporting and disposal procedures are discussed with special emphasis placed as to their impact on the writer and the facility owner. As the rules and regulations are highly complex, the writer has attempted to explain the methodology currently being used in state-of-the-art industrial lead abatement specifications.

  2. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-10-20

    Embodiments of methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In one example, a method comprises the steps of separating a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent into a low-oxygen-pyoil organic phase stream and an aqueous phase stream. Phenolic compounds are removed from the aqueous phase stream to form a phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream. A biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is diluted and heated with the phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to deoxygenate the heated diluted pyoil feed stream.

  4. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The residential pricing data collected on heating oil and propane prices are for the ... However, EIA does publish spot prices for heating oil and propane throughout the year. In ...

  5. STEO December 2012 - oil production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rise in 2012 U.S. oil production largest since 1859, output in 2013 seen topping 7 million bpd U.S. crude oil production is now expected to rise by about 760,000 barrels per day in ...

  6. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming R. Evans, S. Czernik, R. French, M. Ratcliff National ... GAS 7 BIOMASS BIO-OIL CHAR For reactor or export Gas recycle For fluidization or export ...

  7. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.2 cents from a week ago to 2.91 per gallon. That's down 1.33 from a year ago, based on the ...

  8. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 5.4 cents from a week ago to 4.04 per gallon. That's up 4.9 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  9. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to 2.26 per gallon. That's down 89 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  10. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.6 cents from a week ago to 4.24 per gallon. That's up 8.9 cents from a year ...

  11. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2 cents from a week ago to 3.36 per gallon. That's down 52.5 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  12. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3 cents from a week ago to 2.33 per gallon. That's down 89 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  13. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.8 cents from a week ago to 3.33 per gallon. That's down 59.1 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  14. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6-tenths of a cent from a week ago to 2.10 per gallon. That's down 1.11 from a year ...

  15. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.6 cents from a week ago to 3.42 per gallon. That's down 39.5 cents from a year ago, ...

  16. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to 2.82 per gallon. That's down 1.36 from a year ago, based on the ...

  17. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5 cents from a week ago to 2.06 per gallon. That's down 75 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  18. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to 4.00 per gallon. That's down 2-tenths of a cent ...

  19. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5.1 cents from a week ago to 2.11 per gallon. That's down 72 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  20. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.5 cents from a week ago to 2.36 per gallon. That's down 97 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  1. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from a week ago to 3.98 per gallon. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based ...

  2. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1 cent from a week ago to 2.09 per gallon. That's down 82 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  3. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.8 cents from a week ago to 2.08 per gallon. That's down 72 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  4. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.3 cents from a week ago to 3.38 per gallon. That's down 43.9 cents from a year ...

  5. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.7 cents from a week ago to 3.03 per gallon. That's down 1.20 from a year ...

  6. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.3 cents from a week ago to 2.38 per gallon. That's down 99 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  7. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.5 cents from a week ago to 2.21 per gallon. That's down 87 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  8. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.1 cents from a week ago to 2.10 per gallon. That's down 94 cents from a year ago, ...

  9. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.9 cents from a week ago to 3.45 per gallon. That's down 36.6 cents from a year ...

  10. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to 2.80 per gallon. That's down 1.44 from a year ago, based on the ...

  11. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 17.7 cents from a week ago to 3.03 per gallon. That's down 1.09 from a year ago, based on the ...

  12. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6-tenths of a cent from a week ago to 2.18 per gallon. That's down 79 cents from a year ago, based ...

  13. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 3.08 per gallon. That's down 90.3 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  14. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to 3.43 per gallon. That's down 39 cents from a year ...

  15. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.7 cents from a week ago to 4.02 per gallon. That's up 1.7 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  16. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 12 cents from a week ago to 4.18 per gallon. That's up 13 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  17. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 10.5 cents from a week ago to 3.22 per gallon. That's down 73.6 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  18. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.8 cents from a week ago to 3.14 per gallon. That's down 81.1 cents from a year ...

  19. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.5 cents from a week ago to 2.18 per gallon. That's down 87 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  20. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to 3.29 per gallon. That's down 93.7 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  1. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 14.7 cents from a week ago to 3.19 per gallon. That's down 1.06 from a year ...

  2. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5-tenths of a cent from a week ago to 2.09 per gallon. That's down 1.20 from a year ...

  3. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 9-tenths of a cent from a week ago to 2.09 per gallon. That's down 1.09 from a year ...

  4. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6.5 cents from a week ago to 4.24 per gallon. That's up 14.9 cents from a year ...

  5. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to 2.16 per gallon. That's down 75 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  6. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 4.4 cents from a week ago to 4.06 per gallon. That's up 4.1 cents from a year ...

  7. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 8 cents from a week ago to 3.21 per gallon. That's down 98.7 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  8. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.6 cents from a week ago to 2.12 per gallon. That's down 91 cents from a year ago, ...

  9. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1 cent from a week ago to 2.13 per gallon. That's down 80 cents from a year ago, based ...

  10. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  11. Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

  12. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map...

  13. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thanks in part to innovations supported by the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory over the past 30 years, the United States is a world leader in the number of EOR projects and volume of oil production from this method.

  15. Dying for oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, A.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the fight and execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa, the Ogoni leader who defended his people`s land on the Niger delta against oil development encouraged by the government and persued by the Royal/Dutch Shell Co. Political reprocussions and heightened vigilance of environmental activists are discussed at length.

  16. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  17. World Oil Transit Chokepoints

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

  18. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  19. Method for removing impurities from an impurity-containing fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2010-04-06

    A method of removing at least one polar component from a fluid stream. The method comprises providing a fluid stream comprising at least one nonpolar component and at least one polar component. The fluid stream is contacted with a supercritical solvent to remove the at least one polar component. The at least one nonpolar component may be a fat or oil and the at least one polar component may be water, dirt, detergents, or mixtures thereof. The supercritical solvent may decrease solubility of the at least one polar component in the fluid stream. The supercritical solvent may function as a solvent or as a gas antisolvent. The supercritical solvent may dissolve the nonpolar components of the fluid stream, such as fats or oils, while the polar components may be substantially insoluble. Alternatively, the supercritical solvent may be used to increase the nonpolarity of the fluid stream.

