Sample records for oil processing facilities

  1. Processing alternatives for glandless cottonseed oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamkasem, Narong

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to contamination of the two oils at processing facilities. This practice results in increased refining costs and increased oil loss. In many oil processing plants it would be economically advantageous to process all cotton- seed oils in the same manner as soy... with various levels of glanded cottonseed were quantified. Generally conventional refining of oil from glandless cottonseed containing up to 10% glanded seed contamination produced refined and bleached oils as good in color as extraction-site miscella-refined...

  2. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities Kathleen E. Duncan,in Alaskan North Slope oil production facilities. Title:in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities Authors: Kathleen E.

  3. Studsvik Processing Facility Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

  4. Shale oil demetallization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, M. A.

    1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace metals, particularly As, Fe and Ni, are removed from hydrocarbonaceous oils, particularly shale oil by contacting the shale oil with quadrolobe alumina with or without a processing gas such as hydrogen or nitrogen at 500/sup 0/ F. to 800/sup 0/ F. at 250 to 750 psig and LHSV of 0.4 to 3.0 to deposit a portion of said trace metal onto said alumina and recover an oil product having substantially reduced amounts of trace metal.

  5. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Alaskan North Slope oil production facilities. Title:Profiling Despite oil production from several major16) was isolated from oil-production water and has optimal

  6. "Z" Facility Dielectric Oil Clean-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessandri, Daniel; Bloomquist, Doug; Donovan, Guy; Feltz, Greg; Grelle, Nibby; Guthrie, Doug; Harris, Mark; Horry, Mike; Lockas, Mike; Potter, Jimmy; Pritchard, Chuck; Steedly, Jim

    1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In August of 1998 the Z facility leaked approximately 150 gallons of deionized water into the dielectric oil of the Energy Storage Section (ESS). After processing the oil to remove existing particulate and free water the dielectric breakdown strength increased from the mid 20kV range to values in excess of 40 kV. 40 kV is above historical operating levels of about 35 kV. This, however, was not enough to allow 90 kV charging of the Marx Generators in the ESS. Further analysis of the oil showed dissolved water at a saturated level (70 - 80 ppm) and some residual particulate contamination smaller than 3 microns. The dissolved water and particulate combination was preventing the 90 kV charging of the Marx Generators in the ESS. After consulting with the oil industry it was determined that nitrogen sparging could be used to remove the dissolved water. Further particulate filtering was also conducted. After approximately 20 hours of sparging the water content in the ESS was reduced to 42 ppm which enabled Marx charging to 90 kV.

  7. Shale oil recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  8. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  9. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

    1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  10. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  11. Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Salt Waste Processing Facility Project - January 2013 January 2013 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project The U.S. Department...

  12. Uranium Processing Facility Site Readiness Subproject Completed...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Uranium Processing Facility Site Readiness Subproject Completed ... Uranium Processing Facility Site...

  13. Feasibility of establishing and operating a generic oil shale test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The December 19, 1985, Conference Report on House Joint Resolution 465, Further continuing appropriations for Fiscal Year 1986, included instruction to DOE to conduct a feasibility study for a generic oil shale test facility. The study was completed, as directed, and its findings are documented in this report. To determine the feasibility of establishing and operating such a facility, the following approach was used: examine the nature of the resource, and establish and basic functions associated with recovery of the resource; review the history of oil shale development to help put the present discussion in perspective; describe a typical oil shale process; define the relationship between each oil shale system component (mining, retorting, upgrading, environmental) and its cost. Analyze how research could reduce costs; and determine the scope of potential research for each oil shale system component.

  14. Extending a Business Process Modeling Tool with Process Configuration Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    is maintained; e.g., oil and wiper fluid are checked. The process ends when handing over the vehicle back

  15. Modeling and Control of Three-Phase Gravity Separators in Oil Production Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    Modeling and Control of Three-Phase Gravity Separators in Oil Production Facilities Atalla F. Sayda and James H. Taylor Abstract-- Oil production facilities exhibit complex and challenging dynamic behavior simplicity. I. INTRODUCTION The function of an oil production facility is to separate the oil well stream

  16. Australian developments in oil shale processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, G.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study gives some background on Australian oil shale deposits, briefly records some history of oil shale processing in the country and looks at the current status of the various proposals being considered to produce syncrudes from Australian oil shales. 5 refs.

  17. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  18. Environmental assessment of oil degasification at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve facilities in Texas and Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to treat gassy oil at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage sites to lower the gas content of the stored crude oil and help ensure safe transfer of the oil during drawdown. The crude oil is stored underground in caverns created in salt domes. The degree of gassiness of the oil varies substantially among sites and among caverns within a site. This environmental assessment describes the proposed degasification operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. The need for degasification has arisen because over time, gases, principally methane and nitrogen, have migrated into and become dissolved in the stored crude oil. This influx of gas has raised the crude oil vapor pressure above limits required by safety and emission guidelines. When oil is drawn from the caverns, excess gases may come out of solution. Based on preliminary data from an ongoing sampling program, between 200 and 350 million of the 587 million barrels of crude oil stored at these four sites would require processing to remove excess gas. Degasification, a commonly used petroleum industry process, would be done at four crude oil storage facilities: Bryan Mound and Big Hill in Texas, and West Hackberry and Bayou Choctaw in Louisiana. DOE would use a turnkey services contract for engineering, procurement, fabrication, installation, operation and maintenance of two degasification plants. These would be installed initially at Bryan Mound and West Hackberry. Degasification would be complete in less than three years of continuous operations. This report summarizes the environmental impacts of this gasification process.

  19. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  20. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  1. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  2. The Role of the Flexicoking Process in Heavy Oil Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, R. I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently commercialized FLEXICOKING Process has a significant role to play in developing, known heavy oil reserves. The process upgrades virtually any pumpable feed including residual, pitch or total crude. Combined with HYDROFINING, it produces...

  3. Fabrication of Separator Demonstration Facility process vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberst, E.F.

    1985-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The process vessel system is the central element in the Separator Development Facility (SDF). It houses the two major process components, i.e., the laser-beam folding optics and the separators pods. This major subsystem is the critical-path procurement for the SDF project. Details of the vaious parts of the process vessel are given.

  4. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, Clayton J. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  5. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  6. Thermal processes for heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, A.K.; Sarathi, P.S.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This status report summarizes the project BE11B (Thermal Processes for Heavy Oil Recovery) research activities conducted in FY93 and completes milestone 7 of this project. A major portion of project research during FY93 was concentrated on modeling and reservoir studies to determine the applicability of steam injection oil recovery techniques in Texas Gulf Coast heavy oil reservoirs. In addition, an in-depth evaluation of a steamflood predictive model developed by Mobil Exploration and Production Co. (Mobil E&P) was performed. Details of these two studies are presented. A topical report (NIPER-675) assessing the NIPER Thermal EOR Research Program over the past 10 years was also written during this fiscal year and delivered to DOE. Results of the Gulf Coast heavy oil reservoir simulation studies indicated that though these reservoirs can be successfully steamflooded and could recover more than 50% of oil-in-place, steamflooding may not be economical at current heavy oil prices. Assessment of Mobil E&P`s steamflood predictive model capabilities indicate that the model in its present form gives reasonably good predictions of California steam projects, but fails to predict adequately the performance of non-California steam projects.

  7. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI`s archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  8. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI's archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  9. Item No. 3 process facilities cost estimates and schedules for facilities capability assurance program nuclear facilities modernization - FY 1989 line item, authorization No. D79

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data is presented concerning cost estimates and schedules for process facilities and nuclear facilities modernization.

  10. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanogenic sludge High temperature Dagang oil field (Ekofisk oil field Mesophilic digested sludge Kamchatka hotoil field (DQ647105) FJ469331 Uncultured bacterium Bacteroidetes Anaerobic sludge

  11. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    due to corrosion are expensive problems in the oil industrycorrosion. The similarity of core taxa in these samples and those from other thermophilic oil

  12. RMOTC offers unique test facility to oil industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opsal, C.M. [Fluor Daniel NPOSR-CUW, Inc., Casper, WY (United States). Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing laboratory developed new tools and techniques in actual field conditions before commercialization has long been a significant problem. Working lab models may fail in the first field applications because of handling, incompatibility with existing equipment, or natural elements such as wind, humidity, or temperature. Further, the risk of damage to the operators wellbore, production, or other operations can be costly and embarrassing. As research dollars are becoming harder to obtain, a neutral, non-competitive, and user friendly test site is needed. This type of facility has been developed at the US Department of Energy`s Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), near Casper, Wyoming, through the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). New technologies and processes field tested at this facility include those related to drilling production/lifting costs, P and A methods, and environmental control and remediation.

  13. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  14. Co-processing of carbonaceous solids and petroleum oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Avinash (Bloomfield, NJ); Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for producing distillates from coal by a first stage thermal liquefaction followed by a catalytic hydrogenation, liquefaction solvent is added at points spaced over the length of the thermal liquefaction heater. Coal may be co-processed with petroleum oil by adding pre-hydrogenated oil to the first stage or unhydrogenated oil to the second stage.

  15. Biochemical processing of heavy oils and residuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, T.; Yablon, J.H.; Zhou, Wei-Min

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past several decades, the petroleum industry has adjusted gradually to accommodate the changes in market product demands, government regulations, and the quality and cost of feedstock crude oils. For example, the trends show that the demand for distillate fuels, such as diesel, as compared to gasoline are increasing. Air-quality standards have put additional demand on the processing of heavier and higher sulfur feed stocks. Thus, the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments require the industry to produce greater quantities of oxygenated gasoline, and lower sulfur diesel and reformulated gasoline. Biochemical technology may play an important role in responding to these demands on the petroleum industry.

  16. Wireless Critical Process Control in oil and gas refinery plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savazzi, Stefano

    Wireless Critical Process Control in oil and gas refinery plants Stefano Savazzi1, Sergio Guardiano control in in- dustrial plants and oil/gas refineries. In contrast to wireline communication, wireless of an oil refinery is illustrated in Fig. 1: typical locations of wireless devices used for re- mote control

  17. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Laramie, WY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  18. Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Gas Processing Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In North Dakota, materials purchased for building or expending gas processing facilities are exempt from sales and use taxes. Building materials, equipment, and other tangible property are eligible...

  19. Waste receiving and processing facility module 1 auditable safetyanalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bottenus, R.J.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Auditable Safety Analysis analyzes postulated accidents and determines controls to prevent the accidents or mitigate the consequences.

  20. Appendix D: Facility Process Data and Appendix E: Equipment Calibratio...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    D: Facility Process Data and Appendix E: Equipment Calibration Data Sheets from Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria,...

  1. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  2. Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Waste oils offer a tremendous recycling potential. An important, dwindling natural resource of great economic and industrial value, oil products are a cornerstone of our modern industrial society. Petroleum is processed into a wide variety of products: gasoline, fuel oil, diesel oil, synthetic rubber, solvents, pesticides, synthetic fibres, lubricating oil, drugs and many more ' (see Figure 1 1. The boilers of Amercian industries presently consume about 40 % of the used lubricating oils collected. In Ontario, the percentage varies from 20 to 30%. Road oiling is the other major use of collected waste oils. Five to seven million gallons (50-70 % of the waste oil col1ected)is spread on dusty Ontario roads each summer. The practice is both a wasteful use of a dwindling resource and an environmental hazard. The waste oil, with its load of heavy metals, particularly lead, additives including dangerous polynuclear aromatics and PCBs, is carried into the natural environment by runoff and dust to contaminate soils and water courses.2 The largest portion of used oils is never collected, but disappears into sewers, landfill sites and backyards. In Ontario alone, approximately 22 million gallons of potentially recyclable lube oil simply vanish each year. While oil recycling has ad-114 Oil

  3. Attrition and abrasion models for oil shale process modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldis, D.F.

    1991-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    As oil shale is processed, fine particles, much smaller than the original shale are created. This process is called attrition or more accurately abrasion. In this paper, models of abrasion are presented for oil shale being processed in several unit operations. Two of these unit operations, a fluidized bed and a lift pipe are used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycle-Solid (HRS) process being developed for the above ground processing of oil shale. In two reports, studies were conducted on the attrition of oil shale in unit operations which are used in the HRS process. Carley reported results for attrition in a lift pipe for oil shale which had been pre-processed either by retorting or by retorting then burning. The second paper, by Taylor and Beavers, reported results for a fluidized bed processing of oil shale. Taylor and Beavers studied raw, retorted, and shale which had been retorted and then burned. In this paper, empirical models are derived, from the experimental studies conducted on oil shale for the process occurring in the HRS process. The derived models are presented along with comparisons with experimental results.

  4. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Tobin Jay [Northwestern University

    2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  5. Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater (MDEQ Form 2E) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process...

  6. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  7. Results for the Independent Sampling and Analysis of Used Oil Drums at the Impact Services Facility in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), via the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, perform independent sampling and analysis of used oils contained within eight 55 gallon drums stored at the former IMPACT Services facility, located at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These drums were originally delivered by LATA Sharp Remediation Services (LSRS) to IMPACT Services on January 11, 2011 as part of the Bldg. K-33 demolition project, and the drums plus contents should have been processed as non-hazardous non-radiological waste by IMPACT Services. LSRS received a certificate of destruction on August 29, 2012 (LSRS 2012a). However, IMPACT Services declared bankruptcy and abandoned the site later in 2012, and eight of the original eleven K-33 drums are currently stored at the facility. The content of these drums is the subject of this investigation. The original drum contents were sampled by LSRS in 2010 and analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), using both compositing and grab sampling techniques. The objective of this 2013 sample and analysis effort was to duplicate, to the extent possible, the 2010 sampling and analysis event to support final disposition decisions. Part of that decision process includes either verifying or refuting the assertion that oils that are currently stored in drums at the IMPACT Services facility originated from Bldg. K-33 equipment.

  8. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  9. LANL Plutonium-Processing Facilities National Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    55 (TA-55). TA-55 is the nation's most modern plu- tonium science and manufacturing facility, including world-class manufacturing capabilities for solving significant national security challenges and nondestructive analysis laboratories. Additionally, TA-55 can safely and securely ship, receive, handle

  10. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  11. Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat...

  12. Summary - SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2Uranium Transferon the Passing of AdmiraltheOil and LessOak Ridge,SRS Co DOE S

  13. An active oil spill detection digital processing system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennard, Robert Marion

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ACTIVE OIL SPILL DETECTION DIGITAL PROCESSING SYSTEM A Thesis by Robert Marion Dennard Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A/M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976... Major Subject: Electrical Engineering AN ACTIVE OIL SPILL DETECTION DIGITAL PROCESSING SYSTEM A Thesis by Robert Marion Dennard Approved as to style and content by: Chairman o Committee Hea o epart ent M er em er December 1976 ABSTRACT...

  14. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganismsbiodegradation processes in the oilfield environment can beand is typical of ANS oilfields that collectively have

  15. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  16. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  17. SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    organoarsenic compounds in oi.l shale process waters using aPresented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, April~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.

  18. SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, April~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.compounds in the seven oil shale process waters. These

  19. TA-55: LANL Plutonium-Processing Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposed Action(InsertAbout theSystems LongFacilityTTA-55:

  20. TA-55: LANL Plutonium-Processing Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemistry; nuclear materials separation, processing, and recovery; plutonium metallurgy, preparation, casting, fabrication, and recovery; machining and metallurgy...

  1. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  2. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

    1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  3. Re-refining of Waste Oil Solvent Is Used in Treatment/Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. A combination solvent treatment/distillation process has been designed for re-refining industrial waste oil (such as equipment lubricants, metal-working oil, and process oil) and used automotive lubricants (engine oil, hydraulic oil, and gear oil) for reuse. WASTE ENERGY RECOVERY. Recycling of waste oil in the United States has the potential to save the energy equivalent of 7-12 million bbl of crude oil annually.1 WASTE OIL RECOVERY. Prior to 1960, a significant portion of the demand for automotive lubricating oil was met by re-relined used oil. At the time, 150 re-refineries produced 300 million gal of motor oil annually. Since 1960, however, the production of re-refined oil has steadily declined. In 1981, for example, out of about 1.2 billion gal of automobile lubricating oil and 1.6 billion gal of industrial lubricating oils purchased, 25 U.S. rerefineries

  4. Comparison of the Acceptability of Various Oil Shale Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A K; McConaghy, J R

    2006-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    While oil shale has the potential to provide a substantial fraction of our nation's liquid fuels for many decades, cost and environmental acceptability are significant issues to be addressed. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined a variety of oil shale processes between the mid 1960s and the mid 1990s, starting with retorting of rubble chimneys created from nuclear explosions [1] and ending with in-situ retorting of deep, large volumes of oil shale [2]. In between, it examined modified-in-situ combustion retorting of rubble blocks created by conventional mining and blasting [3,4], in-situ retorting by radio-frequency energy [5], aboveground combustion retorting [6], and aboveground processing by hot-solids recycle (HRS) [7,8]. This paper reviews various types of processes in both generic and specific forms and outlines some of the tradeoffs for large-scale development activities. Particular attention is given to hot-recycled-solids processes that maximize yield and minimize oil shale residence time during processing and true in-situ processes that generate oil over several years that is more similar to natural petroleum.

  5. Opportunities for Process Monitoring Techniques at Delayed Access Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Michael M.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Johnson, Shirley J.; Schanfein, Mark; Toomey, Christopher

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Except for specific cases where the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) maintains a continuous presence at a facility (such as the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant), there is always a period of time or delay between the moment a State is notified or aware of an upcoming inspection, and the time the inspector actually enters the material balance area or facility. Termed by the authors as “delayed access,” this period of time between inspection notice and inspector entrance to a facility poses a concern. Delayed access also has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of measures applied as part of the Safeguards Approach for a facility (such as short-notice inspections). This report investigates the feasibility of using process monitoring to address safeguards challenges posed by delayed access at a subset of facility types.

  6. Mock Nuclear Processing Facility-Safeguards Training Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hasty, Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johns, Rissell [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baum, Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document outlines specific training requirements in the topical areas of Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and Physical Protection(PP) which are to be used as technical input for designing a mock Integrated Security Facility (ISF) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The overall project objective for these requirements is to enhance the ability to deliver training on Material Protection Control and Accounting (MC&A) concepts regarding hazardous material such as irradiated materials with respect to bulk processing facilities.

  7. Combination process for upgrading residual oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, L.E.; Walters, P.W.; Zandona, O.

    1990-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method for upgrading high boiling residual portions of crude oils comprising metal contaminants, porphyrins, asphaltenes and high molecular weight multi-ring hydrocarbon material. It comprises: charging a high boiling residual portion of crude oil admixed with diluent in contact with suspended upflowing substantially inert fluidizable solids particulate material at an elevated thermal visbreaking temperature in a riser contact zone for a time sufficient to recover therefrom a vaporous hydrocarbon product higher boiling than gasoline partially decarbonized and demetallized to a lower contaminating metals level, quenching the vaporous product of thermal visbreaking below its dew point after separation from solids, charging quenched thermally modified high boiling hydrocarbon product with a crystalline zeolite cracking catalyst under cracking conditions for a hydrocarbon residence time in a riser cracking zone; recovering a hydrocarbon conversion product; separating a combined C{sub 4} minus wet gas product stream of the visbreaking and zeolite catalyst cracking operating to recover a C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} rich fraction separately from a C{sub 2} minus dry gas product fraction, and regenerating the crystalline zeolite contcontaining catalyst.

  8. Oil shale technology and evironmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scinta, J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale processes are a combination of mining, retorting, and upgrading facilities. This work outlines the processing steps and some design considerations required in an oil shale facility. A brief overview of above ground and in situ retorts is presented; 6 retorts are described. The development aspects which the oil shale industry is addressing to protect the environment are presented.

  9. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Shirley J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its nonproliferation obligations. The IAEA draws such conclusions from the evaluation of all available information. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of this “State-level” approach. Efficiently used, the Safeguards by Design (SBD) methodologies , , , now being developed can contribute to effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards. The Facility Safeguardability Assessment (FSA) introduced here supports SBD in three areas. 1. It describes necessary interactions between the IAEA, the State regulator, and the owner / designer of a new or modified facility to determine where SBD efforts can be productively applied, 2. It presents a screening approach intended to identify potential safeguard issues for; a) design changes to existing facilities; b) new facilities similar to existing facilities with approved safeguards approaches, and c) new designs, 3. It identifies resources (the FSA toolkit), such as good practice guides, design guidance, and safeguardability evaluation methods that can be used by the owner/designer to develop solutions for potential safeguards issues during the interactions with the State regulator and IAEA. FSA presents a structured framework for the application of the SBD tools developed in other efforts. The more a design evolves, the greater the probability that new safeguards issues could be introduced. Likewise, for first-of-a-kind facilities or research facilities that involve previously unused processes or technologies, it is reasonable to expect that a number of possible safeguards issues might exist. Accordingly, FSA is intended to help the designer and its safeguards experts identify early in the design process: • Areas where elements of previous accepted safeguards approach(es) may be applied to facility modifications or new designs • Modifications of the design that could mitigate a potential safeguards issue or facilitate a more efficient application of the safeguards approach • Possible innovative ideas for more efficient application of safeguards • The potential for changes in elements of the safeguard approach that may be required by IAEA as a result of facility design features and characteristics • Other potential concerns These issues will then be presented to the IAEA and the state regulator to be resolved in a timely manner, ensuring that the planned safeguards approach is acceptable and compatible with the facility design. The proposed approach should be validated by application to suitable facilities to assess its utility, comprehensiveness, and cost-effectiveness. The approach and example application should also be reviewed by industry to confirm the conclusions reached in the DOE review.

  10. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  11. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  12. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  13. Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chau, Chi-Fai

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved...

  14. INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrier, D.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements in Oil Shale andOil Shale Products. LERC Rept. of Invest. 77-1, 1977.Significant to In Situ Oil Shale Processing. Quart. Colo.

  15. INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrier, D.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W. A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements in Oil Shaleand Oil Shale Products. LERC Rept. of Invest. 77-1, 1977.Significant to In Situ Oil Shale Processing. Quart. Colo.

  16. Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process localiser la chambre à vapeur. INTRODUCTION [1] Huge quantities of heavy oils (heavy oil, extra heavy oil. Larribau 64018 Pau Cedex, France Oil and Gas Science and Technology 2012, 67 (6), 1029-1039, doi:10

  17. The Role of the Flexicoking Process in Heavy Oil Processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, R. I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a clean product slate composed of low Btu gas, high Btu gas, LPG, naphtha, distillate and gas oil. The low Btu gas falls within the definition of an "Alternate Fuel" under current legislation (PL 95-620). Originally developed for refinery bottoms...

  18. OCCIDENTAL VERTICAL MODIFIED IN SITU PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE. PHASE II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Reid M.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress presented in this report covers the period June 1, 1980 through August 31, 1980 under the work scope for.Phase II of the DOE/Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) Cooperative Agreement. The major activities at OOSI 1s Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7, 8 and 8x; completing Mini-Retort (MR) construction; continuing surface facility construction; tracer testing the MR 1 s; conducting Retorts 7 & 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests; setting up and debugging the Sandia B-61 trailer; and preparing the Phase II instrumentation plan.

  19. EIS-0082: Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Defense Waste and Byproducts Management developed this EIS to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility at the SRP site.

  20. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  1. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  2. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  3. INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrier, D.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    9 true in situ oil shale combustion experiment conducted byatmosphere process (combustion) and the oil shale reservesoil-shale process water. This water originates primarily from three sources: combustion,

  4. Coarse-scale Modeling of Flow in Gas-injection Processes for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambers, James

    Coarse-scale Modeling of Flow in Gas-injection Processes for Enhanced Oil Recovery James V. Lambers of gas-injection processes for enhanced oil recovery may exhibit geometrically complex features

  5. Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

  6. Development of the Write Process for Pipeline-Ready Heavy Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones; Frank Guffey

    2009-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Work completed under this program advances the goal of demonstrating Western Research Institute's (WRI's) WRITE{trademark} process for upgrading heavy oil at field scale. MEG Energy Corporation (MEG) located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada supported efforts at WRI to develop the WRITE{trademark} process as an oil sands, field-upgrading technology through this Task 51 Jointly Sponsored Research project. The project consisted of 6 tasks: (1) optimization of the distillate recovery unit (DRU), (2) demonstration and design of a continuous coker, (3) conceptual design and cost estimate for a commercial facility, (4) design of a WRITE{trademark} pilot plant, (5) hydrotreating studies, and (6) establish a petroleum analysis laboratory. WRITE{trademark} is a heavy oil and bitumen upgrading process that produces residuum-free, pipeline ready oil from heavy material with undiluted density and viscosity that exceed prevailing pipeline specifications. WRITE{trademark} uses two processing stages to achieve low and high temperature conversion of heavy oil or bitumen. The first stage DRU operates at mild thermal cracking conditions, yielding a light overhead product and a heavy residuum or bottoms material. These bottoms flow to the second stage continuous coker that operates at severe pyrolysis conditions, yielding light pyrolyzate and coke. The combined pyrolyzate and mildly cracked overhead streams form WRITE{trademark}'s synthetic crude oil (SCO) production. The main objectives of this project were to (1) complete testing and analysis at bench scale with the DRU and continuous coker reactors and provide results to MEG for process evaluation and scale-up determinations and (2) complete a technical and economic assessment of WRITE{trademark} technology to determine its viability. The DRU test program was completed and a processing envelope developed. These results were used for process assessment and for scaleup. Tests in the continuous coker were intended to determine the throughput capability of the coker so a scaled design could be developed that maximized feed rate for a given size of reactor. These tests were only partially successful because of equipment problems. A redesigned coker, which addressed the problems, has been build but not operated. A preliminary economic analysis conducted by MEG and an their engineering consultant concluded that the WRITE{trademark} process is a technically feasible method for upgrading bitumen and that it produces SCO that meets pipeline specifications for density. When compared to delayed coking, the industry benchmark for thermal upgrading of bitumen, WRITE{trademark} produced more SCO, less coke, less CO{sub 2} per barrel of bitumen fed, and had lower capital and operating costs. On the other hand, WRITE{trademark}'s lower processing severity yielded crude with higher density and a different product distribution for naphtha, light gas oil and vacuum oil that, taken together, might reduce the value of the SCO. These issues plus the completion of more detailed process evaluation and economics need to be resolved before WRITE{trademark} is deployed as a field-scale pilot.

  7. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility`s process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-2 1). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases.

  8. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility`s process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases.

