National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oil field production

  1. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  2. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  3. Exemptions from OSHA`s PSM rule oil and gas field production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, H.H. [Shawnee Engineers, Houston, TX (United States); Landes, S. [SH Landes, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation, OSHA 1910.119, contains a number of exemptions which are specifically directed to the low hazard situations typically found in the field production facilities of the oil and gas industry. Each relevant PSM exemption is discussed with particular regard to the requirements of hydrocarbon production facilities.

  4. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  5. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  6. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a novel alkaline-steam well completion technique for the containment of the unconsolidated formation sands and control of fluid entry and injection profiles. (5) Installation of a 2100 ft, 14 inch insulated, steam line beneath a harbor channel to supply steam to an island location. (6) Testing and proposed application of thermal recovery technologies to increase oil production and reserves: (a) Performing pilot tests of cyclic steam injection and production on new horizontal wells. (b) Performing pilot tests of hot water-alternating-steam (WAS) drive in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Perform a pilot steamflood with the four horizontal injectors and producers using a pseudo steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process. (8) Advanced reservoir management, through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring and evaluation.

  7. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  8. Overview of NETL Field Studies Related to Oil and Gas Production

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY lab 18 Aug 2015 Richard Hammack, Monitoring Team Lead USDOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA Overview of NETL Field Studies Related to Oil and Gas Production DOE Tribal Leaders Forum Denver, Colorado Newfield Exploration, Bakken Petroleum System, North Dakota * Reduce Environmental Impacts * Demonstrate Safe/Reliable Operations * Improve Efficiency of Hydraulic Fracturing Program Objectives * Surface Monitoring - Ambient Air Quality - Air Emissions - Ground Motion -

  9. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  11. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  12. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-07

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through September 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood projects. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the fourth quarter 2000 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being evaluated.

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2002-01-31

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through September 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Fourth Quarter 2001 performing routine well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood and Tar V pilot steamflood projects. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 through November 2001 to increase production and injection. In December, water injection well FW-88 was plug and abandoned and replaced by new well FW-295 into the ''D'' sands to accommodate the Port of Long Beach at their expense. Well workovers are planned for 2002 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The steamflood operation in the Tar V pilot project is mature and profitable. Recent production performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that were being addressed in 2001. As the fluid production is hot, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001.

  14. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-11-01

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through June 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Third Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 to September 2001 to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being addressed in 2001.

  15. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Second Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A steamflood reservoirs have been operated over fifteen months at relatively stable pressures, due in large part to the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase in January 1999. Starting in the Fourth Quarter 2000, the project team has ramped up activity to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being addressed in 2001. Much of the second quarter was spent writing DOE annual and quarterly reports to stay current with contract requirements.

  16. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2002-11-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through June 2002, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V post-steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the Third Quarter 2002, the project team essentially completed implementing the accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project developed in March 2002 and is proceeding with additional related work. The project team has completed developing laboratory research procedures to analyze the sand consolidation well completion technique and will initiate work in the fourth quarter. The Tar V pilot steamflood project terminated hot water injection and converted to post-steamflood cold water injection on April 19, 2002. Proposals have been approved to repair two sand consolidated horizontal wells that sanded up, Tar II-A well UP-955 and Tar V well J-205, with gravel-packed inner liner jobs to be performed next quarter. Other well work to be performed next quarter is to convert well L-337 to a Tar V water injector and to recomplete vertical well A-194 as a Tar V interior steamflood pattern producer. Plans have been approved to drill and complete well A-605 in Tar V in the first quarter 2003. Plans have been approved to update the Tar II-A 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and run sensitivity cases to evaluate the accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Well work related to the Tar II-A accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan began in March 2002 with oil production increasing from 1009 BOPD in the first quarter to 1145 BOPD in the third quarter. Reservoir pressures have been increased during the quarter from 88% to 91% hydrostatic levels in the ''T'' sands and from 91% to 94% hydrostatic levels in the ''D'' sands. Well work during the quarter is described in the Reservoir Management section. The post-steamflood production performance in the Tar V pilot project has been below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations and the loss of a horizontal producer a second time to sand inflow that are being addressed in the fourth quarter. As the fluid production temperatures exceeded 350 F, our self-imposed temperature limit, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001 and converted to cold water injection on April 19, 2002.

