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1

Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems  

SciTech Connect

For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

Johnson, Eric P., E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.uk

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

"Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" 0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day)" ,,,," Inputs for Heat",,," Primary Consumption" " "," Primary Consumption for all Purposes",,," Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," for Nonfuel Purposes",,,"RSE" ," ------------------------------------",,," ------------------------------------",,," -------------------------------",,,"Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","Factors"

3

LPG in Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The use of LPG for domestic consumption in Venezuela began in late 1929 when LPG was imported in lots of 500 cylinders. These cylinders were then returned to the U.S. for refilling. Total consumption at that time was some 40M/sup 3/ (250 barrels) per year and by 1937 had grown to some 540M/sup 3/ (3,400 barrels) per year. Local production of LPG from gas began in the mid thirties with a small cooling plant in the Mene Grande Field in the Lake Maracaibo area, the first field to produce oil in Venezuela (1914). This plant produced gasoline for a refinery and some of the first LPG used in Venezuela for domestic consumption. The capacity of this plant was insufficient to satisfy the growing demand for LPG which was supplied from refinery production until the development of the natural gas processing industry. At the present time, Venezuelan refineries are net consumers of LPG.

Romero, O.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

Patinkin, L.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Jet fuel from LPG  

SciTech Connect

Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Improved water-driven lpg slug process  

SciTech Connect

The economics of oil recovery by the LPG-slug process depends upon increasing the sweep efficiency and recovering the injected LPG. There are 2 basic forms of the LPG-slug processes--the gas-driven and the water-driven. The pressure required for miscibility between dry gas and LPG prohibits the use of the gas-driven LPG process in shallow reservoirs. The water-driven LPG slug process normally exhibits good sweep efficiency. However, displacement of the LPG by water is poor. An improvement in this process appears possible by injecting a slug of carbon dioxide between the LPG slug and the water drive. Laboratory experiments were conducted in linear core systems to determine the effect of pressure on the various displacement zones. A displacement test was conducted with LPG and carbon dioxide slugs large enough to avoid interference between the oil-LPG, LPG-carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide- water displacement zones. Under these conditions, essentially complete oil and LPG recovery was obtained. However, a substantial amount of carbon dioxide was left in the core at water breakthrough.

Thompson, J.L.

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

LPG fuel shutoff system  

SciTech Connect

An LPG fuel shutoff system for use with a vehicle having an LPG fuel engine and having a solenoid valve to supply and shut off LPG fuel is described including: a relay having a relay contact which is closed when an electric current is fed to a coil of the relay; a pressure switch having a first position and a second position and adapted to be in the first position when engine oil pressure rises above a predetermined level; and an oil lamp adapted to light when the engine oil pressure is below the predetermined level, and wherein a solenoid coil of the solenoid valve is connected at one side to a battery through an ignition switch and a fuel switch. The solenoid coil also is connected, at another side of the solenoid coil, in series to the relay contact and the pressure switch in the second position respectively, the coil of the relay is connected to the solenoid valve side of the ignition switch through a starting switch, the oil lamp is connected between the ignition switch and the pressure switch.

Watanabe, T.; Miyata, K.

1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

8

LPG | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LPG LPG Dataset Summary Description The JodiOil World Database is freely available from the Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI) and is updated on or around the 20th of each month. Source JODI Date Released October 01st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated March 21st, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords crude oil diesel fuel oil gasoline kerosene LPG Data application/zip icon Text file, all JODI Database data: Jan 2002 - Jan 2011 (zip, 14.5 MiB) application/pdf icon Definitions of Abbreviations and Codes (pdf, 698.3 KiB) application/pdf icon Column Headings for Dataset (pdf, 13.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Some of the data has "some review" and some of the data has "no review"; the supplemental documentation provides definitions for the assessment codes for each piece of data in the datasets (essentially, 1 = some review, 2 = use with caution, 3 = not reviewed)

9

Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Planning and care mark repair of 14-year old leak in Kuwait Oil Co. LPG tank 95  

SciTech Connect

This paper points out that the leak, which had been present for such a long time, completely saturated the perlite insulation with hydrocarbons, thus rendering the entire operation of inspection, repair, and maintenance of the inner tank a hazardous operation. It emphasizes the safety aspects, which were complicated by the saturated perlite as well as by the fact that the tank is situated in the middle of the LPG storage area with LPG tanks on either side. Tank design, making preparations, inspection, and repair are discussed. The fact that the leaking flanges were originally installed damaged, indicated the future need of tighter company quality control of all contractors work.

Shtayieh, S.

1983-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

11

Catalytic conversion of LPG  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Impact of foreign LPG operations on domestic LPG markets  

SciTech Connect

During 1978 the federal government passed legislation allowing a major increase in natural gas prices and offering hope that some portion of the supply will be allowed to reach free market levels. The mechanism for decontrol of crude oil was also put into effect. This favorable government action and higher world oil prices have led to a major resurgence in domestic exploration. In addition to the supply effects, there appears to have been a substantial demand response to the latest round of world oil price increases. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these events have affected domestic LPG markets and pricing.

Jones, C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

LPG in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The authors review LPG in Mexico. They attempt to project numbers to the year 2000 using a supply/demand comparison.

Miles, E.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Indonesia's Arun LPG plant production is unique in Far East markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Entry of the Arun (Indonesia) LNG plant into the LPG Far East markets is significant because its supplies for those markets are not tied to gas being extracted in association with crude oil. Arun LPG products are extracted from gas that is processed into and marketed as LNG. This article on the Arun LNG plant analyzes its LPG process and the significance of the LPG project on the plant's markets. Particular attention is paid to: 1.) LPG recovery; 2.) LPG fractionation; and 3.) Far East trade.

Naklie, M.M.; Penick, D.P.; Denton, L.A.; Kartiyoso, I.

1987-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

15

LPG in Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a brief history of the LPG industry, the overall consumption and sector usage for both the U.S. and Missouri, the movement and storage of LPG, the future supply and demand, and the identification of various state and federal regulations.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Make aromatics from LPG  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

Doolan, P.C. (BP Exploration Co. Ltd., London (GB)); Pujado, P.R. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (US))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Venezuela. [LPG marketing and production  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied petroleum gas marketing and production from Venezuela are not very complicated or big in the business. There is moderate LPG production since the main production comes from oil. There is about 2.3 million bpd of oil production compared with less than 70,000 bpd of gas liquids. Of more than 95% of the associated gas produced with the oil, 50% is injected as a condensate recovery process. Up to now, the LPG plants have been producing only a trickle, most of it from gas before it was injected. In the future program for gas utilization, it is estimated that by 1980 about twice the liquid that is now being produced would be available for exportation to natural markets of the Gulf of Mexico and the east coast. The production of about 7 million tons until the year 2000 can be continued with good conservation and with the future potential area that has been discovered in the south part of the lake and offshore Venezuela.

Reyes, A.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

New method developed for LPG offshore loading  

SciTech Connect

An innovative concept for refrigerated LPG offshore loading has been developed by TOTAL and Enterprise D'Equipments Mecaniques at Hydrauliques. Known as CHAGAL, the system integrates with the catenary anchor leg mooring offshore loading system commonly used for crude oil. CHAGAL provides a suitable answer to short-term development schemes of LPG trade. It can be adapted for possible extrapolation to cryogenic temperatures of LNG and it opens a new way to the development of offshore liquefaction projects for which the offloading of production is still an unsolved key problem.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Propane, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Propane: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Propane: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ford F-150 (Dual-Fuel LPG) Propane or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a clean-burning fossil fuel that can be used to power internal combustion engines. LPG-fueled vehicles can produce significantly lower amounts of some harmful emissions and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). LPG is usually less expensive than gasoline, it can be used without degrading vehicle performance, and most LPG used in U.S. comes from domestic sources. The availability of LPG-fueled light-duty passenger vehicles is currently limited. A few light-duty vehicles-mostly larger trucks and vans-can be ordered from a dealer with a prep-ready engine package and converted to use propane. Existing conventional vehicles can also be converted for LPG use.

20

Table A58. Capability to Switch from LPG to Alternative Energy Sources by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Capability to Switch from LPG to Alternative Energy Sources by" 8. Capability to Switch from LPG to Alternative Energy Sources by" " Industry Group, Selected Industries, and Selected Characteristics, 1991" " (Estimates in Thousand Barrels)" ,," LPG",,," Alternative Types of Energy(b)" ,,"-","-","-------------","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","RSE" ,,"Total"," ","Not","Electricity",,,,,,,"Row" ,,"Consumed(b)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Letter to the editor/Shell treats LPG  

SciTech Connect

In response to an article on the MALAPROP process Shell International Petroleum Mij. B.V. notes that Shell's Adip process has gained a solid position world-wide in economically treating very large amounts of LPG for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide. Most Shell refineries are equipped with the Adip process, which cumulatively treates approx. 7000 tons/day of LPG. Middle East LPG facilities designed for the Arabian American Oil Co. treat 30,000 tons/day, and an additional 16,000 will come on stream in Jan. 1983. The removal of carbonyl sulfide to a few parts-per-million is easy.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Use expander cycles for LPG recovery  

SciTech Connect

Expander-type cycles are competitive with other gas recovery processes even when applied to relatively rich gas feeds for a high recovery of only propane plus. These cycles are the most economical to use when (1) ''free pressure drop'' is available between feed and residue gas pressure; (2) product requires demethanization only; (3) feed is very lean and propane plus heavier components are required; (4) a small, unattended, prefabricated unit for LPG recovery is needed; (5) an offshore LPG facility is required to be built on a platform where space and weight allowance is at a premium; (6) a facility is initially built for propane recovery, but is planned for future conversion to ethane recovery; and (7) relatively low-pressure gas feeds (which are usually quite rich) must be processed for a high recovery of ethane. A flow chart for an oil absorption plant is presented.

Valdes, A.R.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Successful operation of a large LPG plant. [Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

The LPG plant located at Mina-Al Ahmadi, Kuwait, is the heart of Kuwait Oil Co.'s massive Gas Project to use the associated gas from Kuwait's oil production. Operation of this three-train plant has been very successful. A description is given of the three process trains consisting of four basic units: extraction, fractionation, product treating, and refrigeration. Initial problems relating to extraction, fractionation, product treating and, refrigeration are discussed. 1 ref.

Shtayieh, S.; Durr, C.A.; McMillan, J.C.; Collins, C.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The SONATRACH jumbo LPG plant  

SciTech Connect

The authors aim is to give to the 17 TH world gas conference a general idea on SONATRACH LPG PLANT which is located in the ARZEW area. They develop this communication as follows: general presentation of LPG plant: During the communication, the author's will give the assistance all the information concerning the contractions the erection's date and the LPG PLANT process, start-up of the plant: In this chapter, the authors's will describe the start-up condition, the performance test result, the flexibility test result and the total mechanical achievement of the plant; operation by SONATRACH: After the success that obtained during the mechanical achievement and performance test, the contractor handed over the plant to SONATRACH.

Ahmed Khodja, A.; Bennaceur, A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

LPG storage vessel cracking experience  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems found were due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. This article's recommendations concern minimizing cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

Cantwell, J.E. (Caltex Petroleum Corp., P.O. Box 619500, Dallas, TX (US))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

LPG storage vessel cracking experience  

SciTech Connect

As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide were found. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. Recommendations are made to minimize cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

Cantwell, J.E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Industrial cooperation in the field of LPG  

SciTech Connect

The years to come should confirm the availability of LPG worldwide and enable future users in developing countries to satisfy energy requirements which today are only partly covered, if at all. This paper is designed to point the benefits that these new LPG markets could derive from active cooperation with experienced companies operating in mature LPG markets.

Stefano, M.; Trollux, J.; Dune, J.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Utilization of LPG for vehicles in Japan  

SciTech Connect

LPG demand for vehicles amounts to 1.8 MM tons annually, equivalent to about 11% of the total LPG consumption in Japan. The feature which dominates the demand of LPG as a vehicle fuel in Japan is the high penetration of LPG powered vehicles into taxi fleets. This has been made possible following the rationalization in the taxi business in the early 1960s. Today, three quarters of LPG vehicles, numbering some 235,000 while representing only about 1% of the total number of vehicles, account for nearly 93% of all taxicabs.

Kusakabe, M.; Makino, M.; Tokunoh, M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

End to deficit of LPG. [Argentina  

SciTech Connect

In the Buenos Aires province of Argentina, Gas de Estado is constructing the future heart of the petrochemical complex, Bahia Blanca. The complex contains 2 absorption-refrigeration plants, a gas compressing plant, equipment maintenance shops and an important operations base for the Argentine truck gas pipelines. This will be the largest LPG plant in Latin America. The General Cerri plant, under construction, is located in an area of 40,000 sq m with new installations to extract ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The design optimizes the extraction of hydrocarbons from the natural gas and recovers 76% of the ethane. Selection of the process resulted from an investigation that compared the system with processes that use water cooling and absorption with refrigerated oil.

Andrich, V.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

GAO report sabotages LPG industry  

SciTech Connect

A massive report by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) on the liquefied energy gases (LEG), which include LPG and LNG, covers the possible hazards and recommends that facilities either be located in rural areas or, if in urban areas, be operated according to nuclear plant standards. One section concerns the ability of storage tanks to withstand earthquakes, floods, winds, and tornadoes. Another section treats transportation recommendations to eliminate as far as possible all opportunities for injury or destruction due to tank car or tank truck accidents. A discussion of the GAO report, only a portion of which has been released, sees the far-ranging recommendations as a threat to the LPG industry; notes that a great deal of information pertinent to the industry is presented in pointing out the problems, but finds that the GAO seems to have encountered considerable difficulty in finding practical solutions to the problems, e.g., in finding suitable sites for LPG terminals so that all such terminals can be in non-urban areas by 1980.

Roberts, B.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Dehydrocyclodimerization, converting LPG to aromatics  

SciTech Connect

British Petroleum (BP) recognized the potential need for ways of exploiting feedstocks with low opportunity cost and commenced a research program at its Sunbury Research Center to discover and develop a catalyst for the conversion of LPG to a liquid product. The successful outcome of this research program is the Cyclar /SUP SM/ process, a joint development of UOP Process Division and British Petroleum. The Cyclar process offers a single-step conversion of LPG to an aromatic product which has a highvalue, is easily transported and useful both to fuel and petrochemical applications. The LPG producer can invest in a single unit, avoiding the need to identify and develop markets for multiple C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ products. This catalytic process, which employs UOP Continuous Catalyst Regeneration (CCR) technology, can also be applied to refinery light ends to produce a high-quality gasoline. Aromatic and hydrogen yields from propane and butane feeds surpass those obtained from catalytic reforming of Light Arabian naphtha. This paper describes the principles of the Cyclar process and illustrates yields and economics for several interesting applications.

Johnson, J.A.; Hilder, G.K.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

New LPG loss-control standards  

SciTech Connect

API'S (American Petroleum Institute) Committee on Liquified Hydrocarbon Gas and the Committee and Safety and Fire Protection have modified Standard 2510 and added a supplemental Standard 2510A, in response to bad LPG incidents. Requirements have been tightened, with a major objective to prevent LPG releases. Fire protection Standards for the design and operation of LPG facilities are specifically revised. Following important changes are specifically discussed: Versel design, site selection, spacing and impounding; foundations and supports; and piping requirements.

Blomquist, D.L. (Chevron Corp., San Francisco, CA (US))

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

LPG dealers, manufacturers report diverse effects of recession and war  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a survey of LPG marketers. The effects of the Persian Gulf War and U.S. recession on the LPG industry are discussed.

Prowler, S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Algeria LPG pipeline is build by Bechtel  

SciTech Connect

The construction of the 313 mile long, 24 in. LPG pipeline from Hassi R'Mel to Arzew, Algeria is described. The pipeline was designed to deliver 6 million tons of LPG annually using one pumping station. Eventually an additional pumping station will be added to raise the system capacity to 9 million tons annually.

Horner, C.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

Haun, R.R. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

36

Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

Pitstick, M.E.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

Pitstick, M.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Overfilling of cavern blamed for LPG blasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three explosions and a fire Apr. 7 at an LPG salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Tex., were triggered when the cavern was overfilled, the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) has reported. This paper reports that a TRC investigation found that LPG escaped to the surface at the Brenham site through brine injection tubing after excessive fill from an LPG line forced the cavern's water level below the brine tubing's bottom. At the surface, LPG was released into a brine storage pit where it turned into a dense, explosive vapor. At 7:08 a.m., the vapor was ignited by an unknown source. The resulting blast killed three persons and injured 19 and brought operations at the site to a halt.

Not Available

1992-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

39

Cascaded'' pilot regulators help reduce LPG loss in hot weather  

SciTech Connect

Fina Oil and Chemical Co. and Fisher Controls International used engineering resourcefulness to overcome heat-induced product loss from LPG storage bullets at Fina's Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. Fina had installed Fisher's Easy Joe 399A-6365, a pilot-operated, back-pressure-type regulator, on its LPG storage facility in 1991 as part of a fuel products modernization project. The regulators helped control the accumulation of noncondensible vapors, which collect in the storage bullets above the LPG. But summer heat extremes and surges in the tanks and lines made it possible for the operating pressure to increase so that the safety relief valve was activated before the pilot regulator was able to stabilize the pressure. The installation of pilot-type regulators, in cascaded, or series, formation, reduced product venting through relief valves.

1994-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

40

Alvord (3,000-ft strawn) LPG flood - design and performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Mitchell Energy Corporation has implemented a LPG-dry gas miscible process in the Alvord (3000' Strawn) Unit in Wise County, Texas utilizing the DOE tertiary incentive program. The field had been waterflooded for 14 years and was producing near its economic limit at the time this project was started. This paper presents the results of the reservoir simulation study that was conducted to evaluate pattern configuration and operating alternatives so as to maximize LPG containment and oil recovery performance. Several recommendations resulting from this study were implemented for the project. Based on the model predictions, tertiary oil recovery is expected to be between 100,000 and 130,000 bbls, or about 7 percent of the oil originally in place in the Unit. 12 refs.

Frazier, G.D.; Todd, M.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Custody transfer measurements for LNG/LPG  

SciTech Connect

The buying, selling, and transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) requires the use of sophisticated measurement systems for accurate determination of the total quantity and energy content for custody transfer reporting and safe cargo handling of these cryogenic products. These systems must meet strict safety standards for operation in a hazardous environment and, at the same time, provide accurate, reliable information for the storage, transfer, and data reporting required for both operational and financial accounting purposes. A brief discussion of LNG and LPG characteristics and detailed description of these special measurement techniques are given in this presentation.

Williams, R.A.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

New pemex agency, smog checks greet Mexican LPG vehicle users  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that the relaxation of prohibitions on the use of propane as a motor fuel has spurred sizeable business activity in carburetion and higher demand for LPG throughout Mexico and particularly in Mexico City. However, a number of unforeseen problems have developed that required tough, immediate solutions. After the alternative fuels project began at city hall in Mexico City, publicity spread nationwide, reportedly spurring conversion activity in many other cities. That led to additional demand for fuel of a magnitude that few people had anticipated. In order to assume control of the situation, the national oil company, Pemex, established an official LPG Motor Fuel Department on June 1. Operating in conjunction with the Ministry of Industry, the new department has been busy registering every major propane-powered fleet in the country. Most important, the rate of conversion work must now be pegged to the availability of fuel. It is believed that conversion activity has become more evenly paced since the new Pemex agency took over.over.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

What's ahead for LNG/LPG  

SciTech Connect

The growth of the LNG, LPG, and pipeline bulk distribution gas markets depends on the availability of capital, including an estimated $60 billion by the end of the 1980's for LNG alone to support a network of projects moving approx. 15 billion cu ft/day throughout the world, which will require long-term (averaging over 20 yr) index-linked contracts for the gas. According to the American Gas Association, import of LNG as opposed to an equivalent amount of energy from crude oil would offer the U.S. several advantages, including significant capital investment for LNG facilities in the U.S. and a larger proportion of imports moving in U.S. owned and constructed tankers. The growth of international LNG trade will also depend on the extent to which gas processing and transportation costs can be decreased by increasing LNG tanker size, on the demand for natural gas, and on U.S. gas pricing policy. Plausible trends in LNG/LPG trade through the 1980's, and the requirement for high gas prices as an incentive for gas resource development in several countries, including the U.S., are discussed.