  9. MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Three-year Term Appointment in Process (Oil and Gas) Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Glyn

    MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Three-year Term Appointment in Process (Oil and Gas with oil and gas specialization at the assistant- or associate professor-level, commencing April 12, 2010 in the area of oil and gas, and process engineering, to supervise graduate students, to participate in other

  10. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  11. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  12. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  13. Environmental assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill facility storage of commercial crude oil project, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Hill SPR facility located in Jefferson County, Texas has been a permitted operating crude oil storage site since 1986 with benign environmental impacts. However, Congress has not authorized crude oil purchases for the SPR since 1990, and six storage caverns at Big Hill are underutilized with 70 million barrels of available storage capacity. On February 17, 1999, the Secretary of Energy offered the 70 million barrels of available storage at Big Hill for commercial use. Interested commercial users would enter into storage contracts with DOE, and DOE would receive crude oil in lieu of dollars as rental fees. The site could potentially began to receive commercial oil in May 1999. This Environmental Assessment identified environmental changes that potentially would affect water usage, power usage, and air emissions. However, as the assessment indicates, changes would not occur to a major degree affecting the environment and no long-term short-term, cumulative or irreversible impacts have been identified.

  14. Tank 42 sludge-only process development for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.P.

    2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the development of a sludge-only process for Tank 42 sludge since at the current processing rate, the Tank 51 sludge has been projected to be depleted as early as August 1998. Testing was completed using a non-radioactive Tank 42 sludge simulant. The testing was completed under a range of operating conditions, including worst case conditions, to develop the processing conditions for radioactive Tank 42 sludge. The existing Tank 51 sludge-only process is adequate with the exception that 10 percent additional acid is recommended during sludge receipt and adjustment tank (SRAT) processing to ensure adequate destruction of nitrite during the SRAT cycle.

  15. Vapour extraction (VAPEX) process for recovery of heavy oil and bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, K.N. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Butler, R.M. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Lim, G.B. [Imperial Oil Resources Limited, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    For over 90% of the vast resources of bitumen and heavy oil in Canada, in situ recovery processes have to be developed to produce and utilize them efficiently and economically. Thermal recovery processes using steam, although effective for thick reservoirs with good quality sands, are increasingly proving to be uneconomical, particularly for thin, shaley, or bottom water reservoirs. The inefficiency is caused by large heat losses, high water requirement, extensive surface facilities, and adverse environmental impact. To overcome these problems, a new non-thermal vapour extraction (VAPEX) process has been developed. The process is closely related to the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) concept. However, in the VAPEX process the steam chamber is replaced with a chamber containing light hydrocarbon vapours close to its dew point at the reservoir pressure. If the pressure used is close to the saturation pressure of hydrocarbons, deasphalting may occur in the reservoir causing a substantial reduction in viscosity and heavy metal contents. Experiments conducted in a Hele-Shaw cell and in a 2D physical scaled model using Lloydminster, Cold Lake, and Peace River heavy oil/bitumen and ethane, propane, and butane as solvents demonstrated that this process is very promising technically as well as economically. An active aquifer underlying the bitumen zone made the reservoir more valuable because of spreading of the solvent vapour directly underneath the formation which increased the vapour-bitumen contact extensively. The investigation was extended from a dual horizontal continuous injection/production well strategy described above to a single horizontal well cyclic process for the Cold Lake reservoir in a 3D physical scaled model. The tests illustrated that ethane was an effective solvent in producing Cold Lake bitumen and that the cyclic VAPEX process has the potential to be a breakthrough recovery technology.

  16. Energy Efficient Pump Control for an Offshore Oil Processing System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    Esbjerg, Denmark (e-mail: yang@et.aau.dk). Ramboll Oil and Gas A/S, Willemoesgade 2, DK-6700 Esbjerg control, energy saving 1. INTRODUCTION Pump systems have been extensively used in offshore oil & gas industries, for instance, in order to get the crude oil/gas out of reservoirs, transport the produced oil/gas

  17. Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

  18. Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

  19. Effects of scale-up on oil and gas yields in a solid-recycle bed oil shale retorting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Vego, A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized bed pyrolysis of oil shale in a non-hydrogen atmosphere has been shown to significantly increase oil yield in laboratory-scale reactors compared to the Fischer assay by many workers. The enhancement in oil yield by this relatively simple and efficient thermal technique has led to the development of several oil shale retorting processes based on fluidized bed and related technologies over the past fifteen years. Since 1986, the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) has been developing one such process, KENTORT II, which is mainly tailored for the Devonian oil shales that occur in the eastern U.S. The process contains three main fluidized bed zones to pyrolyze, gasify, and combust the oil shale. A fourth fluidized bed zone serves to cool the spent shale prior to exiting the system. The autothermal process utilizes processed shale recirculation to transfer heat from the combustion to the gasification and pyrolysis zones. The CAER is currently testing the KENTORT II process in a 22.7-kg/hr process-development unit (PDU).

  20. New Concepts in Hardware and Processes to Conserve Oil and Gas in Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrey, J. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad program to identify and evaluate new types of hardware and processes to conserve oil and gas in chemical plants and petroleum refineries has been completed. During the course of this program, which was sponsored by the Office of Industrial...

  1. (HC){sub 3} process - An economical technology for upgrading bitumen and heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padamsey, R.; Bailey, R.T.; Cyr, T.J. [Alberta Dept. of Energy, Calgary (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the development of the (HC){sub 3} Process. (HC){sub 3} is a high conversion hydro-cracking process with integrated hydro-treating that has been developed by Alberta Department of Energy, Oil Sands and Research Division. The (HC){sub 3} Process has been developed and demonstrated to achieve conversion in excess of 95% at moderate pressures and relatively high temperature in a very cost effective manner. This has been achieved with the aid of a colloidal catalyst that selectively converts the asphaltenes, and a proprietary recycle methodology that significantly reduces the catalyst consumption. Cost and economic studies indicate that capital and operating costs of the (HC){sub 3} upgrading scheme are lower than those of other high conversion schemes and are comparable to those of low and moderate conversion upgrading schemes. This cost advantage combined with the high yield gives the (HC){sub 3} a significant economic advantage over other upgrading schemes. The (HC){sub 3} process shows great promise at achieving high conversion efficiently and economically. The process is ready for commercial testing. Discussions are underway with regards to testing the process in a commercial facility designed to process nominally 5000 barrels per day (BPD).

  2. A Novel Process for Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions by Dense Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    A Novel Process for Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions by Dense Carbon Dioxide Nael N State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 CO2 was used to break several water-in-crude oil density and mole fraction. The proposed mechanism by which CO2 destabilizes water-in-crude oil emulsions

  3. Waste receiving and processing facility module 1, detailed design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WRAP 1 baseline documents which guided the technical development of the Title design included: (a) A/E Statement of Work (SOW) Revision 4C: This DOE-RL contractual document specified the workscope, deliverables, schedule, method of performance and reference criteria for the Title design preparation. (b) Functional Design Criteria (FDC) Revision 1: This DOE-RL technical criteria document specified the overall operational criteria for the facility. The document was a Revision 0 at the beginning of the design and advanced to Revision 1 during the tenure of the Title design. (c) Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) Revision 3: This baseline criteria document prepared by WHC for DOE-RL augments the FDC by providing further definition of the process, operational safety, and facility requirements to the A/E for guidance in preparing the design. The document was at a very preliminary stage at the onset of Title design and was revised in concert with the results of the engineering studies that were performed to resolve the numerous technical issues that the project faced when Title I was initiated, as well as, by requirements established during the course of the Title II design.

  4. Building success : the role of the state in the cultural facility development process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choy, Carolyn (Carolyn Anne)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the question of what is the current role of the state in the cultural facility development process, and, in light of facility-related warnings that have been made over the years, what role should ...

  5. OVERVIEW OF TESTING TO SUPPORT PROCESSING OF SLUDGE BATCH 4 IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, C

    2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site began processing of its third sludge batch in March 2004. To avoid a feed outage in the facility, the next sludge batch will have to be prepared and ready for transfer to the DWPF by the end of 2006. The next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), will consist of a significant volume of HM-type sludge. HM-type sludge is very high in aluminum compared to the mostly Purex-type sludges that have been processed to date. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with Liquid Waste Operations to define the sludge preparation plans and to perform testing to support qualification and processing of SB4. Significant challenges have arisen during SB4 preparation and testing to include poor sludge settling behavior and lower than desired projected melt rates. An overview of the testing activities is provided.

  6. Liquid fuels from co-processing coal with bitumen or heavy oil: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Hepler, L.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal, bitumen and heavy oil (and various pitches, resids, etc.) are similar in that they require more substantial treatment than does conventional light oil to yield useful liquid fuels. The authors provide a brief and selective review of technologies for liquefying coal, followed by consideration of co-processing coal with bitumen/heavy oil. Such co-processing may be considered as use of bitumen/heavy oil as a solvent and/or hydrogen donor in liquefaction of coal, or as the use of coal to aid upgrading bitumen/heavy oil.

  7. Facility Siting and Layout Optimization Based on Process Safety 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Seungho

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a new approach to optimize facility layout for toxic release, fire and explosion scenarios is presented. By integrating a risk analysis in the optimization formulation, safer assignments for facility layout ...

  8. Characterization of emissions from scrap metal processing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norco, J.E. [Versar, Inc., Lombard, IL (United States); Tyler, T. [Inst. of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To prepare its members for the permitting requirements under Title 5 of the Clean Act, the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) commissioned a project to develop a Title 5 applicability workbook. A critical element in the preparation of the workbook was the characterization of emissions from processes and equipment typically found in the scrap metal processing industry. This paper describes the approach to the preparation of the workbook with emphasis on characterization of specific emission units which are deemed important for Title 5. The paper describes the methodology employed for acquiring existing emissions information from equipment manufacturers, vendors, and scrap recycling facility operators. The data were aggregated and analyzed to develop a variety of emission tabulations for pollutants requiring analysis under Title 5. The project also involved a survey of numerous state and local air pollution agencies to determine regulatory requirements regarding critical issues in the scrap processing industry. The paper describes a methodology for determining Title 5 applicability with emphasis on the use of emission tabulations and example worksheets. Emissions data are presented for metal shredders to demonstrate the methodology and procedures developed during the project. Finally, the paper discusses the structure of the Title 5 applicability workbook and its dissemination to a major industry trade association.

  9. Hurricane Andrew's impact on natural gas and oil facilities on the outer continental shelf (interim report as of November 1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, G.R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interim report reviews Hurricane Andrew's impact on Federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) natural gas and oil drilling and production facilities. The report provides background on Hurricane Andrew's progression, discusses how OCS operators responded to the storm, summarizes the types of damage to offshore facilies caused by Hurricane Andrew, and discusses Minerals Management Service's continuing damage assessment and repair efforts. The summaries of damage estimates are presented in tables in Appendix 1. A glossary of report terminology is provided in Appendix 2.

  10. Process Considerations in the Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, A.P.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodesulfurization offers an attractive alternative to conventional hydrodesulfurization due to the mild operating conditions and reaction specificity afforded by the biocatalyst. The enzymatic pathway existing in Rhodococcus has been demonstrated to oxidatively desulfhrize the organic sulfbr occurring in dibenzothiophene while leaving the hydrocarbon intact. In order for biodesulfiization to realize commercial success, a variety of process considerations must be addressed including reaction rate, emulsion formation and breakage, biocatalyst recovery, and both gas and liquid mass transport. This study compares batch stirred to electro-spray bioreactors in the biodesulfurization of both model organics and actual crudes in terms of their operating costs, ability to make and break emulsions, ability to effect efficient reaction rates and enhance mass transport. Further, sulfim speciation in crude oil is assessed and compared to the sulfur specificity of currently available biocatalyst.

  11. IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

    2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

  12. Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform and canister description: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, R.G.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the reference wasteform and canister for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The principal changes include revised feed and glass product compositions, an estimate of glass product characteristics as a function of time after the start of vitrification, and additional data on glass leaching performance. The feed and glass product composition data are identical to that described in the DWPF Basic Data Report, Revision 90/91. The DWPF facility is located at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, SC, and it is scheduled for construction completion during December 1989. The wasteform is borosilicate glass containing approximately 28 wt % sludge oxides, with the balance consisting of glass-forming chemicals, primarily glass frit. Borosilicate glass was chosen because of its stability toward reaction with potential repository groundwaters, its relatively high ability to incorporate nuclides found in the sludge into the solid matrix, and its reasonably low melting temperature. The glass frit contains approximately 71% SiO/sub 2/, 12% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 10% Na/sub 2/O. Tests to quantify the stability of DWPF waste glass have been performed under a wide variety of conditions, including simulations of potential repository environments. Based on these tests, DWPF waste glass should easily meet repository criteria. The canister is filled with about 3700 lb of glass which occupies 85% of the free canister volume. The filled canister will generate approximately 690 watts when filled with oxides from 5-year-old sludge and precipitate from 15-year-old supernate. The radionuclide activity of the canister is about 233,000 curies, with an estimated radiation level of 5600 rad/hour at the canister surface. 14 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, Michael C.

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  14. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, Michael Clair

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre-decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with hotographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  15. Oil drilling to use LSU process Show Caption BILL FEIG/THE ADVOCATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BUSINESS Oil drilling to use LSU process Show Caption BILL FEIG/THE ADVOCATE Advocate staff process to make wood-plastic composites has found a new application in the oil and gas business. Qinglin Wu, the Roy O. Martin professor of Composites and Engineered Wood Products, patented a technique

  16. Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Thoma; John Veil; Fred Limp; Jackson Cothren; Bruce Gorham; Malcolm Williamson; Peter Smith; Bob Sullivan

    2009-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project 'Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.' The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

  17. Methodology for Determining Increases in Radionuclide Inventories for the Effluent Treatment Facility Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A study is currently underway to determine if the Effluent Treatment Facility can be downgraded from a Hazard Category 3 facility to a Radiological Facility per DOE STD-1027-92. This technical report provides a methodology to determine and monitor increases in the radionuclide inventories of the ETF process columns. It also provides guidelines to ensure that other potential increases to the ETF radionuclide inventory are evaluated as required to ensure that the ETF remains a Radiological Facility.

  18. Teamwork Plus Technology Equals Reduced Emissions, Reduced Energy Usage, and Improved Productivity for an Oil Production Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Booker, G.; Robinson, J.

    control system project into the existing Steepbank Mine and Extraction Process Plant. The Extraction Process separates the raw oil called bitumen from the mined ore and is the largest energy user on the site. A control system and energy audit was conducted...

  19. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  20. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  1. Gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD) process for improved oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, Dandina N. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapid and inexpensive process for increasing the amount of hydrocarbons (e.g., oil) produced and the rate of production from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by displacing oil downwards within the oil reservoir and into an oil recovery apparatus is disclosed. The process is referred to as "gas-assisted gravity drainage" and comprises the steps of placing one or more horizontal producer wells near the bottom of a payzone (i.e., rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities) of a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir and injecting a fluid displacer (e.g., CO.sub.2) through one or more vertical wells or horizontal wells. Pre-existing vertical wells may be used to inject the fluid displacer into the reservoir. As the fluid displacer is injected into the top portion of the reservoir, it forms a gas zone, which displaces oil and water downward towards the horizontal producer well(s).

  2. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  3. Capturing Process Knowledge for Facility Deactivation and Decommissioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the disposition of a vast number of facilities at numerous sites around the country which have been declared excess to current mission...

  4. Altering Design Decisions to Better Suit Facilities Management Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawdeh, H. B.; Abudul-Malak, M. A.; Wood, G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    management and design as well as to unveil the FM potential in enhancing design decisions for achieving better performing facilities. Various factors leading to the aforementioned gap and reasons for bridging it have been presented. It was deduced that FM...

  5. Plantwide Energy Assessment of a Sugarcane Farming and Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakeway, L.A.; Turn, S.Q.; Keffer, V.I.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A plantwide energy assessment was performed at Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., an integrated sugarcane farming and processing facility on the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. There were four main tasks performed for the plantwide energy assessment: 1) pump energy assessment in both field and factory operations, 2) steam generation assessment in the power production operations, 3) steam distribution assessment in the sugar manufacturing operation, and 4) electric power distribution assessment of the company system grid. The energy savings identified in each of these tasks were summarized in terms of fuel savings, electricity savings, or opportunity revenue that potentially exists mostly from increased electric power sales to the local electric utility. The results of this investigation revealed eight energy saving projects that can be implemented at HC&S. These eight projects were determined to have potential for $1.5 million in annual fuel savings or 22,337 MWh equivalent annual electricity savings. Most of the savings were derived from pump efficiency improvements and steam efficiency improvements both in generation and distribution. If all the energy saving projects were implemented and the energy savings were realized as less fuel consumed, there would be corresponding reductions in regulated air pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions from supplemental coal fuel. As HC&S is already a significant user of renewable biomass fuel for its operations, the projected reductions in air pollutants and emissions will not be as great compared to using only coal fuel for example. A classification of implementation priority into operations was performed for the identified energy saving projects based on payback period and ease of implementation.

  6. The release of technetium from defense waste processing facility glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebert, W.L.; Wolf, S.F.; Bates, J.K.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests are being, conducted using two radionuclide-doped Defense Waste Processing, Facility (DWPF) glasses (referred to as SRL 13IA and SRL 202A) to characterize the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SN) ratio on the release and disposition of {Tc} and several actinide elements. Tests are being conducted at 90{degrees}C in a tuff ground water solution at SN ratios of 10, 2000, and 20,000 m{sup {minus}1} and have been completed through 1822 days. The formation of certain alteration phases in tests at 2000 and 20,000 m{sup {minus}1} results in an increase in the dissolution rates of both classes. The release of {Tc} parallels that of B and Na under most test conditions and its release increases when alteration phases form. However, in tests with SRL 202A glass at 20,000 ,{sup {minus}1}, the {Tc} concentration in solution decreases coincidentally with an increase in the nitrite/nitrate ratio that indicates a decrease in the solution Eh. This may have occurred due to radiolysis, glass dissolution, the formation of alteration phases, or vessel interactions. Technetium that was reduced from {Tc}(VII) to {Tc}(IV) may have precipitated, thou-h the amount of {Tc} was too low to detect any {Tc}-bearing phases. These results show the importance of conducting long-term tests with radioactive glasses to characterize the behavior of radionuclides, rather than relying on the observed behavior of nonradioactive surrogates.

  7. Overview of Fiscal Year 2002 Research and Development for Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. D. Harmon, R. Leugemors, PNNL; S. Fink, M. Thompson, D. Walker, WSRC; P. Suggs, W. D. Clark, Jr

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of high-level waste for disposal. The Salt Processing Program (SPP) is the salt (soluble) waste treatment portion of the SRS high-level waste effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the site's grout facility (Saltstone) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility include actinides, strontium, cesium, and entrained sludge. In fiscal year 2002 (FY02), research and development (R&D) on the actinide and strontium removal and Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) processes transitioned from technology development for baseline process selection to providing input for conceptual design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The SPP R&D focused on advancing the technical maturity, risk reduction, engineering development, and design support for DOE's engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Thus, R&D in FY02 addressed the areas of actual waste performance, process chemistry, engineering tests of equipment, and chemical and physical properties relevant to safety. All of the testing, studies, and reports were summarized and provided to the DOE to support the Salt Waste Processing Facility, which began conceptual design in September 2002.

  8. Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A K

    2003-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

  9. Design and construction of the defense waste processing facility project at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, R G

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Du Pont Company is building for the Department of Energy a facility to vitrify high-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will solidify existing and future radioactive wastes by immobilizing the waste in Processing Facility (DWPF) will solidify existing and future radioactives wastes by immobilizing the waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. The canisters will be sealed, decontaminated and stored, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. At the present time, engineering and design is 90% complete, construction is 25% complete, and radioactive processing in the $870 million facility is expected to begin by late 1989. This paper describes the SRP waste characteristics, the DWPF processing, building and equipment features, and construction progress of the facility.

  10. Economic comparison of centralizing or decentralizing processing facilities for defense transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C M

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is part of a set of analyses under direction of the Transuranic Waste Management Program designed to provide comprehensive, systematic methodology and support necessary to better understand options for national long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste. The report summarizes activities to evaluate the economics of possible alternatives in locating facilities to process DOE-managed transuranic waste. The options considered are: (1) Facilities located at all major DOE TRU waste generating sites. (2) Two or three regional facilities. (3) Central processing facility at only one DOE site. The study concludes that processing at only one facility is the lowest cost option, followed, in order of cost, by regional then individual site processing.

  11. Oil to Coal Conversion of Power and Industrial Facilities in the Dominican Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Causilla, H.; Acosta, J. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Realizing that the use of coal has the potential to offset the effects of world oil prices on the Dominican Republic's economy, the Commission Nacional de Politica Energetica (CNPE) requested Bechtel Power Corporation to study the technical...

  12. Surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sethl, V.K.; Satchwell, R.M.; Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geological studies have shown that there are many surface or near-surface deposits in the United States that contain large quantities of petroleum. In the State of Wyoming, a high concentration of such deposits exists in the Wind River, Big Horn, and Powder River Basins. These shallow deposits typically occur as unconsolidated or friable formations that contain millions of barrels of oil. Conventional petroleum production techniques have been attempted in many of these deposits with little or no economic success. In an attempt to improve the production economics, the Western Research Institute was solicited to develop a technique for the recovery of oil from these deposits. WRI, with support from the Economic and Community Development Division of the State of Wyoming, and as a part of the WRI/US Department of Energy, Jointly Sponsored Research program, proposed to develop, test, and demonstrate a viable and economical technology for the recovery of oil using mining and surface recovery processes. Reneau Energy, Inc. of La Quinta, California, agreed to participate in the project in providing a test site and mined materials. The goal of the proposed project to be completed in two phases, was to develop existing energy resources which are not presently being utilized. Phase 1 of the project, consisting of six specific tasks, was conducted to evaluate the suitability of various surface processing schemes. Phase 1 also included gravity drainage tests to determine if recovery techniques such as horizontal drilling could be applied. Phase 1 work was completed, and a final report was prepared and submitted to the funding agencies. Based on the results obtained in Phase 1 of the project, fluidized-bed based thermal recovery appeared to be a viable option. A 100 tons per day pilot plant was designed, constructed, and operated in the field. This report describes the results and experiences of the Phase 2 testing.

  13. Facility Siting and Layout Optimization Based on Process Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Seungho

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    -computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to compare the difference between the initial layout and the final layout in order to see how obstacles and separation distances affect the dispersion or overpressures of affected facilities. One of the CFD programs, ANSYS...

  14. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

  15. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

  16. Evaluation of solvent-based in situ processes for upgrading and recovery of heavy oil bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duerksen, J.H.; Eloyan, A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent-based in situ recovery processes have been proposed as lower cost alternatives to thermal processes for recovery of heavy oil and bitumen. Advantages of solvent based processes are: reduced steam requirements, reduced water treating, and in situ upgrading of the produced oil. Lab results and process calculations show that low-pressure, low-energy solvent-based in situ processes have considerable technical and economic potential for upgrading and recovery of bitumen and heavy oil. In a lab flow test using Athabasca tar sand and propane as solvent, 50 percent of the bitumen was recovered as upgraded oil. Relative to the raw bitumen, API gravity increased by about 10{degrees}API, viscosity was reduced 30-fold, sulfur content was reduced about 50 percent, and metals content was also substantially reduced. Process uncertainties that will have a major impact on economics are: (1) oil production rate, (2) oil recovery, (3) extent of in situ upgrading, and (4) solvent losses. Additional lab development and field testing are required to reduce these process uncertainties and to predict commercial-scale economics.

  17. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  18. Electrostatic coalescence of used automotive crankcase oil as an alternative to other separation processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, John Leslie

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents an initial investigation of using electrostatic coalescence as an alternative to conventional separation processes to purify used automotive crankcase oil. Specific emphasis of this study was the feasibility of this approach...

  19. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yorstos, Yannis C.

    2003-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress.

  20. Process for preparing phenolic formaldehyde resole resin products derived from fractionated fast-pyrolysis oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Kreibich, Roland E. (Auburn, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.

  1. Oil production by entrained pyrolysis of biomass and processing of oil and char

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, James A. (Atlanta, GA); Gorton, Charles W. (Atlanta, GA)

    1990-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Entrained pyrolysis of lignocellulosic material proceeds from a controlled pyrolysis-initiating temperature to completion of an oxygen free environment at atmospheric pressure and controlled residence time to provide a high yield recovery of pyrolysis oil together with char and non-condensable, combustible gases. The residence time is a function of gas flow rate and the initiating temperature is likewise a function of the gas flow rate, varying therewith. A controlled initiating temperature range of about 400.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. with corresponding gas flow rates to maximize oil yield is disclosed.

  2. Economic Implementation and Optimization of Secondary Oil Recovery Process: St. Mary West Field, Lafayette County, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brock P.E., Cary D.

    2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic appropriateness of several enhanced oil recovery processes that are available to a small mature oil field located in southwest Arkansas and to implement the most economic efficient process evaluated. The State of Arkansas natural resource laws require that an oilfield is to be unitized before conducting a secondary recovery project. This requires all properties that can reasonably be determined to include the oil productive reservoir must be bound together as one common lease by a legal contract that must be approved to be fair and equitable to all property owners within the proposed unit area.

  3. Safety and environmental process for the design and construction of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brereton, S.J., LLNL

    1998-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This paper describes the safety and environmental processes followed by NIF during the design and construction activities.

  4. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Scott J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is intended to provide the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its safeguards obligations. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of IAEA safeguards as those safeguards evolve towards a “State-Level approach.” The Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept can facilitate the implementation of these effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards (Bjornard, et al. 2009a, 2009b; IAEA, 1998; Wonder & Hockert, 2011). This report, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, introduces a methodology intended to ensure that the diverse approaches to Safeguards by Design can be effectively integrated and consistently used to cost effectively enhance the application of international safeguards.

  5. November 8, 1983: Defense Waste Processing Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREofNewsletterEnergySeptemberTechnologies8,November8,

  6. Shale oil by 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaac, E.D.; Svoboda, D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial processing of oil shale is currently being carried out in two countries, these being Manchuria and Estonia. Germany, Israel, Australia, Brazil and the United States are planning commercial development of oil shale during the 1980's. In the United States, developers currently pursuing production facilities in the Piceance Basin in Colorado are the Union Oil Company; Colony Development Company, now owned by Tosco and Exxon; Occidental Oil Shale Inc.; The Rio Blanco Shale Company (Amoco and Gulf) CA Tract; The Cathedral Bluff's Oil Shale Company (Oxy and Tenneco) at CB tract; The Anvil Points Bureau of Mines Site under the direction of DOE which has been leased to the Paraho Development Company to optimize their process; and Superior Oil. Superior Oil plans to recover Negcolite and Dowsonite that are associated with their oil shale. The processes used by these companies are described briefly. These are the Union B process, Tosco II process, Paraho process, and Occidental process. It is estimated that between 400,000 to 500,000 barrels per day (63,600 to 79,500 m/sup 3//day) production would be achieved by 1990 if all of the effects on the infrastructure are planned for and constructed in an orderly manner.

  7. Strategies for Facilities Renewal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Good, R. L.

    psig * Plant or Service Air 90 psig * Starting Air for gas engines 220 psig * Instrument Air 80 psig * 02 - process * N2 high purity 4. Water production systems and distribution * Potable water (remote rural site) * Fire water (not treated) * Cooling... sewers 6. Fuel systems * Mixed fuel (both by-product and purchased methane) * Pipeline natural gas * Fuel oil 7. Maintenance and office facilities * Various maintenance/construction shops, stores, offices * Office facilities for technical...