  20. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  1. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

  2. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

  3. EM's Paducah Site Completes Building Removals | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EM's Paducah Site Completes Building Removals EM's Paducah Site Completes Building Removals Addthis

  4. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes of this WD&R model (CRWMS M&O 2000b) are to quantify and evaluate the distribution and drainage of seepage water within emplacement drifts during the period of compliance for post-closure performance. The model bounds the fraction of water entering the drift that will be prevented from contacting the waste by the combined effects of engineered controls on water distribution and on water removal. For example, water can be removed during pre-closure operation by ventilation and after closure by natural drainage into the fractured rock. Engineered drains could be used, if demonstrated to be necessary and effective, to ensure that adequate drainage capacity is provided. This report provides the screening arguments for certain Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) that are related to water distribution and removal in the EBS. Applicable acceptance criteria from the Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs) developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1999a; 1999b; 1999c; and 1999d) are also addressed in this document.

  5. Process for upgrading heavy oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePage, J.F.; Marlino, G.

    1983-07-05

    The viscosity of heavy oils is reduced in order to facilitate pipe line transportation thereof. A fraction of the heavy oil is deasphalted in the presence of C/sub 5/-C/sub 7/ hydrocarbons, a portion of the separated asphalt is converted to synthesis gas, at least a portion of said gas is used to manufacture an alcohol mixture including methanol and C/sub 2/ to C/sub 10/ alcohols, which mixture is admixed with the heavy oil before transportation thereof. This procedure is more beneficial to the transported heavy oil than the prior processes which do not comprise the conversion of the asphalt fraction of the heavy oil.

  6. Nitrogen Removal from Natural Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nitrogen Removal from Natural Gas Phase II Draft Final Report Contract Number DE-AC21-95MC32199--02 Contract Period: July 29, 1996 - December 31, 1999 prepared by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. 1360 Willow Road Menlo Park, CA 94025 December 22, 1999 for the U.S. Department of Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center Morgantown, WV Contributors to this Report: K.A. Lokhandwala M.B. Ringer T.T. Su Z. He I. Pinnau J.G. Wijmans A. Morisato K. Amo A. Da Costa R.W. Baker R. Olsen H. Hassani

  7. Mexico HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home content Four-Year Plan Mexico HEU Removal Mexico HEU Removal Location Mexico United States 24 24' 35.298" N, 102...

  8. Nuclear & Radiological Material Removal | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    & Radiological Material Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation...

  9. A novel process for upgrading heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, F.T.T.; Rintjema, R.T.

    1994-12-31

    Canada has extensive reserves of high sulfur heavy oils. These heavy oils are recovered primarily by steam injection techniques. As a result, the heavy oils are obtained as emulsions at well-heads. The heavy oils, being high in sulfur and metals, and low in hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio, require upgrading such as desulfurization and hydrocracking before it can be used in conventional refineries. Conventional emulsion treatment and desulfurization technology require multistage processing. Thus, alternative technologies for processing heavy oil emulsions would be attractive. The authors have recently developed a novel single stage process for upgrading emulsions via activation of water to provide hydrogen in situ for catalytic desulfurization and hydrocracking. Current work is focused on the desulfurization aspect of upgrading, using benzothiophene as the model sulfur compound and molybdic acid as the catalyst. At 340 C and a CO loading pressure of 600 psi, up to 86% sulfur removal was obtained. As well, in situ generated H{sub 2} was found to be more active than externally supplied molecular H{sub 2}. A likely pathway for desulfurization of benzothiophene was via the initial hydrogenation of benzothiophene to dihydrobenzothiophene followed by hydrogenolysis to give ethylbenzene and H{sub 2}S.

  10. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  11. Shale oil recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerga, Daniel P.

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  12. Enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    The principal enhanced recovery technique is waterflooding, because water generally is inexpensive to obtain and inject into the reservoir and it works. With the shortage of conventional oil in Canada there is greater emphasis being placed on other recovery schemes in addition to or in place of waterflooding. Tertiary recovery is applicable to many of the existing projects and engineers must recognize those fields that are candidates for tertiary recovery applications. The application of tertiary recovery techniques to a specific reservoir requires consideration of all methods developed to select the one most suitable. A thorough understanding of waterflooding and the factors that affect recovery is necessary before a tertiary process is considered. Factors that affect oil recovery under waterflooding are areal and vertical sweep efficiency, contact factor and displacement efficiency.

  13. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; Russick, Edward M.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  14. Oil Price Volatility

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Robert J. Weiner Robert J. Weiner Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Public Administration, and International Affairs Public Administration, and International Affairs George Washington University; George Washington University; Membre Associ Membre Associ é é , GREEN, Universit , GREEN, Universit é é Laval Laval EIA Annual Conference Washington Washington 7 April 2009 7 April

  15. Retrofitting heavy oil processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, G.L.; Fitzgerald, M.; D'Amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    Refiners, faced with the need to process the bottom end of the heavy high sulfur crude oil barrel in today's uncertain economic environment, are reluctant to commit large amounts of money to expensive upgrading processes. In order to conserve scarce capital while improving operating margins, additional valuable products can be produced by retrofits such as conversion of an idle crude unit to visbreaking, delayed coking or deasphalting service, or conversion of hydrodesulfurizers to mild hydrocracking.

  16. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  17. THERMALLY SHIELDED MOISTURE REMOVAL DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, O.E.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for removing moisture from the air within tanks by condensation upon a cartridge containing liquid air. An insulating shell made in two halves covers the cartridge within the evacuated system. The shell halves are hinged together and are operated by a system of levers from outside the tank with the motion translated through a sylphon bellows to cover and uncover the cartridge. When the condensation of moisture is in process, the insulative shell is moved away from the liquid air cartridge, and during that part of the process when there is no freezing out of moisture, the shell halves are closed on the cell so thnt the accumulated frost is not evaporated. This insulating shell greatly reduces the consumption of liquid air in this condensation process.

  18. Fuel removal, transport, and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) which damaged the core of the reactor resulted in numerous scientific and technical challenges. Some of those challenges involve removing the core debris from the reactor, packaging it into canisters, loading canisters into a rail cask, and transporting the debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for storage, examination, and preparation for final disposal. This paper highlights how some challenges were resolved, including lessons learned and benefits derived therefrom. Key to some success at TMI was designing, testing, fabricating, and licensing two rail casks, which each provide double containment of the damaged fuel. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil and Less CO2 Emissions Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil ...

  20. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  1. Crude Oil Prices Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  2. FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-D: Working Together: Conventional Refineries and Bio-Oil R&D Technologies E. Thomas (Tom) Habib, Jr., Director, Customer ...

  3. High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports High U.S. crude oil production will help further reduce America's reliance on oil imports during the next two years. In its ...