Remington, P.; Fraser, M.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Future of LPG as a petrochemical feedstock  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation is made of probable LPG (primarily propane) supplies and demand factors through 1985. The analysis indicates that because of diminishing domestic supplies and the transportation economics for foreign supplies the petrochemical industry will be forced to convert to the use of naphtha or heavy crude components for ethylene production. (JSR)

Skillern, M.P.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Product transfer service chosen over LPG flaring  

SciTech Connect

Seadrift Pipeline Corp. recently decommissioned its Ella Pipeline, an 108-mile, 8-in. line between the King Ranch and a Union Carbide plant at Seadrift, Texas. The pipeline company opted for the product transfer services of pipeline Dehydrators Inc. to evacuate the ethane-rich LPG mixture from the pipeline instead of flaring the LPG or displacing it with nitrogen at operating pressures into another pipeline. The product transfer system of Pipeline Dehydrators incorporates the use of highly specialized portable compressors, heat exchangers and interconnected piping. The product transfer process of evacuating a pipeline is an economically viable method that safely recovers a very high percentage of the product while maintaining product purity. Using positive-displacement compressors, PLD transferred the LPG from the idled 8-in. Ella line into an adjacent 12-in. ethane pipeline that remained in service at approximately 800 psig. Approximately 4.3 million lb of LPG (97% ethane, 2.7% methane and 0.3% propane) were transferred into the ethane pipeline, lowering the pressure on the Ella Pipeline from 800 psig to 65 psig.

Horn, J.; Powers, M.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation  

SciTech Connect

This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

N/sub 2/-driven LPG achieves miscibitity at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Shows that miscibility can be achieved at very low pressures above the critical temperature of propane. One can calculate the critical pressure and temperature for a variety of fluids of practical interest in achieving miscibility between the miscible slug and driving gas when applying enhanced oil recovery programs. A study of the critical properties of normally available reservoir fluids indicates that one method of achieving miscibility at lower pressures, even at high reservoir temperatures, might be to use LPG slugs pushed by nitrogen. Table gives the oil recovery for different LPG slug sizes when operating at a reservoir pressure of 2,000 psig and a reservoir temperature of 250F. Diagram shows the approximate critical temperature loci for ternary systems made up of 3 components from the group nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane. By finding the desired reservoir temperature and then estimating the critical pressure required, one may select compositions and operating pressures required to achieve critical slug-driving gas mixtures for use in enhanced oil recovery programs. When using CO/sub 2/ for miscibility, the miscibility pressure increases with temperature. Use of LPG slugs results in a substantial reduction in the pressure required for miscibility.

Carlisle, L.; Crawford, P.B.; Montes, M. Jr.; Reeves, S.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Risk analysis of an LPG facility  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes methods used to conduct a safety review of an existing LPG loading, processing, and storage facility. An engineering team conducted a Hazard and Operability study of the plant to identify potential problems. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment was also made on the facility where the probability and consequences of worst case accidents were estimated. Stone and Webster recently completed an analysis of an LPG terminal to determine if there were any engineering, design, or operating deficiencies which could jeopardize the operability of the facility or make operation hazardous. The facility includes a dock for off-loading refrigerated propane and butane, transfer piping from the dock to storage, a heating system, pressurized storage, dehydration, product transfer and loading.

Daley, H.F.; Chapman, P.D.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Blast rips Texas LPG storage site  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Seminole Pipeline Co. at presstime last week had planned to reopen its 775 mile liquefied petroleum gas pipeline in South Texas by Apr. 12 after a huge explosion devastated the area around a Seminole LPG storage salt dome near Brenham, Tex., forcing the pipeline shutdown. A large fire was still burning at the storage site at presstime last week. The blast - shortly after 7 a.m. Apr. 7 - occurred at a pipeline connecting the main Seminole line with the storage facility and caused shock waves felt 130 miles away. A 5 year old boy who lived in a trailer near Seminole's LPG storage dome was killed, and 20 persons were injured.

1992-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

50

"Characteristic(a)","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," " "Characteristic(a)","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Breeze","Other(e)" ,"Total United States" "Value...

51

Monitoring system tested during LPG tanker unloading  

SciTech Connect

A specially developed computer-based hazardous-materials monitoring system has been successfully field tested. The test of the portable system occurred during the unloading of 45,000 metric tons of LPG from a 740-ft tanker at the petroleum dock of a plant along the Mississippi River. The function of this system is to detect, report, alarm, and record unacceptable concentrations of hazardous vapors during marine-transfer operations.

1990-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

52

The operation of LPG relief valves  

SciTech Connect

As stipulated by NFPA 58, all LPG storage containers must be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices. These devices are sized to prevent rupture of a normally charged container when exposed to fire. This paper describes in detail the functioning of the spring-loaded relief valve. The author discusses how the venting of LPGs can produce unacceptable risks and how training is a necessary part of controlling such a situation.

Stannard, J.H. Jr

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Risks of LNG and LPG. [Review  

SciTech Connect

Since the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) as fuels is likely to increase and will certainly persist for some time to come, assessment of the safety of LNG/LPG systems will continue to draw attention and is quite likely to force continuing review of operating and design standards for LNG/LPG facilities. Scientific investigations to date appear to have identified the major hazards. Except for the dispersive behavior of vapor clouds - a not-insignificant factor in risk evaluation - the consequences of spills are well circumscribed by current analyses. The physically significant effects accompanying nonexplosive combustion of spilled material are fairly well documented; yet, potentially substantial uncertainties remain. Catastrophic spills of 10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ on land or water are possible, given the current size of storage vessels. Almost all experimental spills have used less than 10 m/sup 3/ of liquid. There is thus some uncertainty regarding the accuracy and validity of extrapolation of current empirical information and physical models to spills of catastrophic size. The less-likely but still-possible explosive or fireball combustion modes are not well understood in respect to their inception. The troubling experience with such violent combustion of similar combustible vapors suggests that this possibility will need further definition. Extant LNG and LPG risk analyses illustrate the difficulties of substantiating the numerous event probabilities and the determination of all event sequences that can lead to hazardous consequences. Their disparate results show that significant improvements are needed. Most importantly, a detailed critique of past efforts and a determination of an exhaustive set of criteria for evaluating the adequacy of a risk analysis should precede any further attempts to improve on existing studies. 44 references, 1 table.

Fay, J.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

LPG Electrical, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LPG Electrical, Inc LPG Electrical, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name LPG Electrical, Inc Address 13833 Wellington Trace Rd. #4 Place Wellington, Florida Zip 33414 Sector Services Product underwater power generators Year founded 2009 Number of employees 1-10 Phone number 5615786611 Website [www.lpgelectrical.com www.lpgelectrical.com ] Coordinates 26.663684°, -80.267246° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":26.663684,"lon":-80.267246,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

55

Mounded LPG storage - Experience and developments  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is stored after production, and for distribution and use, in pressure vessels which vary in size from a few kilogrammes to many thousands of tons. The types of LPG under consideration are commercial butane, commercial propane, or mixtures of the two gases in varying proportions. Mounded storage systems are becoming popular as an alternative to the better-known traditional systems. The most widely used and therefore best-known of the traditional systems are the above-ground pressure-vessel designs. These more commonly comprise factory-made cylinders which are installed horizontally, being supported on saddles at each end of the vessel. When such vessels are installed in an LPG terminal, depot, or filling plant, they are required in multiple units to facilitate the storage of more than one grade of product and to enable regular maintenance and inspection to be carried out. Today's safety regulations require such installations to be divided into sub-groups of six tanks, with all the tanks located at a safe distance from one another, and from other facilities in the immediate area. These safety distances are being increased as a result of experience, which means terminals now require large areas of land.

Barber, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

U.S. LPG pipeline begins deliveries to Pemex terminal  

SciTech Connect

LPG deliveries began this spring to the new Mendez LPG receiving terminal near Juarez, State of Chihuahua, Mexico. Supplying the terminal is the 265-mile, 8-in. Rio Grande Pipeline that includes a reconditioned 217-mile, 8-in. former refined-products pipeline from near Odessa, Texas, and a new 48-mile, 8-in. line beginning in Hudspeth County and crossing the US-Mexico border near San Elizario, Texas. Capacity of the pipeline is 24,000 b/d. The LPG supplied to Mexico is a blend of approximately 85% propane and 15% butane. Before construction and operation of the pipeline, PGPB blended the propane-butane mix at a truck dock during loading. Demand for LPG in northern Mexico is strong. Less than 5% of the homes in Juarez have natural gas, making LPG the predominant energy source for cooking and heating in a city of more than 1 million. LPG also is widely used as a motor fuel.

Bodenhamer, K.C. [Mid-America Pipeline Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1997-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

57

Combination process for the conversion of heavy distillates to LPG  

SciTech Connect

Maximum conversion of heavy distillates to LPG is achieved through a combination process involving two-stage hydrocracking. 9 claims, no drawings.

Hilfman, L.

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

LPG fuel supply system. [Patent for automotive  

SciTech Connect

A fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine operated on gaseous fuels, for example, liquid petroleum gas (Lpg). The system includes a housing having a chamber for vaporizing liquid gas, including means for heating the vaporizing chamber. Also included in the housing is a mixing chamber for mixing the vaporized gas with incoming air for delivery to the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine through a standard carburetor. The fuel supply system includes means for mounting the system on the carburetor, including means for supporting an air filter circumjacent the mixing chamber.

Pierson, W.V.

1982-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

59

"Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," " "Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)"...

60

Current and future USA-world seaborne imports at LPG  

SciTech Connect

An outline of the current and historical situation of the international LPG trade and comparison between the US and other countries covers methods of marine transportation, including fully refrigerated vessels, semirefrigerated vessels, pressure vessels, and LNG ships fitted for LPG; the temporary abundance of LPG; a comparison of the markets in Japan, Europe, South America, and the US to indicate the potential market in the future, e.g., the need in Japan for LPG as a basic fuel, main use in Europe as a feedstock and as domestic fuel, use as a basic fuel but mainly in the winter months inSouth America, and the volatile spot market in the US; and the conclusion that the capacity to produce LPG will keep pace with demand only as long as adequate prices are paid to offset production costs.

Bassa, G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Legal nature of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) regulation  

SciTech Connect

The commercial exploitation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in New Zealand has occurred without a particular and comprehensive concern for any legal implications. The paper in Part I examines definitional questions, assesses in Part II the ability of courts and quasi-courts to evaluate risks associated with the product, examines in Part III the utility of common law remedies for injuries or associated with or arising from LPG, analyzes in Part IV the statutory regulation of LPG, concentrating particularly on the Dangerous Goods (Class 2 - Gases) Regulations 1980, discusses in Part V recent planning case-law concerning LPG development, and concludes that some reform is necessary to produce a more-coherent and precise regulatory regime that takes into account both the needs of developers and those affected by the development of LPG.

Liddell, G.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

World lpg forecast and implications for the U. S. Merchant Marine, 1978-1990  

SciTech Connect

This study summarizes historical and current LPG trade and vessels operating worldwide. It also forecasts LPG trade required for the U.S. and other major markets through 1990. Using an economic model to assess the market for LPG ships, the study forecasts vessel requirements for U.S. LPG trade and prospects for building required vessels in the U.S.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

Pitstick, M.E.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison  

SciTech Connect

Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

Johnson, Eric, E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.u [Atlantic Consulting, Obstgartenstrasse 14, 8136 Gattikon (Switzerland)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

True, W.R.

1998-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

66

LPG export growth will exceed demand by 2000  

SciTech Connect

LPG supplies for international trade will increase sharply through 2000 and begin to outstrip demand by 1997 or 1998. This outlook depends on several production projects proceeding as planned. Leading the way to increased volumes are projects in Algeria, Nigeria, and Australia, among others. Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, projected this trend earlier this year at an international LPG seminar near Houston. Representatives from LPG-supplying countries also presented information to support this view and subsequently supplied more specifics to OGJ in response to questions. This paper discusses this information. Trends in Africa, Australia, North America, and South America are forecast.

True, W.R.

1994-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

67

LPG-recovery processes for baseload LNG plants examined  

SciTech Connect

With demand on the rise, LPG produced from a baseload LNG plant becomes more attractive as a revenue-earning product similar to LNG. Efficient use of gas expanders in baseload LNG plants for LPG production therefore becomes more important. Several process variations for LPG recovery in baseload LNG plants are reviewed here. Exergy analysis (based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics) is applied to three cases to compare energy efficiency resulting from integration with the main liquefaction process. The paper discusses extraction in a baseload plant, extraction requirements, process recovery parameters, extraction process variations, and exergy analysis.

Chiu, C.H. [Bechtel Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

68

FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

1989-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

69

LNG-LPG marine transportation and terminal safety  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the vapor cloud behavior study the US Coast Guard has been carrying out since 1973 to develop design and operational controls for LNG and LPG ships and port facilities covers a brief review of the research work in the third phase of this study and the safety measures proposed by the Coast Guard and other regulatory bodies for operating LNG and LPG ships and waterfront facilities.

Bonekemper, E.H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

River resort owners find LPG a power behind their success  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a restaurant and resort which runs entirely on LPG. It has two generators converted to LPG that supply the power for the complex. Energy supplied from the propane is used in the kitchens, to drive the water pump and provide electricity for lighting and other power needs, and to heat the swimming pool. Far more importantly for the owners has been the fuel cost savings of at least 60%.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Accurate LPG analysis begins with sampling procedures, equipment  

SciTech Connect

Proper equipment and procedures are essential for obtaining representative samples from an LPG stream. This paper discusses how sampling of light liquid hydrocarbons generally involves one of two methods: flow- proportional composite sampling by a mechanical device or physical transfer of hydrocarbon fluids from a flowing pipeline or other source into a suitable portable sample container. If sampling by proper techniques and equipment supports careful chromatographic analysis, full advantage of accurate mass measurement of LPG can be realized.

Wilkins, C.M. (Koch Pipelines, Inc., Medford, OK (US))

1990-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

72

World`s LPG supply picture will change by 2000  

SciTech Connect

Middle East LPG producers will continue to dominate world export markets in 1996. Led by Saudi Arabia, the Middle East will produce nearly 26 million metric tons of LPG in million metric tons of LPG in 1996, more than 54% of the world`s almost 48 million metric tons of export LPG. In 2000, however, with world exports of LPG expanding to 58.9 million metric tons, Middle East suppliers; share will have remained flat, making up 31.7 million metric tons, or 53.9%. Saudi Arabia`s contribution will exceed 15 million metric tons, reflecting essentially no growth since 1995. These and other patterns, from data compiled by Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, and published earlier this year, show other suppliers of LPG, especially African (Algeria/Nigeria), North Sea, and Latin American (Venezuela/Argentina), picking up larger shares in the last 5 years of this decade. This scenario assumes completion of several major supply projects that are either panned, under construction, or nearing start up in most of these areas. The paper discusses the global picture, the supply situation in the Middle East, Africa, the North Sea, and South America.

True, W.R.

1995-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

73

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Texas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Texas laws and incentives related

74

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Oregon Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)

75

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Iowa Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Iowa laws and incentives related

76

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Utah Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Utah laws and incentives related

77

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Maine Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Maine laws and incentives related

78

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)

79

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Kansas Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)

80

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Nevada Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alaska Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)

82

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idaho Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Idaho laws and incentives related

83

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Propane (LPG) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ohio Laws and Incentives for Propane (LPG) The list below contains summaries of all Ohio laws and incentives related

84

New concept: deepwater NGL/LPG plant. [Natural gas liquids and liquefied petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

Floating platforms for processing natural gas liquids and liquefied petroleum gas (NGL/LPG) need to be stable for the processing and transfer of the products. Floating platforms are economically more attractive for producing marginal fields in deeper waters. Most of the proposed designs for crude oil and natural gas production have been tension-leg platforms, but 3 Norwegian companies are offering a converted ship as an alternative. The 3 companies will used a ship fitted with pontoons that can be raised and lowered to increase the vessel's stability. The NGL/LPG system was designed for a North Sea oil field. The feasibility study which the 3 companies completed was for a liquefaction and storage ship with a capacity of 75,000 cu m. The joint venture feels a ship has several advantages: large payload capacity; large storage capacity; ample deck space for equipment; easy to maintain; can be drydocked if necessary; and has a lower building cost. The 2 key elements to the system are the stabilization system and the turret platform.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Rio Grande pipeline introduces LPG to Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Rio Grande Pipeline, a joint venture between Mid-America Pipeline Co., Amoco Pipeline Co. and Navajo Pipeline Co., has broken new ground in the energy industry as the first LPG pipeline to cross the US-Mexico border. Plans for the project were announced in November 1995 and first deliveries started three months ago on March 21, 1997. The 8-inch, 265-mile pipeline originates near Odessa, TX, where it receives an 85-15 propane-butane mix via a connection to Mid-America Pipeline. From Odessa, product moves west through the Texas desert and crosses the Rio Grande River about 15 miles south of El Paso near Clint, TX and extends 20 miles into Mexico. Capacity of the line is 24,000 bpd and it has been averaging about 22,000 bpd since line-fill. All in all, it sounded like a reasonably feasible, routine project. But perceptions can be deceiving, or at least misleading. In other words, the project can be summarized as follows: one river, two cultures and a world of difference. The official border crossing for pipeline construction took place on Dec. 2, 1996, with a directional drill under the Rio Grande River, but in actuality, the joint venture partners were continually bridging differences in language, laws, customs and norms with Pemex and contracted workers from Mexico.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

"End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke...

87

"End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oil",,,"Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze...

88

"Table A2. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,32,1688,378,0,58,0,15.7 3274," Lime","Q",657,"W","Q",657,"W",0,0,0,33.9 3296," Mineral Wool","W","W","W",113,34,"W","W","W",0,2 33,"Primary Metal Industries","W",5117,"W",2433,494...

89

The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability  

SciTech Connect

Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. (AKZO Catalysts, 13000 Bay Park Road, Pasadena, TX (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Demand for petrochem feedstock to buoy world LPG industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that use of liquefied petroleum gas as petrochemical feedstock will increase worldwide, providing major growth opportunities for LPG producers. World exports of liquefied petroleum gas will increase more slowly than production as producers choose to use LPG locally as chemical feedstock and export in value added forms such as polyethylene. So predicts Poten and Partners Inc., New York. Poten forecasts LPG production in exporting countries will jump to 95 million tons in 2010 from 45 million tons in 1990. However, local and regional demand will climb to 60 million tons/year from 23 million tons/year during the same period. So supplies available for export will rise to 35 million tons in 2010 from 22 million tons in 1990.

Not Available

1992-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

91

Determination of usage patterns and emissions for propane/LPG in California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to determine California usage patterns of Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and to estimate propane emissions resulting from LPG transfer operations statewide, and by county and air basin. The study is the first attempt to quantify LPG transfer emissions for California. This was accomplished by analyzing data from a telephone survey of California businesses that use LPG, by extracting information from existing databases.