  8. EIS-0070: Mining, Construction and Operation for a Full-size Module at the Anvil Points Oil Shale Facility, Rifle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement to assess the environmental and socioeconomic implications of its proposal to mine 11 million tons of oil shale from the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) at Anvil Points, Colorado; to construct an experimental full-size shale retort module on a 365-acre lease tract having a 4700 bbl/day production capacity; and to consider extension, modification or new leasing of the facility.

  9. FRIT OPTIMIZATION FOR SLUDGE BATCH PROCESSING AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.

    2009-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Frit Development Team recommends that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) utilize Frit 418 for initial processing of high level waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The extended SB5 preparation time and need for DWPF feed have necessitated the use of a frit that is already included on the DWPF procurement specification. Frit 418 has been used previously in vitrification of Sludge Batches 3 and 4. Paper study assessments predict that Frit 418 will form an acceptable glass when combined with SB5 over a range of waste loadings (WLs), typically 30-41% based on nominal projected SB5 compositions. Frit 418 has a relatively high degree of robustness with regard to variation in the projected SB5 composition, particularly when the Na{sub 2}O concentration is varied. The acceptability (chemical durability) and model applicability of the Frit 418-SB5 system will be verified experimentally through a variability study, to be documented separately. Frit 418 has not been designed to provide an optimal melt rate with SB5, but is recommended for initial processing of SB5 until experimental testing to optimize a frit composition for melt rate can be completed. Melt rate performance can not be predicted at this time and must be determined experimentally. Note that melt rate testing may either identify an improved frit for SB5 processing (one which produces an acceptable glass at a faster rate than Frit 418) or confirm that Frit 418 is the best option.

  10. RECOMMENDED FRIT COMPOSITION FOR INITIAL SLUDGE BATCH 5 PROCESSING AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Frit Development Team recommends that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) utilize Frit 418 for initial processing of high level waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The extended SB5 preparation time and need for DWPF feed have necessitated the use of a frit that is already included on the DWPF procurement specification. Frit 418 has been used previously in vitrification of Sludge Batches 3 and 4. Paper study assessments predict that Frit 418 will form an acceptable glass when combined with SB5 over a range of waste loadings (WLs), typically 30-41% based on nominal projected SB5 compositions. Frit 418 has a relatively high degree of robustness with regard to variation in the projected SB5 composition, particularly when the Na{sub 2}O concentration is varied. The acceptability (chemical durability) and model applicability of the Frit 418-SB5 system will be verified experimentally through a variability study, to be documented separately. Frit 418 has not been designed to provide an optimal melt rate with SB5, but is recommended for initial processing of SB5 until experimental testing to optimize a frit composition for melt rate can be completed. Melt rate performance can not be predicted at this time and must be determined experimentally. Note that melt rate testing may either identify an improved frit for SB5 processing (one which produces an acceptable glass at a faster rate than Frit 418) or confirm that Frit 418 is the best option.

  11. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for Recovery of Oil Shale, Nov. 1976-0ct. 1977,M. A. , Proc. 12th Oil Shale Sympos. , Colorado School ofCOMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT ~~D PROCESS WATERS

  12. doi: 10.3176/oil.2008.2.02 © 2008 Estonian Academy Publishers THERMAL PROCESSING OF POLYVINYLCHLORIDE WASTE WITH OIL SHALE ASH TO CAPTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Oja; A. Elenurm; I. Rohtla; E. Tearo; E. Tali

    This study is concerned with thermal processing of polyvinylchloride (PVC) in the presence of alkaline oil shale ash. Solid heat carrier (Galoter process)-type oil shale retorting units, where the feedstock is heated by mixing with ash from retorted feed-stock combustion, are potentially an

  13. Standard practice for dosimetry in electron beam and X-Ray (Bremsstrahlung) irradiation facilities for food processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard practice for dosimetry in electron beam and X-Ray (Bremsstrahlung) irradiation facilities for food processing

  14. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  15. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  16. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  17. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in California Food Processing Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, T.; Kazama, D; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) and the Energy Commission cover process steam, process heating, compressed air, motor, pump, and fan systems. Technical services provided consist of conducting both targeted and plant-wide assessments of energy-consuming plant equipment and systems. Since 2004...

  18. Construction Begins on New Waste Processing Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613PortsmouthBartlesville EnergyDepartment.AttachmentEnergyGenerating Facility

  19. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yorstos, Yanis C.

    2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The emphasis of this work was on investigating the mechanisms and factors that control the recovery of heavy oil with the objective to improve recovery efficiencies. For this purpose the interaction of flow transport and reaction at various scales from the pore network to the field scales were studied. Particular mechanisms to be investigated included the onset of gas flow in foamy oil production and in in-situ steam drive, gravity drainage in steam processes, the development of sustained combustion fronts and the propagation of foams in porous media. Analytical, computational and experimental methods were utilized to advance the state of the art in heavy oil recovery. Successful completion of this research was expected to lead to improvements in the Recovery efficiency of various heavy oil processes.

  20. Review of the Savannah River Site, Salt Waste Processing Facility...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Grade Dedication and Material Upgrade Package CMTR Certified Material Test Report CPA Central Process Area COC Certificate of Conformance CR Condition Report CRAD Criteria and...

  1. Progress of the High Level Waste Program at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13178

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bricker, Jonathan M.; Fellinger, Terri L.; Staub, Aaron V.; Ray, Jeff W.; Iaukea, John F. [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site treats and immobilizes High Level Waste into a durable borosilicate glass for safe, permanent storage. The High Level Waste program significantly reduces environmental risks associated with the storage of radioactive waste from legacy efforts to separate fissionable nuclear material from irradiated targets and fuels. In an effort to support the disposition of radioactive waste and accelerate tank closure at the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility recently implemented facility and flowsheet modifications to improve production by 25%. These improvements, while low in cost, translated to record facility production in fiscal years 2011 and 2012. In addition, significant progress has been accomplished on longer term projects aimed at simplifying and expanding the flexibility of the existing flowsheet in order to accommodate future processing needs and goals. (authors)

  2. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Sixth amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T.B. (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)); Rivas, O. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Sixth Amendment and Extension of Annex 4, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 44 through 49. Tasks are: DOE-SUPRI-laboratory research on steam foam, CAT-SCAN, and in-situ combustion; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field projects on steam foam; DOE-NIPER-laboratory research and field projects light oil steam flooding; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field studies on wellbore heat losses; DOE-LLNL-laboratory research and field projects on electromagnetic induction tomography; INTEVEP-laoboratory research on mechanistic studies.

  3. Electromagnetic oil field mapping for improved process monitoring and reservoir characterization: A poster presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggoner, J.R.; Mansure, A.J.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a permanent record of a poster paper presented by the authors at the Third International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference in Tulsa, Oklahoma on November 3--5, 1991. The subject is electromagnetic (EM) techniques that are being developed to monitor oil recovery processes to improve overall process performance. The potential impact of EM surveys is very significant, primarily in the areas of locating oil, identifying oil inside and outside the pattern, characterizing flow units, and pseudo-real time process control to optimize process performance and efficiency. Since a map of resistivity alone has little direct application to these areas, an essential part of the EM technique is understanding the relationship between the process and the formation resistivity at all scales, and integrating this understanding into reservoir characterization and simulation. First is a discussion of work completed on the core scale petrophysics of resistivity changes in an oil recovery process; a steamflood is used as an example. A system has been developed for coupling the petrophysics of resistivity with reservoir simulation to simulate the formation resistivity structure arising from a recovery process. Preliminary results are given for an investigation into the effect of heterogeneity and anisotropy on the EM technique, as well as the use of the resistivity simulator to interpret EM data in terms of reservoir and process parameters. Examples illustrate the application of the EM technique to improve process monitoring and reservoir characterization.

  4. Certification of U.S. instrumentation in Russian nuclear processing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.H. Powell; J.N. Sumner

    2000-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Agreements between the United States (U.S.) and the Russian Federation (R.F.) require the down-blending of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian Federation nuclear weapons. The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) was jointly developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continuously monitor the enrichments and flow rates in the HEU blending operations at the R.F. facilities. A significant requirement of the implementation of the BDMS equipment in R.F. facilities concerned the certification of the BDMS equipment for use in a Russian nuclear facility. This paper discusses the certification of the BDMS for installation in R.F. facilities, and summarizes the lessons learned from the process that can be applied to the installation of other U.S. equipment in Russian nuclear facilities.

  5. Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous extraction process: Feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous the feasibility of an aqueous process to extract sunflower seed oil using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Aqueous extraction was carried out using whole seeds and the influence of the operating conditions on oil

  6. Preliminary technical data summary No. 3 for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landon, L.F. (comp.)

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents an update on the best information presently available for the purpose of establishing the basis for the design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility. Objective of this project is to provide a facility to fix the radionuclides present in Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level liquid waste in a high-integrity form (glass). Flowsheets and material balances reflect the alternate CAB case including the incorporation of low-level supernate in concrete. (DLC)

  7. Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated three possible multiphase mechanisms at work, namely, Darcy-type displacement until gas breakthrough, gravity drainage after breakthrough and film-drainage in gas-invaded zones throughout the duration of the process. The partially-scaled physical model was used in a series of experiments to study the effects of wettability, gas-oil miscibility, secondary versus tertiary mode gas injection, and the presence of fractures on GAGD oil recovery. In addition to yielding recoveries of up to 80% IOIP, even in the immiscible gas injection mode, the partially-scaled physical model confirmed the positive influence of fractures and oil-wet characteristics in enhancing oil recoveries over those measured in the homogeneous (unfractured) water-wet models. An interesting observation was that a single logarithmic relationship between the oil recovery and the gravity number was obeyed by the physical model, the high-pressure corefloods and the field data.

  8. Process for fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils, and products derived therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for fractionating lignocellulosic materials fast-prolysis oils to produce phenol-containing compositions suitable for the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The process includes admixing the oils with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen The United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC02-83CH10093 between the United States Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute, a Division of the Midwest Research Institute.

  9. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management.

  10. 324 Facility B-Cell quality process plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, J.L.

    1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    B-Cell is currently being cleaned out (i.e., removal of equipment, fixtures and residual radioactive materials) and deactivated. TPA Milestone M-89-02 dictates that all mixed waste and equipment be removed from B-Cell by 5/31/99. The following sections describe the major activities that remain for completion of the TPA milestone. This includes: (1) Size Reduce Tank 119 and Miscellaneous Equipment. This activity is the restart of hotwork in B-Cell to size reduce the remainder of Tank 119 and other miscellaneous pieces of equipment into sizes that can be loaded into a grout container. This activity also includes the process of preparing the containers for shipment from the cell. The specific activities and procedures used are detailed in a table. (2) Load and Ship Low-Level Waste. This activity covers the process of taking a grouted LLW container from B-Cell and loading it into the cask in the REC airlock and Cask Handling Area (CHA) for shipment to the LLBG. The detailed activities and procedures for this part of cell cleanout are included in second table.

  11. Environmental research on a modified in situ oil shale task process. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress of the US Department of Energy's Oil Shale Task Force in its research program at the Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. facility at Logan Wash, Colorado. More specifically, the Task Force obtained samples from Retort 3E and Retort 6 and submitted these samples to a variety of analyses. The samples collected included: crude oil (Retort 6); light oil (Retort 6); product water (Retort 6); boiler blowdown (Retort 6); makeup water (Retort 6); mine sump water; groundwater; water from Retorts 1 through 5; retort gas (Retort 6); mine air; mine dust; and spent shale core (Retort 3E). The locations of the sampling points and methods used for collection and storage are discussed in Chapter 2 (Characterization). These samples were then distributed to the various laboratories and universities participating in the Task Force. For convenience in organizing the data, it is useful to group the work into three categories: Characterization, Leaching, and Health Effects. While many samples still have not been analyzed and much of the data remains to be interpreted, there are some preliminary conclusions the Task Force feels will be helpful in defining future needs and establishing priorities. It is important to note that drilling agents other than water were used in the recovery of the core from Retort 3E. These agents have been analyzed (see Table 12 in Chapter 2) for several constituents of interest. As a result some of the analyses of this core sample and leachates must be considered tentative.

  12. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2001-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  13. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  14. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume presents the Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the WRAP (Waste Receiving and Processing) 2A facility. The TEC is $81.9 million, including an overall project contingency of 25% and escalation of 13%, based on a 1997 construction midpoint. (The mission of WRAP 2A is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage, and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford site from about 20 DOE sites.)

  15. INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrier, D.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minor Elements in Oil Shale and Oil Shale Products. LERCfor Use 1n Oil Shale and Shale Oil. OSRD-32, 1945. Jeris, J.Water coproduced with shale oil and decanted from it is

  16. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  17. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  18. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  19. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Garill A.; Hockert, John; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

    2013-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  20. Standard Guide for Absorbed-Dose Mapping in Radiation Processing Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This document provides guidance in determining absorbed-dose distributions in products, materials or substances irradiated in gamma, X-ray (bremsstrahlung) and electron beam facilities. Note 1—For irradiation of food and the radiation sterilization of health care products, other specific ISO and ISO/ASTM standards containing dose mapping requirements exist. For food irradiation, see ISO/ASTM 51204, Practice for Dosimetry in Gamma Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing and ISO/ASTM 51431, Practice for Dosimetry in Electron and Bremsstrahlung Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing. For the radiation sterilization of health care products, see ISO 11137: 1995, Sterilization of Health Care Products Requirements for Validation and Routine Control Radiation Sterilization. In those areas covered by ISO 11137, that standard takes precedence. ISO/ASTM Practice 51608, ISO/ASTM Practice 51649, and ISO/ASTM Practice 51702 also contain dose mapping requirements. 1.2 Methods of analyzing the dose map data ar...

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  2. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the thrust areas include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  3. Occidental vertical modified in situ process for the recovery of oil from oil shale, Phase 2. Construction, operation, testing, and environmental impact. Final report, August 1981-December 1982. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, A.L.; Zahradnik, R.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Occidential Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) recently completed the demonstration of mining, rubblization, ignition, and simulataneous processing of two commericalized modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the Logas Wash facility near DeBeque, Colorado. Upon completion of Retort 6 in 1978, Occidential began incorporating all of the knowledge previously acquired in an effort to design two more commercial-sized MIS retorts. Any commercial venture of the future would require the ability to operate simultaneously more than one retort. Thus, Retorts 7 and 8 were developed during 1980 and 1981 through joint funding of the DOE and OOSI in Phase II. Rubblization of the retorts produced an average rubble void of 18.5% in the low grade shale (17 gallons per ton) at the Logan Wash site. After rubblization, bulkheads were constructed, inlet and offgas pipes were installed and connected to surface processing facilities and liquid product handling systems were connected to the retorts. Extensive instrumentation was installed in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories for monitoring the complete operation of the retorts. After pre-ignition testing, Retort 8 was ignited in December of 1981 and Retort 7 was ignited in January of 1982. The retorts were operated without interruption from ignition until mid- November of 1982 at which time inlet gas injection was terminated and water quenching was begun. Total product yield from the two retorts was approximately 200,000 barrels of oil, or 70% of the Fischer Assay oil-in-place in the rubblized rock in the two retrots. Water quenching studies were conducted over a period of several months, with the objective of determining the rate of heat extraction from the retorts as well as determining the quantity and quality of offgas and water coming out from the quenching process. Data from these studies are also included in this Summary Report. 62 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. A facile process for soak-and-peel delamination of CVD graphene from substrates using water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    A facile process for soak-and-peel delamination of CVD graphene from substrates using water Priti Ulm, Germany (Dated: 31 July 2013) We demonstrate a simple technique to transfer CVD-grown graphene deionized water. The lack of chemical etchants results in cleaner CVD graphene films minimizing

  5. Supporting Information: A facile process for soak-and-peel delamination of CVD graphene from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    Supporting Information: A facile process for soak-and-peel delamination of CVD graphene from equally to this work. 1 #12;I. CVD growth of graphene (a) Continuous graphene layer growth Continuous lms of CVD graphene were grown on 1 cm × 1 cm sized Cu and Pt substrates. Cu foils (Alfa Aesar, 25 µm thick

  6. Project management plan, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, Project W-026

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkey, J.G.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Project (WRAP 1) has been established to support the retrieval and final disposal of approximately 400K grams of plutonium and quantities of hazardous components currently stored in drums at the Hanford Site.

  7. Carbo-metallic oil-conversion process and catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettinger, W.P.; Beck, W.

    1989-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a continuous process for cracking of a residual hydrocarbon feedstock into lower molecular weight hydrocarbon transportation fuels. The cracking being carried out in the presence of a catalyst having catalyst parameters comprising porosity, metals content, rare earth content, and zeolite content. The residual hydrocarbon feedstock comprising metal contaminants, fractions boiling above 1025{degrees}F. comprising asphaltenes, polynuclear aromatics, naphthenes and prophyrins.

  8. Safeguards design strategies: designing and constructing new uranium and plutonium processing facilities in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scherer, Carolynn P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Jon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) is transforming its outdated and oversized complex of aging nuclear material facilities into a smaller, safer, and more secure National Security Enterprise (NSE). Environmental concerns, worker health and safety risks, material security, reducing the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy while maintaining the capability for an effective nuclear deterrence by the United States, are influencing this transformation. As part of the nation's Uranium Center of Excellence (UCE), the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, will advance the U.S.'s capability to meet all concerns when processing uranium and is located adjacent to the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF), designed for consolidated storage of enriched uranium. The HEUMF became operational in March 2010, and the UPF is currently entering its final design phase. The designs of both facilities are for meeting anticipated security challenges for the 21st century. For plutonium research, development, and manufacturing, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) building at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico is now under construction. The first phase of the CMRR Project is the design and construction of a Radiological Laboratory/Utility/Office Building. The second phase consists of the design and construction of the Nuclear Facility (NF). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) selected these two sites as part of the national plan to consolidate nuclear materials, provide for nuclear deterrence, and nonproliferation mission requirements. This work examines these two projects independent approaches to design requirements, and objectives for safeguards, security, and safety (3S) systems as well as the subsequent construction of these modern processing facilities. Emphasis is on the use of Safeguards-by-Design (SBD), incorporating Systems Engineering (SE) principles for these two projects.

  9. A history of major Hanford facilities and processes involving radioactive material. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hall, R.B.

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established in 1987 to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. Hanford Site operations began in 1944 to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons. This effort included fabricating fuel elements, irradiating the fuel in nuclear reactors, and separating the resulting plutonium from uranium and fission byproducts. To build a foundation for the first step in estimating radiation doses, HEDR staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory compiled and summarized historical information that describes the processes and facilities in which radioactive material was generated or used at the Hanford Site. This document categorizes nuclear operations under six processes: fuel fabrication, reactor operations, fuel separations, plutonium finishing, research and development, and tank farms and waste recovery. Historical emission controls and effluent monitoring are discussed for each process. Because Hanford Site operations used the first large-scale nuclear facilities of their kind, process development and effluent control measures evolved as knowledge about the processes improved. Over the years, facilities were added or modified to improve processes, accelerate production, and better control emissions to the environment. 25 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Methodology and concepts for the design of surface storage fills at the Anvil Points Oil Shale Retort Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohm, W.E. Jr.; Krinitzsky, E.L.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary obtectives in design of surface disposal fills for processed and raw oil shales are: (a) to insure long-term physical stability, and (b) to prevent surface runoff, surface erosion, and possible subsurface seepage from degrading the water quality of streams and ground water, it was concluded that the analysis and design of spent shale disposal fills should be based on sound geotechnical engineeering principles, considerable experience, and good judgment. An understanding of the source of variability of spent shale materials and its effect on engineering properties is a first step in developing fill design. A second important step is the assessment of long-term changes in the properties of spent shale within a disposal fill. This assessment requires consideration of possible thermal, hydrochemical, and physical interactions within the fill and between the fill and site environment. The site environment is site-specific and depends on the geological, surface and subsurface hydrological, and geotechnical characteristics of the site. The variability of spent shale materials is a direct function of variations in mineral and chemical composition of the raw shale and of the processes applied. Current technology for the design and construction of spent shale disposal fills has not been proven by experience. A major problem is the large quantities of spent shale generated for surface disposal and the lack of available sites other than large gulches in the oil shale country of the western United States. Conceptual research fill designs developed in this study should be refined and constructed to provide needed information on in situ properties and long-term performance. Research fills planned by others should be augmented to obtain needed information, especially for codisposal of spent shales with treated waste water, raw shale fines, and process dust.

  11. Processing liquid radioactive waste by centrifuge and indrum dehydration facility at NPP Philippsburg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grundke, E.; Blaser, W. [NPP Philippsburg (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Until 1989 the evaporator and filter concentrates have been treated by concreting. The centrifuge facility is used for the liquid waste from laundry, showers and also for processing filter concentrates and evaporator feedwater. The hot high pressure compacting of filter concentrates gives a volume reduction by a factor of 6. The evaporator concentrate is drained in a 200 l drum and this drum is heated by an external heating device. The indrum-dehydration facility reduces the treated volume by a factor of 12 compared with the former cementation.

  12. Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report: October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelini, P

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary User Centers including: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing including (extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, high density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials data bases. A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state of the art materials characterization capabilities, high performance computing, to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized User-submitted Proposal and a User Agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provides free of charge while for proprietary efforts, the user pays the entire project costs based on DOE guidelines for ORNL costs.

  13. Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report FY 2002 (October 1, 2001-September 30, 2002)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelini, P

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary user centers: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing (including extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, and high-density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, and bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; and (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high-performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials databases A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state-of-the-art materials characterization capabilities, and high-performance computing to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized user-submitted proposal and a user agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provided free of charge, while for proprietary efforts, the user pays the entire project costs based on DOE guidelines for ORNL costs.

  14. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

  15. Waste Analysis Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TRINER, G.C.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for dangerous, mixed, and radioactive waste accepted for confirmation, nondestructive examination (NDE) and nondestructive assay (NDA), repackaging, certification, and/or storage at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Mixed and/or radioactive waste is treated at WRAP. WRAP is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  16. The environmental impact assessment process for nuclear facilities: An examination of the Indian experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramana, M.V., E-mail: mvramana@gmail.co [Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Environment and Development, Bangalore (India); Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Environment and Development, ISEC Campus, Nagarbhavi, Bangalore 560 070 (India); Rao, Divya Badami, E-mail: di.badamirao@gmail.co [Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Environment and Development, Bangalore (India); Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Environment and Development, ISEC Campus, Nagarbhavi, Bangalore 560 070 (India)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    India plans to construct numerous nuclear plants and uranium mines across the country, which could have significant environmental, health, and social impacts. The national Environmental Impact Assessment process is supposed to regulate these impacts. This paper examines how effective this process has been, and the extent to which public inputs have been taken into account. In addition to generic problems associated with the EIA process for all kinds of projects in India, there are concerns that are specific to nuclear facilities. One is that some nuclear facilities are exempt from the environmental clearance process. The second is that data regarding radiation baseline levels and future releases, which is the principle environmental concern with respect to nuclear facilities, is controlled entirely by the nuclear establishment. The third is that members of the nuclear establishment take part in almost every level of the environmental clearance procedure. For these reasons and others, the EIA process with regard to nuclear projects in India is of dubious quality. We make a number of recommendations that could address these lacunae, and more generally the imbalance of power between the nuclear establishment on the one hand, and civil society and the regulatory agencies on the other.

  17. Process for increasing the bitumen content of oil sands froth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tipman, R.N.; Rajan, V.S.V.; Wallace, D.

    1993-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the removal of solids and water from a feed bituminous froth containing bitumen, solids and water in a gravity settling vessel have an existing bituminous froth layer floating on a quiescent body of water defining a bitumen-water interface therebetween comprising the steps of heating the feed bituminous froth to a temperature in the range of 85 to 100 C, feeding the heated froth into the body of water at a level below the bitumen-water interface whereby water and solids contained in the feed froth separate from the froth and the bitumen rises to accumulate in the existing bituminous froth layer, discharging solids-containing under flow from the vessel, monitoring the level of the bitumen-water interface and controlling the discharge of solids-containing under flow responsive to the monitoring of the bitumen-water interface at a rate such that the said interface is maintained at an effective level above the level at which the feed bituminous froth is fed into the body of water, and recovering a bitumen-enriched layer as an overflow.

  18. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Kovar; Scott Wehner

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of cyclic CO2, often referred to as the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital-intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U. S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations which are light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs that exist throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced 1,2 . The selected sites for this demonstration project are the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico and the Sundown Slaughter Field in Hockley County, Texas. Miscible CO2 flooding is the process of choice for enhancing recovery of light oils 3 and already accounts for over 12% of the Permian Basin?s daily production.4 There are significant probable reserves associated with future miscible CO2 projects. However, many are marginally economic at current market conditions due to large up-front capital commitments for a peak response, which may be several years in the future. The resulting negative cash-flow is sometimes too much for an operator to absorb. The CO2 Huff-n-Puff process is being investigated as a near-term option to mitigate the negative cash-flow situation--allowing acceleration of inventoried miscible CO2 projects when coupled together. The CO2 Huff-n-Puff process is a proven enhanced oil recovery technology in Louisiana-Texas Gulf-coast sandstone reservoirs 5,6 . Application seems to mostly confine itself to low pressure sandstone reservoirs 7 . The process has even been shown to be moderately effective in conjunction with steam on heavy California crude oils 8,9 . A review of earlier literature 5,10,11 provides an excellent discussion on the theory, mechanics of the process, and several case histories. Although the technology is proven in light oil sandstones, it continues to be a very underutilized enhanced recovery option for carbonates. However, the theories associated with the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process are not lithology dependent. It was anticipated that this project would show that the application of the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in shallow shelf carbonates could be economically implemented to recover appreciable volumes of light oil. The goals of the project were the development of guidelines for cost-effective selection of candidate reservoirs and wells, along with estimating recovery potential.

  19. An evaluation of hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical behavior of processed oil shale solid waste 2; The use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring in-situ volumetric water content in processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Elgezawi, S.M. (Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Kaser, T.G. (GIGO Computer and Electronic, Laramie, WY (US))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring volumetric water contents in processed oil shale solid waste. TDR measures soil water content via a correlation between the dielectric constant (K) of the 3 phase (soil-water-air) system and the volumetric water content ({theta}{sub v}). An extensive bench top research program has been conducted to evaluate and verify the use of this technique in processed oil shale solid waste. This study utilizes columns of processed oil shale packed to known densities and varying water contents and compares the columetric water content measured via TDR and the volumetric water content measured through gravimetric determination.