  4. U.S. oil imports to decline with rising oil production through...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    oil imports to decline with rising oil production through 2014 The United States will need fewer oil imports over the next two years because of rising U.S. oil production. The new ...

  5. U.S. crude oil production expected to exceed oil imports later...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    crude oil production expected to exceed oil imports later this year U.S. crude oil production is expected to surpass U.S. crude oil imports by the fourth quarter of this year. That ...

  6. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  7. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  8. The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

  9. Method of operating an oil shale kiln

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-05-23

    Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

  10. Example Cleanup: Removal of Polychlorinated Biphenyls from Hillside...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Example Cleanup Removal of Polychlorinated Biphenyls from Hillside 140 Removing the source is one of three defenses in depth, as illustrated at the PCB removal from Hillside 140. ...

  11. Ukraine Fuel Removal: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Removal: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter ... Blog Home Library Fact Sheets Ukraine Fuel Removal: Fact Sheet Ukraine Fuel Removal: ...

  12. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Holiday Release Schedule The Heating Oil and Propane Update is produced during the winter heating season, which extends from October through March of each year. The standard ...

  13. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virent 2014 Virent is Replacing Crude Oil. Biomass 2014 July 30, 2014 Randy D. Cortright, ... Plants Partners & Investors Converting plant-based feedstocks to fuels and chemicals 75 ...

  14. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A.; Young, Robert R.

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  15. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  16. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  17. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  18. Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc

    1994-01-01

    High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH).sub.2 is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH).sub.2 is added in an excess amount needed.

  19. Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1994-12-06

    High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added in an excess amount needed. 3 figures.

  20. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  1. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-11-13

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  2. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  3. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections = Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated regularly. As of 2012, no sediment required disposal as hazardous or radioactive waste. Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated regularly. As of 2012, no sediment required disposal as hazardous or radioactive waste. The 3 Protections Protection #1: Remove the source of contamination Protection #2: Stabilize,

  4. Iran Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Iran Oil and Gas Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Iran Oil and Gas Name: Iran Oil and Gas Address: Unit 16, 3rd Fl., Bldg. No. 2, 9th Narenjestan St., North Pasdaran Ave. Place:...

  5. heavy_oil | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Oil Heavy oil is a vast U.S. oil resource that is underexploited because its highly viscous nature renders it difficult to produce and to refine. As higher-gravity crudes ...

  6. STEO January 2013 - oil production increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    oil production to increase in 2013 and 2014 U.S. crude oil production is expected to keep rising over the next two years. America's oil output will jump nearly 900,000 barrels per ...

  7. Compare All CBECS Activities: Fuel Oil Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Oil Use Compare Activities by ... Fuel Oil Use Total Fuel Oil Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 1.3 billion gallons...

  8. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports from Denmark of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Egypt of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Equatorial Guinea of Crude Oil...

  9. Oman Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil Company (S.A.O.C.) Name: Oman Oil Company (S.A.O.C.) Place: Muscat, Oman Product: Oil exploration and production Year Founded: 1966 Phone Number: + 968 - 2457 3100 Website:...

  10. Removal of radioisotopes from waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, H.W.

    1973-10-01

    The invention comprises removing radioisotopes from waste liquids or solutions by passing these through filters and through a column containing a suitable salt of phosphoric acid. (Official Gazette)

  11. Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – Workers at the Hanford site are digging deep into several waste sites near the Columbia River to remove soil contaminated with chromium.

  12. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  13. material removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    monitor nonproliferation and arms control treaty and agreement Nuclear Material Removal Once weapons-usable nuclear material is no longer required, the Office of Nuclear Material...

  14. Turkey HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Turkey HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

  15. Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on installing removable insulation on valves and fittings provides how-to advice for improving steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Slag capture and removal during laser cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Clyde O.

    1984-05-08

    Molten metal removed from a workpiece in a laser cutting operation is blown away from the cutting point by a gas jet and collected on an electromagnet.

  17. General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benefits Pursuant to 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal Protection Benefits ...

  18. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  19. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2

  20. Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Crude oil development and production in U.S. oil reservoirs can include up to three distinct phases: primary, secondary, and tertiary (or enhanced) recovery. During primary

  1. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  2. Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

  3. Conversion of heavy hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, N.Y.; Pelrine, B.P.; Yan, T.Y.

    1982-12-14

    This invention provides a process for upgrading a heavy hydrocarbon oil to motor fuel products. The heavy hydrocarbon oil is admixed with a metal halide catalyst and a solvent component under supercritical conditions to form (1) a dense-gas solvent phase which contains refined hydrocarbon crackate, and which is substantially free of metal halide catalyst content; and (2) a residual asphaltic phase.

  4. Heavy oil upgrading via fluidized bed processing and hydrogenation processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, F.N. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    California is the second largest crude oil producer in the lower 48 states. Nearly half of its production is heavy oil, difficult to transport and costly to refine. Given better methods of processing, production could be expanded. Likewise, huge worldwide reserves of heavy oils could be better exploited if more attractive processing methods were available. Midway Sunset crude at 11.8 API gravity, is a fairly difficult crude to process. It has about 1.5 percent sulfur, a very high nitrogen content, in the range of 0.7--0.8%, and metals of approximately 120--170 ppm, vanadium plus nickel. The authors will be reporting here results of the pilot plant testing to see whether non-catalytic fluid bed cracking technology, operated at low conversion, followed by hydrogenation would be economically attractive. Results suggest that this approach is competitive with delayed coking and with atmospheric resid desulfurization. This approach successfully combines carbon removal and hydrogen addition techniques for heavy oil upgrading. Comparative yields, product quality and economic considerations are reviewed in this study.

  5. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  7. Oil and Gas Research| GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas We're balancing the increasing demand for finite resources with technology that ensures access to energy for generations to come. Home > Innovation > Oil & Gas ...

  8. Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf January - December 2015 | Release Date: February 29, 2016 | Next Release Date: August 31, 2016 2015 Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf ...

  9. SciTech Connect: "oil shale"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oil shale" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "oil shale" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  10. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  11. Oil and Gas Gateway | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    States, oil and gas boards and commissions are the place for finding data related to oil and gas activities. These activities include well records, permitting, and production...

  12. ,"Pennsylvania Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves ... to Contents","Data 1: Pennsylvania Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves ...