Sullivan, M.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Experience with Bi-Fuel LPG Pickups in Texas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The State of Texas requires state agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In 1996, Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) representatives added about 400 bi-fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pickup trucks to their fleet. The fleet managers were willing to share information about their fleets and the operation of these vehicles, so a study was launched to collect operations, maintenance, and cost data for selected LPG and gasoline vehicles (as controls) throughout 18 months of vehicle operation. This case study presents the results of that data collection and its subsequent analysis.

Whalen, P.

1999-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

93

Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

DeSteese, J.G.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

The Fuel Control System and Performance Optimization of a Spark-Ignition LPG Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an approach to control air fuel ratio of a Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) automotive engine. The optimization of compression ratio is also described in this paper. HC, CO & NOx emissions of LPG engines can be reduced after the application ... Keywords: control, LPG engine, air fuel ratio, optimization

Hongwei Cui

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning LPG pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

U.S. LPG's Consumed at Refineries (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. LPG's Consumed at Refineries (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 8,966: 8,021: 9,466: 11,962 ...

98

Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

Johnson, D.W.; Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.; Chilton, P.D.; Lawson, H.P.; Welker, J.R.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns  

SciTech Connect

To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2) However , in highly heterogeneous media such as fractured rock and fault zones, local flow paths within which the gas containment criterion is not satisfied could be formed. To eliminate such zones, treatments such as pre/post grouting or an additional installment of water-curtain boreholes are essential. (3) Along highly conductive features such as faults, even partially saturated zones possess certain effects that can retard or prevent gas leakage, while a fully unsaturated fault connected to the storage cavern can quickly cause a gas blowout. This possibility strongly suggests that ensuring water saturation of the rock surrounding the cavern is a very important requirement. (4) Even if an accident should suddenly impair the water curtain, the gas plume does not quickly penetrate the ground surface. In these simulations, the plume takes several months to reach the ground surface.

Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Upgrading Fischer-Tropsch LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with the Cyclar process  

SciTech Connect

The use of the UOP/BP Cyclar{reg sign} process for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied at UOP{reg sign}. The Cyclar process converts LPG into aromatics. The LPG derived from F-T is highly olefinic. Two routes for upgrading F-T LPG were investigated. In one route, olefinic LPG was fed directly to a Cyclar unit (Direct Cyclar). The alternative flow scheme used the Huels CSP process to saturate LPG olefins upstream of the Cyclar unit (Indirect Cyclar). An 18-run pilot plant study verified that each route is technically feasible. An economic evaluation procedure was designed to choose between the Direct and Indirect Cyclar options for upgrading LPG. Four situations involving three different F-T reactor technologies were defined. The main distinction between the cases was the degree of olefinicity, which ranged between 32 and 84 wt % of the fresh feed. 8 refs., 80 figs., 44 tabs.

Gregor, J.H.; Gosling, C.D.; Fullerton, H.E.

1989-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

North and west central Texas. Mitchell EOR (enhanced oil recovery) projects yield tertiary oil in Wise and Jack counties  

SciTech Connect

An enhanced oil recovery project utilizing a miscible LPG process provides Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. engineers with a springboard for other miscible flood projects while yielding incremental tertiary oil that otherwise would remain in the ground. The LPG flood project is in the Alvord (3,000-ft Strawn) Unit in Wise County, Texas. The field had been waterflooded for 14 yr, and was producing near its economic limit under waterflood, the alternative to starting a tertiary project would have been to abandon the field. The LPG flood process was chosen because liquefied petroleum gases are miscible with oil at the low pressures that must be maintained in shallow reservoirs such as the Alvord Strawn. Propane was determined to be the suitable LPG for the project because of its availability and ease of handling.

Mickey, V.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Engineering new oil recovery methods. [1800-3,000 psi  

SciTech Connect

In the LPG slug process, propane under normal pressures of a few hundred psi and temperatures in the order of 150/sup 0/F is a liquid. With the methane-LPG slugs, an LPG slug miscible displacement program may be operated at fairly shallow depths. Even if the reservoir depth is only 1,500 ft, it would be possible to carry out an LPG slug miscible displacement program. It is not difficult to maintain miscibility between methane and propane. A crude of very low viscosity should be selected to reduce solvent dispersion and costs of a miscible displacement project. It is necessary that the LPG slug be of sufficient size so that miscibility does not break down prematurely and result in a very low oil recovery. Enriched gas drives are designed to achieve miscible displacement at pressures ranging from about 1,800 to 3,000 psi. Miscibility may also be achieved at pressures outside this range.The cost of establishing a miscible zone in LPG or enriched gas drives can be quite expensive. In the case of an enriched gas drive, size of the zone becomes quite large. Although the size of the zone may be fairly small for the case of LPG slugs, the cost of acquiring the LPG can be prohibitive, in some cases.

Crawford, P.B.

1969-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) Molecules in Lipid Bilayers  

SciTech Connect

Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is a lypopolysaccharide found on the surface of the parasite Leishmania donovani that is thought to play an essential role in the infection of humans with leishamniasis. LPG acts as an adhesion point for the parasite to the gut of the sand fly, whose bite is responsible for transmitting the disease. In addition, LPG acts to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) in the human macrophage, possibly by structural changes in the membrane. The Ca{sup 2+} ion is believed to play a role in the infection cycle, acting both as a crosslinker between LPG molecules and by playing a part in modulating PKC activity. To gain insight into the structure of LPG within a supported lipid membrane and into the structural changes that occur due to Ca{sup 2+} ions, we have employed the atomic force microscope (AFM). We have observed that the LPG molecules inhibit bilayer fusion, resulting in bilayer islands on the mica surface. One experiment suggests that the LPG molecules are parallel to the mica surface and that the structure of the LPG changes upon addition of Ca{sup 2+}, with an increase in the height of the LPG molecules from the bilayer surface and an almost complete coverage of LPG on the bilayer island.

LAST, JULIE A.; HUBER, TINA; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; SALVATORE, BRIAN; TURCO, SALVATORE J.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

New construction era reflected in East Texas LPG pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Installation of 240 miles of 6, 10, and 12-in. LPG pipelines from Mont Belvieu to Tyler, Tex., has provided greater feedstock-supply flexibility to a petrochemical plant in Longview, Tex. The project, which took place over 18 months, included tie-ins with metering at four Mont Belvieu suppliers. The new 10 and 12-in. pipelines now transport propane while the new and existing parts of a 6-in. pipeline transport propylene.

Mittler, T.J. (Texas Eastman Co., Longview, TX (US))

1990-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

105

LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 through 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 to 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Far East LPG sales will grow faster than in West  

SciTech Connect

LPG sales through 2010 in regions east of the Suez Canal (East of Suez) will grow at more than twice those in regions west of the canal. East-of-Suez sales will grow at more than 4.0%/year, compared to slightly less than 2.0%/year growth in sales West of Suez. East-of-Suez sales will reach 92 million tons/year (tpy) by 2010, accounting for 39% of the worldwide total. This share was 31% in1995 and only 27% in 1990. LPG sales worldwide will reach 192 million tons in 2000 and 243 million tpy by 2010. In 1995, they were 163 million tons. These are some of the major conclusions of a recent study by Frank R. Spadine, Christine Kozar, and Rudy Clark of New York City-based consultant Poten and Partners Inc. Details of the study are in the fall report ``World Trade in LPG 1990--2010``. This paper discusses demand segments, seaborne balance, Western sources, largest trading region, North American supplies, and other supplies.

1996-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

108

"Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,,"Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f...

109

"Code(a)","End Use","for Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

","Net Demand","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","for Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze...

110

Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

IMPCO Technologies

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

111

Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

IMPCO Technologies

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

112

Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade  

SciTech Connect

Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C{sub 4} and C{sub 5}.

Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Haun, R. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1998-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

113

Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment  

SciTech Connect

The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

Nautiyal, Sunil [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany)], E-mail: sunil.nautiyal@zalf.de; Kaechele, Harald [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Cause not found for Texas LPG site blast  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that National Transportation Safety Board investigators completed the first phase of tests at Seminole Pipeline Co.'s liquid petroleum gas storage dome near Brenham, Tex., without finding the cause of an explosion there Apr. 7. But in a week of investigation, NTSB determined that a release of brine and product occurred at the 350,000 bbl LPG storage dome, about 45 miles northwest of Houston, just before the blast. The explosion sent shock waves felt as far as 130 miles away. Three persons have died from injuries suffered in the accident. Another 18 were injured.

1992-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

115

System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

SciTech Connect

A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a wellhead; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas; storing the separated LPG in a storage tank with a vapor space therein; and recirculating a portion of the LPG vapors in the storage tank with the natural gas exiting the wellhead to enhance recovery of LPG. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for refrigerating the compressed gases therefrom; at least one product separator downstream of the refrigerator unit for receiving refrigerated and compressed gases discharged from the refrigerator unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form; and a storage tank for receiving and storing the separated LPG therein, the storage tank having a vapor space therein connected upstream of the gas compressor through a pressure regulator allowing recirculation of some LPG vapors with the natural gases through said system.

May, R.L.; Sinclair, B.W.

1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

116

Latest techniques and equipment for the conversion of motor vehicles to LPG/petroleum use  

SciTech Connect

Liquified petroleum gases (LPG) has been used for transportation in Europe, the United States, Japan and to a much lesser extent in Australia for many years. In most cases, the vehicles have been powered by engines designed for petrol operation and subsequently converted to use LPG. The application of LPG as an automotive fuel in different countries depends heavily on the availability of the fuel and the tax policy of the government. The demand for dual fuel equipment is increasing. Some of the problems facing Australia to convert vehicles to LPG use emphasize the institutional and hardware obstacles. Before LPG can be considered to be a safe, viable alternative fuel to petrol, improvements will have to be made in safety standards, in reduced exhaust emissions, in increased fuel efficiency, and in the involvement of car manufacturers. (SAC)

Armstrong, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Alternative fuel information: Facts about CNG and LPG conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As new environmental and energy related laws begin to take effect, increasing numbers of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) will be required in federal, state, municipal, and private fleets across the country. The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, along with several new state and local laws, will require fleet managers to either purchase original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles, which are produced by automakers, or convert existing vehicles to run on alternative fuels. Because there is a limited availability and selection of OEM vehicles, conversions are seen as a transition to the time when automakers will produce more AFVs for public sale. A converted vehicle is any vehicle that originally was designed to operate on gasoline, and has been altered to run on an alternative fuel such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or propane (liquefied petroleum gas -- LPG), the two most common types of fuel conversions. In the United States, more than 25,000 vehicles already have been converted to COG, and 300,000 have been converted to LPG.

O`Connor, K.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Fire protection considerations for the design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities  

SciTech Connect

This standard addresses the design, operation, and maintenance of LPG storage facilities from the standpoint of prevention and control of releases, fire-protection design, and fire-control measures, as well as the history of LPG storage facility failure, facility design philosophy, operating and maintenance procedures, and various fire-protection and firefighting approaches and presentations. The storage facilities covered are LPG installations (storage vessels and associated loading/unloading/transfer systems) at marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, and tank farms.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Evaluation of aftermarket LPG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SwRI was contracted by NREL to evaluate three LPG conversion kits on a Chevrolet Lumina. The objective of the project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of these kits, and compare their performance to gasoline-fueled operation and to each other. Varying LPG fuel blends allowed a preliminary look at the potential for fuel system disturbance. The project required kit installation and adjustment according to manufacturer`s instructions. A limited amount of trouble diagnosis was also performed on the fuel systems. A simultaneous contract from the Texas Railroad Commission, in cooperation with NREL, provided funds for additional testing with market fuels (HD5 propane and industry average gasoline) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions speciation to determine the ozone-forming potential of LPG HC emissions. This report documents the procurement, installation, and testing of these LPG conversion kits.

Bass, E.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Table 4. LPG Consumption and Expeditures in U.S. Households by End ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 4. LPG Consumption and Expeditures in U.S. Households by End Uses and Census Region, 2001 RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Census Region RSE Row

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Method and apparatus for transfer of liquefied gas. [hydrogen, LPG, or LNG  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for transferring a liquefied gas (hydrogen, LPG, or LNG) from a first container into a second container without removal of vapor from the second container is disclosed.

Gee, D.E.; Worboys, R.V.

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Century-Midas steps slowly into the RV (recreational vehicles) LPG conversion market  

SciTech Connect

Midas International will obtain LPG carburetion equipment from Century for installation in up to 20,000 RV. The market for gasoline-powered RV has been depressed since the surge in gasoline prices, and the installation of Century's equipment represents an attempt to attract customers by reducing RV operating costs. According to J. Kincaid (Midas Inst.), propane, besides being cheaper than gasoline, is also cheaper than diesel fuel, despite the better mileage obtained with diesel fuel, because the use of diesel fuel requires the installation of a diesel engine, which is far more expensive than installation of LPG carburetion. Although most of the LPG carburetion manufacturers, with a backlog of orders, did not evince interest in Midas' search for conversion equipment for RV, Century responded, at least partly because Midas also manufactures fleet delivery trucks, which represent a potentially much larger market for LPG conversion and use.

Kincaid, J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Oil, gas tanker industry responding to demand, contract changes  

SciTech Connect

Steady if slower growth in demand for crude oil and natural gas, low levels of scrapping, and a moderate newbuilding pace bode well for the world`s petroleum and natural-gas shipping industries. At year-end 1997, several studies of worldwide demand patterns and shipping fleets expressed short and medium-term optimism for seaborne oil and gas trade and fleet growth. The paper discusses steady demand and shifting patterns, the aging fleet, the slowing products traffic, the world`s fleet, gas carriers, LPG demand, and LPG vessels.

True, W.R.

1998-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

124

Offshore refrigerated LPG loading/unloading terminal using a CALM buoy  

SciTech Connect

In existing Liquefied Petroleum Gases terminals, the transfer of liquefied gases to the tanker is performed via articulated loading arms or flexible hoses, working under quasistatic conditions. The tanker has to be firmly moored alongside a jetty or a process barge in a protected area (such as a harbour in most cases). This paper gives the main results of the development of an offshore refrigerated LPG (-48/sup 0/C) loading/unloading system, using a CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses working under dynamic conditions. The aim of this new concept is to replace the standard harbour structure for loading/unloading refrigerated LPG and to provide a considerable reduction in investments and a greater flexibility regarding the terminal location. The main components of that terminal have been designed so as to enable the loading of a 75 000 cubic meter LPG carrier in 15 hours. The results of static and dynamic low temperature tests on a LPG swivel joint for CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses show that such a SPM terminal is now a realistic solution.

Bonjour, E.L.; Simon, J.M.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Getting performance without sacrificing economy or emissions control in a heavy-duty LPG engine  

SciTech Connect

A commercial 637 CID liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) engine was evaluated as a candidate powerplant for new bus purchases and/or as a replacement for obsolete LPG engines currently being used in metropolitan Chicago bus service. Limited route service experience with LPG conversion of a gasoline engine indicated both its potential and the need for its optimization in order to take advantage of the unique characteristics of LPG. The engine-dynamometer study, with emphasis on fuel system-ignition relationships, led to substantial improvement in fuel economy without depreciation of engine power. The 637 CID LPG engine fuel economy was increased from an average of 1.77 mpg for 1965 to 1971 to 2.60 mpg for the Dec. 1971 to April 1972 period in Chicago field tests. Cylinder head redesign permitted lean mixture operation that reduced exhaust emissions to levels calculated to conform to the 1973 Federal standards and the 1973-1974 California Air Resources Board requirements for heavy-duty engines. The exhaust emissions data obtained with the optimized 7.5:1 CR engine based on the California 13-mode cycle were 8.3 g/bhp/hr carbon monoxide and 9.9 g/bhp/hr hydrocarbons plus nitrogen dioxide.

Mengelkamp, R.A.; Linnard, R.E.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels - part 1. LPG and CNG combustion products  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. Speciation data showed greater than 87 percent of all LPG and greater than 95 percent of all CNG hydrocarbon exhaust constituents to be composed of C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} compounds. In addition, toxic emissions from the combustion of CNG and LPG were as low as 10 percent of those generated by combustion of gasoline. A comparison of ozone forming potential of the three fuels was made based on the Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale used by the California Air Resources Board. Post-catalyst results from stoichiometric operation indicated that LPG and CNG produced 63 percent and 88 percent less potential ozone than reformulated gasoline, respectively. On average over all equivalence ratios, CNG and LPG exhaust constituents were approximately 65 percent less reactive than those from reformulated gasoline. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

SciTech Connect

A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a well-head; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; and separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for cooling the compressed gases therefrom; and a product separator downstream of the refrigeration unit for receiving cooled and compressed gases discharged from the refrigeration unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form.

May, R.L.; Snow, N.J. Jr.

1983-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

128

New and existing gas wells promise bountiful LPG output in Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Michigan remains the leading LP-gas producer in the Northeast quadrant of the U.S. This paper reports that boosted by a number of new natural gas wells and a couple of new gas processing plants, the state is firmly anchored in the butane/propane production business. Since 1981, more than 100 deep gas wells, most in excess of 8000 feet in depth, have been completed as indicated producers in the state. Many of these are yielding LPG-grade stock. So, combined with LPG-grade production from shallower geologic formations, the supply picture in this area looks promising for the rest of the country.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Local government energy management: liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a motor vehicle fuel  

SciTech Connect

The retrofit or conversion of automotive engines to operate on liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or propane fuel is one of many potentially cost-effective strategies for reducing a local government's annual fleet operating and maintenance costs. The cost effectiveness of an LPG conversion decision is highly dependent on the initial conversion cost, vehicle type, current and projected fuel costs, vehicle fuel economy (miles per gallon), and yearly average mileage. A series of plots have been developed which indicate simple paybacks for the conversion of several vehicle types (passenger car, small and standard pickups, and two and three ton trucks) over a wide range of fuel economies and annual usage patterns. A simple payback of less than three years can be achieved for vehicles with poor fuel economy and high annual use. The figures provided in this report may be used by fleet management personnel as a screening tool to identify those passenger cars, small or standard pickups, or light duty trucks which are candidates for LPG conversion. In addition to examining the benefits of an LPG conversion, local governments should also consider the competing energy management strategies of downsizing, and the acquisition of fuel efficient, diesel powered vehicles.

McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

Sinor, J E [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Gas processing/The boiling behavior of LPG and liquid ethane, ethylene, propane, and n-butane spilled on water  

SciTech Connect

Boiling-rate calorimeter studies showed that unlike liquid nitrogen, methane, and LNG, LPG (84.7% propane, 6.0% ethane, and 9.3% n-butane; 442/sup 0/C bp), or pure propane, when rapidly spilled on water, reacted violently, ejecting water and ice into the vapor space; but in 1-2 sec, a coherent ice layer was formed and further boiloff was quiet and well predicted by a simple one-dimensional, moving-boundary-value, heat transfer model with a growing ice shield. Increasing the content of ethane and butane in LPG to 20% and 10%, respectively, had almost no effect on the LPG boiling, indicating that boiling may be modeled by using pure propane. Ethane, ethylene, and n-butane behaved quite differently from LPG. In spills of pure liquid propane on solid ice, the boiloff rate was almost identical to that predicted by the moving-boundary model.

Reid, R.C.; Smith, K.A.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

PACE, M.E.