  20. Simulation of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) processes in stochastically generated permeable media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggoner, J.R.; Castillo, J.L.; Lake, L.W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes involve injecting an agent, such as steam or CO{sub 2}, that is much more mobile than the resident oil. Other EOR processes attempt to improve sweep efficiency by adding polymer or surfactant to the injected water to create a favorable mobility ratio. This study examines the effect of statistically generated heterogeneity on miscible displacements at unfavorable and favorable mobility ratios. The principal goal is to delineate the effects of fingering, dispersion and channeling on volumetric sweep efficiency. Two-dimensional heterogeneous permeability fields are generated with variability (heterogeneity) and spatial correlation as characterizing parameters. Four levels of correlation and three of variability make up a 12 element matrix. At each element of the matrix, a miscible displacement simulation at unit mobility ratio shows the effect of the heterogeneity, and simulations at mobility ratios of 10 and 0.5 show the effect of viscous force differences combined with heterogeneity. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Fluid Diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes progress made during the second year of the three-year project, Fluid diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes.'' The objectives of this project are to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants are being examined. This research is directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gasfloods. The work examines how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals include determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. 93 refs., 39 figs., 43 tabs.

  2. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: Technology selection and implementation plan, Part 2, Support processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streit, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to establish the foundation for the selection and implementation of technologies to be demonstrated in the Mixed Waste Management Facility, and to select the technologies for initial pilot-scale demonstration. Criteria are defined for judging demonstration technologies, and the framework for future technology selection is established. On the basis of these criteria, an initial suite of technologies was chosen, and the demonstration implementation scheme was developed. Part 1, previously released, addresses the selection of the primary processes. Part II addresses process support systems that are considered ``demonstration technologies.`` Other support technologies, e.g., facility off-gas, receiving and shipping, and water treatment, while part of the integrated demonstration, use best available commercial equipment and are not selected against the demonstration technology criteria.

  3. Feasibility Study for a Plasma Dynamo Facility to Investigate Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forest, Cary B.

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The scientific equipment purchased on this grant was used on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment as part of Professor Forest's feasibility study for determining if it would be worthwhile to propose building a larger plasma physics experiment to investigate various fundamental processes in plasma astrophysics. The initial research on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment was successful so Professor Forest and Professor Ellen Zweibel at UW-Madison submitted an NSF Major Research Instrumentation proposal titled "ARRA MRI: Development of a Plasma Dynamo Facility for Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics." They received funding for this project and the Plasma Dynamo Facility also known as the "Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment" was constructed. This experiment achieved its first plasma in the fall of 2012 and U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0008709 "Experimental Studies of Plasma Dynamos," now supports the research.

  4. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakala, J. Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Stanchina, William [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Soong, Yee [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200° C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (?') and imaginary permittivity (?'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ?' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ?'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200º C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ?'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ?' and ?'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  5. A process for establishing a financial assurance plan for LLW disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a process by which an effective financial assurance program can be developed for new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The report identifies examples of activities that might cause financial losses and the types of losses they might create, discusses mechanisms that could be used to quantify and ensure against the various types of potential losses identified and describes a decision process to formulate a financial assurance program that takes into account the characteristics of both the potential losses and available mechanisms. A sample application of the concepts described in the report is provided.

  6. Occidental vertical modified in situ process for the recovery of oil from oil shale. Phase II. Quarterly progress report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major activities at OOSI's Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7 and 8; blasthole drilling; tracer testing MR4; conducting the start-up and burner tests on MR3; continuing the surface facility construction; and conducting Retorts 7 and 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests. Environmental monitoring continued during the quarter, and the data and analyses are discussed. Sandia National Laboratory and Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) personnel were active in the DOE support of the MR3 burner and start-up tests. In the last section of this report the final oil inventory for Retort 6 production is detailed. The total oil produced by Retort 6 was 55,696 barrels.

  7. A survey of current technologies for production of oil from oil shale by in-situ retorting processes; their technical and economic readiness and requirements for further developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, C.Y.; Chazin, D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four in-situ oil shale processes; Vertical Modified In-Situ (VMIS), Horizontal Modified In-Situ (HMIS), Geokinetics, and Equity have been reviewed with respect to their developmental histories, major advantages and disadvantages, present activities, major technical problems, and present states of development. The various processes are described in detail, and up-to-date experimental data has been summarized. The preliminary designs for commercialization have been developed in order to estimate capital and operating costs. Required selling prices and sensitivities have been determined as they relate to various parameters, such as oil yields, capital costs, operating costs, and economic incentives. The technologies for the various processes have been analyzed for the purpose of identifying areas of further required research and development. Programs of technological development have been suggested for each in-situ process. The results of various process evaluations have been compared, and the best near-term solutions have been determined for producing oil from oil shale using in-situ methods.

  8. Chemistry and processability of crude oil asphaltenes as studied by ultracentrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weeks, R.W. Jr.; McBride, W.L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From the number of crudes of this study, there appears to be a positive correlation between the total quantity of crude oil hetero atoms (S, N, Ni, and V) which are precipitated under conditions of ultracentrifugation and the degree of that particular crude's difficulty of hydroprocessing. Because of its powerful ability to separate colloidal material from suspensions and because of the known colloidal nature of asphaltenes, the ultracentrifuge was employed to effect the separation of crude oil constituents, and to thus provide information relating to the hydrocracking of resids. Asphaltenes vary greatly in their response to hydrocracking with some being remarkably refractive while others are readily destroyed. By studying the chemical nature of the asphaltene/colloid fractions, a correlation between this chemical constitution and processability was observed. The observation of Liesegang band-like phenomena is also reported along with chemical analyses of these bands.

  9. DOE final report, phase one startup, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasen, W.G.

    1998-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is to validate that the WRAP facility is physically ready to start up phase 1, and that the managers and operators are prepared to safely manage and operate the facility when all pre-start findings have been satisfactorily corrected. The DOE Readiness Assessment (RA) team spent a week on-site at Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 (WRAP-1) to validate the readiness for phase 1 start up of facility. The Contractor and DOE staff were exceptionally cooperative and contributed significantly to the overall success of the RA. The procedures and Conduct of Operations areas had significant discrepancies, many of which should have been found by the contractor review team. In addition the findings of the contractor review team should have led the WRAP-1 management team to correcting the root causes of the findings prior to the DOE RA team review. The findings and observations include many issues that the team believes should have been found by the contractor review and corrective actions taken. A significantly improved Operational Readiness Review (ORR) process and corrective actions of root causes must be fully implemented by the contractor prior to the performance of the contractor ORR for phase 2 operations. The pre-start findings as a result of this independent DOE Readiness Assessment are presented.

  10. Diagnostic control, data acquisition and data processing at MFTF-B (Mirror Fusion Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diagnostic instruments at the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) are operated by a distributed computer system which provides an integrated control, data acquisition and data processing interface. Instrument control settings, operator inputs and lists of data to be acquired are combined with data acquired by instrument data recorders, to be used downstream by data processing codes; data processing programs are automatically informed of operator control and setpoint actions without operator intervention. The combined diagnostic control and results presentation interface is presented to experimentalist users by a network of high-resolution graphics workstations. Control coordination, data processing and database management are handled by a shared-memory network of 32-bit super minicomputers. Direct instrument control, data acquisition, data packaging and instrument status monitoring are performed by a network of dedicated local control microcomputers.

  11. Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Oji, L.N.

    1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the Tritium Facility Modernization {ampersand} Consolidation (TFM{ampersand}C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM{ampersand}C Project also provides for a new replacement R&D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H.

  12. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Public Address System Review Findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUMPHRYS, K.L.

    1999-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Public address system operation at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility was reviewed. The review was based on an Operational Readiness Review finding that public address performance was not adequate in parts of the WRAP facility. Several improvements were made to the WRAP Public Address (PA) system to correct the deficiencies noted. Speaker gain and position was optimized. A speech processor was installed to boost intelligibility in high noise areas. Additional speakers were added to improve coverage in the work areas. The results of this evaluation indicate that further PA system enhancements are not warranted. Additional speakers cannot compensate for the high background sound and high reverberation levels found in the work areas. Recommendations to improve PA system intelligibility include minor speaker adjustments, enhanced PA announcement techniques, and the use of sound reduction and abatement techniques where economically feasible.

  13. Modeling of batch operations in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.G.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer model is in development to provide a dynamic simulation of batch operations within the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The DWPF will chemically treat high level waste materials from the site tank farm and vitrify the resulting slurry into a borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The DWPF consists of three major processing areas: Salt Processing Cell (SPC), Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and the Melt Cell. Separate models have been developed for each of these process units using the SPEEDUP{trademark} software from Aspen Technology. Except for glass production in the Melt Cell, all of the chemical operations within DWPF are batch processes. Since the SPEEDUP software is designed for dynamic modeling of continuous processes, considerable effort was required to devise batch process algorithms. This effort was successful and the models are able to simulate batch operations and the dynamic behavior of the process. In this paper, we will describe the SPC model in some detail and present preliminary results from a few simulation studies.

  14. Modelling of post-fragmentation waste stream processing within UK shredder facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, Gareth [Centre for Sustainable Manufacturing and Reuse/Recycling Technologies (SMART), Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: G.Coates@lboro.ac.uk; Rahimifard, Shahin [Centre for Sustainable Manufacturing and Reuse/Recycling Technologies (SMART), Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With the introduction of producer responsibility legislation within the UK (i.e., waste electrical and electronic equipment directive and end-of-life vehicles directive), specific recycling and recovery targets have been imposed to improve the sustainability of end-of-life products. With the introduction of these targets, and the increased investment in post-fragmentation facilities, automated material separation technologies are playing an integral role within the UK's end-of-life waste management strategy. Post-fragmentation facilities utilise a range of purification technologies that target certain material attributes (e.g., density, magnetism, volume) to isolate materials from the shredded waste stream. High ferrous prices have historically meant that UK facilities have been primarily interested in recovering iron and steel, establishing processing routes that are very effective at removing these material types, but as a consequence are extremely rigid and inflexible. With the proliferation of more exotic materials within end-of-life products, combined with more stringent recycling targets, there is therefore a need to optimise the current waste reclamation processes to better realise effort-to-value returns. This paper provides a background as to the current post-fragmentation processing adopted within the UK, and describes the development of a post-fragmentation modelling approach, capable of simulating the value-added processing that a piece of automated separation equipment can have on a fragmented waste stream. These include the modelling of the inefficiencies of the technology, the effects of material entanglement on separation, determination of typical material sizing and an appreciation for compositional value. The implementation of this approach within a software decision-support system is described, before the limitations, calibration and further validation of the approach are discussed.

  15. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Final report, November 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study is described on the hydrological and geotechnical behavior of an oil shale solid waste. The objective was to obtain information which can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil shale solid waste disposal in the Green River Basin. The spent shale used in this study was combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. Laboratory bench-scale testing included index properties, such as grain size distribution and Atterberg limits, and tests for engineering properties including hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Large-scale tests were conducted on model spent shale waste embankments to evaluate hydrological response, including infiltration, runoff, and seepage. Large-scale tests were conducted at a field site in western Colorado and in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL)at the University of Wyoming. The ESL tests allowed the investigators to control rainfall and temperature, providing information on the hydrological response of spent shale under simulated severe climatic conditions. All experimental methods, materials, facilities, and instrumentation are described in detail, and results are given and discussed. 34 refs.

  16. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

  17. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T B [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)] [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States); Colonomos, P [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)] [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Data acquisition and processing system at the NOVETTE laser fusion facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averbach, J.M.; Kroepfl, D.J.; Severyn, J.R.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the computer hardware and software used for acquisition and processing of data from experiments at the NOVETTE laser fusion facility. Nearly two hundred sensors are used to measure the performance of millimeter extent targets irradiated by multi-kilojoule laser pulses. Sensor output is recorded on CAMAC based digitzers, CCD arrays, and film. CAMAC instrument outputs are acquired and collected by a network of LSI-11 microprocessors centrally controlled by a VAX 11/780. The user controls the system through menus presented on color video displays equipped with touch panels. The control VAX collects data from all microprocessors and CCD arrays and stores them in a file for transport to a second VAX 11/780 which is used for processing and final analysis. Transfer is done through a high speed fiber-optic link. Relational data bases are used extensively in the processing and archiving of data.

  19. First Results from the CARIBU Facility: Mass Measurements on the r-Process Path

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Van Schelt; D. Lascar; G. Savard; J. A. Clark; P. F. Bertone; S. Caldwell; A. Chaudhuri; 1 A. F. Levand; G. Li; G. E. Morgan; R. Orford; R. E. Segel; K. S. Sharma; M. G. Sternberg

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer has made mass measurements of 33 neutron-rich nuclides provided by the new Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The studied region includes the 132Sn double shell closure and ranges in Z from In to Cs, with Sn isotopes measured out to A = 135, and the typical measurement precision is at the 100 ppb level or better. The region encompasses a possible major waiting point of the astrophysical r process, and the impact of the masses on the r process is shown through a series of simulations. These first-ever simulations with direct mass information on this waiting point show significant increases in waiting time at Sn and Sb in comparison with commonly used mass models, demonstrating the inadequacy of existing models for accurate r-process calculations.

  20. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  1. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE`s Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford`s MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford`s calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  2. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L. (Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, Mail Stop N1-42, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States))

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A shielded storage rack has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which processes and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGs. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  3. Seismic margins assessment of the plutonium processing facility Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goen, L.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Salmon, M.W. [EQE International, Irwine, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of the recently completed seismic evaluation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory site indicate a need to consider seismic loads greater than design basis for many structures systems and components (SSCs). DOE Order 5480.28 requires that existing SSCs be evaluated to determine their ability to withstand the effects of earthquakes when changes in the understanding of this hazard results in greater loads. In preparation for the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28 and to support the update of the facility Safety Analysis Report, a seismic margin assessment of SSCs necessary for a monitored passive safe shutdown of the Plutonium Processing Facility (PF-4) was performed. The seismic margin methodology is given in EPRI NP-6041-SL, ``A Methodology for Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Seismic Margin (Revision 1)``. In this methodology, high confidence of low probability of failure (HCLPF) capacities for SSCs are estimated in a deterministic manner. For comparison to the performance goals given in DOE Order 5480.28, the results of the seismic margins assessment were used to estimate the annual probability of failure for the evaluated SSCs. In general, the results show that the capacity for the SSCs comprising PF-4 is high. This is to be expected for a newer facility as PF-4 was designed in the early 1970`s. The methodology and results of this study are presented in this paper.

  4. INSTALLATION OF BUBBLERS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITED DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Iverson, D.

    2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC assumed the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. The main contractual agreement was to close 22 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks in eight years. To achieve this aggressive commitment, faster waste processing throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities will be required. Part of the approach to achieve faster waste processing is to increase the canister production rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) from approximately 200 canisters filled with radioactive waste glass per year to 400 canisters per year. To reach this rate for melter throughput, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in the late summer of 2010. This effort required collaboration between SRR, SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions, and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The tasks included design and fabrication of the bubblers and related equipment, testing of the bubblers for various technical issues, the actual installation of the bubblers and related equipment, and the initial successful operation of the bubblers in the DWPF Melter.

  5. IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

  6. Radiowave-based process recovers oil from sludge at Texas site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A radio frequency (RF)-based sludge treatment process is proving successful in demonstration tests at a Texas site. The process separates petroleum-based sludges into salable oil, treatment-quality water, and disposable solids. The system, called MST-4000, is effective on most sludges, including: dissolved-air-flotation float, slop oil emulsion solids, heat exchanger cleaning sludge, API separator sludge, and leaded tank bottoms. Major components of the system include: four high-power RF/microwave transmitters; four high-power RF/microwave illuminators, which focus the energy on the sludge in a small, cylindrical reactor; four computer-controlled, automatic RF tuners, which improve the quality of the RF/sludge interface by monitoring and adjusting vector impedance; a wave guide, which channels and controls the RF signals from the transmitters through the tuners and to the illuminators; a specially designed instrumentation and control system; and plumbing and piping systems. The paper describes the process and current tests being performed.

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Amit P. Sharma

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the progress of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the second project year (October 1, 2003--September 30, 2004). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is scaled physical model study of GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. In Section I, preliminary design of the scaled physical model using the dimensional similarity approach has been presented. Scaled experiments on the current physical model have been designed to investigate the effect of Bond and capillary numbers on GAGD oil recovery. Experimental plan to study the effect of spreading coefficient and reservoir heterogeneity has been presented. Results from the GAGD experiments to study the effect of operating mode, Bond number and capillary number on GAGD oil recovery have been reported. These experiments suggest that the type of the gas does not affect the performance of GAGD in immiscible mode. The cumulative oil recovery has been observed to vary exponentially with Bond and capillary numbers, for the experiments presented in this report. A predictive model using the bundle of capillary tube approach has been developed to predict the performance of free gravity drainage process. In Section II, a mechanistic Parachor model has been proposed for improved prediction of IFT as well as to characterize the mass transfer effects for miscibility development in reservoir crude oil-solvent systems. Sensitivity studies on model results indicate that provision of a single IFT measurement in the proposed model is sufficient for reasonable IFT predictions. An attempt has been made to correlate the exponent (n) in the mechanistic model with normalized solute compositions present in both fluid phases. IFT measurements were carried out in a standard ternary liquid system of benzene, ethanol and water using drop shape analysis and capillary rise techniques. The experimental results indicate strong correlation among the three thermodynamic properties solubility, miscibility and IFT. The miscibility determined from IFT measurements for this ternary liquid system is in good agreement with phase diagram and solubility data, which clearly indicates the sound conceptual basis of VIT technique to determine fluid-fluid miscibility. Model fluid systems have been identified for VIT experimentation at elevated pressures and temperatures. Section III comprises of the experimental study aimed at evaluating the multiphase displacement characteristics of the various gas injection EOR process performances using Berea sandstone cores. During this reporting period, extensive literature review was completed to: (1) study the gravity drainage concepts, (2) identify the various factors influencing gravity stable gas injection processes, (3) identify various multiphase mechanisms and fluid dynamics operative during the GAGD process, and (4) identify important dimensionless groups governing the GAGD process performance. Furthermore, the dimensional analysis of the GAGD process, using Buckingham-Pi theorem to isolate the various dimensionless groups, as well as experimental design based on these dimensionless quantities have been completed in this reporting period. On the experimental front, recommendations from previous WAG and CGI have been used to modify the experimental protocol. This report also includes results from scaled preliminary GAGD displacements as well as the details of the planned GAGD corefloods for the next quarter. The technology transfer activities have mainly consisted of preparing technical papers, progress reports and discussions with industry personnel for possible GAGD field tests.

  8. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  9. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG, ROBERT

    2006-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

  10. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a discussion of proposed experimental work, additional data analysis, and future modeling programs. These proposals have led to recent investigations into the mercury issue and the effect of co-precipitating noble metals which will be documented in two separate reports. SRS hydrogen generation work since 2002 will also be collected and summarized in a future report on the effect of noble metal-sludge matrix interactions on hydrogen generation. Other potential factors for experimental investigation include sludge composition variations related to both the washing process and to the insoluble species with particular attention given to the role of silver and to improving the understanding of the interaction of nitrite ion with the noble metals.

  11. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal drilling, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  12. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal continuity, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  13. Mercury Reduction and Removal from High Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrouzi, Aria [Savannah River Remediation, LLC (United States); Zamecnik, Jack [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At high temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the high temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via gravity settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a level of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively purified and collected in the Mercury Purification Cell (MPC) since 2008. A significant cleaning campaign aims to bring the MPC back up to facility housekeeping standards. Two significant investigations are being undertaken to restore mercury collection. The SMECT mercury pump has been removed from the tank and will be functionally tested. Also, research is being conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory to determine the effects of antifoam addition on the behavior of mercury. These path forward items will help us better understand what is occurring in the mercury collection system and ultimately lead to an improved DWPF production rate and mercury recovery rate. (authors)

  14. Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nauroy, Jean-François; Guy, N; Baroni, Axelle; Delage, Pierre; Mainguy, Marc; 10.2516/ogst/2012027

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In thermally enhanced recovery processes like cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) or steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), continuous steam injection entails changes in pore fluid, pore pressure and temperature in the rock reservoir, that are most often unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sandstones. This in turn increases or decreases the effective stresses and changes the elastic properties of the rocks. Thermally enhanced recovery processes give rise to complex couplings. Numerical simulations have been carried out on a case study so as to provide an estimation of the evolution of pressure, temperature, pore fluid saturation, stress and strain in any zone located around the injector and producer wells. The approach of Ciz and Shapiro (2007) - an extension of the poroelastic theory of Biot-Gassmann applied to rock filled elastic material - has been used to model the velocity dispersion in the oil sand mass under different conditions of temperature and stress. A good agreement has been found between these pre...

  15. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  16. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  17. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF MULTISCALE AND MULTIPHASE FLOW, TRANSPORT AND REACTION IN HEAVY OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yannis C. Yortsos

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is final report for contract DE-AC26-99BC15211. The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress. The report consists mainly of a compilation of various topical reports, technical papers and research reports published produced during the three-year project, which ended on May 6, 2002 and was no-cost extended to January 5, 2003. Advances in multiple processes and at various scales are described. In the area of internal drives, significant research accomplishments were made in the modeling of gas-phase growth driven by mass transfer, as in solution-gas drive, and by heat transfer, as in internal steam drives. In the area of vapor-liquid flows, we studied various aspects of concurrent and countercurrent flows, including stability analyses of vapor-liquid counterflow, and the development of novel methods for the pore-network modeling of the mobilization of trapped phases and liquid-vapor phase changes. In the area of combustion, we developed new methods for the modeling of these processes at the continuum and pore-network scales. These models allow us to understand a number of important aspects of in-situ combustion, including steady-state front propagation, multiple steady-states, effects of heterogeneity and modes of combustion (forward or reverse). Additional aspects of reactive transport in porous media were also studied. Finally, significant advances were made in the flow and displacement of non-Newtonian fluids with Bingham plastic rheology, which is characteristic of various heavy oil processes. Various accomplishments in generic displacements in porous media and corresponding effects of reservoir heterogeneity are also cited.

  19. 2. INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS IN NATURALLY FRACTURED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    , followed by waterflooding, were performed at reservoir conditions to investigate rock wettability. A two Berea and Spraberry cores at reservoir conditions to illustrate the actual process of waterflooding- 31 - 2. INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS

  20. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY'S (DWPF) PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Click, D.; Edwards, T.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO{sub 3} acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestions of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples. The SB7a SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constituates the SB7a Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), to form the Sb7a Blend composition.

  1. Vectorially photoinduced electron-transfer processes across water-in-oil interfaces of microemulsions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willner, I.; Otvos, J.W.; Calvin, M.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Artificial photosynthetic devices are potential fuel sources. The basic idea in the design of such devices is a photosensitized electron-transfer that yields chemical species capable of reducing and oxidizing water to hydrogen and oxygen. A fundamental difficulty in effecting this transfer is the thermodynamically favored back reactions of the intermediary redox species. An interfacial model composed of a water-in-oil microemulsion is suggested to provide the separation of these redox species, thereby preventing back-reactions. This model is designed to accomplish the photodecomposition of water in two separate water-in-oil microemulsions coupled by a redox reaction. Phase-transfer of one of the redox products from the water-in-oil interface to the continuous organic phase is the principle by which separation is achieved. The oxidation and reduction sites of the general model have been constructed. One system includes the photosensitized oxidation of a donor, EDTA, solubilized in the water pool, benzylnicotinamide acts as a primary acceptor that mediates by the phase transfer principle the reduction of a secondary acceptor, dimethylamino-azobenzene, solubilized in the continuous organic phase. In system two, involving the photosensitized reduction of methyl viologen, by tris(2,2'bipyridine)Ru(2+), thioophenol is used as the donor and its oxidation product is phase transferred to the continuous organic phase. The photoinduced processes accomplished in the two systems proceed along an uphill gradient of free energy. Two water soluble zinc-porphyrins can substitute for the Ru(2+) complex in the second system. As the two Zn-porphyrins are oppositely charged, the effect of electrostatic interactions on the quantum yields of viologen reduction could be evaluated. The results suggest that the surface charge of the wateroil interface strongly influences the efficiency of electron-transfer.

  2. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  3. Processing Woman Creek runoff water by reverse osmosis. [From Rocky Flats oil shale plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plock, C.E.; Travis, T.N.; Dickman, A.A.; Marshall, S.C.; Esquibel, N.S.

    1981-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A mobil reverse osmosis pilot plant facility was used to evaluate cleanup of surface runoff water from the Rocky Flats Plant. The ability of the reverse osmosis process had been tested previously for removal of chemical of radionuclide contamination that could be picked up in water impounded from flood conditions at the Plant. The objective of the work was to evaluate the ability of pretreatment equipment to remove silt and colloids and to determine if membrane scaling would result. Membrane scaling did take place, and modifications will be needed to improve the pretreatment equipment.

  4. Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

  5. Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushiba, K. K.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Thaer N.N. Mahmoud; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the progress of the project ''Development And Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the thirteenth project quarter (Oct 1, 2005 to Dec 30, 2005). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is a scaled physical model study of the GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of a vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. Section I reports experimental work designed to investigate wettability effects of porous medium, on secondary and tertiary mode GAGD performance. The experiments showed a significant improvement of oil recovery in the oil-wet experiments versus the water-wet runs, both in secondary as well as tertiary mode. When comparing experiments conducted in secondary mode to those run in tertiary mode an improvement in oil recovery was also evident. Additionally, this section summarizes progress made with regard to the scaled physical model construction and experimentation. The purpose of building a scaled physical model, which attempts to include various multiphase mechanics and fluid dynamic parameters operational in the field scale, was to incorporate visual verification of the gas front for viscous instabilities, capillary fingering, and stable displacement. Preliminary experimentation suggested that construction of the 2-D model from sintered glass beads was a feasible alternative. During this reporting quarter, several sintered glass mini-models were prepared and some preliminary experiments designed to visualize gas bubble development were completed. In Section II, the gas-oil interfacial tensions measured in decane-CO{sub 2} system at 100 F and live decane consisting of 25 mole% methane, 30 mole% n-butane and 45 mole% n-decane against CO{sub 2} gas at 160 F have been modeled using the Parachor and newly proposed mechanistic Parachor models. In the decane-CO{sub 2} binary system, Parachor model was found to be sufficient for interfacial tension calculations. The predicted miscibility from the Parachor model deviated only by about 2.5% from the measured VIT miscibility. However, in multicomponent live decane-CO{sub 2} system, the performance of the Parachor model was poor, while good match of interfacial tension predictions has been obtained experimentally using the proposed mechanistic Parachor model. The predicted miscibility from the mechanistic Parachor model accurately matched with the measured VIT miscibility in live decane-CO2 system, which indicates the suitability of this model to predict miscibility in complex multicomponent hydrocarbon systems. In the previous reports to the DOE (15323R07, Oct 2004; 15323R08, Jan 2005; 15323R09, Apr 2005; 15323R10, July 2005 and 154323, Oct 2005), the 1-D experimental results from dimensionally scaled GAGD and WAG corefloods were reported for Section III. Additionally, since Section I reports the experimental results from 2-D physical model experiments; this section attempts to extend this 2-D GAGD study to 3-D (4-phase) flow through porous media and evaluate the performance of these processes using reservoir simulation. Section IV includes the technology transfer efforts undertaken during the quarter. This research work resulted in one international paper presentation in Tulsa, OK; one journal publication; three pending abstracts for SCA 2006 Annual Conference and an invitation to present at the Independents Day session at the IOR Symposium 2006.