  13. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  14. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  15. Oil Stop Valve : Oil Spill Containment Research and Development Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourn, Robert D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the research and development project conducted by the Civil Engineering Section, Division of Substation and Control Engineering, to determine the effectiveness of the oil stop valve for use in the Bonneville Power Administration's Oil Spill Containment and Countermeasure Program. The most attractive alternative to lagoons and separator tanks was found in the oil stop valve manufactured by AFL/Clark Industries of Riviera Beach, Florida. This small, direct-acting and relatively inexpensive valve requires little maintenance and can either be employed independently, using existing drain lines for effluent storage, or in conjunction with oil separator tanks and lagoon systems. The AFL/Clark valve requires no power and has only one moving part, a ballasted float having a specific gravity between that of oil and water. In water, the float rides above the throat of the discharge pipe allowing water to flow out. When oil enters the water the float begins losing its relative bouyancy and sinks until it seats itself over the throat of the outlet, closing the valve. Usually installed in a manhole within a typical storm drainage system, the valve backs spilled oil into drainways and contains it for temporary storage within the switchyard.

  16. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  17. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  18. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  19. DOE - Fossil Energy: Squeezing Oil Out of Rock

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2-Squeezing Out Oil An Energy Lesson Looking Down an Oil Well Looking Down an Oil Well Squeezing Oil out of Rocks Imagine trying to force oil through a rock. Can't be done, you ...

  20. Adsorption of phenol from aqueous systems onto spent oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darwish, N.A.; Halhouli, K.A.; Al-Dhoon, N.M. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    1996-03-01

    To evaluate its ability to remove phenol from aqueous solution, Jordanian {open_quotes}spent{close_quotes} oil shale, an abundant natural resource, has been used in an experimental adsorption study. Equilibrium of the system has been determined at three temperatures: 30, 40, and 55{degrees}C. The resulting experimental equilibrium isotherms are well represented by Frendlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The relevant parameters for these isotherms, as regressed from the experimental equilibrium data, are presented. Effects of solution pH (in the range of 3-11), in addition to effects of three inorganic salts (Kl, KCl, and NaCl), on the equilibrium isotherms were also investigated. The effects of pH in the presence of KI and NaCl were also investigated for a possible interaction between salts and solution pH. The initial concentration of phenol in the aqueous system studied ranges from 10 to 200 ppm. Experimental results show that while an acidic solution has no effect on the adsorption capacity of spent oil shale to phenol, a highly basic solution reduces its adsorbability. No sound effect was observed for the inorganic salts studied on the adsorption of phenol on spent oil shale. The experimental results show that there is no interaction between the pH of solution and the presence of salts. In spite of its ability to remove phenol, spent oil shale showed a very low equilibrium capacity (of an order of magnitude of 1 mg/g). Should the adsorption capacity of the shale be improved (by different treatment processes, such as grafting, surface conditioning), results of this study will find a direct practical implication in serving as {open_quotes}raw{close_quotes} reference data for comparison purposes.

  1. Method And Apparatus For Arbitrarily Large Capacity Removable Media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milligan, Charles A.; Hughes, James P.; Debiez; Jacques

    2003-04-08

    A method and apparatus to handle multiple sets of removable media within a storage system. A first set of removable media are mounted on a set of drives. Data is accepted until the first set of removable media is filled. A second set of removable media is mounted on the drives, while the first set of removable media is removed. When the change in removable media is complete, writing of data proceeds on the second set of removable media. Data may be buffered while the change in removable media occurs. Alternatively, two sets of removable media may be mounted at the same time. When the first set of removable media is filled to a selected amount, the second set of removable media may then be used to write the data. A third set of removable media is set up or mounted for use, while the first set of removable media is removed.

  2. Environmental assessment of oil degasification at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve facilities in Texas and Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to treat gassy oil at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage sites to lower the gas content of the stored crude oil and help ensure safe transfer of the oil during drawdown. The crude oil is stored underground in caverns created in salt domes. The degree of gassiness of the oil varies substantially among sites and among caverns within a site. This environmental assessment describes the proposed degasification operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. The need for degasification has arisen because over time, gases, principally methane and nitrogen, have migrated into and become dissolved in the stored crude oil. This influx of gas has raised the crude oil vapor pressure above limits required by safety and emission guidelines. When oil is drawn from the caverns, excess gases may come out of solution. Based on preliminary data from an ongoing sampling program, between 200 and 350 million of the 587 million barrels of crude oil stored at these four sites would require processing to remove excess gas. Degasification, a commonly used petroleum industry process, would be done at four crude oil storage facilities: Bryan Mound and Big Hill in Texas, and West Hackberry and Bayou Choctaw in Louisiana. DOE would use a turnkey services contract for engineering, procurement, fabrication, installation, operation and maintenance of two degasification plants. These would be installed initially at Bryan Mound and West Hackberry. Degasification would be complete in less than three years of continuous operations. This report summarizes the environmental impacts of this gasification process.

  3. Test Plan for the overburden removal demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, P.; Thompson, D.; Winberg, M.; Skaggs, J.

    1993-06-01

    The removal of soil overburdens from contaminated pits and trenches involves using equipment that will remove a small layer of soil from 3 to 6 in. at any time. As a layer of soil is removed, overburden characterization techniques perform surveys to a depth that exceeds each overburden removal layer to ensure that the removed soil will be free of contamination. It is generally expected that no contamination will be found in the soil overburden, which was brought in after the waste was put in place. It is anticipated that some containers in the waste zone have lost their integrity, and the waste leakage from those containers has migrated by gravity downward into the waste zone. To maintain a safe work environment, this method of overburden removal should allow safe preparation of a pit or trench for final remediation. To demonstrate the soil overburden techniques, the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program has contracted vendor services to provide equipment and techniques demonstrating soil overburden removal technology. The demonstration will include tests that will evaluate equipment performance and techniques for removal of overburden soil, control of contamination spread, and dust control. To evaluate the performance of these techniques, air particulate samples, physical measurements of the excavation soil cuts, maneuverability measurements, and time versus volume (rate) of soil removal data will be collected during removal operations. To provide a medium for sample evaluation, the overburden will be spiked at specific locations and depths with rare earth tracers. This test plan will be describe the objectives of the demonstration, data quality objectives, methods to be used to operate the equipment and use the techniques in the test area, and methods to be used in collecting data during the demonstration.