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

133

Converting LPG caverns to natural-gas storage permits fast response to market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deregulation of Canada`s natural-gas industry in the late 1980s led to a very competitive North American natural-gas storage market. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., began looking for method for developing cost-effective storage while at the same time responding to new market-development opportunities and incentives. Conversion of existing LPG-storage salt caverns to natural-gas storage is one method of providing new storage. To supply SaskEnergy Inc., the province`s local distribution company, and Saskatchewan customers, TransGas previously had developed solution-mined salt storage caverns from start to finish. Two Regina North case histories illustrate TransGas` experiences with conversion of LPG salt caverns to gas storage. This paper provides the testing procedures for the various caverns, cross-sectional diagrams of each cavern, and outlines for cavern conversion. It also lists storage capacities of these caverns.

Crossley, N.G. [TransGas Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1996-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

134

LPG buses in southern California leave the competition at the curb  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that after the first year of a landmark experiment in which LPG has been competing against methanol and CNG in city buses, propane appears to be pulling out in front of the pack. According to Efren Medellin, superintendent of vehicle maintenance at the Orange County Transit Authority, two LPG buses had registered a total of 31,000 moles with relatively little, if any, downtime. The two methanol buses had run a total of 30,000 miles while the two CNG buses had traveled only 5000 miles. Furthermore the methanol and CNG buses have had their share of downtime for new parts and other problems. The propane-powered buses appear to be running consistently well without mechanical difficulties. The only problem that occurred was occasional backfiring. As a result, the electronic controls were replaced and no subsequent complaints were heard.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Conception and construction of an LPG tank using a composite membrane technology  

SciTech Connect

TECHNIGAZ and TOTAL C.F.P. have developed a new LPG storage technology derived from the membrane concept used for LNG storage and transportation. This technology called GMS uses a composite membrane as primary barrier. A 2 000 m/sup 3/ storage pilot unit, based on that concept, is under construction in TOTAL's refinery at DUNKIRK (France) since September 1983.

Fuvel, P.; Claude, J.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Radiological health implications of lead-210 and polonium-210 accumulations in LPG refineries  

SciTech Connect

Radon-222, a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, is often a contaminant in natural gas. During fractionation at processing plants, Radon tends to be concentrated in the Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) product stream. Radon-222 decays into a number of radioactive metallic daughters which can plate out on the interior surfaces of plant machinery. The hazards associated with gamma-emitting short-lived radon daughters have been investigated previously. The present work reports an analysis of the hazards associated with the long-lived daughters; Pb-210, Bi-210, and Po-210. These nuclides do not emit appreciable penetrating radiation, and hence do not represent a hazard as long as they remain on the inside surfaces of equipment. However, when equipment that has had prolonged exposure to an LPG stream is disassembled for repair or routine maintenance, opportunities for exposure to radioactive materials can occur. A series of measurements made on an impeller taken from a pump in an LPG facility is reported. Alpha spectroscopy revealed the presence of Po-210, and further measurements showed that the amount on the impeller surface was well above the exempt quantity. Breathing zone measurements made in the course of cleaning the impeller showed that an inhalation exposure equivalent to breathing Po-210 at the Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) for 60 hours could be delivered in less than half an hour. It was concluded that maintenance and repair work on LPG and derivitive product stream equipment must be carried out with the realization that a potential radiological health problem exists.

Summerlin, J. Jr.; Prichard, H.M.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Pressurized release of liquefied fuel gases (LNG and LPG). Topical report, May 1993-February 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report is an important contribution to the behavior of pressurized liquefied gases when accidentally released into the atmosphere. LNG vehicle fueling stations and LPG storage facilities operate at elevated pressures. Accidental releases could result in rainout and the formation of an aerosol in the vapor cloud. These factors must be considered when estimating the extent of the hazard zone of the vapor cloud using a heavier-than-air gas dispersion model such as DEGADIS (or its Windows equivalent DEGATEC). The DOS program PREL has been incorporated in the Windows program LFGRISK.

Atallah, S.; Janardhan, A.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

LPG--a direct source of C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the selective production of olefins by the catalytic dehydrogenation of the corresponding paraffins by means of UOP's Oleflex process. In this process, propylene can be obtained at about 85 mol % selectivity by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane. Isobutylene can be obtained at selectivities in excess of 90 mol % from isobutane, and n-butenes (1-butene plus 2-butene) at about 80 mol % from n-butane. The availability of this technology, coupled with an abundant supply of LPG (C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ paraffins), opens new avenues for the selective production of propylene and butylenes.

Pujado, P.R.; Berg, R.C.; Vora, B.V.

1983-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

139

Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

Willson, B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

Willson, B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

Willson, B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Six years' operating experience at Ardjuna field helps prove out LPG SBS system  

SciTech Connect

The permanent yoke mooring system and the two-product flexpipe riser of the Arjuna Sakti LPG storage barge have completely lived up to their expectations. The LPG offtake system, the terminaling function of the storage unit, has also performed extremely well. Experience gained at Ardjuna provides confidence for future openocean mooring of large methanol or LNG plants. Mooring systems of these future units will likely have a different configuration, such as the single anchor leg storage (SALS) mooring. However, the basic system components have been used, both at Ardjuna and in comparable situations elsewhere in the world. Engineers who are working on floating, large scale, gas processing plants for mooring in the open ocean could profitably join their efforts in a team comprised of process specialists, naval architects, and mooring experts. Specific areas of consideration should be: length-to-beam and lengthto-depth ratios and shape of bow. This could result in a storage/process barge design with better motion characteristics and lower mooring forces than proposed at present.

Smulders, L.H.

1983-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

143

Chemically reactive coatings for passive fire protection in LNG and LPG storage and transporation  

SciTech Connect

According to Van Dyke Associates and TSI Inc., supporting and containing steels used to store and transport LNG and LPG are best protected in case of fire by thermally reactive subliming compounds. When exposed to fire, such compounds undergo an endothermic reaction; thus the substrate material beneath the coating will not heat up beyond the temperature at which this reaction occurs. Gases released by the sublimation reaction pass outward through the pores of the char, breaking down further as they absorb more energy. Numerous tests confirm that in comparison with other types of coatings, subliming compounds require the smallest thickness of coating for any specified level of protection. Routine spraying application techniques further reduce the cost of this passive fire-protection method.

Van Dyke, B.H.; Kawaller, S.T.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools and a Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes. Tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Market survey on products from the Tema Oil Refinery carried out as part of the feasibility study on the Tema Oil Refinery expansion project. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), which was commissioned in 1963, is a simple hydroskimming plant which processes crude oil into LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gasoil, and fuel oil. It is the only petroleum refinery in Ghana. Over the years some of the equipment in the refinery has deteriorated or become obsolete necessitating major rehabilitation. A feasibility study is investigating the modernization and expansion of the refinery to meet projected market demands until the year 2005. The report presents the results of a market survey done on products from TOR.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Malaysia Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel : 1 : 1 : 1: 2004-2012: Special Naphthas: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 2004-2012: Residual Fuel Oil: 0: 1: 2-3-2: 0: 1994-2012: Naphtha for Petrochem ...

148

"Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(g)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.4;" 3.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any" "NAICS"," ","Energy","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(g)" ,,"Total United States"

149

"Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 2.4;" 2.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 2.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any Combustible" "NAICS"," ","Energy","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",27.5,"X",42,39.5,62,"X",0,9.8

150

"Characteristic(a)","Total(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1.3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.3;" 1.3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","Shipments" "Economic",,"Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","of Energy Sources" "Characteristic(a)","Total(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)"

151

New Zealand Energy Data: Oil Consumption by Fuel and Sector | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oil Consumption by Fuel and Sector Oil Consumption by Fuel and Sector Dataset Summary Description The New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development publishes energy data including many datasets related to oil and other petroleum products. Included here are two oil consumption datasets: quarterly petrol consumption by sector (agriculture, forestry and fishing; industrial; commercial; residential; transport industry; and international transport), from 1974 to 2010; and oil consumption by fuel type (petrol, diesel, fuel oil, aviation fuels, LPG, and other), also for the years 1974 through 2010. The full 2010 Energy Data File is available: http://www.med.govt.nz/upload/73585/EDF%202010.pdf. Source New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development Date Released Unknown Date Updated July 02nd, 2010 (4 years ago)

152

Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other...

153

OIL PRODUCTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OIL PRODUCTION Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a term applied to methods used for recovering oil from a petroleum reservoir beyond that recoverable by primary and secondary methods....

154

"Code(a)","End Use","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)"," Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.3;" 3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," " " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," " " "," ","Net Demand",,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS"," ","for ","Residual","and","Natural","LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)"," Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES" ,"TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION",2,3,6,2,4,9

155

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" 0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(d)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(e)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(f)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",8,15,9,21,19,18,0,27,0,41 311221," Wet Corn Milling",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0

156

The Role of the Flexicoking Process in Heavy Oil Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recently commercialized FLEXICOKING Process has a significant role to play in developing, known heavy oil reserves. The process upgrades virtually any pumpable feed including residual, pitch or total crude. Combined with HYDROFINING, it produces a clean product slate composed of low Btu gas, high Btu gas, LPG, naphtha, distillate and gas oil. The low Btu gas falls within the definition of an "Alternate Fuel" under current legislation (PL 95-620). Originally developed for refinery bottoms conversion, the FLEXICOKING process can also be used as the primary technology for Stand Alone Energy Centers upgrading low quality, high metals, heavy crudes. These efficient energy centers can be located either at a heavy oil production field or integrated with an energy-intensive industrial complex.

Taylor, R. I.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Energy Data Sourcebook for the U.S. Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

South Gas LPG Oil Electricity Source: US DOE 1995 forLPG -- FRN RM - Oil - OTH Other Source: US DOE 1995b. OilLPG H20 FRN - Oil RM OTH Other Source: US DOE 1995b. Oil

Wenzel, T.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Oil and Oil Derivatives Compliance Requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... for international connection of oiled residues discharge ... C to + 163C, fuels, lubricating oils and hydraulic ... fuel of gas turbine, crude oil, lubricating oil ...

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Residential HVAC Data, Assumptions and Methodology for End-Use Forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Central Air, Fuels = Oil and Gas, Other = LPG and Misc. (3)Central Air, Fuels = Oil and Gas, LPG and Misc. (3) Sources:Central Air, Fuels = Oil and Gas, Other = LPG and Misc. (3)

Johnson, F.X.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

A Multi-Country Analysis of Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels and Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Coke oil n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.CG RFG Diesel FTD Fuel oil Stillgas Coke LPG LPG CNG NuclearFTD NG Fuel oil Still gas Coke oil oil oil LPG oil LPG NGL57

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

A MULTI-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF LIFECYCLE EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND MOTOR VEHICLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Coke oil n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.CG RFG Diesel FTD Fuel oil Stillgas Coke LPG LPG CNG NuclearFTD NG Fuel oil Still gas Coke oil oil oil LPG oil LPG NGL57

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Oil reserves  

SciTech Connect

As of March 1988, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory totaled 544.9 million barrels of oil. During the past 6 months the Department of Energy added 11.0 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR. During this period, DOE distributed $208 million from the SPR Petroleum Account. All of the oil was purchased from PEMEX--the Mexican national oil company. In FY 1988, $164 million was appropriated for facilities development and management and $439 million for oil purchases. For FY 1989, DOE proposes to obligate $173 million for facilities development and management and $236 million for oil purchases. DOE plans to postpone all further drawdown exercises involving crude oil movements until their effects on cavern integrity are evaluated. DOE and the Military Sealift Command have made progress in resolving the questions surrounding nearly $500,000 in payments for demurrage charges.

Not Available

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

"Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(g)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 4.4;" 4.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 4.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any" "NAICS"," ","Energy",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(g)" ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",0.4,0.4,19.4,9,2,6.9,5.4,0,10.3

166

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

167

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil LPG Refinery Gas Other Petroleum Products Natural GasOil LPG Refinery Gas Other Petroleum Products Natural GasEquipment Chemicals Food Petroleum & Coking Textiles Paper

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Bahamas Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel-1-1-2-2-2-2: 2004-2012: Special Naphthas: 0: 0: 0: 0-1-2: 2004-2012: Residual Fuel Oil-20-12-17-23-14-11: 1993-2012: Naphtha for Petrochem ...

169

Landi-Hartog U. S. A. adjusts to the U. S. market. [Marketing of LPG carburetor systems for using propane as an automotive fuel  

SciTech Connect

Landi-Hartog U.S.A. has adjusted to the U.S. market in providing LPG carburetor systems for passenger cars. Landi-Hartog (LH) had to completely redesign the components on the system to be compatible with U.S. 300-525 cu in. engines. The company has California Air Resources Board approval for 300 cu in. engines and above in dual-fuel service. However, the U.S. market will remain severely restricted unless basic distribution (and the political) changes are made. The U.S. is st

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils  

agricultural oils to stimulate endogenous microbes which accelerates the cleanup. The oils tested include canola oil, grapeseed oil, coconut oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil, ...

171

OIl Speculation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investor Flows and the 2008 BoomBust in Oil Prices Kenneth J. Singleton 1 August 10, 2011 1 Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, kenneths@stanford.edu. This research...

172

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating...

173

Volume Transfer, LPG Prover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the prover is drained for a 30 ( 5) second period after cessation of the main flow. ... 87, i, Include a Pressure Correction Table 1 and Chart with your ...

2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

174

Heavy Oil Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Select Reports from Heavy Oil Projects Project Number Performer Title Heavy Oil Recovery US (NIPERBDM-0225) BDM-Oklahoma, Inc. Feasibility Study of Heavy Oil Recovery in the...

175

Crude Oil Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Notes: Crude oil exports are restricted to: (1) crude oil derived from fields under the State waters of Alaska's Cook Inlet; (2) Alaskan North Slope crude oil; (3) ...

176

3. Crude Oil Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

3. Crude Oil Statistics The United States had 21,371 million barrels of crude oil proved reserves as of December 31, 2004. Crude oil proved reserves ...

177

5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5 World Oil Trends Chapter 1 WORLD OIL TRENDS INTRODUCTION In considering the outlook for California's petroleum supplies, it is important to give attention to expecta- tions of what the world oil market. Will world oil demand increase and, if so, by how much? How will world oil prices be affected

178

Specialty Oils Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing provider for Specialty Oils. Samples tested include Walnut Oil, Pecan Oil, Pistachio Oil, Sesame Seed Oil, Flax Seed Oil, Neem Oil, Safflower Oil, Sunflower Oil. Specialty Oils Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Pro

179

Oil | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil Oil Oil Prices, 2000-2008 For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. |...

180

of oil yields from enhanced oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

oil yields from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO oil yields from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO 2 storage capacity in depleted oil reservoirs. The primary goal of the project is to demonstrate that remaining oil can be economically produced using CO 2 -EOR technology in untested areas of the United States. The Citronelle Field appears to be an ideal site for concurrent CO 2 storage and EOR because the field is composed of sandstone reservoirs

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparisons of Estimated Maximum Consequences Coal Oil NG LPG Nuclear (Chernobyl) Nuclear (except Chernobyl

182

EIA Oil price timeline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, ... Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions.

183

Quarterly update. [Oil supply and demand data for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report presents detailed statistics on oil supply and demand in the countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. The information consists of complete balances of production, trade, refinery intake/output, final consumption, stock levels, and changes for crude oil, natural gas liquids, refinery feedstocks, and 9 product groups; separate trade data for main product groups, LPG, and naphtha; imports for 48 origins; exports for 31 destinations; international marine bunkers and deliveries by product group; aggregates of quarterly data to annual totals; and natural gas supply and consumption. The information supplied is for Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, UK, European Economic Community, Austria, Finland, Greece, Iceland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, OECD Europe, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and the US.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Home Energy Saver  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heater Heat Pumps Replacing Your Electric Furnace and CAC with a Heat Pump Sealing Home Air Leaks LPG Furnaces Efficient LPG-fired Water Heaters Oil Furnaces Efficient...

185

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

186

Vsd Oil Free Compressor, Vsd Oil Free Compressor Products, Vsd ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Vsd Oil Free Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Vsd Oil Free Compressor Products from Global Vsd Oil Free Compressor Suppliers and Vsd Oil ...

187

OIl Speculation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investor Investor Flows and the 2008 Boom/Bust in Oil Prices Kenneth J. Singleton 1 August 10, 2011 1 Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, kenneths@stanford.edu. This research is the outgrowth of a survey paper I prepared for the Air Transport Association of America. I am grateful to Kristoffer Laursen for research assistance and to Kristoffer and Stefan Nagel for their comments. Abstract This paper explores the impact of investor flows and financial market conditions on returns in crude-oil futures markets. I begin by arguing that informational frictions and the associated speculative activity may induce prices to drift away from "fundamental" values and show increased volatility. This is followed by a discussion of the interplay between imperfect infor- mation about real economic activity, including supply, demand, and inventory accumulation, and speculative

188

Oil price; oil demand shocks; oil supply shocks; dynamic effects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Using a newly developed measure of global real economic activity, a structural decomposition of the real price of crude oil in four components is proposed: oil supply shocks driven by political events in OPEC countries; other oil supply shocks; aggregate shocks to the demand for industrial commodities; and demand shocks that are specific to the crude oil market. The latter shock is designed to capture shifts in the price of oil driven by higher precautionary demand associated with fears about future oil supplies. The paper quantifies the magnitude and timing of these shocks, their dynamic effects on the real price of oil and their relative importance in determining the real price of oil during 1975-2005. The analysis sheds light on the origin of the observed fluctuations in oil prices, in particular during oil price shocks. For example, it helps gauge the relative importance of these shocks in the build-up of the real price of crude oil since the late 1990s. Distinguishing between the sources of higher oil prices is shown to be crucial in assessing the effect of higher oil prices on U.S. real GDP and CPI inflation, suggesting that policies aimed at dealing with higher oil prices must take careful account of the origins of higher oil prices. The paper also quantifies the extent to which the macroeconomic performance of the U.S. since the mid-1970s has been driven by the external economic shocks driving the real price of oil as opposed to domestic economic factors and policies. Key words: JEL:

Lutz Kilian

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Carbon Taxes: A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

oil Light only Liquified petroleum gas (LPG) Home heating oil Permitted facilities Tax Rate As shown in Figure 1, carbon...

190

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids, andWorld Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids, andProduction of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids, and Re?

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs U.S. Petroleum Use, 1970-2010 Nearly 40% of the oil we use is imported, costing us roughly 300 billion annually. Increased domestic oil production from...

192

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interpretations of Chinas foreign oil strategy. Argumentsof aspects of Chinas foreign oil activities, they do notits largest directly-run foreign oil project. Supplying 10

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline, NBER Working Paper.2006. Chinas Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand, Energy Journal 23(1),

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Oil Spills and Wildlife  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil Spills and Wildlife Name: jess Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: what are some effects of oil spills on plants? Replies: The effects of oil spills over the last...

195

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of AmericasDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil, (Council on Foreign Relations,

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the residual quantity of oil that never gets produced.order to purchase a quantity Q barrels of oil at a price P tD t Q t Q t+1 Quantity Figure 5. Monthly oil production for

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is an important oil source for China, yet unlike itsthe United States as a major oil source outside the volatileto be a critical source of oil, and one that is almost

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004. OPECs Optimal Crude Oil Price, Energy Policy 32(2),Figure 3. Price of crude oil contract maturing December ofbarrels per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004. OPECs Optimal Crude Oil Price, Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait, inday. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.Arabia PRODUCTION QUOTA Iran PRODUCTION QUOTA Venezuela

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chinas domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, Chinas demand Oil

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Crude Oil Affects Gasoline Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil Affects Gasoline Prices. WTI Crude Oil Price. Retail Gasoline Price. Source: Energy Information Administration

204

Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

206

Eco Oil 4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

207

Subject is oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The article reviews the current financial, legislative and regulatory problems of oil shale development. 2 refs.