  17. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2002-04-30

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through December 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the First Quarter 2002, the project team developed an accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and began implementing the associated well work in March. The Tar V pilot steamflood project will be converted to post-steamflood cold water injection in April 2002. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Most of the 2001 well work resulted in maintaining oil and gross fluid production and water injection rates. Reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are at 88% and 91% hydrostatic levels, respectively. Well work during the first quarter and plans for 2002 are described in the Reservoir Management section. The steamflood operation in the Tar V pilot project is mature and profitable. Recent production performance has been below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that have been addressed during this quarter. As the fluid production temperatures were beginning to exceed 350 F, our self-imposed temperature limit, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001 and will be converted to cold water injection next quarter.

  18. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-02-18

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 1999, project work has been completed related to data preparation, basic reservoir engineering, developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model, and a rock-log model, well drilling and completions, and surface facilities. Work is continuing on the stochastic geologic model, developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Fault Block IIA Tar (Tar II-A) Zone, and operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the steamflood project. Last quarter on January 12, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations. Seven water injection wells were placed in service in November and December 1998 on the flanks of the Phase 1 steamflood area to pressure up the reservoir to fill up the existing steam chest. Intensive reservoir engineering and geomechanics studies are continuing to determine the best ways to shut down the steamflood operations in Fault Block II while minimizing any future surface subsidence. The new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulator model is being used to provide sensitivity cases to optimize production, steam injection, future flank cold water injection and reservoir temperature and pressure. According to the model, reservoir fill up of the steam chest at the current injection rate of 28,000 BPD and gross and net oil production rates of 7,700 BPD and 750 BOPD (injection to production ratio of 4) will occur in October 1999. At that time, the reservoir should act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection can be operated at lower net injection rates to be determined. Modeling runs developed this quarter found that varying individual well injection rates to meet added production and local pressure problems by sub-zone could reduce steam chest fill-up by up to one month.

  19. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Thin target zone Disconnected target zones Controlled fractures GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Tight Oil has Significant Energy Security Impacts Tight oil production growth ...

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    Through December 1999, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar (Tar II-A) Zone. Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood project. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone in order to focus the remaining time on using the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the Tar II-A steamflood project. On January 12, 1999, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations by injecting cold water into the flanks of the steamflood. The purpose of flank injection has been to increase and subsequently maintain reservoir pressures at a level that would fill-up the steam chests in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands before they can collapse and cause formation compaction and to prevent the steam chests from reoccurring. A new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model was used to provide operations with the necessary water injection rates and allowable production rates by well to minimize future surface subsidence and to accurately project reservoir steam chest fill-up by October 1999. A geomechanics study and a separate reservoir simulation study have been performed to determine the possible indicators of formation compaction, the temperatures at which specific indicators are affected and the projected temperature profiles in the over and underburden shales over a ten year period following steam injection. It was believed that once steam chest fill-up occurred, the reservoir would act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection could be operated at lower Injection to production ratios (I/P) and net injection rates. In mid-September 1999, net water injection was reduced substantially in the ''D'' sands following steam chest fill-up. This caused reservoir pressures to plummet about 100 psi within six weeks. Starting in late-October 1999, net ''D'' sand injection was increased and reservoir pressures have slowly increased back to steam chest fill-up pressures as of the end of March 2000. When the ''T'' sands reached fill-up, net ''T'' sand injection was lowered only slightly and reservoir pressures stabilized. A more detailed discussion of the operational changes is in the Reservoir Management section of this report. A reservoir pressure monitoring program was developed as part of the poststeamflood reservoir management plan. This bi-monthly sonic fluid level program measures the static fluid levels in all idle wells an average of once a month. The fluid levels have been calibrated for liquid and gas density gradients by comparing a number of them with Amerada bomb pressures taken within a few days. This data allows engineering to respond quickly to rises or declines in reservoir pressure by either increasing injection or production or idling production. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current thermal operations in the Wilm

  1. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net Inputs of Motor Gasoline Blending Components Net Inputs of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of GTAB Blending Components Net Inputs of All Other Blending Components Net Inputs of Fuel Ethanol Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline (Excl.