  7. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  8. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, F.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants are being examined. This research is directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work will establish how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals include determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. This report describes progress made during the first year of this three-year study the following tasks: gel screening studies; impact of gelation pH, rock permeability, and lithology on the performance of a monomer-based gel; preliminary study of the permeability reduction for CO{sub 2} and water using a resorcinol-formaldehyde gel; preliminary study of permeability reduction for oil and water using a resorcinol-formaldehyde gel; rheology of Cr(III)-xanthan gel and gelants in porous media; impact of diffusion, dispersion, and viscous fingering on gel placement in injection wells; examination of flow-profile changes for field applications of gel treatments in injection wells; and placement of gels in production wells. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  10. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  11. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DC t Total facilities investment cost of production (capitalaverage of facilities investment cost of production for allThe total “facilities investment cost” of oil production on

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction of bitumen free solids separated from Athabasca oil sand feed and hot water process tailings pond sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotlyar, L.S.; Sparks, B.D.; Woods, J.R.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Chemistry)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of strongly bound organic matter (SOM), in association with certain solids fractions, causes serious problems in the processability of Athabasca oil sands as well as in the settling and compaction of hot water process tailing pond sludge. It has been demonstrated that a substantial amount of this SOM can be separated from oil sands feed and sludge solids, after removal of bitumen by toluene, using a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method. The extracted material is soluble in common organic solvents which allows a direct comparison, between the SOM separated from oil sands and sludges, from the point of view of both gross analysis of the major compound types and detailed analysis of chemical structures.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandina N. Rao

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first Annual Technical Progress Report being submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy on the work performed under the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15323. This report follows two other progress reports submitted to U.S. DOE during the first year of the project: The first in April 2003 for the project period from October 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003, and the second in July 2003 for the period April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. Although the present Annual Report covers the first year of the project from October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003, its contents reflect mainly the work performed in the last quarter (July-September, 2003) since the work performed during the first three quarters has been reported in detail in the two earlier reports. The main objective of the project is to develop a new gas-injection enhanced oil recovery process to recover the oil trapped in reservoirs subsequent to primary and/or secondary recovery operations. The project is divided into three main tasks. Task 1 involves the design and development of a scaled physical model. Task 2 consists of further development of the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 involves the determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. Each technical progress report, including this one, reports on the progress made in each of these tasks during the reporting period. Section I covers the scaled physical model study. A survey of literature in related areas has been conducted. Test apparatus has been under construction throughout the reporting period. A bead-pack visual model, liquid injection system, and an image analysis system have been completed and used for preliminary experiments. Experimental runs with decane and paraffin oil have been conducted in the bead pack model. The results indicate the need for modifications in the apparatus, which are currently underway. A bundle of capillary tube model has been considered and formulated aiming to reveal the interplay of the viscous, interfacial and gravity forces and to predict the gravity drainage performance. Scaling criteria for the scaled physical model design have been proposed based on an inspectional analysis. In Section II, equation of state (EOS) calculations were extended to study the effect of different tuning parameters on MMP for two reservoir crude oils of Rainbow Keg River and Terra Nova. This study indicates that tuning of EOS may not always be advisable for miscibility determination. Comparison of IFT measurements for benzene in water, ethanol mixtures with the solubility data from the literature showed that a strong mutual relationship between these two thermodynamic properties exists. These preliminary experiments indicate applicability of the new vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique to determine miscibility of ternary liquid systems. The VIT experimental apparatus is under construction with considerations of expanded capacity of using equilibrated fluids and a new provision for low IFT measurement in gas-oil systems. In Section III, recommendations in the previous progress reports have been investigated in this reporting period. WAG coreflood experiments suggest the use of ''Hybrid''-WAG type floods for improved CO{sub 2} utilization factors and recoveries. The effect of saturating the injection water with CO{sub 2} for core-floods has been investigated further in this quarter. Miscible WAG floods using CO{sub 2} saturated brine showed higher recoveries (89.2% ROIP) compared to miscible WAG floods using normal brine (72.5%). Higher tertiary recovery factors (TRF) were also observed for WAG floods using CO{sub 2} saturated brine due to improved mobility ratio and availability of CO{sub 2}. Continued experimentation for evaluation of both, ''Hybrid''-WAG and gravity stable type displacements, in Berea sandstone cores using synthetic as well as real reservoir fluids are planned for the next quarter.

  14. ANION ANALYSES BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE ALTERNATE REDUCTANT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, D.

    2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Process Science Analytical Laboratory (PSAL) at the Savannah River National Laboratory was requested by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to develop and demonstrate an Ion Chromatography (IC) method for the analysis of glycolate, in addition to eight other anions (fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate and phosphate) in Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. The method will be used to analyze anions for samples generated from the Alternate Reductant Demonstrations to be performed for the DWPF at the Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL). The method is specific to the characterization of anions in the simulant flowsheet work. Additional work will be needed for the analyses of anions in radiological samples by Analytical Development (AD) and DWPF. The documentation of the development and demonstration of the method fulfills the third requirement in the TTQAP, SRNL-RP-2010-00105, 'Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Glycolic-Formic Acid Flowsheet Development, Definition and Demonstrations Tasks 1-3'.

  15. Expansion of the commercial output of Estonian oil shale mining and processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to polyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with small reserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations of the mines that are still working. Complex usage of natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is made possible owing to the unique features of its geology and technology. Oil shale seam development is carried out at shallow depths (40--70 m) in stable limestones and does not require expensive maintenance. Such natural resources as underground water, carbonate rocks, heat of rock mass, and underground chambers are opened by mining and are ready for utilization. Room-and-pillar mining does not disturb the surface, and worked oil shale and greenery waste heaps do not breach its ecology. Technical decisions and economic evaluation are presented for the complex utilization of natural resources in the boundaries of mine take of the ``Tammiku`` underground mine and the adjacent closed mine N2. Ten countries have already experienced industrial utilization of oil shale in small volumes for many years. Usually oil shale deposits are not notable for complex geology of the strata and are not deeply bedded. Thus complex utilization of quite extensive natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is of both scientific and practical interest.

  16. Automation of process accountability flow diagrams at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knepper, P.; Whiteson, R.; Strittmatter, R.; Mousseau, K.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many industrial processes (including reprocessing activities; nuclear fuel fabrication; and material storage, measurement and transfer) make use of process flow diagrams. These flows can be used for material accountancy and for data analysis. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Technical Area (TA)-55 Plutonium Facility is home to various research and development activities involving the use of special nuclear material (SNM). A facility conducting research and development (R and D) activities using SNM must satisfy material accountability guidelines. All processes involving SNM or tritium processing, at LANL, require a process accountability flow diagram (PAFD). At LANL a technique was developed to generate PAFDs that can be coupled to a relational database for use in material accountancy. These techniques could also be used for propagation of variance, measurement control, and inventory difference analysis. The PAFD is a graphical representation of the material flow during a specific process. PAFDs are currently stored as PowerPoint files. In the PowerPoint format, the data captured by the PAFD are not easily accessible. Converting the PAFDs to an accessible electronic format is desirable for several reasons. Any program will be able to access the data contained in the PAFD. For the PAFD data to be useful in applications such as an expert system for data checking, SNM accountability, inventory difference evaluation, measurement control, and other kinds of analysis, it is necessary to interface directly with the information contained within the PAFD. The PAFDs can be approved and distributed electronically, eliminating the paper copies of the PAFDs and ensuring that material handlers have the current PAFDs. Modifications to the PAFDs are often global. Storing the data in an accessible format would eliminate the need to manually update each of the PAFDs when a global change has occurred. The goal was to determine a software package that would store the PAFDs in an accessible format that could be interfaced by various programs. After evaluating several commercial relational database and graphing software packages, VISIO Enterprise was selected. LANL is in the process of completing conversion of the existing PAFDs into VISIO Enterprise. A number of the PAFDs have been converted to VISIO Enterprise, and the data from the drawings have been exported to an ACCESS database. After the conversion has taken place, the data contained in the PAFDs will be accessible for various programs. The data that was once stored in PowerPoint will now be available for tools, including expert analysis, propagation of a variance, SNM accountability, inventory difference analysis, measurement control, and other analysis tools that have yet to be identified. Converting from the PowerPoint format to a drawing stored as a relational database will improve the ability of plant personnel to interface with the PAFD.

  17. 6th International Conference on CFD in Oil & Gas, Metallurgical and Process Industries SINTEF/NTNU, Trondheim NORWAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bothe, Dieter

    INTRODUCTION The efficiency of gas-liquid rectors like bubble columns, air-lift or agitated stirred reactors. Especially in case of fast reactions the effi- ciency of chemical reactors significantly depends on the mass6th International Conference on CFD in Oil & Gas, Metallurgical and Process Industries SINTEF

  18. Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Zigang

    Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis (Siemens) We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas recovery and compare the difference between conventional and unconventional gas reservoir and recovery technologies. Then we did theoretical analysis on the shale gas production. According

  19. Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio-oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, George W; Vispute, Tushar P; Routray, Kamalakanta

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio-oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio-oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio-oil.

  20. Qualification of the Nippon Instrumentation for use in Measuring Mercury at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.; Mahannah, R.

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system installed in 221-S M-14 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a side-by-side comparison of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system with the currently used Bacharach Mercury Analyzer. The side-by-side testing included standards for instrument calibration verifications, spiked samples and unspiked samples. The standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The side-by-side work included the analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. With the qualification of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system in M-14, the DWPF lab will be able to perform a head to head comparison of a second Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system once the system is installed. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analyzes receipt and product samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) to determine the mercury (Hg) concentration in the sludge slurry. The SRAT receipt is typically sampled and analyzed for the first ten SRAT batches of a new sludge batch to obtain an average Hg concentration. This average Hg concentration is then used to determine the amount of steam stripping required during the concentration/reflux step of the SRAT cycle to achieve a less than 0.6 wt% Hg in the SRAT product solids. After processing is complete, the SRAT product is sampled and analyzed for mercury to ensure that the mercury concentration does not exceed the 0.45 wt% limit in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The DWPF Laboratory utilizes Bacharach Analyzers to support these Hg analyses at this facility. These analyzers are more than 10 years old, and they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Due to these difficulties, the Bacharach Analyzers are to be replaced by new Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 systems. DWPF issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) for the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist in the qualification of the new systems. SRNL prepared a task technical and quality assurance (TT&QA) plan that outlined the activities that are necessary and sufficient to meet the objectives of the TTR. In addition, TT&QA plan also included a test plan that provided guidance to the DWPF Lab in collecting the data needed to qualify the new Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 systems.

  1. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retort No. 27 was ignited on August 11, 1983 and by December 31 had completed 139 days of operation and produced 11,420 barrels of oil. Retort No. 28 was ignited on October 18, 1983 and on December 31 had completed 74 days of operation and produced 5,285 barrels of oil. The off-gas processing plants for the two retorts was completed and put through a shakedown run. Concentration levels of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the retort off gas did not warrant plant operation in the fourth quarter. Environmental studies are reported.

  2. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE D&D OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place.

  3. OPS 9.13 Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes 8/24/98

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this surveillance is to ensure that the contractor has provided for an effective interface between facility operations personnel and personnel responsible for operation of...

  4. Y-12s Building 9212 and the Uranium Processing Facility, part...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Replacement Nuclear Facility to be delayed. Debate on the justification for UPF has been heightened by this increased funding. Last week we reviewed some of the UPF...

  5. Oil and Gas Environmental Review and Approval Processes (New Brunswick, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oil and natural gas companies engaged in exploration, development and production in New Brunswick will be required by the Department of Environment to undergo a Phased Environmental Impact...

  6. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Retort No. 18 burn was terminated on May 11, 1980. A total of 5547 barrels of shale oil or 46 percent of in-place resource was recovered from the retort. The EPA-DOE/LETC post-burn core sampling program is underway on Retort No. 16. Eleven core holes (of 18 planned) have been completed to date. Preliminary results indicate excellent core recovery has been achieved. Recovery of 702 ft of core was accomplished. The Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit application was submitted to the EPA regional office in Denver for review by EPA and Utah air quality officials. The application for an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit to authorize GKI to inject retort wastewater into the Mesa Verde Formation is being processed by the State of Utah. A hearing before the Board of Oil, Gas and Mining is scheduled in Salt Lake City, Utah, for July 22, 1980. Re-entry drilling on Retort No. 24 is progressing and placement of surface equipment is underway. Retort No. 25 blasthole drilling was completed and blast preparations are ongoing. Retort No. 25 will be blasted on July 18, 1980. The retort will be similar to Retort No. 24, with improvements in blasthole loading and detonation. US Patent No. 4,205,610 was assigned to GKI for a shale oil recovery process. Rocky Mountain Energy Company (RME) is evaluating oil shale holdings in Wyoming for application of the GKI process there.

  7. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  8. Mechanical design and fabrication of a prototype facility for processing NaK using a chlorine reaction method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dafoe, R.; Keller, D.; Stoll, F.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype facility has been built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to dispose of 180 gal(0.68 m{sup 3}) of radioactively contaminated NaK (sodium-potassium) that have been stored on site for 35 years. The NaK was used as primary coolant for the Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) at the INEL and was contaminated during a meltdown of the Mark II core in November 1955. The NaK then was transferred to four containers for temporary storage. The facility process will react the NaK with elemental chlorine using a batch process to produce chemically stable sodium chloride and potassium chloride salts. The first use of the facility will be on a prototype level to verify the method. If results are favorable, the facility will be modified to eventually dispose of the EBR-I NaK. The design and intended operation of the prototype facility are described. 2 figs.

  9. DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) canister impact testing and analyses for the Transportation Technology Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Mishima, J.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A legal weight truck cask design has been developed for the US Department of Energy by GA Technologies, Inc. The cask will be used to transport defense high-level waste canisters produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The development of the cask required the collection of impact data for the DWPF canisters. The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) performed this work under the guidance of the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories. Two full-scale DWPF canisters filled with nonradioactive borosilicate glass were impacted under ''normal'' and ''hypothetical'' accident conditions. Two canisters, supplied by the DWPF, were tested. Each canister was vertically dropped on the bottom end from a height of either 0.3 m or 9.1 m (for normal or hypothetical accident conditions, respectively). The structural integrity of each canister was then examined using helium leak and dye penetrant testing. The canisters' diameters and heights, which had been previously measured, were then remeasured to determine how the canister dimensions had changed. Following structural integrity testing, the canisters were flaw leak tested. For transportation flaw leak testing, four holes were fabricated into the shell of canister A-27 (0.3 m drop height). The canister was then transported a total distance of 2069 miles. During transport, the waste form material that fell from each flaw was collected to determine the amount of size distribution of each flaw release. 2 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF A PRECIPITATE REACTOR FEED TANK (PRFT) SAMPLE FROM THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample of from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) was pulled and sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in June of 2013. The PRFT in DWPF receives Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/ Monosodium Titanate (MST) material from the 512-S Facility via the 511-S Facility. This 2.2 L sample was to be used in small-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing in the Shielded Cells Facility of SRNL. A 1L sub-sample portion was characterized to determine the physical properties such as weight percent solids, density, particle size distribution and crystalline phase identification. Further chemical analysis of the PRFT filtrate and dissolved slurry included metals and anions as well as carbon and base analysis. This technical report describes the characterization and analysis of the PRFT sample from DWPF. At SRNL, the 2.2 L PRFT sample was composited from eleven separate samples received from DWPF. The visible solids were observed to be relatively quick settling which allowed for the rinsing of the original shipping vials with PRFT supernate on the same day as compositing. Most analyses were performed in triplicate except for particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PRFT slurry samples were dissolved using a mixed HNO3/HF acid for subsequent Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analyses performed by SRNL Analytical Development (AD). Per the task request for this work, analysis of the PRFT slurry and filtrate for metals, anions, carbon and base were primarily performed to support the planned chemical process cell testing and to provide additional component concentrations in addition to the limited data available from DWPF. Analysis of the insoluble solids portion of the PRFT slurry was aimed at detailed characterization of these solids (TGA, PSD, XRD and SEM) in support of the Salt IPT chemistry team. The overall conclusions from analyses performed in this study are that the PRFT slurry consists of 0.61 Wt.% insoluble MST solids suspended in a 0.77 M [Na+] caustic solution containing various anions such as nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, carbonate and oxalate. The corresponding measured sulfur level in the PRFT slurry, a critical element for determining how much of the PRFT slurry gets blended into the SRAT, is 0.437 Wt.% TS. The PRFT slurry does not contain insoluble oxalates nor significant quantities of high activity sludge solids. The lack of sludge solids has been alluded to by the Salt IPT chemistry team in citing that the mixing pump has been removed from Tank 49H, the feed tank to ARP-MCU, thus allowing the sludge solids to settle out. ? The PRFT aqueous slurry from DWPF was found to contain 5.96 Wt.% total dried solids. Of these total dried solids, relatively low levels of insoluble solids (0.61 Wt.%) were measured. The densities of both the filtrate and slurry were 1.05 g/mL. ? Particle size distribution of the PRFT solids in filtered caustic simulant and XRD analysis of washed/dried PRFT solids indicate that the PRFT slurry contains a bimodal distribution of particles in the range of 1 and 6 ?m and that the particles contain sodium titanium oxide hydroxide Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 crystalline material as determined by XRD. These data are in excellent agreement with similar data obtained from laboratory sampling of vendor supplied MST. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of washed/dried PRFT solids shows the particles to be like previous MST analyses consisting of irregular shaped micron-sized solids consisting primarily of Na and Ti. ? Thermogravimetric analysis of the washed and unwashed PRFT solids shows that the washed solids are very similar to MST solids. The TGA mass loss signal for the unwashed solids shows similar features to TGA performed on cellulose nitrate filter paper indicating significant presence of the deteriorated filter

  11. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  12. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  13. Toward an Effective Design Process: Enhancing Building Performance through Better Integration of Facility Management Perspectives in the Design Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalantari Hematabadi, Seyed Saleh

    2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    knowledge of FMS can better inform design. The study included a comprehensive literature review of previous work on this topic, in-depth interviews with prominent facility management professionals, and a broad quantitative survey of FMs in the three study...

  14. Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

  15. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project were to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants were examined, including polymer-based gelants, a monomer-based gelant, and a colloidal-silica gelant. This research was directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work examined how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals included determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. During this three-year project, a number of theoretical analyses were performed to determine where gel treatments are expected to work best and where they are not expected to be effective. The most important, predictions from these analyses are presented. Undoubtedly, some of these predictions will be controversial. However, they do provide a starting point in establishing guidelines for the selection of field candidates for gel treatments. A logical next step is to seek field data that either confirm or contradict these predictions. The experimental work focused on four types of gels: (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde, (2) colloidal silica, (3) Cr{sup 3+}(chloride)-xanthan, and (4) Cr{sup 3+}(acetate)-polyacrylamide. All experiments were performed at 41{degrees}C.

  16. Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izequeido, Alexandor

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  17. A study of the effect of process variables on forward combustion oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Holland James

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    five-well field experiment in southern Oklahoma. In this experiment, the API 0 gravity of the produced crude oil increased by as much as 2 API. A reduction in oil viscosity of 4, 200 cp from the original value of 0 5, 000 cp at 66 F resulted. A... Initial API Percent Oil Sat. , Water Sat. , Gas Sat. , Porosity, @ 60oF Cla %% PV %%ua PV % PV %% BV 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Talco Field, Texas Hawkin s Field, T exa s Hawkins Field, Texas Talco Field, Texas Midway-Sunset Field, Calif. Midway...

  18. Stochastic Programming Approaches for the Placement of Gas Detectors in Process Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legg, Sean W

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    that minimizes the expected detection time across all scenarios. An extension to this formulation is added that considers the overall coverage in a facility in order to improve the detector placement when enough scenarios may not be available. Additionally, a...

  19. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  20. The effect of processing parameters on oil content of corn tortilla chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudley, Peta Rock

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that occurred in over-fried, under-fried, and optimally fried tortilla chips. This research was a pioneering effort in the field, involving the combination of scanning electron microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy. The majority of oil...

  1. Elimination Of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In Defense Waste Processing Facility Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on lab-scale simulations of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) slurry chemistry, the addition of sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide to waste slurries at concentrations sufficient to take the aqueous phase into the alkaline region (pH > 7) with approximately 500 mg nitrite ion/kg slurry (assuming <25 wt% total solids, or equivalently 2,000 mg nitrite/kg total solids) is sufficient to effectively deactivate the noble metal catalysts at temperatures between room temperature and boiling. This is a potential strategy for eliminating catalytic hydrogen generation from the list of concerns for sludge carried over into the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) or Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). These conclusions are drawn in large part from the various phases of the DWPF catalytic hydrogen generation program conducted between 2005 and 2009. The findings could apply to various situations, including a solids carry-over from either the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) into the SMECT with subsequent transfer to the RCT, as well as a spill of formic acid into the sump system and transfer into an RCT that already contains sludge solids. There are other potential mitigating factors for the SMECT and RCT, since these vessels are typically operated at temperatures close to the minimum temperatures that catalytic hydrogen has been observed to occur in either the SRAT or SME (pure slurry case), and these vessels are also likely to be considerably more dilute in both noble metals and formate ion (the two essential components to catalytic hydrogen generation) than the two primary process vessels. Rhodium certainly, and ruthenium likely, are present as metal-ligand complexes that are favored under certain concentrations of the surrounding species. Therefore, in the SMECT or RCT, where a small volume of SRAT or SME material would be significantly diluted, conditions would be less optimal for forming or sustaining the catalytic ligand species. Such conditions are likely to adversely impact the ability of the transferred mass to produce hydrogen at the same rate (per unit mass SRAT or SME slurry) as in the SRAT or SME vessels.

  2. AN EVALUATION OF PYROLYSIS OIL PROPERTIES AND CHEMISTRY AS RELATED TO PROCESS AND UPGRADE CONDITIONS WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO PIPELINE SHIPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL] [ORNL; Boyd, Alison C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One factor limiting the development of commercial biomass pyrolysis is challenges related to the transportation of the produced pyrolysis oil. The oil has different chemical and physical properties than crude oil, including more water and oxygen and has lower H/C ratio, higher specific gravity and density, higher acidity, and lower energy content. These differences could limit its ability to be transported by existing petroleum pipelines. Pyrolysis oil can also be treated, normally by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, and approaches crude oil and petroleum condensates at higher severity levels. This improvement also results in lower liquid yield and high hydrogen consumption. Biomass resources for pyrolysis are expected to become plentiful and widely distributed in the future, mainly through the use of crop residuals and growing of energy crops such as perennial grasses, annual grasses, and woody crops. Crude oil pipelines are less well distributed and, when evaluated on a county level, could access about 18% of the total biomass supply. States with high potential include Texas, Oklahoma, California, and Louisiana. In this study, published data on pyrolysis oil was compiled into a data set along with bio-source source material, pyrolysis reactor conditions, and upgrading conditions for comparison to typical crude oils. Data of this type is expected to be useful in understanding the properties and chemistry and shipment of pyrolysis oil to refineries, where it can be further processed to fuel or used as a source of process heat.

  3. Qualification of the First ICS-3000 ION Chromatograph for use at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T; Mahannah, R.

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The ICS-3000 Ion Chromatography (IC) system installed in 221-S M-13 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a head to head comparison of the ICS-3000 with the currently used DX-500 IC system. The crosscheck work included standards for instrument calibration and calibration verifications and standards for individual anion analysis, where the standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In addition the crosscheck work included the analysis of simulated Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples, along with radioactive Sludge Batch 5 material from the SRAT and SME tanks. Based upon the successful qualification of the ICS-3000 in M-13, it is recommended that this task proceed in developing the data to qualify, by a head to head comparison of the two ICS-3000 instruments, a second ICS-3000 to be installed in M-14. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requires the analysis of specific anions at various stages of its processing of high level waste (HLW). The anions of interest to the DWPF are fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate, and phosphate. The anion analysis is used to evaluate process chemistry including formic acid/nitric acid additions to establish optimum conditions for mercury stripping, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) chemistry for the melter, nitrite destruction, organic acid constituents, etc. The DWPF Laboratory (Lab) has been using Dionex DX-500 ion chromatography (IC) systems since 1998. The vendor informed DWPF in 2006 that the instruments would no longer be supported by service contracts after 2008. DWPF purchased three new ICS-3000 systems in September of 2006. The ICS-3000 instruments are (a) designed to be more stable using an eluent generator to make eluent, (b) require virtually no daily chemical handling by the analysts, (c) require less line breaks in the hood, and (d) generally require less maintenance due to the pump configuration only using water versus the current system where the pump uses various hydroxide concentrations. The ICS-3000 instruments also allow the DWPF to maintain current service contracts, which support routine preventive maintenance and emergency support for larger problems such as component failure. One of the three new systems was set up in the DWPF Lab trailers in January of 2007 to be used for the development of methods and procedures. This system will continue to be used for training, new method development and potential improvements to current methods. The qualification of the other two ICS-3000 instruments is to be a phased effort. This effort is to be supported by the Applied Computational Engineering and Statistical (ACES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as authorized by the Technical Task Request (TTR) and as directed by the corresponding Task Technical and Quality Assurance (TT&QA) plan. The installation of the first 'rad' system into the M-13 Lab module required modifications to both the Lab module and to the radiohood. The installation was completed in July 2008. The testing of this system was conducted as directed by the TT&QA plan. The purpose of this technical report is to provide a review of the data generated by these tests that will lead to the recommendation for the qualification of the M-13 ICS-3000 instrument. With the successful qualification of this first ICS-3000, plans will be developed for the installation of the second 'rad' system in the M-14 Lab module later in fiscal year 2009. When the second 'rad' ICS-3000 system is installed, the DX-500 systems will be removed and retired from service.

  4. EVALUATION OF A TURBIDITY METER FOR USE AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahannah, R.; Edwards, T.