Due, M.J.C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Oil | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil Oil Oil Oil Prices, 2000-2008 For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. Oil is used for heating and transportation -- most notably, as fuel for gas-powered vehicles. America's dependence on foreign oil has declined in recent years, but oil prices have increased. The Energy Department supports research and policy options to increase our domestic supply of oil while ensuring environmentally sustainable supplies domestically and abroad, and is investing in research, technology and

209

Oil Dependencies and Peak Oil's Effects on Oil Consumption.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? During the year of 2007, the world has experienced historically high oil prices both in nominal and in real terms, which has reopened discussions (more)

Tekin, Josef

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

"Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.4;" 1.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.4;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Any",,,,,,,,,"Shipments" "NAICS",,"Energy","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and",,"of Energy Sources" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",0.4,0.4,19.4,8.9,2,6.9,5.4,0,10.1,9.1 3112," Grain and Oilseed Milling",0,0,21.1,14.7,8.4,13.3,7.9,"X",17.9,9.1

211

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Outlook Briefing for the State Heating Oil and Propane Program Conference Asheville, NC Mike Burdette Petroleum Division, Energy ...

212

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table of Contents. Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook. Short-Term World Oil Price Forecast . Price Movements Related to Supply/Demand Balance

213

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook Briefing for the State Heating Oil and Propane Program Conference Wilmington, DE by Douglas MacIntyre

214

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Products from Global Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Suppliers ...

215

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Products from Global Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Suppliers ...

216

Residential HVAC Data, Assumptions and Methodology for End-Use Forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil hydronic, electric room, and electric (air source) heatFuels = Oil and Gas, LPG and Misc. (3) Sources: 1990 RECS (Fuels = Oil and Gas, Other = LPG and Misc. (3) Sources: 1990

Johnson, F.X.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Oil-Well Fire Fighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Oil Well Fire Fighting. NIST fire Research NIST Fire Research 2 Oil Well Fire Fighting RoboCrane Model Oil Well Fire Fighting Working Model.

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

218

AN ENGINE OIL LIFE ALGORITHM.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An oil-life algorithm to calculate the remaining percentage of oil life is presented as a means to determine the right time to change the oil (more)

Bommareddi, Anveshan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and residual fuel oils. Distillate fuel oil, the lighter product, is also used for heating of homes and commercial buildings. Residual oil is a much denser, heavier product...

220

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Oil and Gas Supply Module  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description of...

222

Industrial Uses of Vegetable Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Uses of Vegetable Oils offers new insights into these important (and growing) products of vegetable oils, while also covering developments in biodegradable grease, vegetable oils-based polyols, and the synthesis of surfactants from vegetable oil

223

The Legacy of Oil Spills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a 1979 exploratory oil well blew out and leaked oil foraddicted to oil directly causes spills as well as globalmagnitudes of past oil spills. They are well aware of the

Trevors, J. T.; Saier, M. H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Oil and Gas Exploration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

Tingley, Joseph V.

225

Oil and Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil and Plants Name: Matt Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: If you could please tell me exactly what motor oil (unused) does to plants, and the effects. Does it...

226

Palm oil pundit speaks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dorab E. Mistry, director of Godrej International Ltd. in Mumbai, India, spoke about palm oil on March 15, 2010, during the 2010 Annual Convention of the National Institute of Oilseed Products in Palm Springs, California, USA. Palm oil pundit speaks ...

227

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

21, 2008. Ying, Wang. China, Venezuela firms to co-developApril 21, China and Venezuela sign oil agreements. Chinaaccessed April 21, Venezuela and China sign oil deal. BBC

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

well below unity accounts for the broad trends we see in the share of oil purchases in totalWells. Middle panel: percent of U.S. total crude oil

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

SRC Residual fuel oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Oil Peak or Panic?  

SciTech Connect

In this balanced consideration of the peak-oil controversy, Gorelick comes down on the side of the optimists.

Greene, David L [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Using Oils As Pesticides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petroleum and plant-derived spray oils show increasing potential for use as part of Integrated Pest Management systems for control of soft-bodied pests on fruit trees, shade trees, woody ornamentals and household plants. Sources of oils, preparing oils for use, application and precautions are discussed.

Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott; Metz, Bradley

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

232

Exploiting heavy oil reserves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the behaviour of oil and gas prices and the fruits of future exploration. The rate of technological progress. How optimistic are you that the North Sea remains a viable source of oil and gas? A) Our new researchNorth Sea investment potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Beneath the waves in 3D Aberdeen

Levi, Ran

233

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a negative storage cost for oil in the form of a bene?tin levels. oil for more than your costs, that is, if P t+1 QSaudi oil, and M S the Saudis marginal cost of production.

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Biochemical upgrading of oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

235

Biochemical upgrading of oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

236

Gourmet and Health-Promoting Specialty OilsChapter 11 Camellia Oil and Tea Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gourmet and Health-Promoting Specialty Oils Chapter 11 Camellia Oil and Tea Oil Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 11 Camellia Oil and T

237

Utah Heavy Oil Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

238

Oil shale commercialization study  

SciTech Connect

Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

Warner, M.M.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Algeria: World Oil Report 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that Algeria is positioned to achieve important, new natural gas markets. Over half of its hydrocarbon income is from exports of gas and derived products, liquified petroleum gas (LPG) and condensates, which are not subject to Opec quotas. Officials are moving away from inflexible past policies and are becoming vastly more realistic now that foreign investment laws have been liberalized and there is a need to attract foreign investors. Sonatrach must address three key issues to consolidate recent progress. Sales to existing customers in Europe, like Italy, must be expanded; new customers and markets need to found: and U.S. liquified natural gas (LNG) markets must be revived.

Not Available

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Feasibility study on the modernization and expansion of the Tema Oil Refinery. Executive Summary. Export trade information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), which was commissioned in 1963, is a simple hydro-skimming plant which processes crude oil into LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gasoil, and fuel oil. It is the only petroleum refinery in Ghana. Over the years some of the equipment in the refinery has deteriorated or become obsolete necessitating major rehabilitation. A study of the refinery expansion project takes into consideration earlier studies and, equally important, recognizes the extensive work done by TOR in rehabilitating the refinery. The program, carried out in phases because of funding limitations, has addressed the critical repairs and replacements in the process units and utilities necessary to prolong the life of the refinery and assure reliability and safe operation. It undertook the task of investigating the feasibility of modernizing and expanding the refinery at Tema, Ghana to meet projected market demands until the year 2005. A process planning study was conducted to select the optimal process and utility configuration which would result in economic benefits to Ghana.

Not Available

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Read the Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013. Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013 Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013 ...

242

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook 8/13/01 Click here to start Table of Contents Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook Short-Term World Oil Price Forecast Price Movements Related to Supply/Demand Balance OPEC Production Likely To Remain Low U.S. Reflects World Market Crude Oil Outlook Conclusions Distillate Prices Increase With Crude Oil Distillate Stocks on the East Coast Were Very Low Entering Last Winter Distillate Demand Strong Last Winter More Supply Possible This Fall than Forecast Distillate Fuel Oil Imports Could Be Available - For A Price Distillate Supply/Demand Balance Reflected in Spreads Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low Winter Crude Oil and Distillate Price Outlook Heating Oil Outlook Conclusion Propane Prices Follow Crude Oil

243

Crude Oil Analysis Database  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

Shay, Johanna Y.

244

Crude Oil Watch - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil Watch April 19, 2000 Energy Information Administration Office of Oil & Gas A large stockbuild in crude oil inventories contributed to blunt crude oil inputs ...

245

Shale oil: process choices  

SciTech Connect

The four broad categories of shale-oil processing are discussed. All of these processes share the basic function of retorting oil-shale rock at high temperature so that the kerogen material in the rocks is thermally decomposed to shale oil and gaseous products. The technologies and the organizations working on their development are: solids-to-solids heating, The Oil Shale Co. (TOSCO) and Lurgi-Rhur; gas-to-solids heating with internal gas combustion, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Development Engineering Inc. and Union Oil of California; gas-to-solid heating with external heat generation, Development Engineering, Union Oil, Petrobas, and Institute of Gas Technology; and in-situ retorting, Occidental Petroleum Corp. The TOSCO II process is considered proven and on the verge of commercialization. (BLM)

1974-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

246

World Oil: Market or Mayhem?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The world oil market is regarded by many as a puzzle. Why are oil prices so volatile? What is OPEC and what does OPEC do? Where are oil prices headed in the long run? Is peak oil a genuine concern? Why did oil prices ...

Smith, James L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Process of treating oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A process of destructively distilling oil shale is described consisting in subjecting the oil shale containing aluminum to the action of heat and pressure to destructively distill it and separate the light oil constituents. Chlorine gas is simultaneously passed through the hot oil shale countercurrent to the direction of movement of the oil shale.

Egloff, G.

1927-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

248

2 World Oil Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

www.eia.gov Crude oil prices react to a variety of geopolitical and economic events price per barrel (real 2010 dollars, quarterly average) 140 120 imported refiner acquisition cost of crude oil WTI crude oil price Global financial collapse 100 80 60 U.S. spare capacity exhausted Iran-Iraq War Saudis abandon swing producer role Asian financial crisis 9-11 attacks Low spare capacity

Adam Sieminski Administrator; Adam Sieminski; Adam Sieminski

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Crude Oil Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil exports are ...

250

Global Oil Geopolitics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Iran-Iraq War . Iranian revolution . Arab Oil Embargo . Asian financial crisis . capacity exhausted . Global financial collapse . 9-11 attacks . OPEC cuts targets 1.7 ...

251

Crude Oil Prices  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

252

Oil and Gas (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

253

Crude Oil Prices  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

254

Crude Oil Prices  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

255

Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2001 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

256

Oil from rock  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses first the Green River Formation oil shale projects in the western United States from which conservative estimates have suggested an output of 400,000 to 600,000 bbl/day of crude shale oil by 1990. The western reserves recoverable with present technology are said to exceed 600 billion (10/sup 9/) bbl. Three major considerations could limit the large-scale development of shale oil: availability of water, environmental factors, and socio-economic considerations. Water is used to obtain and process the crude shale oil, and additional water is needed to cool the spent shale and to establish new vegetation on top of it. Nitrogenous compounds and arsenic in crude shale oil are among potential pollutants. Spent shale contains salts that are potentially leachable, as well as organic pyrolytic products. Retorting oil shales may release more CO/sub 2/ through decomposition of carbonate minerals that will subsequently be generated by burning the oil produced. Topographic effects of oil shale mining may raise socio-economic problems. Next the article discusses the conversion of coal to liquid by pyrolysis or hydrogenation, including the Gulf solvent refined coal (SRC) and the Exxon (EDS) liquefaction processes. Also described in the South African SASOL process for producing synthetic fuel from coal. A parallel account is included on the estimated complete cycle of United States and of worldwide crude oil production, forecasting depletion within less than a century. 11 refs.

Walters, S.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

disruptions, and the peak in U.S. oil production account foroil increased 81.1% (logarithmically) between January 1979 and the peak

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Residual Fuel Oil Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil exports are ...

259

Oil spill response resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollution has become one of the main problems being faced by humanity. Preventing pollution from occurring might be the best idea but is not possible in this fast developing world. So the next best thing to do would be to respond to the pollution source in an effective manner. Oil spills are fast becoming pollution sources that are causing the maximum damage to the environment. This is owing to the compounds that are released and the way oil spreads in both water and land. Preventing the oil spill would be the best option. But once the oil has been spilled, the next best thing to do is to respond to the spill effectively. As a result, time becomes an important factor while responding to an oil spill. Appropriate response to contain and cleanup the spill is required to minimize its potential damage to the ecosystem. Since time and money play a very important role in spill response, it would be a great idea if decisions can be made in such a way that a quick response can be planned. The first part of this study deals with the formation of an 'Oil Spill Resources Handbook', which has information on all the important Oil Spill Contractors. The second and the main part of the study, deals with creating a database in Microsoft Access of the Oil Spill Contractors. The third portion of the study deals with planning an oil spill response using a systems approach.

Muthukrishnan, Shankar

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industry analysts and academics agree that Chinas domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robert Ebel, Chinas Energy

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Crude Oil Price Forecast  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

We believe crude oil prices will strengthen somewhat, but prices will rise much more slowly than they fell, and they are expected to remain lower in ...

262

Oil And The Macroeconomy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This paper examines the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact ofoil price on Industrial production, real effective exchange rate, long (more)

Al-Ameri, Leyth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

California Crude Oil Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... of different quality crudes vary over time based on the value the market places on such quality attributes. A heavy crude oil has more heavy, ...

264

Improved oil refinery operations and cheaper crude oil to help...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Improved oil refinery operations and cheaper crude oil to help reduce gasoline prices U.S. gasoline prices are expected to fall as more oil refineries come back on line and crude...

265

Determination of Aluminum Rolling Oil and Machinery Oil Residues ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Determination of Aluminum Rolling Oil and Machinery Oil Residues on Aluminum Sheet and Foil by Using Elemental Analysis and Fourier ...

266

Relaxation studies on oil, pressboard and oil impregnated pressboard.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, a laboratory relaxation study with FDS and RVM was carried out for a period of 3 years with the fabricated oil (OIL), (more)

Cao, Hongyan.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Why solar oil shale retorting produces more oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar oil shale retorting process may produce higher oil yield than conventional processing. High oil yield is obtained for three reasons: oil carbonization inside of the shale is reduced, oil cracking outside of the shale is reduced, and oil oxidation is essentially eliminated. Unique capabilities of focused solar energy produce these advantages. An increase in yield will reduce the cost of mining and shale transportation per barrel of oil produced. These cost reductions may justify the increased processing costs that will probably be associated with solar oil shale retorting.

Aiman, W.R.

1981-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

268

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects: Shale Oil Upgrading Utilizing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Companies providing oil samples of at least five (5) gallons include Chevron, Oil Shale Exploration Company (OSEC), and Red Leaf Resources, Inc. Background Work performed...

269

NETL: Oil and Natural Gas: Enhanced Oil Recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

that have unconventional characteristics (e.g., oil in fractured shales, kerogen in oil shale, bitumen in tar sands) constitute an enormous potential domestic supply of energy....

270

C:\\...\\mailquestionnaire. [PFP#1121010499  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural gas from underground pipes Bottled gas (LPG or propane) Fuel oil Kerosene Wood Some other fuel (Specify): ...

271

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 of 18 Notes: Using the Northeast as an appropriate regional focus for heating oil, the typical oil-heated household consumes about 680 gallons of oil during the winter, assuming...

272

Distillate and Crude Oil Price  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

fuel and residential heating oil prices on the East Coast is being driven by higher crude oil prices than last year and higher spreads. Crude oil is projected to average almost...

273

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Events  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Oil and Natural Gas Supply > Events Oil and Natural Gas Supply Events The following is a listing of events of interest to the oil and natural gas community....

274

The Legacy of Oil Spills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

010-0527-5 The Legacy of Oil Spills J. T. Trevors & M. H.workers were killed, and oil has been gushing out everday. It is now June, and oil continues to spew forth into

Trevors, J. T.; Saier, M. H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Handbook of Australasian Edible Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book highlights various aspects of Australasian edible oils. Handbook of Australasian Edible Oils Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Soft Bound Books Oils and Fats Specialist

276

Menhaden Fish Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Physical Characteristics of Oils, Fats, and Waxes Menhaden Oil Specific Gravity (SG) 15.5/15.5C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.912 0.930 25/25C Other SG Refractive Index (RI) 25C 40C Other RI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (65) 1

277

Refining of shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The refining of shale oil is reviewed to assess the current state-of-the-art, especially as to the avaiability of technology suitable for operation on a commercial scale. Oil shale retorting processes as they affect the quality of the crude shale oil for refining, exploratory research on the character and refining of shale oil, and other published refining background leading to the present status are discussed. The initial refining of shale oil requires the removal of a large concentration of nitrogen, an added step not required for typical petroleum crude oils, and recently published estimates show that the total cost of refining will be high. Specific technoloy is reported by industry to be technically proven and available for commercial-scale refining. Although the refining will be more costly than that of petroleum, the viability of a shale oil industry will also be affected greatly by the technology and costs of producing the crude shale oil, environmental costs, and future price and tax treatment, and these are outside the scope of this study of refining.

Lanning, W.C.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Oil price analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport has been in the whole history of mankind the basic and determining mover of the human society shape. It determined not only the position of towns, but also their inner design and it was also last but not least the basic element of the economic ... Keywords: GDP, deposit, fuels, history, market equilibrium, oil, oil reserves, price

Zdenek Riha; Viktorie Jirova; Marek Honcu

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Edible Oils Package  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contains four (4) titles regarding frying and edible oils. Edible Oils Package Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Value Packages 1766A8D5F05863694E128DE1C47D07C3 This Value Package includes: ...

280

Peak oil: diverging discursive pipelines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Peak oil is the claimed moment in time when global oil production reaches its maximum rate and henceforth forever declines. It is highly controversial as (more)

Doctor, Jeff

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Oil and Natural Gas - Search  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Search NETL Oil and Natural Gas Document Information Oil & Natural Gas Document Repository Results will be shown in two categories. "Document Database Results" provides...

282

Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Balancing Oil and EnvironmentResponsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion

Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

283

Industrial Uses of Vegetable OilsChapter 3 Vegetable Oil-Based Engine Oils: Are They Practical?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Uses of Vegetable Oils Chapter 3 Vegetable Oil-Based Engine Oils: Are They Practical? Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 3 Vegetable Oil-Based Engine Oils: Are They Practi

284

oil | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

oil oil Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 134, and contains only the reference case. The data is broken down into Crude oil, dry natural gas. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO EIA end-of-year reserves gas oil Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Oil and Gas End-of-Year Reserves and Annual Reserve Additions- Reference Case (xls, 58.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset

285

Heavy crude oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The oil crisis of the past decade has focused most of the attention and effort of researchers on crude oil resources, which are accepted as unrecoverable using known technology. World reserves are estimated to be 600-1000 billion metric tons, and with present technology 160 billion tons of this total can be recovered. This book is devoted to the discussion of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques, their mechanism and applicability to heavy oil reservoirs. The book also discusses some field results. The use of numerical simulators has become important, in addition to laboratory research, in analysing the applicability of oil recovery processes, and for this reason the last section of the book is devoted to simulators used in EOR research.

Okandan, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

Keiser, James R [ORNL; Bestor, Michael A [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Fuel Oil Prepared by Blending Heavy Oil and Coal Tar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of temperature, harmonic ration, surfactant and shearing to fuel oil prepared by blending heavy oil and coal tar were detailedly studied. The results show that the viscosity of the blended oil increases gradually with the increase of harmonic ... Keywords: coal tar, heavy oil, blending, surfactant

Guojie Zhang; Xiaojie Guo; Bo Tian; Yaling Sun; Yongfa Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

An informal description of Standard OIL and Instance OIL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An informal description of Standard OIL and Instance OIL 28 November 2000 Sean Bechhofer (1) Jeen to be specified in some language. This paper introduces the newest version of OIL ­ the ontology inference layer of the DAML language, with working name DAML-OIL, was proposed in a message to the rdf-logic mailing list

Ohlbach, Hans Jürgen

289

Oil shale data book  

SciTech Connect

The Oil Shale Data Book has been prepared as a part of its work under DOE Management Support and Systems Engineering for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves Predevelopment Plan. The contract calls for the preparation of a Master Development Plan for the Reserves which comprise some 145,000 acres of oil shale lands in Colorado and Utah. The task of defining the development potential of the Reserves required that the resources of the Reserves be well defined, and the shale oil recovery technologies that are potentially compatible with this resource be cataloged. Additionally, processes associated with shale oil recovery like mining, materials handling, beneficiation, upgrading and spent shale disposal have also been cataloged. This book, therefore, provides a ready reference for evaluation of appropriate recovery technologies and associated processes, and should prove to be valuable for many oil shale activities. Technologies that are still in the process of development, like retorting, have been treated in greater detail than those that are commercially mature. Examples of the latter are ore crushing, certain gas clean-up systems, and pipeline transportation. Emphasis has been on documenting available design information such as, maximum module size, operation conditions, yields, utility requirements, outlet gas compositions, shale oil characteristics, etc. Cost information has also been included where available.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Table 5.2 Crude Oil Production and Crude Oil Well ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 5.2 Crude Oil Production and Crude Oil Well Productivity, 1954-2011: Year: Crude Oil Production: Crude Oil Well 1 Productivity: 48 States 2: ...