  2. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  3. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the geomechanical characteristics of the producing formations. The objectives were to further improve reservoir characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, test the proficiency of the three-dimensional geologic and thermal reservoir simulation models, identify the high permeability thief zones to reduce water breakthrough and cycling, and analyze the nonuniform distribution of the remaining oil in place. This work resulted in the redevelopment of the Tar II-A and Tar V post-steamflood projects by drilling several new wells and converting idle wells to improve injection sweep efficiency and more effectively drain the remaining oil reserves. Reservoir management work included reducing water cuts, maintaining or increasing oil production, and evaluating and minimizing further thermal-related formation compaction. The BP2 project utilized all the tools and knowledge gained throughout the DOE project to maximize recovery of the oil in place.

  4. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  5. STEO December 2012 - oil production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rise in 2012 U.S. oil production largest since 1859, output in 2013 seen topping 7 million bpd U.S. crude oil production is now expected to rise by about 760,000 barrels per day in ...

  6. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    Through March 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar (Tar II-A) Zone. Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood project. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the second quarter 2000 writing the 1997-2000 Annual Report, completing research for the project on the subjects mentioned above, and operating the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the Tar II-A steamflood project. On January 12, 1999, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations by injecting cold water into the flanks of the steamflood. The purpose of flank injection has been to increase and subsequently maintain reservoir pressures at a level that would fill-up the steam chests in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands before they can collapse and cause formation compaction and to prevent the steam chests from reoccurring. A new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model was used to provide operations with the necessary water injection rates and allowable production rates by well to minimize future surface subsidence and to accurately project reservoir steam chest fill-up by October 1999. A geomechanics study and a separate reservoir simulation study have been performed to determine the possible indicators of formation compaction, the temperatures at which specific indicators are affected and the projected temperature profiles in the over and underburden shales over a ten year period following steam injection. Further geomechanics work should be conducted. It was believed that once steam chest fill-up occurred, the reservoir would act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection could be operated at lower Injection to production ratios (I/P) and net injection rates. In mid-September 1999, net water injection was reduced substantially in the ''D'' sands following steam chest fill-up. This caused reservoir pressures to plummet about 100 psi within six weeks. Starting in late-October 1999, net ''D'' sand injection was increased and reservoir pressures have slowly increased back to steam chest fill-up pressures as of the end of March 2000. When the ''T'' sands reached fill-up, net ''T'' sand injection remained at a high rate and reservoir pressures stabilized. A more detailed discussion of the operational changes is in the Reservoir Management section of this report. A reservoir pressure monitoring program was developed as part of the poststeamflood reservoir management plan. This bi-monthly sonic fluid level program measures the static fluid levels in all idle wells an average of once a month. The fluid levels have been calibrated for liquid and gas density gradients by comparing a number of them with Amerada bomb pressures taken within a few days. This data allows engineering to respond quickly to rises or declines in reservoir pressure by either increasing injection or production or idling production. Expanding thermal recovery oper

  7. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-14

    Through June 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar (Tar II-A) Zone. Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood project. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the third quarter 2000 revising the draft 1997-2000 Annual Report submitted last quarter, writing final reports on the research projects mentioned above, and operating the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the Tar II-A steamflood project. On January 12, 1999, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations by injecting cold water into the flanks of the steamflood. The purpose of flank injection has been to increase and subsequently maintain reservoir pressures at a level that would fill-up the steam chests in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands before they can collapse and cause formation compaction and to prevent the steam chests from reoccurring. A new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model was used to provide operations with the necessary water injection rates and allowable production rates by well to minimize future surface subsidence and to accurately project reservoir steam chest fill-up by October 1999. A geomechanics study and a separate reservoir simulation study have been performed to determine the possible indicators of formation compaction, the temperatures at which specific indicators are affected and the projected temperature profiles in the over and underburden shales over a ten year period following steam injection. Further geomechanics work should be conducted. It was believed that once steam chest fill-up occurred, the reservoir would act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection could be operated at lower Injection to production ratios (I/P) and net injection rates. In mid-September 1999, net water injection was reduced substantially in the ''D'' sands following steam chest fill-up. This caused reservoir pressures to plummet about 100 psi within six weeks. Starting in late-October 1999, net ''D'' sand injection was increased and reservoir pressures increased back to steam chest fill-up pressures of 90% hydrostatic pressure by March 2000 and have been maintained through September 2000. When the ''T'' sands reached fill-up in October 1999, net ''T'' sand injection remained at a high rate through April 2000 and reservoir pressures stabilized at 98% hydrostatic pressure. The objective is to lower ''T'' sand pressure slowly to 90% hydrostatic. Net injection was reduced and ''T'' sand reservoir pressure was at 97% hydrostatic in September 2000. A more detailed discussion of the operational changes is in the Reservoir Management section of this report. A reservoir pressure monitoring program was developed as part of the poststeamflood reservoir management plan. This bi-monthly sonic fluid level program measures the static fluid levels in all idle wells an average of once a month.