  4. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  5. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  6. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  7. Comparative dermotoxicity of shale oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Foreman, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    When shale oils are applied at higher dose levels the standard observation of tumor production and latency are often obscured by a severe inflammatory response leading to epidermal degeneration. The two experiments reported here are still in progress, however the interim results are useful in assessing both the phlogistic and tumorigenic properties of three shale oils. Three shale oils were tested in these experiments. The first crude oil (OCSO No. 6) was produced in a modified in situ report at Occidental Oil Company's Logan Wash site near Debeque, Colorado. The second crude oil (PCSO II) was produced in the above ground Paraho vertical-kiln retort located at Anvil Points near Rifle, Colorado and the third oil was the hydrotreated daughter product of the Paraho crude (PCSO-UP). Experiment I was designed to determine the highest dose level at which tumor latency could be measured without interference from epidermal degeneration. Experiment II was designed to determine the effect of application frequency on both tumor response and inflammatory phenomena. Complete epidermal degeneration was used as the only measure of severe inflammation. Relative tumorigenicity was based on the number of tumor bearing mice without regard to multiple tumors on individual animals. In both experiments, tumor occurrence was confirmed one week after initial appearance. The sex-related difference in inflammatory response is striking and certanly has significance for experimental design. An increased phlogistic sensitivity expressed in male mice could affect the meaning of an experiment where only one sex was used.

  8. Oil shale combustion/retorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  9. Effects of Removing Restrictions on U.S. Crude Oil Exports - Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum & Other Liquids Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Crude reserves and production Refining and processing Imports/exports & movements Stocks Consumption/sales All petroleum & other liquids data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption & sales Crude reserves & production Imports/exports & movements Prices Projections Recurring Refining & processing Stocks All reports Browse by Tag

  10. Apparatus for washing particulate material. [Removal of silicone oil from microspheres by trichloroethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivera, A.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Justice, G.V.

    1983-12-29

    Transport of nuclear fuel microspheres through a wash liquid is facilitated by feeding a slurry containing the microspheres into the wash liquid via a column having a vibrating tubular screen located under its lower end.

  11. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs thermally recoverable by steam drive which are equal to or greater than 2500 feet deep and contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range. Data were collected from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

  12. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, total fuel oil consumption in malls was not statistically significant. (*)Value rounds to zero...

  13. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to an average of 1,410. Compared with last winter, that frees up 850 in the family budget to spend on something else. In addition to lower oil prices expected warmer ...

  14. Enhanced Oil Recovery to Fuel Future Oil Demands | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the fascinating things of my job is contemplating questions like: What will the future energy mix look like? This is difficult to predict but it is fair to argue that oil will...

  15. AEO Early Release 2013 - oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Growing U.S. oil output and rising vehicle fuel economy to cut U.S. reliance on foreign oil The United States is expected to continue cutting its dependence on petroleum and liquid fuels imports over the rest of this decade because of growing domestic crude oil production and more fuel-efficient vehicles on America's highways. The new long-term outlook from the U.S. Energy Information Administration shows America's dependence on imported petroleum and liquid fuels will decline from 45 percent of

  16. Benin: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports Ashland discovered additional oil reserves deeper than current production in Seme, Benin's only oil field. The field is on a steep decline, producing as little as 2,500 bopd, down from 7,671 bopd in 1984. In an effort to restart offshore exploration, three offshore blocks have been designated. Hardy Oil and Gas (UK) Ltd. has since acquired 20% interest in Blocks 1 and 2 from International Petroleum Ltd. (IPL). IPL completed seismic work during 1990 that identified two large channel prospects similar to those that produce offshore elsewhere in West Africa. The first well is expected in 1991.

  17. Upgrading Orinoco belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-09-01

    The Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt of Venezuela is a subsurface geological formation of petroleum-bearing sands that is approximately 700 km long and between 60 and 80 km wide. The results of recent explorations have shown the area to contain over one trillion barrels of oil in-place, ranging from 8/sup 0/ API to 14/sup 0/ APE gravity. In an effort to develop these resources, Petroleos de Venezuela has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop this heavy oil belt. The objectives of this program are discussed along with the process technology selection, pilot plants, and environmental protection measures. (JMT)

  18. Upgrading Orinoco Belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), in an effort to develop new oil resources, has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop the Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt, in the eastern part of Venezuela. Lagoven, S.A., a subsidiary of PDVSA, has been assigned the responsibility for developing and upgrading part of the Orinoco belt. This paper describes the most relevant aspects of Lagoven's first upgrading module, a facility that will convert Orinoco oil into a premium crude with a very high yield of products of great market demand.

  19. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  20. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  1. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  2. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  3. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  4. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  5. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1997-01-01

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  6. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

    1997-10-14

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

  7. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  8. World oil price behavior during oil supply disruptions: what can we learn from the past

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdsall, T.H.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to: (1) examine how world oil prices have behaved during past oil supply disruptions, (2) attempt to understand why world oil prices have behaved during disruptions as they have, and (3) see what history foretells, if anything, for the behavior of world oil prices during future oil supply disruptions.

  9. TREATMENT OF PLUTONIUM- AND URANIUM-CONTAMINATED OIL FROM ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-05

    A removal method for plutonium and uranium has been tested at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This alternative treatment technology is applicable to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organics (mainly used pump oil) contaminated with actinides. In our studies, greater than 70% removal of the actinides was achieved. The technology is based on contacting the oil with a sorbent powder consisting of a surface modified mesoporous material. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Support) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removal and stabilization of RCRA (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and actinides in water and for removal of mercury from organic solvents [1, 2]. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide support provides a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. The testing described in this report was conducted on a small scale but larger-scale testing of the technology has been performed on mercury-contaminated oil without difficulty [3].

  10. Oil shale: The environmental challenges III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

  11. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.

    1997-01-01

    As part of ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. The performance of this premium heating oil is discussed.

  12. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  13. Removable bearing arrangement for a wind turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2010-06-15

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  14. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Upgrading heavy oil using slurry processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bianco, A.; Panariti, N.; Marchionna, M.