291

South Dakota Residual Fuel Oil Adj Sales/Deliveries to Oil Company ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil for Oil Company Use ; Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil for Oil Company Use ; South Dakota Adjusted Distillate ...

292

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER 1: WORLD OIL TRENDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER 1: WORLD OIL TRENDS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Onshore Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Offshore Oil Production

293

OpenEI - oil  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

/0 en AEO2011: Oil and Gas /0 en AEO2011: Oil and Gas End-of-Year Reserves and Annual Reserve Additions http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/805 This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 134, and contains only the reference case. The data is broken down into Crude oil, dry natural gas. 

License
Type of License: 

294

Tenth oil recovery conference  

SciTech Connect

The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Sleeper, R. (ed.)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Oil Speculation by Jussi Keppo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil Speculation by Jussi Keppo July 8, 2008 The increase in the oil spot price seems to be mainly, the surplus oil capacity decreased from 5 million barrels a day to 2 million barrels a day. There seems, i.e., they are long in these markets. Here I focus on oil and I have simple points

Keppo, Jussi

296

Market assessment for shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study identified several key issues on the cost, timeliness, and ease with which shale oil can be introduced into the United States' refining system. The capacity of the existing refining industry to process raw shale oil is limited by the availability of surplus hydrogen for severe hydrotreating. The existing crude oil pipeline system will encounter difficulties in handling raw shale oil's high viscosity, pour point, and contaminant levels. The cost of processing raw shale oil as an alternate to petroleum crude oil is extremely variable and primarily dependent upon the percentage of shale oil run in the refinery, as well as the availability of excess hydrogen. A large fraction of any shale oil which is produced will be refined by the major oil companies who participate in the shale oil projects and who do not anticipate problems in processing the shale oil in their refineries. Shale oil produced for sale to independent refiners will initially be sold as boiler fuel. A federal shale oil storage program might be feasible to supplement the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Based on refinery configurations, hydrogen supply, transportation systems, and crude availability, eleven refineries in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 2A and 2B have been identified as potential processors of shale oil. Based on refining technology and projected product demands to the year 2000, shale oil will be best suited to the production of diesel fuel and jet fuel. Tests of raw shale oil in boilers are needed to demonstrate nitrogen oxide emissions control.

Not Available

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

HS_Oil_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil Oil Fossil Energy Study Guide: Oil Pet roleum-or cr ude oil-is a fossil fuel that is found in large quantities beneath the Earth's sur face and is often used as a fuel or raw material in the chemical indust r y. It is a smelly, yellow-to-black liquid and is usually found in underg round areas called reser voirs. If you could look down an oil well and see oil where Nature created it, you might be surprised. You wouldn't see a big underground lake, as a lot of people think. Oil doesn't exist in deep, black pools. In fact, an underground oil formation-an "oil reservoir"-looks very much like any other rock formation. Oil exists in this underground formation as tiny droplets trapped inside the open spaces, called "pores," inside rocks. Th

298

MS_Oil_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LOOKING DOWN AN OIL WELL LOOKING DOWN AN OIL WELL Ever wonder what oil looks like underground, down deep, hundreds or thousands of feet below the surface, buried under millions of tons of rock and dirt? If you could look down an oil well and see oil where nature created it, you might be surprised. You wouldn't see a big underground lake, as a lot of people think. Oil doesn't exist in deep, black pools. In fact, an underground oil formation-called an "oil reservoir" -looks very much like any other rock formation. It looks a lot like...well, rock. Oil exists underground as tiny droplets trapped inside the open spaces, called "pores," inside rocks. Th e "pores" and the oil droplets can be seen only through a microscope. Th e droplets cling to the rock, like drops of water cling

299

Oil and Gas Supply Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oil and Gas Supply Module Oil and Gas Supply Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 119 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Oil and Gas Supply Module The NEMS Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM) constitutes a comprehensive framework with which to analyze crude oil and natural gas exploration and development on a regional basis (Figure 8). The OGSM is organized into 4 submodules: Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule[1], and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description of the OGSM is provided in the EIA publication, Model Documentation Report: The Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM), DOE/EIA-M063(2011), (Washington, DC, 2011). The OGSM provides

300

Oil Price Volatility  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Robert J. Weiner Robert J. Weiner Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Public Administration, and International Affairs Public Administration, and International Affairs George Washington University; George Washington University; Membre Associ Membre Associ é é , GREEN, Universit , GREEN, Universit é é Laval Laval EIA Annual Conference Washington Washington 7 April 2009 7 April 2009 1 FACTORS DRIVNG OIL PRICE VOLATILITY FACTORS DRIVNG OIL PRICE VOLATILITY ► ► Market fundamentals Market fundamentals . . Fluctuations in supply, Fluctuations in supply, demand, and market power demand, and market power Some fundamentals related to expectations of Some fundamentals related to expectations of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Winter Crude Oil and  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: While the relatively low stock forecast (although not as low as last winter) adds some extra pressure to prices, the price of crude oil could be the major factor affecting heating oil prices this winter. The current EIA forecast shows residential prices averaging $1.29 this winter, assuming no volatility. The average retail price is about 7 cents less than last winter, but last winter included the price spike in November 2000, December 2000, and January 2001. Underlying crude oil prices are currently expected to be at or below those seen last winter. WTI averaged over $30 per barrel last winter, and is currently forecast to average about $27.50 per barrel this winter. As those of you who watch the markets know, there is tremendous uncertainty in the amount of crude oil supply that will be available this winter. Less

302

Oil Market Assessment  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Logo Oil Market Assessment - September Logo Oil Market Assessment - September 12, 2001 EIA Home Page Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Rumors of scattered closures of U.S. refineries, pipelines, and terminals were reported, and Louisiana Offshore Oil Port operations were partially suspended. While the NYMEX and New York Harbor were temporarily closed, operations are expected to resume soon. Most, if not all petroleum industry infrastructure is expected to resume normal operations today or in the very near term. Prices at all levels (where markets were open) posted increases yesterday, but many prices fell today, as initial reactions

303

Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and past heating season. As you can see, prices have started the heating season, about 40 to 50 cents per gallon higher than last year at this time. The data presented are from EIA's State Heating Oil and Propane Program. We normally collect and publish this data twice a month, but given the low stocks and high prices, we started tracking the prices weekly. These data will also be used to determine the price trigger mechanism for the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve. The data are published at a State and regional level on our web site. The slide is to give you some perspective of what is happening in these markets, since you probably will get a number of calls from local residents about their heating fuels bills

304

Sound Oil Company  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sound Oil Company Sound Oil Company file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/blackard/Desktop/EIA/LEE0152.HTM[11/29/2012 2:30:44 PM] DECISION AND ORDER OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application for Exception Name of Petitioner: Sound Oil Company Date of Filing: August 16, 1994 Case Number: LEE-0152 On August 16, 1994, Sound Oil Company (Sound) of Seattle Washington, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals of the Department of Energy. In its Application, Sound requests that it be relieved of the requirement that it file the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) form entitled "Resellers'/Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report" (Form EIA-782B). As explained below, we have determined that the Application for Exception should be denied.

305

3. Crude Oil Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

a key area for discoveries, had no significant impact on the National total in 2002. Operators replaced 112 ... 51 4,444 73 12 27 67 61 107 15 13 Crude Oil Proved ...

306

Industrial Oil Products Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A forum for professionals involved in research, development, engineering, marketing, and testing of industrial products and co-products from fats and oils, including fuels, lubricants, coatings, polymers, paints, inks, cosmetics, dielectric fluids, and ad

307

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

21, 2008. China signs $2bn Iran oil deal. Al Jazeera (11of its partnerships: Sudan, Iran and Venezuela. An analysiss $400 million contract with Iran may omit information about

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Crude Oil Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

July are likely to not be felt until the very end of August or early September. OPEC crude oil production cuts are not likely to be as great as their cuts in quotas. However, they...

309

Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

20.86 20.67 20.47 20.24 20.32 19.57 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

310

Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

19.11 18.73 18.63 17.97 18.75 18.10 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

311

Oil & Natural Gas Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Res., 104(B10), 22985-23003. Collett, T.S. (1992), Potential of gas hydrates outlined, Oil Gas J., 90(25), 84-87. 70 Cook, A.E., Goldberg, D., and R.L. Kleinberg (2008),...

312

Crude Oil Price Cycles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The heating oil and diesel price runups in late January were made even more problematic by coming on top of the high side of the latest crude market cycle.

313

Futures oil market outlook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We expect the broader expansion of global economic activity in 1995 to more than offset the anticipated slowdown in the US economic growth. This should result in worldwide oil demand growth in excess of 1 million barrels per day and firmer oil prices. This comes on the heels of nearly identical growth in 1994 and should be followed by an even larger increase in 1996. This year`s demand growth comes against a backdrop of flat OPEC production and an increase in non-OPEC supplies that will fall short of the expected increase in consumption. Some degree of political upheaval in at least a half dozen important oil exporting nations could also have implication for crude supplies. One major wildcard that remains for global oil markets is the status of the United Nations` sanctions on Iraqi exports and the timing of when these sanctions are to be eased or lifted completely.

Saucer, J. [Smith Barney, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

3. Crude Oil Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coastal Region Onshore ... Los Angeles Basin Onshore. . . 330 0 31 24 31 26 3 0 0 16 319 ... the net loss of proved reserves of crude oil in 2003.

315

Total OECD Oil Stocks  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 Notes: OECD oil inventory levels are not expected to rise sufficiently during the rest of the year to match the average levels seen prior to the wide swings since 1995. This...

316

Crude Oil Price Cycles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The heating oil and diesel fuel price runups in late January were made even more problematic by coming on top of the high side of the latest crude market cycle. Over the past 10...

317

Biocatalysis in Oil Refining  

SciTech Connect

Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter.

Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Ramirez-Corredores, M. M. [BP Global Fuels Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Oil in Tennessee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil is the single most dominant force in the ''energy outlook'' and will continue to be throughout the foreseeable generations. Tennesseans now spend about $10 billion annually to satisfy energy needs; nearly half of that is for oil-based products. Most of the petroleum products sold are in the form of motor fuel, but a third of these products are made up of other categories, such as aviation and jet fuels, heating fuels, and lubricants. Baseline industry data is supplied.

Lamp, R.; Forester, C. (ed.)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Oil recovery process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An on-site, in-line process and system is claimed for recovering oil from oil-bearing subterranean formations which involves the production, modification, dilution and injection of a polymer solution, preferably consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, having injectivity and mobility properties capable of meeting the specific permeability requirements of substantially any subterranean formation to be achieved. The polymer solutions prepared by the process and system can be used as drive fluids for displacing oil (secondary polymer flood) in an oil-bearing formation, as mobility buffers to follow micellar dispersion floods in the conjoint presence of chemical reagents in other chemical floods (e.g., surfactant, caustic, etc.), or they can follow a water flood. The solutions can also be used to promote pipelining of high viscosity crude oil. Irrespective of the use to which the solutions are put, the process and system enable the polymer solutions to be customized, or tailor-made, so to speak, to meet the performance demands of the environment in which they are to be used, whether it be an oil-bearing formation or a pipeline.

Argabright, P.A.; Rhudy, J.S.

1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

320

Chemically enhanced oil recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Yet when conducted according to present state of the art, chemical flooding (i.e., micellar/polymer flooding, surfactant/polymer flooding, surfactant flooding) can mobilize more residual crude oil than any other method of enhanced oil recovery. It also is one of the most expensive methods of enhanced oil recovery. This contribution will describe some of the technology that comprises the state of the art technology that must be adhered to if a chemical flood is to be successful. Although some of the efforts to reduce cost and other points are discussed, the principle focus is on technical considerations in designing a good chemical flooding system. The term chemical flooding is restricted here to methods of enhanced oil recovery that employs a surfactant, either injected into the oil reservoir or generated in situ, primarily to reduce oil-water interfacial tension. Hence, polymer-water floods for mobility or profile control, steam foams, and carbon dioxide foams are excluded. Some polymer considerations are mentioned because they apply to providing mobility control for chemical flooding systems.

Nelson, R.C.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

Henning, C.D.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

Whisman, Marvin L. (Bartlesville, OK); Reynolds, James W. (Bartlesville, OK); Goetzinger, John W. (Bartlesville, OK); Cotton, Faye O. (Bartlesville, OK)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Will lecture on: Unconventional Oil and Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are not yet resolved. Ten years ago this category comprised heavy oil, oil shale, coal bed methane, tight gas, and economic aspects of gas shale and tight oil development. The role of oil shale in the emerging energy applied research on heavy oil, gas hydrate, gas shale, tight oil, and oil shale reservoirs. He advises

Schuster, Assaf

325

Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery Untapped Domestic Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

targeting unconventional oil resources such as extra heavy oil, oil and tar sands, oil shale, and oil in unconventional reservoirs (like the fractured Bakken Shale of North...

326

Shale oil cracking. 2. Effect on oil composition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results from spectroscopic investigations are presented that demonstrate the effect of oil cracking on shale oil composition. Techniques used include infrared spectroscopy, capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance. We show that cracking causes an increase in aromatic and alkene content of the oil. We compare our results for oils prepared in the laboratory with oils prepared in the TOSCO-II semi-works and in modified and true-in-situ combustion retorts. We demonstrate that the napthalene/2-methyl-naphthalene ratio is a good indicator of cracking conditions in an oil shale retort.

Burnham, A.K.; Sanborn, R.H.; Crawford, R.W.; Newton, J.C.; Happe, J.A.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during oil shale retorting: retort water and gas condensate.commercial oil shale plant, retort water and gas condensateunique to an oil shale retort water, gas condensate, and

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

United Oil Company | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United Oil Company Jump to: navigation, search Name United Oil Company Place Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Product Vegetable-Oil producer Biodiesel producer based in Pittsburgh, PA...

329

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Notes: Crude oil exports are restricted to: (1) crude oil derived from fields under the State waters of Alaska's Cook Inlet; (2) Alaskan North Slope crude oil; (3) ...

330

Oils and Fats World Market Update 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Archive of the Oils and Fats World Market Update 2011 Oils and Fats World Market Update 2011 Izmir, Turkey Oils and Fats World Market Update 2011 ...

331

Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources The United States has significant natural gas and oil reserves. But many of these resources are increasingly harder to...

332

Oil Prices and Long-Run Risk.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??I show that relative levels of aggregate consumption and personal oil consumption provide anexcellent proxy for oil prices, and that high oil prices predict low (more)

READY, ROBERT

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Oils and Fats World Market Update 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Archive of AOCS Oils and Fats World Market Update 2013 Oils and Fats World Market Update 2013 Kiev, Ukraine Oils and Fats World Market Update 2013 ...

334

Oil and Gas Supply Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Oil and Gas Supply Module The NEMS Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM) constitutes a comprehensive framework with which to analyze crude oil and natural gas exploration and development on a regional basis (Figure 8). The OGSM is organized into 4 submodules: Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule[1], and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description of the OGSM is provided in the EIA publication, Model Documentation Report: The Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM), DOE/EIA-M063(2011), (Washington, DC, 2011). The OGSM provides crude oil and natural gas short-term supply parameters to both the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Module and the Petroleum

335

North Carolina No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Sales/Deliveries to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

North Carolina No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Sales/Deliveries to Industrial Consumers (Thousand Gallons)

336

North Carolina No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Sales/Deliveries to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

North Carolina No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Sales/Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Thousand Gallons)

337

MECS Fuel Oil Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

: Actual, Minimum and Maximum Use Values for Fuel Oils and Natural Gas : Actual, Minimum and Maximum Use Values for Fuel Oils and Natural Gas Year Distillate Fuel Oil (TBtu) Actual Minimum Maximum Discretionary Rate 1985 185 148 1224 3.4% 1994 152 125 1020 3.1% Residual Fuel Oil (TBtu) Actual Minimum Maximum Discretionary Rate 1985 505 290 1577 16.7% 1994 441 241 1249 19.8% Natural Gas (TBtu) Actual Minimum Maximum Discretionary Rate 1985 4656 2702 5233 77.2% 1994 6141 4435 6758 73.4% Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, 1985 and 1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Surveys. Table 2: Establishments That Actually Switched Between Natural Gas and Residual Fuel Oil Type of Switch Number of Establishments in Population Number That Use Original Fuel Percentage That Use Original Fuel Number That Can Switch to Another Fuel Percentage That Can Switch to Another Fuel Number That Actually Made a Switch Percentage That Actually Made a Switch

338

Abandoned Texas oil fields  

SciTech Connect

Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Shale oil cracking. 1. Kinetics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to determine kinetics for thermal cracking of shale oil vapor over shale. Cracking temperatures of 504 to 610/sup 0/C and residence times of 2 to 11 seconds were used. A first-order Arrhenius rate expression and stoichiometry were obtained. Also observed were changes in the oil quality. Cracking decreased the H/C ratio, increased the nitrogen content, and decreased the pour point of the oil. Gas-phase oil cracking is contrasted to liquid-phase oil coking as a loss mechanism in oil-shale retorting.

Burnham, A.K.; Taylor, J.R.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

World oil: Market or mayhem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The world oil market is regarded by many as a puzzle. Why are oil prices so volatile? What is OPEC and what does OPEC do? Where are oil prices headed in the long run? Is peak oil a genuine concern? Why did oil prices spike in the summer of 2008, and what role did speculators play? Any attempt to answer these questions must be informed and disciplined by economics. Such is the purpose of this essay: to illuminate recent developments in the world oil market from the perspective of economic theory.

James L. Smith; James L. Smith; Larry Debrock; Dwight Lee; John Parsons

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Oil Price Shocks and Inflation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil prices have risen sharply over the last year, leading to concerns that we could see a repeat of the 1970s, when rising oil prices were accompanied by severe recessions and surging inflation. This Economic Letter examines the historical relationship between oil price shocks and inflation in light of some recent research and goes on to discuss what the recent jump in oil prices might mean for inflation in the future. Figure 1 Inflation and the relative price of oil The historical record Figure 1 plots the price of oil relative to the core personal consumption expenditures price index (PCEPI) together with the core PCEPI inflation

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Abandoned oil fields in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Data are presented for approximately 165 abandoned oil fields in Oklahoma that have produced 10,000 or more barrels of oil prior to abandonment. The following information is provided for each field: county; DOE field code; field name; AAPG geologic province code; discovery date of field; year of last production, if known; discovery well operator; proven acreage; formation thickness; depth of field; gravity of oil production; calendar year; yearly field oil production; yearly field gas production; cumulative oil production; cumulative gas production; number abandoned fields in county; cumulative production of oil from fields; and cumulative production of gas from fields. (ATT)

Chism, J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Method for extracting an oil content from oil shale. [ultrasonic waves  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for extracting an oil content from oil shale by compressing powdery grains of oil shale while applying ultrasonic waves to these powdery grains to separate the oil content from the powdery grains of oil shale.