  8. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Processing...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Total Products Other Liquids Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum ...

  9. Alcorn wells bolster Philippines oil production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-21

    This paper reports that Alcorn International Inc., Houston, is producing about 16,500 b/d of oil from West Linapacan A field in the South China Sea off the Philippines. The field's current production alone is more than fivefold the Philippines' total average oil flow of 3,000 b/d in 1991. It's part of a string of oil and gas strikes off Palawan Island that has made the region one of the hottest exploration/development plays in the Asia-Pacific theater.

  10. Minimize oil field power consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, B.; Ennis, P.

    1999-08-01

    Though electric power is a major operating cost of oil production, few producers have systematically evaluated their power consumption for ways to be more efficient. There is significant money to be saved by doing so, and now is a good time to make an evaluation because new power options are at hand. They range from small turbo generators that can run on casing head gas and power one or two lift pumps, to rebuilt major turbines and ram-jet powered generators that can be set in a multi-well field and deliver power at bargain prices. Power industry deregulation is also underway. Opportunities for more advantageous power contracts from competitive sources are not far off. This two-part series covers power efficiency and power options. This article reviews steps you can take to evaluate the efficiency of your power use and go about improving it. Part 2 will discuss opportunities for use of distributed power and changes you can expect from decentralized power.

  11. STEO September 2012 - oil production

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    forecast to rise almost 700,000 bpd this year, help cut U.S. petroleum imports U.S. crude oil production is expected to average 6.3 million barrels per day in 2012. That's up ...

  12. STEO January 2013 - oil production increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    oil production to increase in 2013 and 2014 U.S. crude oil production is expected to keep rising over the next two years. America's oil output will jump nearly 900,000 barrels per ...

  13. Iran outlines oil productive capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    National Iranian Oil Co. (NIOC) tested production limits last month to prove a claim of 4 million bd capacity made at September's meeting of the organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Onshore fields account for 3.6 million bd of the total, with offshore fields providing the rest. NIOC plans to expand total capacity to 4.5 million bd by April 1993, consisting of 4 million b/d onshore and 500,000 b/d offshore. Middle East Economic Survey says questions remain about completion dates for gas injection, drilling, and offshore projects, but expansion targets are attainable within the scheduled time. NIOC said some slippage may be unavoidable, but it is confident the objective will be reached by third quarter 1993 at the latest. More than 60 rigs are working or about to be taken under contract to boost development drilling in onshore fields and provide gas injection in some. NIOC has spent $3.2 billion in foreign exchange on the drilling program in the last 2 1/2 years.

  14. Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance Ramón Espinasa, Ph.D. / Lead Specialist July 2014 The Energy Innovation Center Energy Division 3 The views expressed by the author do not reflect the views of the Inter- American Development Bank, its Management, its Board of Executive Directors or its member Governments. DISCLAIMER www.iadb.org Copyright © 2014 Interamerican Development Bank. All rights reserved; This document may be freely reproduced for non-commercial purposes. 4 United States Oil

  15. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.

    1997-01-01

    As part of ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. The performance of this premium heating oil is discussed.

  16. Review of EIA Oil Production Outlooks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Review of EIA oil production outlooks For 2014 EIA Energy Conference July 15, 2014 | Washington, DC By Samuel Gorgen, Upstream Analyst Overview Gorgen, Tight Oil Production Trends EIA Conference, July 15, 2014 2 * Drilling Productivity Report performance review - Permian - Eagle Ford - Bakken * Crude oil production projections - Short-Term Energy Outlook - Annual Energy Outlook - International tight oil outlook * New DPR region highlights: Utica Drilling Productivity Report review - major tight

  17. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, C.D.; Allison, M.L.