    1995-11-01

    There is a growing interest in processes capable of converting heavy feedstocks (petroleum residues and heavy oils) into lower boiling products of high quality. The operational problems of upgrading heavy feeds relate to the presence of sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and considerable amounts of Conradson carbon residue. An efficient residue conversion process must be able to reduce the molecular weight of the feedstocks to material with boiling points below 550 C, increase the H-to-C ratio of the refined product, and remove heteroatoms and metals. Whereas the molecular weight reduction is normally achieved by C-C bond cracking above 400 C, often in the presence of acid catalysts, a higher H-to-C ratio can be obtained by either the rejection of carbon (as in coking) or the addition of hydrogen (as in hydrogenation processes). Slurry processes combine the flexibility of the carbon rejection with the high performance of the hydrogen addition processes. The origin of slurry processes is the Bergius-Pier technology (1920--1930) for the conversion of heavy oils and coal into distillates. Whereas the original Bergius-Pier technology did not use a catalyst, small amounts of inexpensive additives or finely dispersed hydrogenation catalysts can be used to increase the rates of the desired reactions. Catalysts can also inhibit coke formation by physically interfering with the coalescence of mesophase, which is the precursor of solid coke. Catalysts are used to reduce the severity of the process and to improve the quality of the products. Most of the research carried out in the past decade in the field of slurry processes has dealt with the identification of more effective and/or less expensive catalysts and the technological problems related to their use. Here the authors discuss both subjects, describing the path from the fundamental chemistry of dispersed catalytic systems to the development and initial commercialization of slurry processes.

  16. Turkmenistan test encouraging oil strike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that another former Soviet central Asian republic has reported a highly encouraging oil strike that provides hope for halting or even reversing a long decline in its oil production. Turkmenistan reported it completed a well flowing more than 1,300 b/d in the central part of the Kara-Kum desert. Saparmurad Niyazov, the republic's president, recently predicted black gold will become one of our nation's main riches. The Turkmenistan discovery follows a huge oil strike in neighboring Uzbekistan's sector of the Fergana Valley. A blowout last march near the Uzbek town of Mingbulak reportedly flowed 62,000 b/d to as much as 146,000 b/d from about 17,000 ft with a pressure of 10,300 psi. Uzbekistan is counting on that discovery to improve its oil production prospects immensely.

  17. STEO September 2012 - oil production

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    forecast to rise almost 700,000 bpd this year, help cut U.S. petroleum imports U.S. crude oil production is expected to average 6.3 million barrels per day in 2012. That's up ...

  18. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The price for heating oil in the New England region averaged 3.87 per gallon, up 2.5 cents from last week, but down 7.1 cents from a year earlier. This is Marlana Anderson

  19. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to collect data on State-level stocks and residential prices of No. 2 heating oil and propane during the heating season. The data are used to monitor the prices of propane and No....

  20. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    That's down 2.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England ...

  1. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to 2.90 per gallon, down 10.4 cents from last week. This is Marcela ...

  2. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region currently average 2.35 per gallon. This is Marcela Rourk with EIA, in ...

  3. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  4. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  5. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    That's down 32.7 cents from a year ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel price survey. Heating oil prices in the New England ...

  6. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    That's down 4.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are ...

  7. Too early to tell on $100 oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Confidential Presentation to: April 7, 2008 Middle East oil demand and Lehman Brothers oil price outlook Adam Robinson Middle East oil demand u Three pillars of Middle East oil demand - Petrodollar reinvestment - Purchasing power rise - Power sector constraints u Natural gas shortages for power generation mean balance of risks to any Middle East oil demand forecast are firmly to the upside, adding to summer upside seasonality u Lehman Brothers has pegged 3Q08 as the tightest quarter of the

  8. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  9. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  10. Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance Ramón Espinasa, Ph.D. / Lead Specialist July 2014 The Energy Innovation Center Energy Division 3 The views expressed by the author do not reflect the views of the Inter- American Development Bank, its Management, its Board of Executive Directors or its member Governments. DISCLAIMER www.iadb.org Copyright © 2014 Interamerican Development Bank. All rights reserved; This document may be freely reproduced for non-commercial purposes. 4 United States Oil

  11. Middle East oil and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The following subjects are covered in this publication: (1) position of preeminence of the Middle East; (2) history of area's oil operations for Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, neutral zone, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman and Egypt; (3) gas operations of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Iraq and United Arab Emirates; (4) changing relationships with producing countries; (5) a new oil pricing environment; (6) refining and other industrial activities; and (7) change and progress. 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Reduction in energy and water use for the ethanol industry Ethanol is the leading biofuel in the U.S. with 13 Billion gallons produced ...

  13. Portsmouth Removal Actions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report for Phases I and II of X-334 Transformer CleaningStorage Building at Portsmouth - Nov 2011 PDF icon Removal Action Completion Report for X-103 Auxiliary Office Building ...

  14. Corona processing of insulating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1996-07-01

    It is well known that sustained corona discharge in insulating oil lowers its dielectric strength and simultaneously reduces its corona resistance. Therefore, for operating stresses in the corona regime, activity typically increases with time and, if allowed to continue, eventually leads to breakdown of the oil and failure of the component or system. It is, therefore, common practice to periodically replace oil in devices such as large power transformers and switch gear before breakdown occurs. Sealed components such as capacitors are typically replaced. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the dielectric properties of corona weakened oil can not only be restored, but actually improved by a simple regeneration process. These experiments were carried out on high voltage pulse transformer windings which were operated at high rep rates until partial discharges formed. Reprocessing the oil after each operating cycle resulted in successively longer operational periods before partial discharges appeared. In a separate experiment, a process was developed to precondition transformer oil to raise its corona inception voltage before using it to insulate a high voltage component, thus giving it a longer initial service life for a given operating stress or permitting higher stress operation for limited operating times.

  15. Method for removing RFI from SAR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2003-08-19

    A method of removing RFI from a SAR by comparing two SAR images on a pixel by pixel basis and selecting the pixel with the lower magnitude to form a composite image. One SAR image is the conventional image produced by the SAR. The other image is created from phase-history data which has been filtered to have the frequency bands containing the RFI removed.

  16. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  17. Oil Mist Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  18. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  19. Use of stress cycling to remove downhole scale from geothermal wells using coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portman, L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the first application of a relatively new oil field technology to the geothermal industry. The technology is referred to as stress cycling and provides a method of removing hard deposits, such as silica or calcium scales, from tubulars using only jetting action. This new technology lends itself to coiled tubing operations and results in a very fast and efficient clean out operation. The paper describes the theory of stress cycling and lists the operational procedure used on the first job attempted on a geothermal well. The results of the operation are included.

  20. Oil and Gas Company Oil and Gas Company Address Place Zip Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil and Gas Company Address Place Zip Website Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Abu http www adnoc ae default aspx Al Furat Petroleum Company Al Furat...

  1. Higher U.S. oil production in 2013 and 2014 means lower oil imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Higher U.S. oil production in 2013 and 2014 means lower oil imports U.S. crude oil production topped 7 million barrels per day in November and December for the first time in 20 ...

  2. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology

  3. Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority Name: Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority Address: 1435...