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation’s (SRR’s) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory currently tests for sludge carry-over into the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) by evaluating the iron concentration in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) and relating this iron concentration to the amount of sludge solids present. A new method was proposed for detecting the amount of sludge in the SMECT that involves the use of an Optek turbidity sensor. Waste Services Laboratory (WSL) personnel conducted testing on two of these units following a test plan developed by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE). Both Optek units (SN64217 and SN65164) use sensor model AF16-N and signal converter model series C4000. The sensor body of each unit was modified to hold a standard DWPF 12 cc sample vial, also known as a “peanut” vial. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the use of this model of turbidity sensor, or meter, to provide a measurement of the sludge solids present in the SMECT based upon samples from that tank. During discussions of the results from this study by WSE, WSL, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, an upper limit on the acceptable level of solids in SMECT samples was set at 0.14 weight percent (wt%). A “go/no-go” decision criterion was to be developed for the critical turbidity response, which is expressed in concentration units (CUs), for each Optek unit based upon the 0.14 wt% solids value. An acceptable or a “go” decision for the SMECT should reflect the situation that there is an identified risk (e.g. 5%) for a CU response from the Optek unit to be less than the critical CU value when the solids content of the SMECT is actually 0.14 wt% or greater, while a “no-go” determination (i.e., an Optek CU response above the critical CU value, a conservative decision relative to risk) would lead to additional evaluations of the SMECT to better quantify the possible solids content of the tank. Subsequent to the issuance of the initial version of this report but under the scope of the original request for technical assistance, WSE asked for this report to be revised to include the “go/no-go” CU value corresponding to 0.28 wt% solids. It was this request that led to the preparation of Revision 1 of the report. The results for the 0.28 wt% solids value were developed following the same approach as that utilized for the 0.14 wt% solids value. A sludge simulant was used to develop standards for testing both Optek units and to determine the viability of a “go/no-go” CU response for each of the units. Statistical methods were used by SRNL to develop the critical CU value for the “go/no-go” decision for these standards for each Optek unit. Since only one sludge simulant was available for this testing, the sensitivity of these results to other simulants and to actual sludge material is not known. However, limited testing with samples from the actual DWPF process (both SRAT product samples and SMECT samples) demonstrated that the use of the “go/no-go” criteria developed from the sludge simulant testing was conservative for these samples taken from the sludge batch, Sludge Batch 7b, being processed at the time of this testing. While both of the Optek units performed very reliably during this testing, there were statistically significant differences (although small on a practical scale) between the two units. Thus, testing should be conducted on any new unit of this Optek model to qualify it before it is used to support the DWPF operation.

  5. Evaluation Of A Turbidity Meter For Use At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahannah, R. N.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation's (SRR's) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory currently tests for sludge carry-over into the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) by evaluating the iron concentration in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) and relating this iron concentration to the amount of sludge solids present. A new method was proposed for detecting the amount of sludge in the SMECT that involves the use of an Optek turbidity sensor. Waste Services Laboratory (WSL) personnel conducted testing on two of these units following a test plan developed by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE). Both Optek units (SN64217 and SN65164) use sensor model AF16-N and signal converter model series C4000. The sensor body of each unit was modified to hold a standard DWPF 12 cc sample vial, also known as a ''peanut'' vial. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the use of this model of turbidity sensor, or meter, to provide a measurement of the sludge solids present in the SMECT based upon samples from that tank. During discussions of the results from this study by WSE, WSL, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, an upper limit on the acceptable level of solids in SMECT samples was set at 0.14 wt%. A ''go/no-go'' decision criterion was to be developed for the critical turbidity response, which is expressed in concentration units (CUs), for each Optek unit based upon the 0.14 wt% solids value. An acceptable or a ''go'' decision for the SMECT should reflect the situation that there is an identified risk (e.g. 5%) for a CU response from the Optek unit to be less than the critical CU value when the solids content of the SMECT is actually 0.14 wt% or greater, while a ''no-go'' determination (i.e., an Optek CU response above the critical CU value, a conservative decision relative to risk) would lead to additional evaluations of the SMECT to better quantify the possible solids content of the tank. A sludge simulant was used to develop standards for testing both Optek units and to determine the viability of a ''go/no-go'' CU response for each of the units. Statistical methods were used by SRNL to develop the critical CU value for the ''go/no-go'' decision for these standards for each Optek unit. Since only one sludge simulant was available for this testing, the sensitivity of these results to other simulants and to actual sludge material is not known. However, limited testing with samples from the actual DWPF process (both SRAT product samples and SMECT samples) demonstrated that the use of the ''go/no-go'' criteria developed from the sludge simulant testing was conservative for these samples taken from Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), the sludge batch currently being processed. While both of the Optek units performed very reliably during this testing, there were statistically significant differences (although small on a practical scale) between the two units. Thus, testing should be conducted on any new unit of this Optek model to qualify it before it is used to support the DWPF operation.

  6. SUMMARY OF FY11 SULFATE RETENTION STUDIES FOR DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of studies related to the incorporation of sulfate in high level waste (HLW) borosilicate glass produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A group of simulated HLW glasses produced for earlier sulfate retention studies was selected for full chemical composition measurements to determine whether there is any clear link between composition and sulfate retention over the compositional region evaluated. In addition, the viscosity of several glasses was measured to support future efforts in modeling sulfate solubility as a function of predicted viscosity. The intent of these studies was to develop a better understanding of sulfate retention in borosilicate HLW glass to allow for higher loadings of sulfate containing waste. Based on the results of these and other studies, the ability to improve sulfate solubility in DWPF borosilicate glasses lies in reducing the connectivity of the glass network structure. This can be achieved, as an example, by increasing the concentration of alkali species in the glass. However, this must be balanced with other effects of reduced network connectivity, such as reduced viscosity, potentially lower chemical durability, and in the case of higher sodium and aluminum concentrations, the propensity for nepheline crystallization. Future DWPF processing is likely to target higher waste loadings and higher sludge sodium concentrations, meaning that alkali concentrations in the glass will already be relatively high. It is therefore unlikely that there will be the ability to target significantly higher total alkali concentrations in the glass solely to support increased sulfate solubility without the increased alkali concentration causing failure of other Product Composition Control System (PCCS) constraints, such as low viscosity and durability. No individual components were found to provide a significant improvement in sulfate retention (i.e., an increase of the magnitude necessary to have a dramatic impact on blending, washing, or waste loading strategies for DWPF) for the glasses studied here. In general, the concentrations of those species that significantly improve sulfate solubility in a borosilicate glass must be added in relatively large concentrations (e.g., 13 to 38 wt % or more of the frit) in order to have a substantial impact. For DWPF, these concentrations would constitute too large of a portion of the frit to be practical. Therefore, it is unlikely that specific additives may be introduced into the DWPF glass via the frit to significantly improve sulfate solubility. The results presented here continue to show that sulfate solubility or retention is a function of individual glass compositions, rather than a property of a broad glass composition region. It would therefore be inappropriate to set a single sulfate concentration limit for a range of DWPF glass compositions. Sulfate concentration limits should continue to be identified and implemented for each sludge batch. The current PCCS limit is 0.4 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass, although frit development efforts have led to an increased limit of 0.6 wt % for recent sludge batches. Slightly higher limits (perhaps 0.7-0.8 wt %) may be possible for future sludge batches. An opportunity for allowing a higher sulfate concentration limit at DWPF may lay lie in improving the laboratory experiments used to set this limit. That is, there are several differences between the crucible-scale testing currently used to define a limit for DWPF operation and the actual conditions within the DWPF melter. In particular, no allowance is currently made for sulfur partitioning (volatility versus retention) during melter processing as the sulfate limit is set for a specific sludge batch. A better understanding of the partitioning of sulfur in a bubbled melter operating with a cold cap as well as the impacts of sulfur on the off-gas system may allow a higher sulfate concentration limit to be established for the melter feed. This approach would have to be taken carefully to ensure that a

  7. Oil shale: The environmental challenges III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.K.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

  8. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  9. Wetland and Sensitive Species Survey Report for Y-12: Proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giffen, N.; Peterson, M.; Reasor, S.; Pounds, L.; Byrd, G.; Wiest, M. C.; Hill, C. C.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of an environmental survey conducted at sites associated with the proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in September-October 2009. The survey was conducted in order to evaluate potential impacts of the overall project. This project includes the construction of a haul road, concrete batch plant, wet soil storage area and dry soil storage area. The environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at ORNL who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Natural resource staff assistance on this project included the collection of environmental information that can aid in project location decisions that minimize impacts to sensitive resource such as significant wildlife populations, rare plants and wetlands. Natural resources work was conducted in various habitats, corresponding to the proposed areas of impact. Thc credentials/qualifications of the researchers are contained in Appendix A. The proposed haul road traverses a number of different habitats including a power-line right-of-way. wetlands, streams, forest and mowed areas. It extends from what is known as the New Salvage Yard on the west to the Polaris Parking Lot on the east. This haul road is meant to connect the proposed concrete batch plant to the UPF building site. The proposed site of the concrete batch plant itself is a highly disturbed fenced area. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 1. The proposed Wet Soils Disposal Area is located on the north side of Bear Creek Road at the former Control Burn Study Area. This is a second growth arce containing thick vegetation, and extensive dead and down woody material. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 2. Thc dry soils storage area is proposed for what is currently known as the West Borrow Area. This site is located on the west side of Reeves Road south of Bear Creek Road. The site is an early successional field. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 2.

  10. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  11. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  12. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  13. Toward an Effective Design Process: Enhancing Building Performance through Better Integration of Facility Management Perspectives in the Design Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalantari Hematabadi, Seyed Saleh

    2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    and energy-use patterns anticipated by the building’s designers. The current research took a slightly different approach to this topic, by evaluating the outlooks and practices of facility managers (rather than occupants). In doing so, it helped 5.... In the quantitative material, survey results are presented and interpreted. Chapter VI provides a discussion of the research findings, and compares these results against outlooks given in the previous literature. Finally, Chapter VII is a conclusion that highlights...

  14. Design-Build Process for the Research Support Facility (RSF) (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in-depth look at how the U.S. DOE and NREL used a performance-based design-build contract to build the Research Support Facility (RSF); one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world.

  15. Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility October...

  16. A Multi-agent System for Integrated Control and Asset Management of Petroleum Production Facilities -Part 1: Prototype

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    A Multi-agent System for Integrated Control and Asset Management of Petroleum Production Facilities for the petroleum industry, which is crucial for profitable oil and gas facilities operations and maintenance the workload on process operators [18]. A new asset management research project, PAWS (Petroleum Applications

  17. Electrostatic coalescence of used automotive crankcase oil as an alternative to other separation processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, John Leslie

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , verified by separating and analyzing a used oil emulsion. The metal removal efficiency was compared to that of a five day gravity settling. Separation experiments were performed in a 2.26 L coalescer with a flat parallel insulated electrode configuration...

  18. Summary - Salt Waste Processing Facility Design at the Savannah River Site

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2Uranium Transferon the Passing of AdmiraltheOil and LessOak Ridge,SRS Co DOE

  19. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. RADIOLOGICAL CONTROLS FOR PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FROM 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINSHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MINETTE, M.J.

    2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The 232-Z facility at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant operated as a plutonium scrap incinerator for 11 years. Its mission was to recover residual plutonium through incinerating and/or leaching contaminated wastes and scrap material. Equipment failures, as well as spills, resulted in the release of radionuclides and other contamination to the building, along with small amounts to external soil. Based on the potential threat posed by the residual plutonium, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued an Action Memorandum to demolish Building 232-2, Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERC1.A) Non-Time Critical Removal Action Memorandum for Removal of the 232-2 Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (04-AMCP-0486).

  1. Investigation and development of alternative methods for shale oil processing and analysis. Final technical report, October 1979--April 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R.A.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale, a carbonaceous rock which occurs abundantly in the earth`s crust, has been investigated for many years as an alternate source of fuel oil. The insoluble organic matter contained in such shales is termed {open_quotes}Kerogen{close_quotes} from the Greek meaning oil or oil forming. The kerogen in oil shale breaks down into oil-like products when subjected to conditions simulating destructive distillation. These products have been the subject of extensive investigations by several researchers and many of the constituents of shale oil have been identified. (1) Forsman (2) estimates that the kerogen content of the earth is roughly 3 {times} 10{sup 15} tons as compared to total coal reserves of about 5 {times} 10{sup 12}. Although the current cost per barrel estimate for commercial production of shale oil is higher than that of fossil oil, as our oil reserves continue to dwindle, shale oil technology will become more and more important. When oil shale is heated, kerogen is said to undergo chemical transformation to usable oil in two steps (3): Kerogen (in oil shale) 300-500{degrees}C bitumen. Crude shale oil and other products. The crude shale oil so obtained differs from fossil oil in that: (1) kerogen is thought to have been produced from the aging of plant matter over many years; (2) shale oil has a higher nitrogen content than fossil oil; (3) non-hydrocarbons are present to a much greater extent in shale oil; and (4) the hydrocarbons in shale oil are much more unsaturated than those in fossil oil (petroleum).

  2. A demonstration of variance and covariance calculations using MAVARIC (Materials Accounting VARIance Calculator) and PROFF (PROcessing and Fuel Facilities calculator)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlich, G.L.; Nasseri, S.S.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Good decision-making in materials accounting requires a valid calculation of control limits and detection sensitivity for facilities handling special nuclear materials (SNM). A difficult aspect of this calculation is determining the appropriate variance and covariance values for the terms in the materials balance (MB) equation. Computer software such as MAVARIC (Materials Accounting VARIance Calculator) and PROFF (PROcessing and Fuel Facilities calculator) can efficiently select and combine variance terms. These programs determine the variance and covariance of an MB equation by first obtaining relations for the variance and covariance of each term in the MB equation through propagating instrument errors and then substituting the measured quantities and their uncertainties into these relations. MAVARIC is a custom spreadsheet used with the second release of LOTUS 1-2-3.** PROFF is a stand-alone menu-driven program requiring no commercial software. Programs such as MAVARIC and PROFF facilitate the complex calculations required to determine the detection sensitivity of an SNM facility. These programs can also be used to analyze materials accounting systems.

  3. Liquid-phase Processing of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil using Pt/HZSM-5 Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page A.1 Fluidization experiments on -30 +40 US Mesh size refractory sand at actual operating temperatures ........................................................ 124 B.1 Schematic diagram of the fluidized bed reactor... .................................................................................... 99 25 Some of the properties of the high-boiling fraction (HBF) of the crude bio-oil and upgraded HBF?s subjected to different treatments ........ 101 A.1 Observed minimum fluidization of refractory sand in fluidized-bed reactor...

  4. Near Shore Submerged Oil Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Near Shore Submerged Oil Assessment September 2010 In the context of the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, submerged oil refers to near shore oil which has picked up sediments from very different physical and chemical processes. In this spill, the oil was released more than 5

  5. Stochastic Programming Approaches for the Placement of Gas Detectors in Process Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legg, Sean W

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    of these detectors is required in order to have a well-functioning gas detection system. However, the uncertainty in leak locations, gas composition, process and weather conditions, and process geometries must all be considered when attempting to determine...

  6. Surface water transport and distribution of uranium in contaminated sediments near a nuclear weapons processing facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batson, Vicky Lynn

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , such as the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRSl, Aiken, South Carolina, is a major environmental concern. At SRS, the contamination of soil and rivers was compounded by inadequate regulations during early years of facility operation. As our knowledge...-Steed Pond System Tims Branch is a second-order stream located in the A/M-area of the northwestern section of SRS (Fig. 1). It drains an area of approximately sixteen square kilometers of the drainage basin of the Savannah River and its tributaries. Tims...

  7. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Winterholler

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under the Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Action Plan for Tank System TRA-009. The tank system to be closed is identified as VCO-SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-009. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  8. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  9. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  10. Problem 65 in Section 4.1 (Page 274) Constructing a pipeline Supertankers off-load oil at a docking facility 4 mi offshore. The nearest refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, Anne

    facility 4 mi offshore. The nearest refinery is 9 mi east of the shore point nearest the docking facility. A pipeline must be constructed connecting the docking facility with the refinery. The pipeline costs $300.42 miles away from the refinery, or equivalently 3.58 miles away from Point A (as the back of the book has

  11. A detailed chemical analysis of changes to bitumen produced by the in situ combustion process at the oxygen Wolf Lake Project, Alberta. Part 11; Whole oil samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex, R.F.; Fuhr, B.; Reichert, C. (Alberta Research Council, Oil Sands and Hydrocarbon Recovery, Edmonton, Alberta T6H 5X2 (CA))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detailed chemical changes in bitumen brought about over a one year period by a in situ combustion process in an oil sands reservoir have been investigated. Relative to a core sample, the fireflood-produced oils exhibited a significant reduction in density and viscosity which began early in the production cycle. This behavior was correlated with a marked increase in material boiling in the naphtha and middle distillate ranges and a concomitant decrease in the residue cut. The sulfur and nitrogen contents in the produced oils decreased relative to the core sample. A reduction in the acid number of the produced oil samples was coupled with an increase in the oxygen content as the fireflood proceeded. In this paper the relationship between these changes and the dynamics of the in situ combustion process are discussed.

  12. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The order establishes facility and programmatic safety requirements for nuclear and explosives safety design criteria, fire protection, criticality safety, natural phenomena hazards (NPH) mitigation, and the System Engineer Program.Chg 1 incorporates the use of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process, mandatory for Hazard Category 1, 2 and 3 nuclear facilities. Cancels DOE O 420.1A.

  13. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  14. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  15. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T. [Ai-Farabi Kazakh National University, Chemical Faculty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Galkin, A. [KATEP Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Bachilova, N. [NIISTROMPROEKT Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Blynskiy, A. [Nuclear Technology Safety Centre, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Maev, V. [MAEK-Kazatomprom Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Wells, D. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Herrick, A. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Caithness (United Kingdom); Michelbacher, J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  16. Reduced crude processing with Ashland's RCC process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zandona, O.J.; Busch, L.E.; Hettinger, W.P.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashland Oil has long recognized the need to improve the process for the direct conversion of residual feedstocks into transportation fuels and other lighter products. The reduced crude oil conversion (RCC) unit now under construction at the Catlettsburg, Kentucky, refinery was developed to meet these demands. The facility incorporates RCC process innovations and recent catalyst technology improvements, and provides increased operating flexibility. Heavier, higher-sulfur crude oils can be processed under several economically attractive scenarios. They allow for an excellent balance between the production of transportation fuels, and reduced amounts of heavy fractions. An outstanding feature of the RCC process is the highoctane quality of full-boiling-range gasoline that results when converting residual feedstocks.

  17. Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

  18. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Third quarterly report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

    1993-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents research objectives, discusses activities, and presents technical progress for the period April 1, 1993 through June 31, 1993 on Contract No. DE-FC21-86LC11084 with the Department of Energy, Laramie Project Office. The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  19. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Fourth quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1993-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  20. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  1. LLNL oil shale project review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R.J. (ed.)

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Livermore's oil shale project is funded by two budget authorities, two thirds from base technology development and one third from environmental science. Our base technology development combines fundamental chemistry research with operation of pilot retorts and mathematical modeling. We've studied mechanisms for oil coking and cracking and have developed a detailed model of this chemistry. We combine the detailed chemistry and physics into oil shale process models (OSP) to study scale-up of generic second generation Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) retorting systems and compare with results from our 4 tonne-per-day continuous-loop HRS pilot retorting facility. Our environmental science program focuses on identification of gas, solid and liquid effluents from oil shale processes and development of abatement strategies where necessary. We've developed on-line instruments to quantitatively measure trace sulfur and nitrogen compounds released during shale pyrolysis and combustion. We've studied shale mineralogy, inorganic and organic reactions which generate and consume environmentally sensitive species. Figures, references, and tables are included with each discussion.

  2. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and deductions for oil company investments in the area. 11979) Capital investment models of the oil and gas industry:total “facilities investment cost” of oil production on the

  3. Preliminary evaluation of a process using plasma reactions to desulfurize heavy oils. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, P.W.; Miknis, F.P.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has conducted exploratory experiments on the use of microwave-induced plasmas to desulfurize heavy oils. Batch mode experiments were conducted in a quartz reactor system using various reactive and nonreactive plasmas. In these experiments a high-sulfur asphalt was exposed to various plasmas, and the degree of conversion to distillate, gas, and solids was recorded. Products from selected experiments were analyzed to determine if the plasma exposure had resulted in a significant reduction in sulfur content. Exploratory experiments were conducted using reactive plasmas generated from hydrogen and methane and nonreactive plasmas generated from nitrogen. The effects of varying exposure duration, sample temperature, and location of the sample with respect to the plasma discharge were investigated. For comparative purposes two experiments were conducted in which the sample was heated under nitrogen with no plasma exposure. Distillates containing approximately 28% less sulfur than the feedstock represented the maximum desulfurization attained in the plasma experiments. It does not appear that plasma reactions using the simple configurations employed in this study represent a viable method for the desulfurization of heavy oils.

  4. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    viable is the recovery of shale oil from our substantialdeposits of oil shale (1). Shale oil is recovered from oilproduce~ along with the shale oil, considerable amounts of

  5. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRAL SEPARATOR FOR A CENTRIFUGAL GAS PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANCE HAYS

    2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A COMPACT GAS PROCESSING DEVICE WAS INVESTIGATED TO INCREASE GAS PRODUCTION FROM REMOTE, PREVIOUSLY UN-ECONOMIC RESOURCES. THE UNIT WAS TESTED ON AIR AND WATER AND WITH NATURAL GAS AND LIQUID. RESULTS ARE REPORTED WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK.

  6. Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

  7. Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Sixth interim report Task 9: hydrotreating 400/sup 0/F+ SRC-II oil for biological studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.F.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    400/sup 0/F+ SRC-II oil derived from Pittsburgh Seam coal was hydrotreated to provide DOE samples for subsequent biological testing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Samples containing about 500 ppM nitrogen, 2000 ppM nitrogen, and 5000 ppM nitrogen were prepared. These samples do not represent finished products, but conditions were selected to provide a wide range of processing severities. The feedstock was somewhat higher boiling and more difficult to hydrotreat than another 400/sup 0/F+ SRC-II oil studied previously.

  8. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under construction, will use the same process chemistry. The Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) expressed an interest in investigating the further optimization of the organic solvent by replacing the BoBCalixC6 extractant with a more efficient extractant. This replacement should yield dividends in improving cesium removal from the caustic waste stream, and in the rate at which the caustic waste can be processed. To that end, EM-31 provided funding for both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SRNL wrote a Task Technical Quality and Assurance Plan for this work. As part of the envisioned testing regime, it was decided to perform an ESS test using a simulated waste that simulated a typical envisioned SWPF feed, but with added potassium to make the waste more challenging. Potassium interferes in the cesium removal, and its concentration is limited in the feed to <1950 mg/L. The feed to MCU has typically contained <500 mg/L of potassium.

  9. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Worsztynowicz, A.; Ulfig, K. [Inst. for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

    1997-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH`s, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass.

  10. CHALLENGES OF PRESERVING HISTORIC RESOURCES DURING THE D & D OF HIGHLY CONTAMINATED HISTORICALLY SIGNIFICANT PLUTONIUM PROCESS FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Manhattan Project was initiated to develop nuclear weapons for use in World War II. The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) was established in eastern Washington State as a production complex for the Manhattan Project. A major product of the HEW was plutonium. The buildings and process equipment used in the early phases of nuclear weapons development are historically significant because of the new and unique work that was performed. When environmental cleanup became Hanford's central mission in 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared for the deactivation and decommissioning of many of the old process facilities. In many cases, the process facilities were so contaminated, they faced demolition. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate the historic significance of properties under their jurisdiction for eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places before altering or demolishing them so that mitigation through documentation of the properties can occur. Specifically, federal agencies are required to evaluate their proposed actions against the effect the actions may have on districts, sites, buildings or structures that ere included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. In an agreement between the DOE'S Richland Operations Office (RL), the Washington State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the agencies concurred that the Hanford Site Historic District is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and that a Sitewide Treatment Plan would streamline compliance with the NHPA while allowing RL to manage the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Currently, many of the old processing buildings at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) are undergoing deactivation and decommissioning. RL and Fluor Hanford project managers at the PFP are committed to preserving historical artifacts of the plutonium production process. They must also ensure the safety of workers and the full decontamination of buildings or artifacts if they are to be preserved. This paper discusses the real time challenges of working safely, decontaminating process equipment, preserving historical structures and artifacts and documenting their history at PFP.

  11. Guide to research facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  12. Oil shale mining processing, uses, and environmental impacts. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning oil shale mining and retorting, uses, and related environmental aspects. References discuss pyrolyzed, gasified, and combusted oil shales. Product yields and oil quality, socioeconomic impacts, exploration, reclamation of mined lands, and waste disposal are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Hazardous Waste Facilities Siting (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations describe the siting and permitting process for hazardous waste facilities and reference rules for construction, operation, closure, and post-closure of these facilities.

  14. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics Products 23. Sloan dolomite quarry 24. Weiser gypsum quarry Oil Fields 1. Blackburn field 2. North WillowMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  15. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J.W. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  16. CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persoff, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas compressorThis process produces shale oil, a low BTU gas, and char,Oil Shale Process" in Oil Shale and Tar Sands, J. W. Smith

  17. H.R.S. 201N - Renewable Energy Facility Siting Process | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG| Open EnergyGuntersville ElectricControlon State

  18. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  19. Liquid-phase Processing of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil using Pt/HZSM-5 Catalyst 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developments in converting biomass to bio-chemicals and liquid fuels provide a promising sight to an emerging biofuels industry. Biomass can be converted to energy via thermochemical and biochemical pathways. Thermal degradation processes...

  20. Analyses by the Defense Waste Processing Facility Laboratory of Thorium Glasses from the Sludge Batch 6 Variability Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.; Click, D.; Feller, M.

    2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with Frit 418. At times during the processing of this glass system, thorium is expected to be at concentrations in the final wasteform that make it a reportable element for the first time since startup of radioactive operations at the DWPF. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) supported the qualification of the processing of this glass system at the DWPF. A recommendation from the SRNL studies was the need for the DWPF Laboratory to establish a method to measure thorium by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES). This recommendation led to the set of thorium-bearing glasses from the SB6 Variability Study (VS) being submitted to the DWPF Laboratory for chemical composition measurement. The measurements were conducted by the DWPF Laboratory using the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method routinely employed for analysis of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). These measurements are presented and reviewed in this report. The review indicates that the measurements provided by the DWPF Laboratory are comparable to those provided by Analytical Development's laboratory at SRNL for these same glasses. As a result, the authors of this report recommend that the DWPF Laboratory begin using its routine peroxide fusion dissolution method for the measurement of thorium in SME samples of SB6. The purpose of this technical report is to present the measurements generated by the DWPF Laboratory for the SB6 VS glasses and to compare the measurements to the targeted compositions for these VS glasses as well as to SRNL's measurements (both sets, targeted and measured, of compositional values were reported by SRNL in [2]). The goal of these comparisons is to provide information that will lead to the qualification of peroxide fusion dissolution as a method for the measurement by the DWPF Laboratory of thorium in SME glass samples.