    1997-08-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated lacustrine environment. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical feet (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval. This completion technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. Geologic and engineering characterization has been used to define improved completion techniques. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The characterization study resulted in recommendations for improved completion techniques and a field-demonstration program to test those techniques. The results of the characterization study and the proposed demonstration program are discussed in the second annual technical progress report. The operator of the wells was unable to begin the field demonstration this project year (October 1, 1995 to September 20, 1996). Correlation and thickness mapping of individual beds in the Wasatch Formation was completed and resulted in a. series of maps of each of the individual beds. These data were used in constructing the reservoir models. Non-fractured and fractured geostatistical models and reservoir simulations were generated for a 20-square-mile (51.8-km{sup 2}) portion of the Bluebell field. The modeling provides insights into the effects of fracture porosity and permeability in the Green River and Wasatch reservoirs.

  18. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  19. Landslide oil field, San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, B.P.; March, K.A.; Caballero, J.S.; Stolle, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The Landslide field, located at the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 by a partnership headed by Channel Exploration Company, on a farm out from Tenneco Oil Company. Initial production from the Tenneco San Emidio 63X-30 was 2064 BOPD, making landslide one of the largest onshore discoveries in California during the past decade. Current production is 7100 BOPD from a sandstone reservoir at 12,500 ft. Fifteen wells have been drilled in the field, six of which are water injectors. Production from the Landslide field occurs from a series of upper Miocene Stevens turbidite sandstones that lie obliquely across an east-plunging structural nose. These turbidite sandstones were deposited as channel-fill sequences within a narrowly bounded levied channel complex. Both the Landslide field and the larger Yowlumne field, located 3 mi to the northwest, comprise a single channel-fan depositional system that developed in the restricted deep-water portion of the San Joaquin basin. Information from the open-hole logs, three-dimensional surveys, vertical seismic profiles, repeat formation tester data, cores, and pressure buildup tests allowed continuous drilling from the initial discovery to the final waterflood injector, without a single dry hole. In addition, the successful application of three-dimensional seismic data in the Landslide development program has helped correctly image channel-fan anomalies in the southern Maricopa basin, where data quality and severe velocity problems have hampered previous efforts. New exploration targets are currently being evaluated on the acreage surrounding the Landslide discovery and should lead to an interesting new round of drilling activity in the Maricopa basin.

  20. Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates 1 Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates Executive summary The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) relies on data from state and other federal agencies and does not currently collect survey data directly from crude oil producers. Summarizing the estimation process in terms of percent of U.S. production: * 20% is based on state agency data, including North Dakota and

  1. Field development options for a waterflooded heavy-oil reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasraie, M. ); Sammon, P.H. ); Jespersen, P.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Battrum Unit 4 is a moderately heavy-oil reservoir in Saskatchewan producing under waterflood from a thin sand. This paper describes a history match of previous field behavior and systematically analyzes through the use of numerical simulation the potential benefits to production of further waterflooding (with and without infill drilling), steamflooding, and horizontal drilling. It is found that the remaining oil recovery potential of a steamflood with horizontal well is significantly higher than that of any of the waterflood options.

  2. Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Various Biomass Feedstocks: Production and Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil to Refinery Blendstocks (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, D.; Westover, T.; Howe, D.; Evans, R.; French, R.; Kutnyakov, I.

    2014-09-01

    Large-scale, cost-competitive deployment of thermochemical technologies to replace petroleum oil with domestic biofuels will require inclusion of high volumes of low-cost, diverse biomass types into the supply chain. However, a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of feedstock thermo-physical and chemical variability, particularly inorganic matter (ash), on the yield and product distribution

  3. High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports High U.S. crude oil production will help further reduce America's reliance on oil imports during the next two years. In its ...

  4. U.S. oil imports to decline with rising oil production through...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    oil imports to decline with rising oil production through 2014 The United States will need fewer oil imports over the next two years because of rising U.S. oil production. The new ...

  5. U.S. crude oil production expected to exceed oil imports later...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    crude oil production expected to exceed oil imports later this year U.S. crude oil production is expected to surpass U.S. crude oil imports by the fourth quarter of this year. That ...

  6. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter

  7. Production optimization in the Provincia field, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blann, J.; Jacobson, L.; Faber, C.

    1989-02-01

    Designing or redesigning production facilities for optimum operation usually results in the generation of maximum profit from an installation. But in older fields, or fields where a short life is expected, design changes may not be a viable option. In such cases, obtaining maximum production within the limits of existing facilities, thereby minimizing new investments, may be an attractive option. This paper discusses application of the latter technique in the Provincia field, Colombia, to optimize oil and gas production within constraints imposed by periodic temporary gas-compression-capacity restrictions and by the configuration of existing oil and gas facilities. The multistep optimization program used at Provincia included improvement of individual well performance, optimization of individual well facilities, fieldwide optimization of surface facilities, and optimization of the field production scheme.