  4. Alabama Oil and Gas Board | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil and Gas Board Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Alabama Oil and Gas Board Name: Alabama Oil and Gas Board Abbreviation: OGB Address: 420 Hackberry Lane Place: Tuscaloosa,...

  5. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies 2012 IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies 2012 PDF icon IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies 2012.pdf More ...

  6. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Oil Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release The Energy Policy and Conservation ...

  7. Oil and Natural Gas Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil and Natural Gas Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (February 2014) Oil and Natural Gas Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (February 2014) The Oil ...

  8. Refinery Upgrading of Hydropyrolysis Oil from Biomass Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refinery Upgrading of Hydropyrolysis Oil from Biomass March 25,2015 Technology Area Review ... first converting biomass to hydropyrolysis oil and then upgrading the hydropyrolysis oil ...

  9. NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE TRIGGER MECHANISM | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE TRIGGER MECHANISM NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE TRIGGER MECHANISM Historical Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Trigger Mechanism Charts PDF ...

  10. Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Naval Reserves Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities The Fossil Energy program in oil shale focuses on ...

  11. EIA Financial and Physical Oil Market Workshop on Evolution of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oil market Price references like fundamentals and others in oil Behavior and ... San Diego Price References in Oil: Fundamentals and Other Factors Presenter: Robert ...

  12. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    oil companies in the world. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company oversees many phases of oil and gas exploration and production, as well as other business activities. References...

  13. Oman Ministry of Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of oil and gas. Prepare legislation and regulations governing oil and gas. Oversee oil and gas exploration and production activities. Establish "Petroleum Agreements" with...

  14. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and ...

  15. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two-day agenda from the workshop: Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution fuel in New England.

  16. "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.4;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal" ...

  17. Oil shale retorting method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    York, E.D.

    1983-03-22

    Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

  18. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  19. Oil-shale utilization at Morgantown, WV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Y.; Notestein, J.E.; Mei, J.S.; Romanosky, R.R.; King, J.A.; Zeng, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    Fully aware of the nation's need to develop high-risk and long-term research in eastern oil-shale and low-grade oil-shale utilization in general, the US DOE/METC initiated an eastern oil-shale characterization program. In less than 3 months, METC produced shale oil from a selected eastern-US oil shale with a Fischer assay of 8.0 gallons/ton. In view of the relatively low oil yield from this particular oil shale, efforts were directed to determine the process conditions which give the highest oil yield. A 2-inch-diameter electrically heated fluidized-bed retort was constructed, and Celina oil shale from Tennessee was selected to be used as a representative eastern oil shale. After more than 50 runs, the retorting data were analyzed and reviewed and the best oil-yield operating condition was determined. In addition, while conducting the oil-shale retorting experiments, a number of technical problems were identified, addressed, and overcome. Owing to the inherent high rates of heat and mass transfers inside the fluidized bed, the fluidized-bed combustor and retorting appear to be a desirable process technology for an effective and efficient means for oil-shale utilization. The fluidized-bed operation is a time-tested, process-proven, high-throughput, solid-processing operation which may contribute to the efficient utilization of oil-shale energy.

  20. Monopolistic recycling of oil revenue and intertemporal bias in oil depletion and trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillman, A.L.; Long, N.V.

    1985-08-01

    This paper investigates oil depletion and trade when monopolistic oil producers also exercise monopoly power in the capital market. A two-period model views collusively organized oil producers with an initial trade surplus and a subsequent deficit. When monopoly power in the capital market is applied to the disadvantage of borrowers, less oil is initially made available to oil importers than if the interest rate had been competitively determined. This depletion bias, however, is reversed if, because of incentives for capital accumulation, it is to the advantage of the oil producers to subsidize lending to the oil importers. In either case the bias in oil depletion due to monopolistic recycling of oil revenue is greater, the more vulnerable are oil importer's incomes to a curtailment of oil supplies. 25 references.

  1. Y-12 Removes Nuclear Materials from Two Facilities to Reduce...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Blog Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Y-12 Removes Nuclear Materials from Two Facilities ... Y-12 Removes Nuclear Materials from...

  2. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Referring Pages: Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from ...

  3. Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction PDF icon advwaterremovalmse.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Energy ...

  4. Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss This tip sheet outlines several condensate removal methods as part of maintaining compressed air system air quality. COMPRESSED AIR TIP ...

  5. Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Plans to Resume Train Shipments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tons of Mill Tailings Removed From DOE Moab Project Site Laborers place a disposable liner in a tailings container. Moab Project Continues Progress on Tailings Removal with...

  6. Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal devices Title: Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal devices A flexible extension for a ...

  7. Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Authors: Qu, Xiaopeng 1 ;...

  8. New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development January 10, ...

  9. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water. ...

  10. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    removal from cooling tower water. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water. You are accessing a ...

  11. Technetium Removal Using Tc-Goethite Coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Jung, Hun Bok; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-18

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, Low temperature waste forms coupled with technetium removal using an alternative immobilization process such as Fe(II) treated-goethite precipitation to increase our understanding of 99Tc long-term stability in goethite mineral form and the process that controls the 99Tc(VII) reduction and removal by the final Fe (oxy)hydroxide forms. The overall objectives of this task were to 1) evaluate the transformation process of Fe (oxy)hydroxide solids to the more crystalline goethite (?-FeOOH) mineral for 99Tc removal and 2) determine the mechanism that limits 99Tc(IV) reoxidation in Fe(II)-treated 99Tc-goethite mineral and 3) evaluate whether there is a long-term 99Tcoxidation state change for Tc sequestered in the iron solids.

  12. System for removal of arsenic from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2004-11-23

    Systems for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical systems for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A system for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a system for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  13. Properly engineer lead paint removal projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaelin, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Deciding how to mitigate the hazards during lead paint removal is complex and requires consideration of many variables. Assessment of public health risk, environmental impact, and emissions potential of the operations must be considered. Additionally, the removal technique, containment system, and monitoring criteria must be developed. This article presents an integrated approach to identifying lead hazards, assessing risks to workers, the environment, and the public, developing the appropriate maintenance strategy, and selecting paint removal and containment systems. Also considered are guidelines for selecting a third party to design the overall project. This approach is based on a decision path that provides criteria for project assessment in an orderly fashion. The design of lead paint management projects in industrial applications requires consideration of the variables shown in the decision path.