  1. HANFORD CONTAINERIZED CAST STONE FACILITY TASK 1 PROCESS TESTING & DEVELOPMENT FINAL TEST REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOCKREM, L L

    2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory testing and technical evaluation activities on Containerized Cast Stone (CCS) were conducted under the Scope of Work (SOW) contained in CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) Contract No. 18548 (CHG 2003a). This report presents the results of testing and demonstration activities discussed in SOW Section 3.1, Task I--''Process Development Testing'', and described in greater detail in the ''Containerized Grout--Phase I Testing and Demonstration Plan'' (CHG, 2003b). CHG (2003b) divided the CCS testing and evaluation activities into six categories, as follows: (1) A short set of tests with simulant to select a preferred dry reagent formulation (DRF), determine allowable liquid addition levels, and confirm the Part 2 test matrix. (2) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF and a backup DRF, as selected in Part I, and using low activity waste (LAW) simulant. (3) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF using radioactive LAW. (4) Waste form validation testing on a selected nominal cast stone formulation using the preferred DRF and LAW simulant. (5) Engineering evaluations of explosive/toxic gas evolution, including hydrogen, from the cast stone product. (6) Technetium ''getter'' testing with cast stone made with LAW simulant and with radioactive LAW. In addition, nitrate leaching observations were drawn from nitrate leachability data obtained in the course of the Parts 2 and 3 waste form performance testing. The nitrate leachability index results are presented along with other data from the applicable activity categories.

  2. New Applications of Gamma Spectroscopy: Characterization Tools for D&D Process Development, Inventory Reduction Planning & Shipping, Safety Analysis & Facility Management During the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, M; Anderson, B; Gray, L; Vellinger, R; West, M; Gaylord, R; Larson, J; Jones, G; Shingleton, J; Harris, L; Harward, N

    2006-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel applications of gamma ray spectroscopy for D&D process development, inventory reduction, safety analysis and facility management are discussed in this paper. These applications of gamma spectroscopy were developed and implemented during the Risk Reduction Program (RPP) to successfully downgrade the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. Non-destructive assay in general, gamma spectroscopy in particular, were found to be important tools in project management, work planning, and work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected''), minimizing worker dose, and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. Inventory reduction activities utilized gamma spectroscopy to identify and confirm isotopics of legacy inventory, ingrowth of daughter products and the presence of process impurities; quantify inventory; prioritize work activities for project management; and to supply information to satisfy shipper/receiver documentation requirements. D&D activities utilize in-situ gamma spectroscopy to identify and confirm isotopics of legacy contamination; quantify contamination levels and monitor the progress of decontamination efforts; and determine the point of diminishing returns in decontaminating enclosures and glove boxes containing high specific activity isotopes such as {sup 244}Cm and {sup 238}Pu. In-situ gamma spectroscopy provided quantitative comparisons of several decontamination techniques (e.g. TLC-free Stripcoat{trademark}, Radiac{trademark} wash, acid wash, scrubbing) and was used as a part of an iterative process to determine the appropriate level of decontamination and optimal cost to benefit ratio. Facility management followed a formal, rigorous process utilizing an independent, state certified, peer-reviewed gamma spectroscopy program, in conjunction with other characterization techniques, process knowledge, and historical records, to provide information for work planning, work prioritization, work control, and safety analyses (e.g. development of hold points, stop work points); and resulted in B251 successfully achieving Radiological status on schedule. Gamma spectroscopy helped to define operational approaches to achieve radiation exposure ALARA, e.g. hold points, appropriate engineering controls, PPE, workstations, and time/distance/shielding in the development of ALARA plans. These applications of gamma spectroscopy can be used to improve similar activities at other facilities.

  3. Methods to estimate equipment and materials that are candidates for removal during the decontamination of fuel processing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D.R.; Valero, O.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hyre, R.A.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Millar, J.S.; Reddick, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methodology presented in this report provides a model for estimating the volume and types of waste expected from the removal of equipment and other materials during Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of canyon-type fuel reprocessing facilities. This methodology offers a rough estimation technique based on a comparative analysis for a similar, previously studied, reprocessing facility. This approach is especially useful as a planning tool to save time and money while preparing for final D and D. The basic methodology described here can be extended for use at other types of facilities, such as glovebox or reactor facilities.

  4. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 2, Task 3, Testing of process improvement concepts: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report, Volume 2, on ``Process Improvement Concepts`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). Results of work on electroseparation of shale oil and fines conducted by IIT is included in this report, as well as work conducted by IGT to evaluate the restricted pipe discharge system. The work was conducted as part of the overall program on ``Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales.``

  5. The project RTPPP (Development of a realtime PPP processing facility) is planned to be a followup project of RAPPP (Innovative Algorithms for Rapid Precise Point Positioning),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuh, Harald

    RTPPP The project RTPPP (Development of a realtime PPP processing facility) is planned and evaluation of enhanced algorithms for PPP (Precise Point Positioning) to improve the technique with respect RAPPP, the proposed project RTPPP concentrates on the possibilities of the PPP technique within a real

  6. Type B Accident Investigation of the April 8, 2003, Electrical Arc Blast at the Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation TRU Waste Processing Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At approximately 0330 hours on April 8, 2003, a phase-to-phase arc blast occurred in the boiler electrical control panel at the Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Facility. The boiler was providing steam for the evaporator and was reportedly operating at about 10% of its capacity.

  7. Proposed Use of a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Metals in the S-04 Outfall of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, T.

    1999-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The DWPF is part of an integrated waste treatment system at the SRS to treat wastes containing radioactive contaminants. In the early 1980s the DOE recognized that there would be significant safety and cost advantages associated with immobilizing the radioactive waste in a stable solid form. The Defense Waste Processing Facility was designed and constructed to accomplish this task.

  8. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  9. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, G.D.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alaska is the second largest oil producing state in the nation and currently contributes nearly 24% of the nations oil production. It is imperative that Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought into production. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, which is part of the heavy oil field known as West Sak is estimated to contain 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21 degree API) oil-in-place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. The eventual implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be vital for the recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The availability of hydrocarbon gases (solvents) on the Alaska North Slope make the hydrocarbon miscible solvent injection process an important consideration for the EOR project in Schrader Bluff reservoir. Since Schrader Bluff oil is heavy and viscous, a water-alternating-gas (WAG) type of process for oil recovery is appropriate since such a process tends to derive synergetic benefits from both water injection (which provides mobility control and improvement in sweep efficiency) and miscible gas injection (which provides improved displacement efficiency). A miscible solvent slug injection process rather than continuous solvent injection is considered appropriate. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine the effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir.

  10. Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Process Installations of the German Reprocessing Facility (WAK) - Status of New Remote Handling Technology - 13287

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dux, Joachim; Friedrich, Daniel; Lutz, Werner; Ripholz, Martina [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, P.O. Box 12 63, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)] [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, P.O. Box 12 63, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decommissioning and dismantling of the former German Pilot Reprocessing Plant Karlsruhe (WAK) including the Vitrification Facility (VEK) is being executed in different Project steps related to the reprocessing, HLLW storage and vitrification complexes /1/. While inside the reprocessing building the total inventory of process equipment has already been dismantled and disposed of, the HLLW storage and vitrification complex has been placed out of operation since vitrification and tank rinsing procedures where finalized in year 2010. This paper describes the progress made in dismantling of the shielded boxes of the highly contaminated laboratory as a precondition to get access to the hot cells of the HLLW storage. The major challenges of the dismantling of this laboratory were the high dose rates up to 700 mSv/h and the locking technology for the removal of the hot cell installations. In parallel extensive prototype testing of different carrier systems and power manipulators to be applied to dismantle the HLLW-tanks and other hot cell equipment is ongoing. First experiences with the new manipulator carrier system and a new master slave manipulator with force reflection will be reported. (authors)

  11. Implementing an Energy Management System at TOTAL Prot Arthur Refinery: The process to improving and sustaining energy efficiency performance at a facility.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PROPRIETARY INFORMATION? 2011 KBC Advanced Technologies plc. All Rights Reserved. Implementing an Energy Management System at TOTAL Port Arthur Refinery: The process to improving and sustaining energy efficiency performance at a facility May... Improvements ? Cost-savings initiatives ? Increasing environmental awareness ? Increasing throughput by debottlenecking processes ? Increasing government mandates 2May 2013 Energy Costs for a 200kBPD Complex refinery Typically, energy efficiency programs...

  12. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E.; Jewett, Kenneth L.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.

  13. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 5: an investigation of dewatering for the modified in-situ retorting process, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The C-a and the C-b tracts in the Piceance Creek Basin are potential sites for the development of oil shale by the modified in-situ retorting (MIS) process. Proposed development plans for these tracts require the disturbance of over three billion m/sup 3/ of oil shale to a depth of about 400 m (1312 ft) or more below ground level. The study investigates the nature and impacts of dewatering and reinvasion that are likely to accompany the MIS process. The purpose is to extend earlier investigations through more refined mathematical analysis. Physical phenomena not adequately covered in previous studies, particularly the desaturation process, are investigated. The present study also seeks to identify, through a parametric approach, the key variables that are required to characterize systems such as those at the C-a and C-b tracts.

  14. The associate of applied science degree in process technology combines the technical courses needed to become well versed in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    industry includes oil and gas production, mining and milling, transportation and refining, utilities, wastewater treatment and facilities maintenance. Graduates work in many industries including: oil and gas the technical courses needed to become well versed in the process industry with the academic courses needed

  15. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-11: Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venezuela

    2000-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Tenth Amendment anti Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Energy Agreement. This report is presented in sections (for each of the six Tasks) and each section contains one or more reports that were prepared to describe the results of the effort under each of the Tasks. A statement of each Task, taken from the Agreement Between Project Managers, is presented on the first page of each section. The Tasks are numbered 68 through 73. The first through tenth report on research performed under Annex IV Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report Number IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10 contain the results of the first 67 Tasks. These reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, March 1995, and December 1997, respectively.

  16. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedings

  17. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedingsin the Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Waters," in Proceedings

  18. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  19. Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

  20. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Randy Cortright, Founder & Chief Technology Officer, Virent

  1. Deep Placement Gel Bank as an Improved Oil Recovery Process: Modeling, Economic Analysis and Comparison to Polymer Flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seyidov, Murad

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    , the combination of delayed production response and large polymer amounts cause such projects to be less economically favorable than deep gel placement treatments. From results of several sensitivity runs, it can be concluded that plug size and oil viscosity...

  2. Production of Shale Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loper, R. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the principal features of a proposed $5 billion project to develop facilities for production of 100,000 barrels per day of synthetic crude from oil shale. Subjects included are resource evaluation, environmental baseline studies, plans for acquisition of permits...

  3. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Tan, Eric; Dutta, Abhijit; Jacobson, Jacob; Cafferty, Kara

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S.; Meyer, P.; Snowden-Swan, L.; Padmaperuma, A.; Tan, E.; Dutta, A.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  5. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  6. POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solid waste disposal facility. the packed bed of shale in an emulsion with the oil, IIJNDERGII'lOUND TREATMENT

  7. Staking claims to China's borderland : oil, ores and statebuilding in Xinjiang Province, 1893-1964

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinzley, Judd Creighton; Kinzley, Judd Creighton

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the discovery of several new oil production sites worldwide,increase in global oil production in the post-war period andas nearly every other oil production facility listed in the

  8. Parallel Triangular Decompositions of an Oil Refining Simulation Xiaodong Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno Maza, Marc

    important process in oil refining is to separate the crude oil into various oil products. This process the composition of the various oil products in designed refining columns operated under a given set of conditions oil products. This process is called distilla- tion, which is a thermal separation method

  9. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  10. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    growth. For data on world oil consumption and long- term oilOil Production Domestic Oil Consumption a variety of

  11. LANSCE | Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LINAC Outreach Affiliations Visiting LANSCE Facilities Isotope Production Facility Lujan Neutron Scattering Center MaRIE Proton Radiography Ultracold Neutrons Weapons Neutron...

  12. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Process Simulation and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Jatropha Curcas L. Seed Oil Extraction in Biodiesel Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiou, Ming-Hao

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jatropha curcas L. is a drought-resistant plant which can be grown in poor soil and marginal lands. The use of Jatropha seed oil to produce biodiesel has been widely studied in recent years. Results showed that it is one of the most promising...

  14. VolumeExplorer: Roaming Large Volumes to Couple Visualization and Data Processing for Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Geoscientists build this model from the interpretation of seismic data, i.e. 3D images of the subsurface for the interpretation of seismic data. It is based on volume roaming along with efficient volume paging to manipulate Seismic interpretation is an important task in the oil and gas exploration-production (EP) workflow [9, 26

  15. Process Simulation and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Jatropha Curcas L. Seed Oil Extraction in Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiou, Ming-Hao

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jatropha curcas L. is a drought-resistant plant which can be grown in poor soil and marginal lands. The use of Jatropha seed oil to produce biodiesel has been widely studied in recent years. Results showed that it is one of the most promising...

  16. Solar production of industrial process steam. Phase III. Operation and evaluation of the Johnson and Johnson solar facility. Final report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brink, D.F.; Kendall, J.M.; Youngblood, S.B.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar facility that generates 177/sup 0/C (350/sup 0/F) process steam has been designed and constructed by Acurex Corporation and has operated for 1 yr supplying steam to the Johnson and Johnson manufacturing plant in Sherman, Texas. The facility consists of 1068 m/sup 2/ (11,520 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough concentrating collectors, a 18,900 1 (5000 gal) flash boiler, and an 18.6 kW (25 hp) circulating pump. In the first year of operation the system was available 97 percent of the days, and with sufficient solar radiation available it operated 70 percent of the days during this period. The measured data showed that the collector field operated at an efficiency of 25.4 percent for the year, and that at least 75 percent of the energy reaching the flash boiler was delivered to the plant as steam. A total of 309,510 kg (682,400 lb) of steam was produced by the solar facility for the first year. An analysis of the data showed that the delivered energy was within 90 to 100 percent of the predicted value. The successful completion of the first year of operation has demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process steam with solar energy.

  17. Analysis Patterns for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Zhen; Guangzhen Shao

    We present analysis patterns to describe the structure of oil refineries. The Refinery Produc tion Unit Pattern describes the structure of units and unit groups. The Oil Storage Pattern describes the structure of tanks and tank groups. The Oil Delivery Pattern describes the structure of stations for import and export of oil. The Production Process Pattern describes the productionprocess. The audience for this paper includes analysts, designers, and programmers who are involved in developing Refinery Information Systems.

  18. THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent-order milestones, milestones completed to date, and the vision of bringing PFP to slab-on-grade. Innovative approaches in planning and regulatory strategies, as well new technologies from within the United States and from other countries and field decontamination techniques developed by workforce personnel, such as the ''turkey roaster'' and the ''lazy Susan'' are covered in detail in the paper. Critical information on issues and opportunities during the performance of the work such as concerns regarding the handling and storage of special nuclear material, concerns regarding criticality safety and the impact of SNM de-inventory at PFP are also provided. The continued success of the PFP D&D effort is due to the detailed, yet flexible, approach to planning that applied innovative techniques and tools, involved a team of experienced independent reviewers, and incorporated previous lessons learned at the Hanford site, Rocky Flats, and commercial nuclear D&D projects. Multi-disciplined worker involvement in the planning and the execution of the work has produced a committed workforce that has developed innovative techniques, resulting in safer and more efficient work evolutions.

  19. Facilities Automation and Energy Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jen, D. P.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computerized facilities automation and energy management systems can be used to maintain high levels of facilities operations efficiencies. The monitoring capabilities provides the current equipment and process status, and the analysis...

  20. Facility Microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microgrids are receiving a considerable interest from the power industry, partly because their business and technical structure shows promise as a means of taking full advantage of distributed generation. This report investigates three issues associated with facility microgrids: (1) Multiple-distributed generation facility microgrids' unintentional islanding protection, (2) Facility microgrids' response to bulk grid disturbances, and (3) Facility microgrids' intentional islanding.

  1. Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining Permitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    " or "Gas" does not include any gaseous or liquid substance processed from coal, oil shale, or tar sands

  2. FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION UNIT FOR OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Hammad; Y. Zurigat; S. Khzai; Z. Hammad; O. Mubydeem

    combustion performance using oil shale as fuel in direct burning process. It is a steel column of 18 cm

  3. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Topical report No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economic for field implementation. The ultimate goal will be to develop guidelines based on commonly available data that other operators in the industry can use to investigate the applicability of the process within other field. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s objective to increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. Accomplishments to date are described in this report.

  4. Morphological Investigations of Fibrogenic Action of Estonian Oil Shale Dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Kung

    dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of

  5. Electro-Mechanical Manipulator for Use in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Site - 12454

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambrecht, Bill; Dixon, Joe [Par Systems, Shoreview, Minnesota, 55126 (United States); Neuville, John R. [Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the legacies of the cold war is millions of liters of radioactive waste. One of the locations where this waste is stored is at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A major effort to clean up this waste is on-going at the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) at SRS. A piece of this effort is decontamination of the equipment used in the DWPF to process the waste. The remote equipment decontamination cell (REDC) in the DWPF uses electro-mechanical manipulators (EMM) arms manufactured and supplied by PaR Systems to decontaminate DWPF process equipment. The decontamination fluid creates a highly corrosive environment. After 25 years of operational use the original EMM arms are aging and need replacement. To support continued operation of the DWPF, two direct replacement EMM arms were delivered to the REDC in the summer of 2011. (authors)

  6. Implementing waste minimization at an active plutonium processing facility: Successes and progress at technical area (TA) -55 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balkey, J.J.; Robinson, M.A.; Boak, J.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has ongoing national security missions that necessitate increased plutonium processing. The bulk of this activity occurs at Technical Area -55 (TA-55), the nations only operable plutonium facility. TA-55 has developed and demonstrated a number of technologies that significantly minimize waste generation in plutonium processing (supercritical CO{sub 2}, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, supercritical H{sub 2}O oxidation, WAND), disposition of excess fissile materials (hydride-dehydride, electrolytic decontamination), disposition of historical waste inventories (salt distillation), and Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) of closed nuclear facilities (electrolytic decontamination). Furthermore, TA-55 is in the process of developing additional waste minimization technologies (molten salt oxidation, nitric acid recycle, americium extraction) that will significantly reduce ongoing waste generation rates and allow volume reduction of existing waste streams. Cost savings from reduction in waste volumes to be managed and disposed far exceed development and deployment costs in every case. Waste minimization is also important because it reduces occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, risks of transportation accidents, and transfer of burdens from current nuclear operations to future generations.

  7. An Integrated Approach to Evaluating the Technical and Commercial Options for Cogeneration Facilities in the Process Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. H.; McCue, R. H.

    , economic and financial considerations, as well as to the determination of the appropriate degree of thermal integration of the power and process subsystems. An overview of steam and gas turbine cycle options for process/power integration typical...

  8. Environmental assessment operation of the HB-Line facility and frame waste recovery process for production of Pu-238 oxide at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0948, addressing future operations of the HB-Line facility and the Frame Waste Recovery process at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, DOE has concluded that, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  9. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  10. Climate VISION: PrivateSector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    processing, transportation, and distribution. All of these segments are elements of the natural gas industry and the oil industry but are different for oil than for natural gas....

  11. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  12. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Second quarterly technical progress report, [April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is considered a timely effort for near-term goals. Technical progress is summarized for; geostatistical realizations; site-specific simulation;waterflood review; and reservoir characterization.

  13. Reducing Plug and Process Loads for a Large Scale, Low Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Pless, S.; Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents the design and operational plug and process load energy efficiency measures needed to allow a large scale office building to reach ultra high efficiency building goals. The appendices of this document contain a wealth of documentation pertaining to plug and process load design in the RSF, including a list of equipment was selected for use.

  14. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes facility safety requirements related to: nuclear safety design, criticality safety, fire protection and natural phenomena hazards mitigation.

  15. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes facility safety requirements related to: nuclear safety design, criticality safety, fire protection and natural phenomena hazards mitigation.

  16. Crude oil and shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrotra, A.K. [Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

    1995-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This year`s review on crude oil and shale oil has been prepared by classifying the references into the following main headings: Hydrocarbon Identification and Characterization, Trace Element Determination, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties, Viscosity, and Miscellaneous Topics. In the two-year review period, the references on shale oils were considerably less in number than those dealing with crude oils. Several new analytical methodologies and applications were reported for hydrocarbon characterization and trace element determination of crude oils and shale oils. Also included in this review are nine U.S., Canadian British and European patents. 12 refs.

  17. Degumming of cottonseed oil miscella by micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Shu

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    various amounts of substances such as phospholipids, coloring pigments, peroxides and trace metals that may impart undesirable flavor, color, or keeping quality. The conventional oil refining processes are energy intensive and costly. Membrane based... of Cottonseed Oil Edible Oil Refining Conventional Refining Method Physical Refining of Crude Oil Miscella Refining of Cottonseed Oil Energy Consumption in Oil Refining Surface-water and Pollution Degumming of Crude Oil Mechanism of Degumming Current...

  18. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  19. Selected Abstracts & Bibliography of International Oil Spill Research, through 1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research & Development Program Electronic Bibliography

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1984): 91 Key words: oil shale, Colorado, industrial plantL. Australian developments in oil shale processing. In 14thMines & U.S. Dep Energy Oil Shale Symp (Golden, Colo, 4/22

  20. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. J. and Cecchine, G. Oil shale development in the Unitedresources of some world oil-shale deposits. Technical Reportfor CO2 evolved from oil shale. Fuel Processing Technology,

  1. Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, January-March 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R. F.; O'Rear, D. J.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of SRC-II naphtha, middle distillate, and heavy distillate were received and analyzed. These samples are part of a planned study of the potential biological hazards of synthetic crudes. These oils will be hydrotreated when DOE provides blending instructions. Five drums of EDS syncrude made from Big Brown Texas lignite were received and analyzed. The boiling range and other properties of this syncrude are very similar to the properties of the previously studied H-Coal and SRC-II syncrudes. The hydrotreating severities, which were employed to upgrade the H-Coal and SRC-II syncrudes to transportation fuels, are expected to be close to the severities needed for the EDS syncrude.

  2. Shale Oil Production Performance from a Stimulated Reservoir Volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhary, Anish Singh

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    .1 Unconventional resources ................................................................................. 1 1.2 Oil shale and shale oil ....................................................................................... 6 1.3 Production from unconventional..., heavy oil, shale gas and shale oil. On the other hand, conventional reservoirs can be produced at economic flow rates and produce economic volumes of oil and gas without large stimulation treatments or any special recovery process. Conventional...

  3. PINCH WELD TESTING TO SUPPORT CHANGE IN MANUFACTURING OIL AT THE KCP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P; David Maxwell, D

    2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This task supports the change from an oil mixture termed 50:50 oil (an equal parts mixture of Milpro 634 and Pennex N47) to a new oil mixture (Castrol Illocut 334). This change was necessitated by a KCP vendor no longer supplying the Pennex N47 component of the 50-50. In order to continue production of machined parts, a detailed process was followed to ensure that high quality parts could be manufactured and that the cutting oil selected would provide acceptable human performance characteristics, e.g., skin irritability, smell, etc. A prime consideration in changing the oil was that no apparent change in the pinch weldability of the fill stems fabricated using the new oil and process parameters, if any, be observed. A two part approach, as detailed in the plan shown in Appendix B, was used to qualify the effect of the process on pinch weld characteristics. In the first phase, ref. 1., the weld parameter window was defined using fill stems made from 304L, 21-6-9, and 316 stainless steel. These weld conditions were then subsequently used for the Castrol Illocut 334 machined fill stems. The results of this activity are reported in this document. A follow-on task of welding in the facility was requested by one of the design agencies and this will be completed and reported separately.

  4. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography and gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi [Department of Offshore Process and Energy Systems Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil and gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil and gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 and 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 and 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  5. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  6. Wet processing of palladium for use in the tritium facility at Westinghouse, Savannah River, SC. Preparation of palladium using the Mound Muddy Water process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Palladium used at Savannah River for tritium storage is currently obtained from a commercial source. In order to better understand the processes involved in preparing this material, Savannah River is supporting investigations into the chemical reactions used to synthesize this material and into the conditions necessary to produce palladium powder that meets their specifications. This better understanding may help to guarantee a continued reliable source for this material in the future. As part of this evaluation, a work-for-others contract between Westinghouse Savannah River Company and the Ames Laboratory Metallurgy and Ceramics Program was initiated. During FY98, the process for producing palladium powder developed in 1986 by Dan Grove of Mound Applied Technologies (USDOE) was studied to understand the processing conditions that lead to changes in morphology in the final product. This report details the results of this study of the Mound Muddy Water process, along with the results of a round-robin analysis of well-characterized palladium samples that was performed by Savannah River and Ames Laboratory. The Mound Muddy Water process is comprised of three basic wet chemical processes, palladium dissolution, neutralization, and precipitation, with a number of filtration steps to remove unwanted impurity precipitates.

  7. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  8. Oil shale-A new frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mc Dermott, W.F.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Occidental began its development of the Modified In-Situ retorting process in the late 1960's. The first field work commenced at the Logan Wash property in 1972. Three research retorts were constructed and burned, utilizing two different methods of forming the retort. Following this successful research work, three commercial sized retorts were constructed. Over 100,000 barrels of oil have been produced to date. Two additional full-scale retorts are under development at Logan Wash. The results of the Logan Wash program are being used in the design and construction of the C.B. Federal Prototype Lease Tract. This 5,000 acre tract is leased to the Cathedral Bluffs Shale Oil Company, a partnership between Tenneco and Occidental, with Occidental as the operator, by the Department of Interior. Site work began in 1977 and currently three (3) large shafts are being sunk to a depth of about 1900 ft. to access the oil shale formation. The operation will commence in 1985 and reach full production in 1990. Both Modified In-Situ and surface retorting will be used to produce a nominal 100,000 barrels per day. The mine will hoist 60,000 tons per day and will use 3,400 underground workers in the mining, construction of the retorts, and the operation of the retorts. This combination of underground activities creates a unique challenge to the design and operation of such a facility.

  9. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  10. The Design-Build Process for the Research Support Facility (RSF), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed5,Audit Report TheDesign-Build Process

  11. The Mechanisms and Processes of Vegetation Dynamics on Oil-Shale Spoil Bings in West Lothian, Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvie, Barbra

    The work establishes the ecological importance of shale bings at both a local and global scale by presenting the mechanisms and processes of succession. The bings are postindustrial spoil heaps, the result of retorting ...

  12. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order establishes facility and programmatic safety requirements for Department of Energy facilities, which includes nuclear and explosives safety design criteria, fire protection, criticality safety, natural phenomena hazards mitigation, and the System Engineer Program. Cancels DOE O 420.1A. DOE O 420.1B Chg 1 issued 4-19-10.

  13. The Economic and Environmental Aspects of Heat Exchanger Cleaning -- How FP&L Has Used the Newly Patented MCC Process to Clean Turbine Lube Oil Coolers to Maximize Efficiency and Minimize Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, H. A. T.

    of efficient and timely cleaning of heat exchangers. There are great differences in the cleaning processes that are used to clean exchanger bundles in industry today. The cleaning of turbine lube oil coolers is a specialized case in point. A newly patented...