Lee, J.

1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

344

Table 2. Principal tight oil plays: oil production and proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Other tight oil plays (e.g. Monterey, Woodford)",,,24,253 "All U.S. tight oil plays",,,228,3628 "Note: Includes lease condensate." "Source: U.S. Energy...

345

Enhanced Oil Recovery and Other Oil Resources projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Oil Recovery and Other Oil Resources Enhanced Oil Recovery and Other Oil Resources Enhanced Oil Recovery and Other Oil Resources CO2 EOR | Other EOR & Oil Resources | Environmental | Completed Oil Projects Project Number Project Name Primary Performer DE-FE0013723 Development of Nanoparticle-Stabilized Foams To Improve Performance of Water-less Hydraulic Fracturing The University of Texas at Austin DE-FE0010799 Small Molecular Associative Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control University of Pittsburgh DE-FE0006011 Development of Real Time Semi-autonomous Geophysical Data Acquisition and Processing System to Monitor Flood Performance White River Technologies DE-FE0005979 Nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 Foam for CO2 EOR Application New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology

346

Oil backstreaming in turbomolecular and oil diffusion pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State of the art turbomolecular pumps have oil vapor backstreaming rates too low to measure by classical methods (AVS method

Louis Maurice; Pierre Duval; Guy Gorinas

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, oil pipelines, industrial systems of water cooling, systems of water preparation for pump- ing specific problem such as microbial contamination of stored crude oil and petroleum products. The Russian lubricants (technical vaselines, rope and gun oil) made of petroleum HCs are readily affected by fungi

Appanna, Vasu

348

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook 2001  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This PowerPoint presentation provides an early look at the crude oil, heating oil, and propane market outlooks for the winter of 2001/02. It was given by Doug MacIntyre at the 2001 State Heating Oil and Propane Program Conference held in Wilmington, DE on August 13, 2001.

Information Center

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook 2003  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This PowerPoint presentation provides an early look at the crude oil, heating oil, and propane market outlooks for the winter of 2003/04. It was given at the 2003 State Heating Oil and Propane Program Conference held in Asheville, NC on August 11, 2003.

Information Center

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This PowerPoint presentation provides an early look at the crude oil, heating oil, and propane market outlooks for the winter of 2002/03. It was given at the 2002 State Heating Oil and Propane Program Conference held in Kennebunkport, ME on August 12, 2002.

Information Center

2002-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

351

DAG in Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab proficiency testing for DAG in Oil to determine Total DAG.Samples include canola oil and soybean oil. DAG in Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing Laboratory Proficiency Program (LPP) aocs applicants certified chemist chemists Lab laboratories Laborato

352

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 16 Nutritional Aspects of Single Cell Oils: Applications of Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 16 Nutritional Aspects of Single Cell Oils: Applications of Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Oils Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts ...

353

Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only".  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only". Maintain a written log to document all amounts and types of oil added to the container. No solvents, oil contaminated with solvents, PCBs, non-petroleum based oils, or any other

Yener, Aylin

354

STEO September 2012 - oil production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

oil production forecast to rise almost 700,000 bpd this oil production forecast to rise almost 700,000 bpd this year, help cut U.S. petroleum imports U.S. crude oil production is expected to average 6.3 million barrels per day in 2012. That's up nearly 700,000 barrels per day from last year and the highest annual oil output since 1997 says the U.S. Energy Information Administration in its new monthly short-term energy outlook for September. EIA analyst Sam Gorgen explains: "Higher oil supplies, especially from North Dakota and Texas, boosted U.S. oil production. The number of on-shore drilling rigs targeting oil nationwide has increased by around 200 so far this year to just under 1,400 rigs." Higher domestic oil production will help cut U.S. petroleum imports. The share of total U.S.

355

Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of this winter's market pressures is in home heating oil prices. This chart shows prices through February 28, the most recent EIA data available. The general level of heating oil prices each year is largely a function of crude oil prices, and the price range over the course of the heating season is typically about 10 cents per gallon. Exceptions occur in unusual circumstances, such as very cold weather, large changes in crude oil prices, or supply problems. Heating oil prices for East Coast consumers started this winter at just over $1 per gallon, but rising crude oil prices drove them up nearly 21 cents through mid-January. With the continuing upward pressure from crude oil markets, magnified by a regional shortfall of heating oil

356

NETL: Oil and Natural Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supply Technologies Oil and Natural Gas Supply Oil and natural gas are the lifeblood of our economy, accounting for more than 60 percent of the energy consumed in the United...

357

Business cycles in oil economies  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon.

Al-Mutairi, N.H.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Diacylglycerol Oil, 2nd Edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This new edition has the latest safety and regulatory information; and discusses the physicochemical properties and application techniques of diacylglycerol oil, an oil with unique digestion and absorption characteristics that make it less likely to be sto

359

A B  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

oils and diesel) Crude oil and lease condensate Motor gasoline LPG (Ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, butane, butylene) Natural gas Anthracite Bituminous and subbituminous...

360

Greening Our Future By Educating Tomorrow's Workforce ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Wood Crude Oil Fuel Oil Bio Diesel Gasoline Propane (LPG) Natural Gas Biogas Nuclear Renewables High Carbon Lower Carbon What about ...

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Table 2.5 Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Appliances, 2 Electronics, and Lighting : Natural Gas: Elec-tricity 3: Fuel Oil 4: LPG 5: Total: Electricity 3: Natural Gas: Elec-tricity 3: Fuel Oil ...

362

"Table A40. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"SIC"," "," ","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors"...

363

RSE Table 7.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

" Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal...

364

Market assessment for shale oil  

SciTech Connect

This study identified several key issues on the cost, timeliness, and ease with which shale oil can be introduced into the United States' refining system. The capacity of the existing refining industry to process raw shale oil is limited by the availability of surplus hydrogen for severe hydrotreating. The existing crude oil pipeline system will encounter difficulties in handling raw shale oil's high viscosity, pour point, and contaminant levels. The cost of processing raw shale oil as an alternate to petroleum crude oil is extremely variable and primarily dependent upon the percentage of shale oil run in the refinery, as well as the availability of excess hydrogen. A large fraction of any shale oil which is produced will be refined by the major oil companies who participate in the shale oil projects and who do not anticipate problems in processing the shale oil in their refineries. Shale oil produced for sale to independent refiners will initially be sold as boiler fuel. A federal shale oil storage program might be feasible to supplement the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Based on refinery configurations, hydrogen supply, transportation systems, and crude availability, eleven refineries in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 2A and 2B have been identified as potential processors of shale oil. Based on refining technology and projected product demands to the year 2000, shale oil will be best suited to the production of diesel fuel and jet fuel. Tests of raw shale oil in boilers are needed to demonstrate nitrogen oxide emissions control.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Oil shale: Technology status report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Applications: Oil and gas production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Health, Safety & Environment in Oil & Gas E&P SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference SPE International Conference PennWell Unconventional Oil and Gas Europe PennWell Underwater Intervention Marine Exploration Society Conference UGAS SPE Middle East Unconventional Gas Conference WHOC World Heavy Oil

367

Economic variables in production of oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The oil-shale production cost estimates reported by the National Petroleum Council in Dec. 1972, as part of an overall study of the U.S. energy situation are the most recent publicly available data on oil-shale economics. Using the basic NPC costs, this study examines several important parameters affecting shale oil's economic viability. Other factors pertinent to consideration of oil shale as a domestic fuel source, such as the leasing of federal oil shale lands, water availability, and environmental restraints are reviewed.

Cameron, R.J.

1973-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Development of Energy Balances for the State of California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refinery gases, petroleum coke, and distillate fuel oil) forFuel Residual Fuel Petroleum Coke LPG Others Total PetroleumFuel Residual Fuel Petroleum Coke LPG Others Total Petroleum

Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Sahtaye, Jayant

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Oil & Natural Gas Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 FXe 0.1 1 10 100 1000 FNeFKr 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Air-Like XeKr Enrichment from GasOil source Material Solubility Fractionation Hydrate Fractionation (Non-thermogenic source)...

370

Oil Field Management System  

The INL has developed a device for metering oil and gas streams that consist of both gas and liquid parts presents a significant challenge. Commonly used multi-phase flow meters reflect significant gains in this technology, but still have major flaws ...

371

Oil and Global Adjustment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The current account surplus of the worlds major oil exporting economies defined as the IMFs fuel-exporting emerging economies plus Norway increased from $110b to about $500b between 2002 and 2006. 2 In 2006, the current account surplus of the Gulf

Brad Setser

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The United States has significant natural gas and oil reserves. But many of these resources are increasingly harder to locate and bring into production. To help meet this challenge, the U.S. Department of Energys Office of Fossil Energy over the years has amassed wide ranging expertise in areas related to deepwater resource location, production, safety and environmental protection.

373

World Oil Transit Chokepoints  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

Information Center

2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

374

Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

375

oil supply | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

oil supply oil supply Dataset Summary Description CIA: World Factbook assessment of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Estimated as of January 1st, 2010. Source CIA Date Released January 01st, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords crude oil energy energy data international oil oil supply Data text/csv icon 2010 Proved Oil Reserves (csv, 4.6 KiB) text/plain icon Original Text Format (txt, 6.5 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency

376

Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Dependence on Imported Oil Dependence on Imported Oil by C. William Skinner* U.S. dependence on imported oil** can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA believes that the net-imports definition gives a clearer indication of the fraction of oil consumed that could not have been supplied from domestic sources and is thus the most appropriate measure. With this issue of the Monthly Energy Review, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) introduces a revised table that expresses depend- ence on imports in terms of both measures. How dependent is the United States on foreign oil? How dependent are we on oil from the Persian Gulf or other sensitive areas? Do we import more than we produce domes-

377

Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Slide 2 of 11 Notes: One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of this winter’s market pressures is in home heating oil prices. This chart shows prices through February 7, the most recent EIA data available. The general level of heating oil prices each year is largely a function of crude oil prices, and the price range over the course of the heating season is typically about 10 cents per gallon. Exceptions occur in unusual circumstances, such as very cold weather, large changes in crude oil prices, or supply problems. Heating oil prices for East Coast consumers started this winter at just over $1 per gallon, but rising crude oil prices drove them up nearly 21 cents per gallon through mid-January. With the continuing upward pressure from crude oil markets, magnified by a regional shortfall of

378

Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

none

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 1 Basic Oil Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 1 Basic Oil Chemistry Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 1 Basic Oil Chemistry from the book ...

380

Oil consumption, pollutant emission, oil proce volatility and economic activities in selected Asian Developing Economies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??It is now well established in the literature that oil consumption, oil price shocks, and oil price volatility may impact the economic activities negatively. Studies (more)

Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 11 Oil Quality Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 11 Oil Quality Management Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 11 Oil Quality Management from the book ...

382

Bleaching and Purifying Fats and Oils: Theory and PracticeChapter 7 Oil Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bleaching and Purifying Fats and Oils: Theory and Practice Chapter 7 Oil Recovery Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 7 Oil Recovery from ...

383

Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

agreements divide produced oil into cost oil and profit oil.to development in Angola as cost oil or as tax write-offs,The sale of cost oil, also called cost recovery oil, is used

Reed, Kristin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

NIOP-AOCS Fats and Oils Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for NIOP-AOCS Fats & Oils, samples in this series include crude coconut oil, RB Palm Oil, Crude Safflower Oil, Crude sunflower Oil. NIOP-AOCS Fats and Oils Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Proficiency Progr

385

MECS Fuel Oil Figures  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

: Percentage of Total Purchased Fuels by Type of Fuel : Percentage of Total Purchased Fuels by Type of Fuel Figure 1. Percent of Total Purchased Fuel Sources: Energy Information Administration. Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS): Consumption of Energy; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM): Statistics for Industry Groups and Industries: Statistical Abstract of the United States. Note: The years below the line on the "X" Axis are interpolated data--not directly from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey or the Annual Survey of Manufactures. Figure 2: Changes in the Ratios of Distillate Fuel Oil to Natural Gas Figure 2. Changes in the Ratios of Distillate Fuel Oil to Natural Gas Sources: Energy Information Administration. Office of

386

fuel_oil.pdf  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Oil Usage Form Fuel Oil Usage Form 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Timely submission of this report is mandatory under Public Law 93-275, as amended. 2. This completed report is due by 3. Data reported on this questionnaire are for the entire building identified in the label to the right. 4. Data may be submitted directly on this questionnaire or in any other format, such as a computer-generated listing, which provides the same i nformation and is conve nient for y our company. a. You may submit a single report for the entire building, or if it i s easier, a separate report for each of several accounts in the building. These will then be aggregated by the survey contractor. b. If you are concerned about your individual account information, you may c

387

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Shale oil recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Oil Prices and Inflation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As oil prices have climbed over the last several years, the memory of the 1970s and early 1980s has not been far from the minds of the public or of monetary policymakers. In those earlier episodes, rising oil prices were accompanied by doubledigit overall inflation in the U.S. and in several other developed economies. Indeed, central bankers say they are determined not to let this experience recur, emphasizing that they intend to maintain their credibility with the public in securing low inflation and achieving stable and well-anchored inflation expectations. In pursuing these goals, a key measure policymakers often focus on is core inflation; this may seem surprising, since core inflation excludes energy prices, among other things.

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Production of Shale Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intensive pre-project feasibility and engineering studies begun in 1979 have produced an outline plan for development of a major project for production of shale oil from private lands in the Piceance Basin in western Colorado. This outline plan provides a blueprint for the development of a 28,000 acre holding on Clear Creek in Garfield County, Colorado on property acquired by Standard Oil of California in the late 1940's and early 1950's. The paper describes these planning activities and the principal features of a proposed $5 billion project to develop facilities for production of 100,000 barrels per day of synthetic crude from oil shale. Subjects included are resource evaluation, environmental baseline studies, plans for acquisition of permits, plans for development of required retorting and mining technology and a preliminary description of the commercial project which will ultimately emerge from these activities. General financial impact of the project and the case for additional tax incentives to encourage it will be described.

Loper, R. D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

"Future of oil supplies"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil is so important that publishing reserve (even production) data has become a political act. Most of the dispute between the so-called pessimists (mainly retired geologists) and the optimists (mainly economists) is due to their using different sources of information and different definitions. The pessimists use technical (confidential) data, whereas the optimists use the political (published) data. OPEC quotas are based on the reserves, explaining why its members raised their reserves from 1986 to 1990, adding about 300 Gb of oil reserves when only about 10 Gb was actually discovered during this period. There is consensus on neither the reserve numbers, nor the definition of terms, such as oil, gas, conventional, unconventional, reserves. The latter term may variously refer to current proven values or backdated mean values. The US practice is completely different from that in the rest of the world, being conservative to satisfy bankers and the stockmarket. By contrast, the FSU practice was over-optimistic being based on the maximum theoretical recovery, free of technological or economic constraints. All published data have to be re-worked to be able to compare like with like. Unfortunately confidentiality and politics make it difficult to obtain valid data.

Jean Laherrre; Les Pres Haut

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

STEO December 2012 - oil production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Rise in 2012 U.S. oil production largest since 1859, output in 2013 seen Rise in 2012 U.S. oil production largest since 1859, output in 2013 seen topping 7 million bpd U.S. crude oil production is now expected to rise by about 760,000 barrels per day in 2012, the biggest annual increase in oil output since U.S. commercial crude oil production began in 1859. American oil producers are expected to pump a daily average of 6.4 million barrels of crude oil this year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administrator's new monthly energy forecast. The annual increase in oil output tops the previous record set in 1951 and marks the largest yearly production increase ever. Most of the increase in crude oil production is driven by drilling activity in shale formations located in Texas, North Dakota and Montana. U.S. crude oil production next year is expected to top 7 million barrels per day for the first time

393

Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil and Less CO2 Emissions Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil...

394

residual fuel oil - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Residual fuel oil: A general classification for the heavier oils, known as No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils, that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter ...

395

heating oil - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, ... Home; Browse by Tag; Most Popular Tags. ... High heating oil prices discourage heating oil supply contracts for the ...

396

Oil-Grade Alloy 718 in Oil Field Drilling Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the performance of oil-grade alloy 718 for applications in bottom hole ... Additive Manufacturing for Superalloys - Producibility and Cost.

397

Crude Oil Prices Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

398

International Oil and Gas Board International Oil and Gas Board...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Board International Oil and Gas Board Address Place Zip Website Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi http www abudhabi ae...

399

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... March 2003 Price Spike August 2003 Price Spike Quarterly World Oil Demand Growth from Previous Year Overview of Market Fundamentals Tight balance in global ...

400

Emerging Oil & Gas Supplies: Future Prospects for Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The shale gas & tight oil technology story is only beginning, with much yet to be written Technology is creating new resources out of rocks

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Unconventional oil market assessment: ex situ oil shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis focused on exploring the economic limitations for the development of western oil shale. The analysis was developed by scaling a known process and (more)

Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

High heating oil prices discourage heating oil supply contracts ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA's Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook expects the U.S. home heating oil price will average $3.71 per gallon for the season, ...

403

Unfinished Oils - Heavy Gas Oils Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

404

U.S. oil imports to decline with rising oil production through...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

oil imports to decline with rising oil production through 2014 The United States will need fewer oil imports over the next two years because of rising U.S. oil production. The new...

405

Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin The purpose of this paper is...

406

Gourmet and Health-Promoting Specialty OilsChapter 1 Olive Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gourmet and Health-Promoting Specialty Oils Chapter 1 Olive Oil Olive oil eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Health Nutrition Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 1 Olive Oil from the b

407

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Using the Northeast as a regional focus for heating oil, the typical oil-heated household consumes about 680 gallons of oil during the winter, assuming that weather is "normal." The previous three winters were warmer than average and generated below normal consumption rates. Last winter, consumers saw large increases over the very low heating oil prices seen during the winter of 1998-1999 but, outside of the cold period in late January/early February they saw relatively low consumption rates due to generally warm weather. Even without particularly sharp cold weather events this winter, we think consumers are likely to see higher average heating oil prices than were seen last winter. If weather is normal, our projections imply New England heating oil

408

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Information on the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve is available from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Petroleum Reserves web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/reserves/heatingoil/. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) inventories now classified as ultra-low sulfur distillate (15 parts per million) are not considered to be in the commercial sector and therefore are excluded from distillate fuel oil supply and disposition statistics in Energy Information Administration publications, such as the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and This Week In Petroleum. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Terminal Operator Location (Thousand Barrels) Hess Corp. Groton, CT 500*

409

Retail Diesel Fuel Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has severely impacted diesel fuel prices, especially in the Northeast. Diesel fuel is bascially the same product as home heating oil. The primary difference is that diesel has a lower sulfur content. When heating oil is in short supply, low sulfur diesel fuel can be diverted to heating oil supply. Thus, diesel fuel prices rise with heating heating oil prices. Retail diesel fuel prices nationally, along with those of most other petroleum prices, increased steadily through most of 1999. But prices in the Northeast jumped dramatically in the third week of January. Diesel fuel prices in New England rose nearly 68 cents per gallon, or 47 percent, between January 17 and February 7. While EIA does not have

410

BP Oil Spill November 10, 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BP Oil Spill Qiyam Tung November 10, 2011 1 Introduction Figure 1: BP Oil spill (source: http://thefoxisblack.com/2010/05/02/the-bp-oil-spill-in-the-gulf-of-mexico/) Last year, there was a major oil spill caused major techniques to minimize the threat once it happened. What kind of damage would an oil spill like this cause

Lega, Joceline

411

Method of operating an oil shale kiln  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

Reeves, Adam A. (Rifle, CO)

1978-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

412

The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

Gary, J.H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Enhanced Oil Recovery of Viscous Oil by Injection of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Made with Used Engine Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solids-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions have been suggested as a drive fluid to recover viscous oil through a piston-like displacement pattern. While crude heavy oil was initially suggested as the base oil, an alternative oil ? used engine oil was proposed for emulsion generation because of several key advantages: more favorable viscosity that results in better emulsion injectivity, soot particles within the oil that readily promote stable emulsions, almost no cost of the oil itself and relatively large supply, and potential solution of used engine oil disposal. In this research, different types of used engine oil (mineral based, synthetic) were tested to make W/O emulsions simply by blending in brine. A series of stable emulsions was prepared with varied water contents from 40~70%. Viscosities of these emulsions were measured, ranging from 102~104 cp at low shear rates and ambient temperature. Then an emulsion made of 40% used engine oil and 60% brine was chosen for a series of coreflood experiments, to test the stability of this emulsion while flowing through porous media. Limited breakdown of the effluent was observed at ambient injection rates, indicating a stability of the emulsion in porous media. Pressure drops leveled off and remained constant at constant rate of injection, indicating steady-state flows under the experimental conditions. No plug off effect was observed after a large volume of emulsion passed through the cores. Reservoir scale simulations were conducted for the emulsion flooding process based on the emulsion properties tested from the experiments. Results showed significant improvement in both displacement pattern and oil recovery especially compared to water flooding. Economics calculations of emulsion flooding were also performed, suggesting this process to be highly profitable.