  14. Method of making thermally removable polyurethanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.; Durbin-Voss, Marvie Lou

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable polyurethane material by heating a mixture of a maleimide compound and a furan compound, and introducing alcohol and isocyanate functional groups, where the alcohol group and the isocyanate group reacts to form the urethane linkages and the furan compound and the maleimide compound react to form the thermally weak Diels-Alder adducts that are incorporated into the backbone of the urethane linkages during the formation of the polyurethane material at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. The polyurethane material can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The polyurethane material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  15. Oil shale technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

  16. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  17. Wilmington crude oil and addendum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-29

    Ten (10) ampoules of the Wilmington crude oil material have been analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The measurements were made directly on samples of the diluted oil by GC/MS with selected ion monitoring (SIM). The mass spectrometer was operated in the chemical ionization mode using methane as the reagent gas, and the method of internal standards was used for the quantitative measurements. The analytes determined in the Wilmington crude oil are shown in Table 1. For most of the analytes, the quasi-molecular ion (M+H)/sup +/ was the species on which the SIM measurements were made. For measurements on the second set of ampoules, m/z 252 (M)/sup +/ was monitored for the benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, and perylene. The ion(s) monitored for each of the analytes is also shown in Table 1. 4 tabs.

  18. Advances in heavy oil hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendizabal, O.B. )

    1988-06-01

    The world increase in heavy crudes has forced refiners to develop different processes that upgrade the yields and product properties recovered from these crudes. However, some of the optimized and new processes are not able to handle whole heavy crude oils, due to the high viscosity and corrosion of their long and short residues. The different processes for heavy crudes can be classified in two areas: physical (vg. Liquid Extraction) and chemical processes. The catalytic hydrotreating process, which belongs to this last classification, has demonstrated to be an economical upgrading process for heavy crude oil. This paper describes the development by the Mexican Petroleum Institute of the process to hydrotreat maya heavy crude. The effect of the operating conditions, the catalyst ---- development and the technical - economical analysis are presented. The product properties and yields are compared with the results obtained with light crude oil like isthmus.

  19. Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pulley, Howard; Seltzer, Steven F.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

  20. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  1. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  2. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, John M.; Hancher, Charles M.; Hackett, Gail D.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a flocculating agent, separating precipitate-containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions.

  3. Arsenic removal in conjunction with lime softening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandaker, Nadim R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Teter, David M.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2004-10-12

    A method for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising adding lime to the aqueous medium, and adding one or more sources of divalent metal ions other than calcium and magnesium to the aqueous medium, whereby dissolved arsenic in the aqueous medium is reduced to a lower level than possible if only the step of adding lime were performed. Also a composition of matter for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising lime and one or more sources of divalent copper and/or zinc metal ions.

  4. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  5. Natural Oil Production from Microorganisms: Bioprocess and Microbe Engineering for Total Carbon Utilization in Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen generated from electricity to produce natural oils that can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels. MIT has designed a 2-stage biofuel production system. In the first stage, hydrogen and CO2 are fed to a microorganism capable of converting these feedstocks to a 2-carbon compound called acetate. In the second stage, acetate is delivered to a different microorganism that can use the acetate to grow and produce oil. The oil can be removed from the reactor tank and chemically converted to various hydrocarbons. The electricity for the process could be supplied from novel means currently in development, or more proven methods such as the combustion of municipal waste, which would also generate the required CO2 and enhance the overall efficiency of MIT’s biofuel-production system.

  6. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 1. Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The general goal of this study is to present the prospects of shale oil within the context of (1) environmental constraints, (2) available natural and economic resources, and (3) the characteristics of existing and emerging technology. The objectives are: to review shale oil technologies objectively as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

  7. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  8. Republic of Iraq - Ministry of Oil | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Iraq - Ministry of Oil Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Republic of Iraq - Ministry of Oil Name: Republic of Iraq - Ministry of Oil Address: Oil Complex Building Port Saeed Street...

  9. Bolivia: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that, reflecting the trend in some of its neighbors, Bolivia has been moving toward ending state oil company YPFB's dominance over E and P. YPFB has controlled two-thirds of the oil fields, but that figure may decline in the future. A new petroleum law due for enactment this year would allow foreign companies to work in landlocked Bolivia either as risk operators or as in association with YPFB. Once a field is declared commercial, YPFB would come in to participate, but operators would be able to repatriate their earnings.

  10. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  11. Low pour crude oil compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motz, K.L.; Latham, R.A.; Statz, R.J.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes and improvement in the process of transporting waxy crude oils through a pipeline. It comprises: incorporating into the crude oil an effective pour point depressant amount of an additive comprising a polymer selected from the group consisting of copolymers of ethylene and acrylonitrile, and terpolymers of ethylene, acrylonitrile and a third monomer selected from the group consisting of vinyl acetate, carbon monoxide, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, alkyl vinyl ethers, vinyl chloride, vinyl fluoride, acrylic acid, and methacrylic acid, wherein the amount of third monomer in the terpolymer ranges from about 0.1 to about 10.0 percent by weight.

  12. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM ORGANIC LIQUIDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vavalides, S.P.

    1959-08-25

    A process is described for recovering small quantities of uranium from organic liquids such as hydrocarbon oils. halogen-substituted hydrocarbons, and alcohols. The organic liquid is contacted with a comminuted alkaline earth hydroxide, calcium hydroxide particularly, and the resulting uranium-bearing solid is separated from the liquid by filtration. Uranium may then be recovered from the solid by means of dissolution in nitric acid and conventional extraction with an organic solvent such as tributyl phosphate.

  13. Oil Pollution Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Oil Pollution ActLegal Abstract The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 streamlined and...

  14. Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil and Gas Jump to: navigation, search Oil and gas represents a non-renewable energy sector. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleOilandGas&oldid335172" ...

  15. Oil & Gas Technology Center | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Research Oil & Gas Technology Center Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... GE Global Research Oil & Gas Technology Center Mark Little, SVP and chief technology ...

  16. Crude Oil and Gasoline Price Monitoring

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    What drives crude oil prices? March 8, 2016 | Washington, DC An analysis of 7 factors that influence oil markets, with chart data updated monthly and quarterly price per barrel ...

  17. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices virtually unchanged The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago to 3.95 per gallon. That's down 8-tenths of a penny...

  18. OriginOil Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: 90016 Product: California-based OTC-quoted algae-to-oil technology developer. References: OriginOil Inc1 This article is a stub. You...

  19. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports from Denmark of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Egypt of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Equatorial Guinea of Crude...

  20. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10:55:09 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Crude Oil Imports" "Sourcekey","MCRIMUS1","...-NVM1","MCRIMUSVQ1","MCRIMUSYE1" "Date","U.S. Imports of Crude Oil (Thousand ...