  8. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  9. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Oil Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production RTI International report-out at the CTAB webinar on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production. PDF icon ctab_webinar_bio_oils_production.pdf More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Bio-oil Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oils

  10. US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports Source: Energy Information Administration Short Term Energy Outlook. Chart by Daniel...

  11. US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports Source: Energy Information Administration Short Term Energy Outlook. Chart by Daniel ...

  12. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Stocks by Type Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils,

  13. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996, 11th Quarter of the project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, E.; Morgan, C.D.

    1996-07-30

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project.

  14. VEE-0023- In the Matter of Oil Products, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 13, 1996, Oil Products, Inc. (Oil Products) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its application, Oil...

  15. Higher U.S. oil production in 2013 and 2014 means lower oil imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Higher U.S. oil production in 2013 and 2014 means lower oil imports U.S. crude oil production topped 7 million barrels per day in November and December for the first time in 20 ...

  16. Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2013-04-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

  17. Production of hydrogen from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schora, F. C.; Feldkirchner, H. L.; Janka, J. C.

    1985-12-24

    A process for production of hydrogen from oil shale fines by direct introduction of the oil shale fines into a fluidized bed at temperatures about 1200/sup 0/ to about 2000/sup 0/ F. to obtain rapid heating of the oil shale. The bed is fluidized by upward passage of steam and oxygen, the steam introduced in the weight ratio of about 0.1 to about 10 on the basis of the organic carbon content of the oil shale and the oxygen introduced in less than the stoichiometric quantity for complete combustion of the organic carbonaceous kerogen content of the oil shale. Embodiments are disclosed for heat recovery from the spent shale and heat recovery from the spent shale and product gas wherein the complete process and heat recovery is carried out in a single reaction vessel. The process of this invention provides high conversion of organic carbon component of oil shale and high production of hydrogen from shale fines which when used in combination with a conventional oil shale hydroconversion process results in increased overall process efficiency of greater than 15 percent.

  18. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production RTI International report-out at the CTAB webinar on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil ...

  19. Experiences in the design of CRA`s for erosion/corrosion control in the production facilities of eastern Venezuela oil fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, N.; Palacios, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    It is a well known fact that CRA`s are used in the oil industry as one way to control erosion/corrosion effects. Many fields in the eastern region of Venezuela are considered corrosive due to the presence of CO{sub 2} (5 to 20%), H{sub 2}S (up to 5 ppm), and water (50% water cut) contained in the produced hydrocarbons (condensated). For some areas, the hydrocarbon is accompanied by sand, making them erosive as well. These conditions and frequent failures experienced in the field, led to the use of CRA`s. For the wells, 13% Cr and bimetallic (carbon steel/13% Cr) tubing was used for 51 condensate wells containing 5 to 20% CO{sub 2}. For the surface equipment (valves, reducers, expanders and other types of fittings) tungsten carbide hard facing were used, for some of the valves, a epoxi-phenolic coating was used. This article describes the different design criteria used for the installation of the tubing, the logistics involved during field inspections and handling tips to avoid galling during workovers. It also, presents results from the bi-metallic tubing and the hard facings used for the surface equipment.

  20. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  1. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.; Morgan, C.D.

    1996-05-01

    The Bluebell field produces from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated deltaic lacustrine environment. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical feet (300-900 m), then applying an acid-fracture stimulation treatment to the entire interval. This completion technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. Geologic and engineering characterization has been used to define improved completion techniques. The study identified reservoir characteristics of beds that have the greatest long-term production potential.

  2. Production and Upgrading of Infrastructure Compatible Bio-Oil...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production and Upgrading of Infrastructure Compatible Bio-Oil with VTT March 25, 2015 ... Major Project Objectives: Low-severity hydrotreating (HT) Stabilize bio-oil for fuel oil ...