  14. STAR Facility Tritium Accountancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. J. Pawelko; J. P. Sharpe; B. J. Denny

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has been established to provide a laboratory infrastructure for the fusion community to study tritium science associated with the development of safe fusion energy and other technologies. STAR is a radiological facility with an administrative total tritium inventory limit of 1.5g (14,429 Ci) [1]. Research studies with moderate tritium quantities and various radionuclides are performed in STAR. Successful operation of the STAR facility requires the ability to receive, inventory, store, dispense tritium to experiments, and to dispose of tritiated waste while accurately monitoring the tritium inventory in the facility. This paper describes tritium accountancy in the STAR facility. A primary accountancy instrument is the tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS): a system designed to receive, assay, store, and dispense tritium to experiments. Presented are the methods used to calibrate and operate the SAS. Accountancy processes utilizing the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS), and the Stack Tritium Monitoring System (STMS) are also discussed. Also presented are the equations used to quantify the amount of tritium being received into the facility, transferred to experiments, and removed from the facility. Finally, the STAR tritium accountability database is discussed.

  15. STAR facility tritium accountancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawelko, R. J.; Sharpe, J. P.; Denny, B. J. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has been established to provide a laboratory infrastructure for the fusion community to study tritium science associated with the development of safe fusion energy and other technologies. STAR is a radiological facility with an administrative total tritium inventory limit of 1.5 g (14,429 Ci) [1]. Research studies with moderate tritium quantities and various radionuclides are performed in STAR. Successful operation of the STAR facility requires the ability to receive, inventory, store, dispense tritium to experiments, and to dispose of tritiated waste while accurately monitoring the tritium inventory in the facility. This paper describes tritium accountancy in the STAR facility. A primary accountancy instrument is the tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS): a system designed to receive, assay, store, and dispense tritium to experiments. Presented are the methods used to calibrate and operate the SAS. Accountancy processes utilizing the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS), and the Stack Tritium Monitoring System (STMS) are also discussed. Also presented are the equations used to quantify the amount of tritium being received into the facility, transferred to experiments, and removed from the facility. Finally, the STAR tritium accountability database is discussed. (authors)

  16. Processing needs and methodology for wastewaters from the conversion of coal, oil shale, and biomass to synfuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The workshop identifies needs to be met by processing technology for wastewaters, and evaluates the suitability, approximate costs, and problems associated with current technology. Participation was confined to DOE Environmental Control Technology contractors to pull together and integrate past wastewater-related activities, to assess the status of synfuel wastewater treatability and process options, and to abet technology transfer. Particular attention was paid to probable or possible environmental restrictions which cannot be economically met by present technology. Primary emphasis was focussed upon process-condensate waters from coal-conversion and shale-retorting processes. Due to limited data base and time, the workshop did not deal with transients, upsets, trade-offs and system optimization, or with solids disposal. The report is divided into sections that, respectively, survey the water usage and effluent situation (II); identify the probable and possible water-treatment goals anticipated at the time when large-scale plants will be constructed (III); assess the capabilities, costs and shortcomings of present technology (IV); explore particularly severe environmental-control problems (V); give overall conclusions from the Workshop and recommendations for future research and study (VI); and, finally, present Status Reports of current work from participants in the Workshop (VII).

  17. Liquid waste certification plan 340 waste handling facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HALGREN, D.L.

    1999-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This document addresses the discharges from the 340 Facility to the 300 Area Process Sewer and Retention Process Sewer.

  18. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  19. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bio-oil is a liquid product produced by fast pyrol-ysis of biomass. The fast pyrolysis is performed by heating the biomass rapidly (2 sec) at temperatures ranging from 350 to 650 oC. The vapors produced by this rapid heating are then condensed to produce a dark brown water-based emulsion composed of frag-ments of the original hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin molecules contained in the biomass. Yields range from 60 to 75% based on the feedstock type and the pyrolysis reactor employed. The bio-oil pro-duced by this process has a number of negative prop-erties that are produced mainly by the high oxygen content (40 to 50%) contributed by that contained in water (25 to 30% of total mass) and oxygenated compounds. Each bio-oil contains hundreds of chemi-cal compounds. The chemical composition of bio-oil renders it a very recalcitrant chemical compound. To date, the difficulties in utilizing bio-oil have limited its commercial development to the production of liq-uid smoke as food flavoring. Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion engine fuel have resulted in engine or turbine dam-age; however, Stirling engines have been shown to successfully combust raw bio-oil without damage. Utilization of raw bio-oil as a boiler fuel has met with more success and an ASTM standard has recently been released describing bio-oil characteristics in relation to assigned fuel grades. However, commercialization has been slow to follow and no reports of distribution of these bio-oil boiler fuels have been reported. Co-feeding raw bio-oil with coal has been successfully performed but no current power generation facilities are following this practice. Upgrading of bio-oils to hydrocarbons via hydroprocessing is being performed by several organizations. Currently, limited catalyst life is the obstacle to commercialization of this tech-nology. Researchers have developed means to increase the anhydrosugars content of bio-oil above the usual 3% produced during normal pyrolysis by mild acid pretreatment of the biomass feedstock. Mississippi State University has developed a proprietary method to produce an aqueous fraction containing more than 50% of anhydrosugars content. These anhydrosugars can be catalyzed to hydrogen or hydrocarbons; alter-nately, the aqueous fraction can be hydrolyzed to pro-duce a high-glucose content. The hydrolyzed product can then be filtered to remove microbial inhibitor compounds followed by production of alcohols by fer-mentation. Production of bio-oil is now considered a major candidate as a technology promising production of drop-in transportation and boiler fuels.

  20. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  1. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

  2. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish facility safety requirements for the Department of Energy, including National Nuclear Security Administration. Cancels DOE O 420.1. Canceled by DOE O 420.1B.

  3. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  4. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  5. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE-STD-1104 contains the Department's method and criteria for reviewing and approving nuclear facility's documented safety analysis (DSA). This review and approval formally document the basis for DOE, concluding that a facility can be operated safely in a manner that adequately protects workers, the public, and the environment. Therefore, it is appropriate to formally require implementation of the review methodology and criteria contained in DOE-STD-1104.

  6. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Order is to establish facility safety requirements related to: nuclear safety design, criticality safety, fire protection and natural phenomena hazards mitigation. The Order has Change 1 dated 11-16-95, Change 2 dated 10-24-96, and the latest Change 3 dated 11-22-00 incorporated. The latest change satisfies a commitment made to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in response to DNFSB recommendation 97-2, Criticality Safety.

  7. Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and/or ASTM No. 2 fuel oil is recovered

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauman, Richard F. (Houston, TX); Ryan, Daniel F. (Friendswood, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the relative concentration of hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) components and as a result reduces the gas yield during liquefaction and decreases hydrogen consumption during said liquefaction. The hydrogenation severity can be controlled to increase the yield of naphthenic components and hence the yield of jet fuel and in a preferred embodiment jet fuel yield is maximized while at the same time maintaining solvent balance.

  8. Verification of the Accountability Method as a Means to Classify Radioactive Wastes Processed Using THOR Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming at the Studsvik Processing Facility in Erwin, Tennessee, USA - 13087

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olander, Jonathan [Studsvik Processing Facility Erwin, 151 T.C. Runnion Rd., Erwin, TN 37650 (United States)] [Studsvik Processing Facility Erwin, 151 T.C. Runnion Rd., Erwin, TN 37650 (United States); Myers, Corey [Studsvik, Inc., 5605 Glenridge Drive, Suite 705, Atlanta, GA 30342 (United States)] [Studsvik, Inc., 5605 Glenridge Drive, Suite 705, Atlanta, GA 30342 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studsviks' Processing Facility Erwin (SPFE) has been treating Low-Level Radioactive Waste using its patented THOR process for over 13 years. Studsvik has been mixing and processing wastes of the same waste classification but different chemical and isotopic characteristics for the full extent of this period as a general matter of operations. Studsvik utilizes the accountability method to track the movement of radionuclides from acceptance of waste, through processing, and finally in the classification of waste for disposal. Recently the NRC has proposed to revise the 1995 Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation (1995 BTP on CA) with additional clarification (draft BTP on CA). The draft BTP on CA has paved the way for large scale blending of higher activity and lower activity waste to produce a single waste for the purpose of classification. With the onset of blending in the waste treatment industry, there is concern from the public and state regulators as to the robustness of the accountability method and the ability of processors to prevent the inclusion of hot spots in waste. To address these concerns and verify the accountability method as applied by the SPFE, as well as the SPFE's ability to control waste package classification, testing of actual waste packages was performed. Testing consisted of a comprehensive dose rate survey of a container of processed waste. Separately, the waste package was modeled chemically and radiologically. Comparing the observed and theoretical data demonstrated that actual dose rates were lower than, but consistent with, modeled dose rates. Moreover, the distribution of radioactivity confirms that the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste form. The results of the study demonstrate: 1) the accountability method as applied by the SPFE is valid and produces expected results; 2) the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste; and 3) the SPFE can effectively control the waste package classification. (authors)

  9. MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACTIVITIES IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS IN A FEDERAL REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C; David Diprete, D; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of the analyses of High Level Waste (HLW) sludge slurry samples and of the calculations necessary to decay the radionuclides to meet the reporting requirement in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) [1]. The concentrations of 45 radionuclides were measured. The results of these analyses provide input for radioactive decay calculations used to project the radionuclide inventory at the specified index years, 2015 and 3115. This information is necessary to complete the Production Records at Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so that the final glass product resulting from Macrobatch 5 (MB5) can eventually be submitted to a Federal Repository. Five of the necessary input radionuclides for the decay calculations could not be measured directly due to their low concentrations and/or analytical interferences. These isotopes are Nb-93m, Pd-107, Cd-113m, Cs-135, and Cm-248. Methods for calculating these species from concentrations of appropriate other radionuclides will be discussed. Also the average age of the MB5 HLW had to be calculated from decay of Sr-90 in order to predict the initial concentration of Nb-93m. As a result of the measurements and calculations, thirty-one WAPS reportable radioactive isotopes were identified for MB5. The total activity of MB5 sludge solids will decrease from 1.6E+04 {micro}Ci (1 {micro}Ci = 3.7E+04 Bq) per gram of total solids in 2008 to 2.3E+01 {micro}Ci per gram of total solids in 3115, a decrease of approximately 700 fold. Finally, evidence will be given for the low observed concentrations of the radionuclides Tc-99, I-129, and Sm-151 in the HLW sludges. These radionuclides were reduced in the MB5 sludge slurry to a fraction of their expected production levels due to SRS processing conditions.

  10. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Public Facilities (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All facilities using public funds for construction or renovation must undergo a life cycle analysis, which will consider energy efficiency and on-site energy equipment using the sun, wind, oil,...

  11. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF) LABORATORY GERMANIUM OXIDE USE ON RECYCLE TRANSFERS TO THE H-TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.; Laurinat, J.

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    When processing High Level Waste (HLW) glass, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. Therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream feed stream, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. This strategy is known as 'feed forward statistical process control.' The DWPF depends on chemical analysis of the feed streams from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) where the frit plus adjusted sludge from the SRAT are mixed. The SME is the last vessel in which any chemical adjustments or frit additions can be made. Once the analyses of the SME product are deemed acceptable, the SME product is transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and onto the melter. The SRAT and SME analyses have been analyzed by the DWPF laboratory using a 'Cold Chemical' method but this dissolution did not adequately dissolve all the elemental components. A new dissolution method which fuses the SRAT or SME product with cesium nitrate (CsNO{sub 3}), germanium (IV) oxide (GeO{sub 2}) and cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) into a cesium germanate glass at 1050 C in platinum crucibles has been developed. Once the germanium glass is formed in that fusion, it is readily dissolved by concentrated nitric acid (about 1M) to solubilize all the elements in the SRAT and/or SME product for elemental analysis. When the chemical analyses are completed the acidic cesium-germanate solution is transferred from the DWPF analytic laboratory to the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) where the pH is increased to {approx}12 M to be released back to the tank farm and the 2H evaporator. Therefore, about 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2}/year will be diluted into 1.4 million gallons of recycle. This 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2} may increase to 4 kg/yr when improvements are implemented to attain an annual canister production goal of 400 canisters. Since no Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) exists for germanium in the Tank Farm, the Effluent Treatment Project, or the Saltstone Production Facility, DWPF has requested an evaluation of the fate of the germanium in the caustic environment of the RCT, the 2H evaporator, and the tank farm. This report evaluates the effect of the addition of germanium to the tank farm based on: (1) the large dilution of Ge in the RCT and tank farm; (2) the solubility of germanium in caustic solutions (pH 12-13); (3) the potential of germanium to precipitate as germanium sodalites in the 2H Evaporator; and (4) the potential of germanium compounds to precipitate in the evaporator feed tank. This study concludes that the impacts of transferring up to 4 kg/yr germanium to the RCT (and subsequently the 2H evaporator feed tank and the 2H evaporator) results in <2 ppm per year (1.834 mg/L) which is the maximum instantaneous concentration expected from DWPF. This concentration is insignificant as most sodium germanates are soluble at the high pH of the feed tank and evaporator solutions. Even if sodium aluminosilicates form in the 2H evaporator, the Ge will likely substitute for some small amount of the Si in these structures and will be insignificant. It is recommended that the DWPF continue with their strategy to add germanium as a laboratory chemical to Attachment 8.2 of the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan (WCP).

  12. Modeling and detection of oil in sea water Angeliki Xenakia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    -water owing to either natural processes (e.g., biogenic oil) or human-induced pollution (e.g., oil slicks focused on monitoring and characterizing oil pollution on the sea surface. Remote sens- ing methods fromModeling and detection of oil in sea water Angeliki Xenakia) Department of Applied Mathematics

  13. Facility model for the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, C.A.; Thomas, K.E.; Sohn, C.L.; Yarbro, T.F.; Hench, K.W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos Plutonium Facility contains more than sixty unit processes and handles a large variety of nuclear materials, including many forms of plutonium-bearing scrap. The management of the Plutonium Facility is supporting the development of a computer model of the facility as a means of effectively integrating the large amount of information required for material control, process planning, and facility development. The model is designed to provide a flexible, easily maintainable facility description that allows the faciltiy to be represented at any desired level of detail within a single modeling framework, and to do this using a model program and data files that can be read and understood by a technically qualified person without modeling experience. These characteristics were achieved by structuring the model so that all facility data is contained in data files, formulating the model in a simulation language that provides a flexible set of data structures and permits a near-English-language syntax, and using a description for unit processes that can represent either a true unit process or a major subsection of the facility. Use of the model is illustrated by applying it to two configurations of a fictitious nuclear material processing line.

  14. Sulfur distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    by the thermal cracking process of the El-Lujjan oil shale showed that the yield of oil was around 12 wt of the boiling point for different distillate fractions. Sulfur in Jordanian oil shale was found to be mainly the dominant phases in these fractions. q 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Oil shale

  15. Process for the polymerization of vinyl chloride in aqueous suspension utilizing an oil-soluble initiator and subsequently a water-soluble initiator and use of the powders obtained thereby

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petit, A.

    1981-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for the polymerization of vinyl chloride in aqueous suspension in the presence of a dispersing system comprising a cellulosic derivative and an anionic emulsifying agent wherein the polymerizaton is initiated by an oil-soluble initiator and a water-soluble free radical polymerization initiator is added in the course of polymerization. The thus obtained polyvinyl chloride powders are particularly suitable for the production of battery separators.

  16. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes facility safety requirements related to: nuclear safety design, criticality safety, fire protection and natural phenomena hazards mitigation. Cancels DOE 5480.7A, DOE 5480.24, DOE 5480.28 and Division 13 of DOE 6430.1A. Canceled by DOE O 420.1A.

  17. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Order establishes facility and programmatic safety requirements for DOE and NNSA for nuclear safety design criteria, fire protection, criticality safety, natural phenomena hazards (NPH) mitigation, and System Engineer Program. Cancels DOE O 420.1B, DOE G 420.1-2 and DOE G 420.1-3.

  18. Land and Facility Use Planning

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Land and Facility Use Planning process provides a way to guide future site development and reuse based on the shared long-term goals and objectives of the Department, site and its stakeholders. Does not cancel other directives.

  19. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  20. An innovative concept for deep water oil production platform design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Racine, Florian

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As more oil and gas are discovered in deep water, the offshore industry has become increasingly interested in the design of deep water offshore production facilities. A new design concept tentatively called FPSOT (Floating ...

  1. Turbine fuels from tar-sands bitumen and heavy oil. Volume 2. Phase 3. Process design specifications for a turbine-fuel refinery charging San Ardo heavy crude oil. Final report, 1 June 1985-31 March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, A.F.; Swesey, J.R.; Magill, L.G.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engineering design was developed for a 50,000-BPSD grass-roots refinery to produce aviation turbine fuel grades JP-4 and JP-8 from San Ardo heavy crude oil. The design was based on the pilot-plant studies described in Phase III - Volume I of this report. The detailed plant design described in this report was used to determine estimated production costs.

  2. The Bayou Choctaw Oil Shipment Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, S.J.; Ballard, S.; Barker, G.T.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early October of 1993, an oil shipment of about 1 million barrels was made from the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility to St. James Terminal. During the shipment, oil temperatures and soil temperatures along the pipeline were recorded. The field data were used to make estimations of soil thermal properties, thermal conductivity and specific heat. These data were also used to validate and calibrate a heat transfer code, OILPIP, which has been used to calculate pipeline cooling of oil during a drawdown.

  3. Economic Impact of a Trans-loading Facility January 8, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    .0 Taxes in New Mexico 6 5.1 Indirect Tax Impacts 6 5.2 Direct Taxes on Oil Production 8 6.0 Summary-loading facility in Rancho Cielo's business park to serve oil activities in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico an incentive to drill for more oil. Coast Range Investments contracted with New Mexico State University

  4. Research on Oil Recovery Mechanisms in Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis M. Castanier; William E. Brigham

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to increase recovery of heavy oils. Towards that goal studies are being conducted in how to assess the influence of temperature and pressure on the absolute and relative permeability to oil and water and on capillary pressure; to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the in site combustion process; to develop and understand mechanisms of surfactants on for the reduction of gravity override and channeling of steam; and to improve techniques of formation evaluation.

  5. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  6. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  7. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing. Final report, Task 13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R&D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining.

  8. Baldwin Thermal Treatment Facility, Baldwin, Illinois: Organics and contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kipin, P.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Baldwin Thermal Treatment Facility is located at the Illinois Power Company`s Baldwin Power Plant, east of St. Louis, Missouri. It consists of two coal fired cyclone boilers and one pulverized coal boiler. Wastes are fed to the two cyclone boilers, at present. Future expansion to the pulverizer unit is planned. The boilers burn at 3,000 F with six seconds retention. This exceeds blast furnaces and most incinerators. An added feature is that the coal and waste materials are injected directly into the hottest zone immediately preventing any possible creation of dioxins. Up to 600 tons of waste per day can be fed to the boilers. This will increase when the third boiler is added to the permit. The facility can take a wide range of sizes and concentrations of coal tars and oils. The on-site process equipment will process these with on-site coal in varying proportions as required to ensure a stable uniform feed to the boiler. The on-site process equipment can process intermixed rock, metal, concrete, soil into a uniform blend with coal tars and coal. On-site decontamination of scrap metal is also provided for.

  9. Mexico’s Deteriorating Oil Outlook: Implications and Energy Options for the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    processing of heavier crude oil, and production of cleaner,A ccelerates Mexico’s crude oil production, which reached a43 percent of Mexico’s crude oil production, compared to 63

  10. OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentTrace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J. Kland, A.Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H. Fish,

  11. OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentStudies Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J.Organic Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H.

  12. OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentTrace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J. Kland, A.Organic Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H.

  13. WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J. P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4, 19'70, p. 89. 24. C-b Shale Oil Venture: Hydrology, MinePiles Solid wastes from the shale-oil recovery process alsofrom a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedings of

  14. OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    each of retort water and shale oil, about 10 1 000 standardfrom In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and Environmentanic species present in shale oils process waters, gases,

  15. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  16. Aspects of Hess' Acquisition of American Oil & Gas

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 27, 2010, Hess Corporation announced that it had agreed to acquire American Oil & Gas, Inc. in a stock-only transaction worth as much as $488 million (based on Hess' closing price of $53.30/share, anticipated number of newly issued shares, and $30 million credit facility extended to American Oil & Gas prior to closing).

  17. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  18. Superior Energy Performance Industrial Facility Best Practice...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    activities, processes or procedures that are "above and beyond" the requirements of ISO 50001. Superior Energy Performance Industrial Facility Best Practice Scorecard...

  19. Washington Energy Facility Site Evalutation Council - Generalized...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Washington Energy Facility Site Evalutation Council - Generalized Siting Process Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Chart: Washington Energy...

  20. Facilities: NHMFL 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Fourier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Facilities: NHMFL 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Jacqueline M. Jarvis, Amy M. McKenna, Roger N and aqueous phases. Here, each phase is characterized by negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier

  1. The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale Awni Y. Al was performed on the spent oil shale (oil shale ash) obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale process, minimal fragmentation was encountered since Jordanian oil shale contains large proportions of ash

  2. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  3. Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by Emulsification With Injected Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez Cedillo, Arturo Rey

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ oil-in-water emulsion generation, using modified silica hydrophilic nanoparticles as emulsifier, has been proposed as an enhanced oil recovery process. The nanoparticles are injected as an aqueous dispersion; its hydrophilic character allows...

  4. Mobile Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenterDioxide Capture inFacility AMF Information Science

  5. Facility Representatives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd ofEvaluations in Covered Facilities | Department of Energy

  6. Facility Representatives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd ofEvaluations in Covered Facilities | Department of Energy063-2011

  7. Facility Status

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-lFederalFYRANDOM DRUG TESTING The requirementFacility

  8. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  9. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  10. Jordan ships oil shale to China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jordan and China have signed an agreement to develop oil shale processing technology that could lead to a 200 ton/day oil shale plant in Jordan. China will process 1200 tons of Jordanian oil shale at its Fu Shun refinery. If tests are successful, China could build the demonstration plant in Jordan's Lajjun region, where the oil shale resource is estimated at 1.3 billion tons. China plans to send a team to Jordan to conduct a plant design study. A Lajjun oil shale complex could produce as much as 50,000 b/d of shale oil. An earlier 500 ton shipment of shale is said to have yielded promising results.

  11. Thermal recovery of oil and bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, R.M. (Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book is organized into the following chapters: Introduction to Thermal Recovery; Conduction of Heat Within Solids; Convective Heating within Reservoirs; Steamfloodings; The Displacement of Heavy Oil; Cyclic Steam Simulation; Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage; Steam Recovery Equipment and Facilities; and In Situ Combustion.

  12. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  13. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2010-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

  14. STRIPPING OF PROCESS CONDENSATES FROM SOLID FUEL CONVERSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Joel David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous luents from In Situ Oil Shale Processing", Proc. ofStudy of An In Situ Oil Shale Process Water'', Lawrenceand from the Omega-9 in situ oil shale retorting test (Rock

  15. STRIPPING OF PROCESS CONDENSATES FROM SOLID FUEL CONVERSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Joel David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous luents from In Situ Oil Shale Processing", Proc. ofStudy of An In Situ Oil Shale Process Water'', Lawrencefuels, such as coal, oil shale and tar sands. It is

  16. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  17. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    over time even if the oil market were perfectly competitive.a big role in world oil markets, that era is long past.and re?ning oil and delivering it to the market. We could

  18. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appeared in the world oil market in the last fifteen years.have on the world oil markets and international relationsthe stability of the oil markets. 11 This literature,

  19. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China made an Iranian oil investment valued at $70 billion.across Iran, China’s oil investment may exceed $100 billionthese involving investment in oil and gas, really undermine

  20. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),the faster its growth in oil demand over the last half ofthe income elasticity of oil demand to fall signi?cantly.

  1. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    current pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentthis point, China’s demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supply inand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

  2. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

  3. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crudein predicting quarterly real oil price change. variable real

  4. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq KuwaitEIA Table 1.2, “OPEC Crude Oil Production (Excluding Lease2008, from EIA, “Crude Oil Production. ” Figure 16. U.S.

  5. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unfettered access to oil resources including the possibleChina’s search for oil resources around the world. However,a survey of China’s oil resources, while others focus

  6. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

  7. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

  8. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

  9. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in U.S. real GDP and oil consumption, 1949-2006. slope =Historical Chinese oil consumption and projection of trend.1991-2006: Chinese oil consumption in millions of barrels

  10. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait,day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.and the peak in U.S. oil production account for the broad

  11. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  12. ISIS Facility: Facility Design Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    ­ Cooling ­ Radiation Damage & Rad Accelerated Corrosion ­ Remote Handling/Radioactive Waste ­ Remote are assumed. 2. Hot Cell / Remote Handling ­ All mercury target and process components must be contained in nature to a similar solid target. · PROCESS EQUIPMENT: Remote handling requirements of mercury pump, HX

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  14. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan will ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, at a minimum, every 3 years.

  15. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, China’s demand Oil

  16. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    historical data for claiming to be able to predict oil pricehistorical data. The second is to look at the predictions of economic theory as to how oil prices

  17. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007”. comparison, Mexico used 6.6— Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexico’s Cantarell,

  18. State of heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    California is unique in the United States because it has the largest heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees}API gravity) resource, estimated to be in excess of 40 billion barrels. Of the current 941,543 barrels/day of oil produced in California (14% of the U.S. total), 70% or 625,312 barrels/day is heavy oil. Heavy oil constituted only 20% of California`s oil production in the early 1940s, but development of thermal oil production technology in the 1960s allowed the heavy industry to grow and prosper to the point where by the mid-1980s, heavy oil constituted 70% of the state`s oil production. Similar to the rest of the United States, light oil production in the Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Region, and San Joaquin Valley peaked and then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Unlike other states, California developed a heavy oil industry that replaced declining light oil production and increased the states total oil production, despite low heavy oil prices, stringent environmental regulations and long and costly delays in developing known oil resources. California`s deep conversion refineries process the nation`s highest sulfur, lowest API gravity crude to make the cleanest transportation fuels available. More efficient vehicles burning cleaner reformulated fuels have significantly reduced the level of ozone precursors (the main contributor to California`s air pollution) and have improved air quality over the last 20 years. In a state where major oil companies dominate, the infrastructure is highly dependent on the 60% of ANS production being refined in California, and California`s own oil production. When this oil is combined with the small volume of imported crude, a local surplus of marketed oil exists that inhibits exploitation of California`s heavy oil resources. As ANS production declines, or if the export restrictions on ANS sales are lifted, a window of opportunity develops for increased heavy oil production.

  19. Quality assurance in the petroleum industry: Oil and gas industry Total Quality Management (TQM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penny, N.P.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development and implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC), known as Elk Hills', and one of the largest oil and gas producing and processing facilities in the nation. NPRC is jointly owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and Chevron USA Inc. (CUSA), and is managed and operated by Bechtel Petroleum Operations Inc. (BPOI). This paper describes step-by-step methods for getting started in TQM in the oil and gas industry, including the essential quality systems ingredients. The paper also illustrates how the President's Award for Quality and Productivity Improvement and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) can be used as the assessment standards and benchmarks for measuring TQM. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Oil shale technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.