Fu, Xuebing

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Syncrude from eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to make resource assessment, mining and process economic evaluations of oil shale in Lewis and Fleming Counties, Kentucky. Two surface retorting processes, Paraho and HYTORT, were selected and the process and economic analyses were made for a 30,000 tons/day oil shale retorting facility. This work presents the results of this eastern oil shale feasibility study. 3 refs.

Vyas, K.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the greatest quantity of oil from marine transport isunderrepresents the quantity of oil products that escapes

O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

South Dakota No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Adj Sales/Deliveries to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

South Dakota No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Adj Sales/Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Thousand Gallons)

417

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MN 55441 Background Electronic data acquisition systems are necessary to make deep oil and gas drilling and production cost effective, yet the basic electronic components...

418

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

industry in protecting our environment while exploring for and producing natural gas and oil. They are joined by Anadarko and other industry sponsors from GPRI to identify and...

419

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil & Natural Gas Projects Transmission, Distribution, & Refining The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative DE-NT-0004654 Goal The goal of the Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI)...

420

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

can be exported to other CBM areas in the US. Benefits The opportunity to resolve the oil and gas industrys growing problem with producing, handling, and treating produced...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

422

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Corbicula fluminea), and surveys of the resident invertebrate community (both at the oil production site of the submerged former brine pit site and a reference site. . Both the...

424

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

data integration for improved reservoir characterization. The overall goal is additional oil recovery by locating critical reservoir features such as flow channels, barriers, and...

425

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery Last Reviewed 662013 DE-08NT0005643 Goal The goal of this project is to determine the geomechanical properties...

426

Oil shale technical data handbook  

SciTech Connect

This is a reference book to provide information for the evaluation of appropriate technology for shale oil development. The oil resource is defined, and the properties of shale and the oil and gas derived from it are listed. Recovery technologies compatible with the particular resource are also described. Discussion of various aspects of shale oil development, such as mining, materials handling, beneficiation, upgrading, waste-water treatment, and spent shale disposal, are also presented. Available design information dealing with maximum module size, operating conditions, yields, utility requirements, etc. is documented. (BLM)

Nowacki, P. (ed.)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Future Prospects for Oil Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 . High TRR . Reference . High EUR . Tight oil production . million barrels per day . Low EUR . 5 Adam Sieminski

428

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the private sector that focus on improving the production performance of domestic natural gas and oil stripper wells. Performer: The Pennsylvania State University (Energy...

429

Oil & Gas Broad Based Solicitation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operator Point of Contact Phone Email Heavy Oil Gas Flooding VSP Reservoir Characterization Iron Creek Energy Group and Nielson & Associates, Inc. Joe Sinner 3075272869...

430

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Retail distillate prices follow the spot distillate markets, and crude oil prices have been the main driver behind distillate spot price increases until recently.

431

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil & Natural Gas Projects Exploration and Production Technologies Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) and Cost Effective Regulatory Approaches (CERA) Related to Hydraulic...

433

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil through specific project efforts...

434

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a computerized database inventory of compressor engines used in the oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) industry. This database will be used to evaluate...

435

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of shallow reservoirs. This makes Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Little is known about how to produce conventional oil...

436

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are described for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber. In the second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

Gregg, D.W.

1981-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

437

Crude Oil Imports from Qatar  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

PAD District Imports by Country of Origin ... Crude oil includes imports for storage in the Stategic Petroleum Reserve. The Persian Gulf includes Bahrain, ...

438

Crude Oil Imports from Sweden  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

PAD District Imports by Country of Origin ... Crude oil includes imports for storage in the Stategic Petroleum Reserve. The Persian Gulf includes Bahrain, ...

439

Microbiology for enhanced oil recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U. S. Department of Energy has sponsored several projects to investigate the feasibility of using microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. Microbes from the Wilmington oilfield, California, were found to be stimulated in growth by polyacrylamide mobility-control polymers and the microbes also can reduce the viscosity of the polyacrylamide solutions. Microbes have been discovered that produce surface active molecules, and several mixed cultures have been developed that make low viscosity, non-wetting, emulsions of heavy oils (/sup 0/API oil deposits, in China for enhanced recovery of light oils and successful field tests have been conducted in Romania and Arkansas.

Donaldson, E.C.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

World Proved Crude Oil Reserves  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Crude Oil Reserves 1980-2009 Energy Information Administration (Important Note on Sources of Foreign Reserve Estimates) (Billion Barrels)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Green Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 2 Modern Aqueous Oil Extraction: Centrifugation Systems for Olive and Avocado Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Green Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 2 Modern Aqueous Oil Extraction: Centrifugation Systems for Olive and Avocado Oils Processing eChapters Processing A3F98FD75CFE9AEC675B07DDCFFE4506 AOCS Press Downloadable pdf ...

442

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and CharacterizationChapter 12 Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil Refining and Fractionation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and Characterization Chapter 12 Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil Refining and Fractionation Technology Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Processing eChapters Food Science & Technology Health

443

Gourmet and Health-Promoting Specialty OilsChapter 15 Corn Kernel Oil and Corn Fiber Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gourmet and Health-Promoting Specialty Oils Chapter 15 Corn Kernel Oil and Corn Fiber Oil Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 15 Corn Kerne

444

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 20 Future Development of Single Cell Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 20 Future Development of Single Cell Oils Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 2

445

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 6 Production of Single Cell Oils by Dinoflagellates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 6 Production of Single Cell Oils by Dinoflagellates Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters Downloadable pdf of Chapter 6

446

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 19 Applications of Single Cell Oils for Aquaculture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 19 Applications of Single Cell Oils for Aquaculture Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters Downloadable pdf of Chapter 1

447

Oil and Gas Investor returns climb as oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil and Gas Investor returns climb as oil and gas drilling ventures succeed. www Posters Posters from the Mars Exploration, depicting the landscape & much more Zazzle.com Ground Scientists Propose Paradigm Shift in Robotic Space Exploration · New Direction for Hydrogen Atom Transfers

Arizona, University of

448

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils have come of age. These are oils from microorganisms; they are now being produced for their unique content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids and in the highest quality for the infant formula market as well as for adult nutrition and

449

Oil degradation during oil shale retorting. [Effects on oil yields from powdered shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent experimental data demonstrating the effects of varied thermal histories on oil yield from powdered Colorado shale are reviewed. Losses in overall yield resulting from interruption of a rapid heating schedule with an isothermal holding period are directly related to the amounts of oil that are produced during the holding period. These amounts are also correlated with the inert gas flow rates required to raise the yields to the assay value. The results show that degradation of oil outside the shale particles is the major determinant of oil yield from powdered shale. Maximum thermal degradation rates are calculated from these data and compared with pyrolysis rates for petroleum fractions.

Raley, J.H.; Braun, R.L.

1976-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

450

Crude oil and crude oil derivatives transactions by oil and gas producers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study attempts to resolve two important issues. First, it investigates the diversification benefit of crude oil for equities. Second, it examines whether or not (more)

Xu, He

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Oil resources: the key to prosperity or to poverty? : Influence of oil price shocks on spending of oil revenues.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abundant natural resources, in particular oil, play an important role in the economics of many countries. The oil price shocks that have been happening continuously (more)

Selivanova, Olga

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Oil Bypass Filter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil Bypass Filter to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Oil Bypass Filter on Facebook Tweet about Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Oil Bypass Filter on...

453

Compare All CBECS Activities: Fuel Oil Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Oil Use Compare Activities by ... Fuel Oil Use Total Fuel Oil Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 1.3 billion gallons...

454

Phosphorus in Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory Proficiency Testing service for Phosphorus in soybean oil Phosphorus in Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Proficiency Program (LPP) aocs applicants certified chemist chemists Lab laboratories Laboratory methods oils profici

455

Trace Metals in Oil Laboratory Proficiency Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for Trace Metals in Oil. Soybean oil sample to test for Iron, Copper, and Nickel using AOCS Official method Ca 18-79. Trace Metals in Oil Laboratory Proficiency Program Laboratory Proficiency Program (LPP) aocs applicants

456

Filamentous Carbon Particles for Cleaning Oil Spills  

cleaning oil spills. Crude oil and other petroleum products can cause severe damage to the environment and wildlife when spilled into the water. Oil is not only transferred by supertanker, but also by underwater pipelines an kept in coastal ...

457

Removal of volatile materials from forepump oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of clearing condensable vapors from forepump oil is described. Air is bubbled though the oil reservoir removing volatile material from the oil and allowing continuous pumping of materials by non?vented pumps.

Paul P. Nicole

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gas (0.5% H 2 ) System Definition (1500 kgday station used for H2A analysis) Capital Costs Bio-Oil Reforming H2A Analysis Bio-Oil Case (Ethanol Case) Bio-oil Storage Tank...

459

Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elastic-wave stimulation of oil produc- tion: A review ofCapillary-induced resonance of oil blobs in capillary tubesCapillary-induced resonance of oil blobs in porous media:

Pride, S.R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Characterization, and Uses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book serves as a rich source of information on the production, processing, characterization and utilization of palm oil and its components. It also includes several topics related to oil palm genomics, tissue culture and genetic engineering of oil pal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

California Crude Oil Prices - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

California Crude Oil Prices 6/2/98. Click here to start. Table of Contents. California Crude Oil Prices. CA Crude Oil Price History. World Petroleum Supply/Demand Balance

462

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.and Biological Treatment of Shale Oil Retort Water, DraftPA (1979). H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature, type of shale and oil content of shale iscontent of the shale, and shale oil content of the rock cantemperatures. Lean and Rich Shale Oil shales vary in their

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedingsin the Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Waters," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Malaysia: economic transformation advances oil palm industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Malaysia is currently the worlds largest exporter of palm oil although it is the second-largest producer of the oil after neighboring Indonesia. Malaysia: economic transformation advances oil palm industry Inform Magazine Biofuels and Bioproducts and Bi

466

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component Materials," LBL-

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Crude Oil Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil Supply Domestic Production (a) .......................................... 6.22 6.29 6.42 7.02 7.11 7.29 7.61 7.97 8.26 8.45 8.57 8.86 6.49 7.50 8.54 Alaska .................................................................. 0.58 0.53 0.44 0.55 0.54 0.51 0.48 0.52 0.51 0.47 0.42 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.47 Federal Gulf of Mexico (b) .................................... 1.34 1.19 1.18 1.36 1.30 1.22 1.27 1.29 1.34 1.36 1.37 1.45 1.27 1.27 1.38 Lower 48 States (excl GOM) ................................ 4.31 4.57 4.80 5.11 5.28 5.56 5.87 6.16 6.41 6.61 6.77 6.91 4.70 5.72 6.68 Crude Oil Net Imports (c) ......................................... 8.55 8.88 8.52 7.89 7.47 7.61 7.94 7.36 6.66 6.78 6.83 6.06 8.46 7.60 6.58 SPR Net Withdrawals ..............................................

470

Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center: Turbine Oil Compatibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As oil companies continue to consolidate product lines, utilities are faced with oil formulation changes. These new generation oils contain updated additive packages and more highly refined base stocks, which raise concerns over performance and oil compatibility within existing systems. Moreover, the reformulated oils may not perform as expected when mixed with traditional in-service oils or may not perform as expected in some machines. Prior experiences with foaming and deposit issues seem to have been ...

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

471

Fifth symposium on oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at symposium May 2-3, 1968 at Denver, discusses legal and economic problems facing federal policy toward oil shale deposits exploitation, processing of oil shale above surface and in situ and underground mining methods and equipment to be used.

1968-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

472

Symposium on enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The Second Joint Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma on April 5 to 8, 1981. Forty-four technical papers were presented which covered all phases of enhanced oil recovery. Field tests, laboratory investigations, and mathematical analyses of tertiary recovery methods such as microemulsion flooding, carbon dioxide injection, in-situ combustion, steam injection, and gas injection are presented.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Oil Bypass Filter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil Bypass Filter The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is evaluating oil bypass filter technology for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Office. Eight...

474

CO2 Emissions - Kuwait Oil Fires  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Middle East Kuwait Oil Fires Graphics CO2 Emissions from the 1991 Kuwait Oil Fires Data graphic Data...

475

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 January Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important...

476

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

477

NETL: Oil & Gas Program Solicitation Partnering Sheet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Business Opportunities Partnering Sheet Oil & Gas Program Solicitation DE-PS-26-05NT15600 Partnering Sheet Closing date: March 01, 2005 University: Industry (Oil field...

478

Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Thanks in part to innovations supported by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory over the past 30 years,...

479

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

End Use Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate...

480

Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Oil and Gas Jump to: navigation, search Oil and gas represents a non-renewable energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil lpg fuel1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil Shale Process Wastewater," in Analysis of Waters Associated with Alternate Fuel Production,oil and shale during In in-situ processes, retort water its production

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

USB's Industrial Uses of Soybean Oil Award  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recognizing outstanding research into new industrial applications or uses for soybean oil, sponsored by the United Soybean Board. USB's Industrial Uses of Soybean Oil Award Awards Soybeans USB's

483

Oil & Gas Research | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capture and Storage Oil & Gas Methane Hydrate LNG Offshore Drilling Enhanced Oil Recovery Shale Gas Section 999 Report to Congress DOE issues the 2013 annual plan for the...

484

Crude Oil Watch - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Spot market crude oil prices continued higher last week despite light trading volume due to Hurricane Floyd. ... Guide, Oil and Gas Journal, Wall Street Journal.

485

Oil market in international and Norwegian perspectives.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Crude oil is the most important energy source in global perspective. About 35 percent of the worlds primary energy consumption is supplied by oil, followed (more)

Singsaas, Julia Nazyrova

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of increased tightening in the Northeast heating oil market since the last Outlook, we ...

487

Global Oil Geopolitics - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 imported refiner acquisition cost of crude oil WTI crude ... World Crude Oil Supply and Demand Balance 14

488

U.S. Crude Oil Inventory Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil stocks in the United States, while tending to increase of late toward more normal levels, remain well below average. Near-term tightness in crude oil ...

489

EIA Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Table 36)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

(Important Note on Sources of Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Estimates) Table 3.6 World Crude Oil Distillation Capacity, January 1, 1970 - January 1, 2009

490

AEO Early Release 2013 - oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Growing U.S. oil output and rising vehicle fuel economy to cut Growing U.S. oil output and rising vehicle fuel economy to cut U.S. reliance on foreign oil The United States is expected to continue cutting its dependence on petroleum and liquid fuels imports over the rest of this decade because of growing domestic crude oil production and more fuel-efficient vehicles on America's highways. The new long-term outlook from the U.S. Energy Information Administration shows America's dependence on imported petroleum and liquid fuels will decline from 45 percent of domestic demand last year to 34 percent by 2019. U.S. dependence on imported oil had reached 60 percent as recently as 2005. EIA Administrator Adam Sieminski explains: "The United States will be able to meet more of its own energy needs because of two key

491

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: The outlook for heating oil costs this winter, due to high crude oil costs and tight heating oil supplies, breaks down to an expected increase in heating expenditures for a typical oil-heated household of more than $200 this winter, the result of an 18% increase in the average price and an 11% increase in consumption. The consumption increase is due to the colder than normal temperatures experienced so far this winter and our expectations of normal winter weather for the rest of this heating season. Last winter, Northeast heating oil (and diesel fuel) markets experienced an extremely sharp spike in prices when a severe weather situation developed in late January. It is virtually impossible to gauge the probability of a similar (or worse) price shock recurring this winter,

492

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed analysis of technical and economic factors solar retorting of oil shale shows that such a process should be technically feasible and, depending on the grade of the shale, should improve the fuel yield from the oil shale by 10 to 40%, compared to one of the best competing surface ay for the incremental processes. The improved oil yield should more than pay for the incremental cost associated with adding the solar collection system. An experiment is described in which solar energy is used to retort oil shale, and the experimental results show that yields of better than 110% Fischer Assay are achievable. An advanced design for a solar oil-shale retort is also discussed.

Gregg, D.W.; Grens, J.Z.; Taylor, R.W.; Aiman, W.R.

1980-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

493

Process for oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

494

Oil and Gas Supply Module - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

production of oil shale being economically feasible. Consequently, the Oil Shale Supply Submodule assumes that large-

495

RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect

The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LPG oil LPG NGL57 n.e. LPG CNG NG NG n.a. 2649% 2617% n.a.diesel b ZM F-T D SD100 M100 CNG CH2c E100 calc. calc. calc.Highway k exp. Diesel M100 CNG Gas LNG LNG CH2 CH2 LH2 LH2

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water (3%). Finally oil is a source of energy for theOil Diesel Oil LPG Electricity Source: CEA, 2006; MOSPI,countries, oil remains an important source of energy for

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties, (2) in-situ combustion, (3) additives to improve mobility control, (4) reservoir definition, and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx.

Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E., Castanier, Louis M.

2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

499

Total OECD Oil Stocks*  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: The most recent data show OECD inventories remaining at very low levels. EIA expects inventories to remain low through the coming year. This increases the potential for price volatility through the rest of the winter, and into the next gasoline season. Inventories are a good measure of the supply/demand balance that affects prices. A large over-supply (production greater than demand) will put downward pressure on prices, while under-supply will push prices upward. As global oil production changed relative to demand, the world moved from a period of over-supply in 1998 to one of under-supply in 1999 and 2000. OECD inventories illustrate the changes in the world petroleum balance. OECD inventories rose to high levels during 1997 and 1998 when production exceeded demand and prices dropped to around $10 per barrel in

500

Total OECD Oil Stocks*  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The most recent data show OECD inventories remaining at very low The most recent data show OECD inventories remaining at very low levels. EIA expects inventories to remain low through the coming year. This increases the potential for price volatility through the winter, and even extending to the next gasoline season. Inventories are a good measure of the supply/demand balance that effects prices. A large over-supply (production greater than demand) will put downward pressure on prices, while under-supply will push prices upward. As global oil production changed relative to demand, the world moved from a period of over-supply in 1998 to one of under-supply in 1999 and 2000. OECD inventories illustrate the changes in the world petroleum balance. OECD inventories rose to high levels during 1997 and 1998 when production exceeded demand and prices dropped to around $10 per barrel in