  3. Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields of 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields of 2009 Introduction This supplement to the Energy Information Administration's summary of U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves, 2009 ranks the United States' largest oil and gas fields by their estimated 2009 proved reserves. The Top 100's Share of U.S. Proved Reserves in 2009 The Top 100 oil fields and Top 100 gas fields each accounted for about 60 percent of the respective total proved reserves of the United States. The Top 100 oil

  4. Table 5.2 Crude Oil Production and Crude Oil Well Productivity, 1954-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil Production and Crude Oil Well Productivity, 1954-2011 Year Crude Oil Production Crude Oil Well 1 Productivity 48 States 2 Alaska 3 Total Onshore Offshore Total Producing Wells 4 Average Productivity 5 Federal State Total Thousand Barrels Thousand Barrels Thousands Barrels per Well 1954 2,314,988 0 2,314,988 2,266,387 NA NA 48,601 2,314,988 511 4,530 1955 2,484,428 0 2,484,428 2,425,289 NA NA 59,139 2,484,428 524 4,741 1956 2,617,283 0 2,617,283 2,543,889 NA NA 73,394 2,617,283 551

  5. ,"U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from Libya of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Nigeria of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Qatar of...

  6. ,"U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Republic of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Egypt of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from El Salvador...

  7. ,"U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10:54:24 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports" ...-NVM1","MTTIMUSVQ1","MTTIMUSYE1" "Date","U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

  8. ,"Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by ... PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by ...

  9. Low oil prices cut less into U.S. oil production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Output is up because producers are completing wells already drilled and those wells have higher initial production rates. High oil production is reducing U.S net oil imports, which ...

  10. Implications of Increasing U.S. Crude Oil Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Implications of Increasing U.S. Crude Oil Production By John Powell June 18, 2013 U.S. crude oil production is up dramatically since 2010 and will continue to grow rapidly; this has implications for: John Powell June 18, 2013 2 * Refinery operations * Refinery investment * Logistics infrastructure investment * Exports of petroleum products * Exports of crude oil Increased U.S. crude oil production has resulted in: John Powell June 18, 2013 3 * Declines in U.S. crude imports * Changes to refinery

  11. About the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Information Administration | About the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 4 Island Harrison Bay 103 Point Hope 205 For State and Federal offshore areas, the following county ...

  12. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Crude Oil Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Crude Oil Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Decade Year-0...

  13. Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, Erle C.; Sutterfield, F. Dexter

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.

  14. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-04

    This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

  15. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil and Gas Field Code Master List With Data for 2015 | Release Date: February 24, 2016 | Next Release Date: February 2017 Previous Issues Year: 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1998 1997 1996 1995 Go Comprehensive listing of U.S. oil and gas field names. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2015 Definition of a Field A field is defined as "an area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs all grouped on, or related to, the same

  16. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  17. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  18. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economic method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.

  19. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economicmore » method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.« less

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields Tuesday, September 10, 2013, 10:00AM EST Overview During July and August 2013, protests at major oil loading ports in the central-eastern region of Libya forced the complete or partial shut-in of oil fields linked to the ports. As a result of protests at ports and at some oil fields, crude oil production fell to 1.0 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in July and 600,000 bbl/d in August, although the

  1. Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin The purpose of this paper is to provide the public and policy makers accurate estimates of energy ...

  2. Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product Guide Category Prices Volumes Crude oil Refiner acqusistion cost 1,1A - Domestic first purchases 1 - from selected states 18 - by API gravity 20 - for selected crude streams 19 - Imports F.O.B. cost 1 - from selected states 21 - by API gravity 23 - for selected crude streams 26 - Landed costs 1 - from selected states 22 - by API gravity 24 - for selected crude streams 27 - Percentage by gravity band 25 - - Motor gasoline all sellers 28 - refiners 2,4,6,31 3,5,7,39,40 prime suppliers - 45

  3. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEPatents Data Explorer Search Results Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production Title: Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a

  5. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Patent: Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis,

  6. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEPatents Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production Title: Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating

  7. Combined process for heavy oil, upgrading and synthetic fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polomski, R.E.

    1984-06-05

    A process for upgrading heavy oil to fuel products comprises deasphalting the heavy oil with an oxygenated solvent and simultaneously converting the oxygenated solvent and deasphalted oil over a ZSM-5 type catalyst to produce gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons.

  8. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type",6,"Monthly","82015","1151956"...

  9. Oil & Natural Gas Projects Exploration and Production Technologies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & Natural Gas Projects Exploration and Production Technologies Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oil & Natural Gas Projects Exploration...

  10. Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This assessment of the Venezuelan petroleum loss examines two areas. The first part of the analysis focuses on the impact of the loss of Venezuelan crude production on crude oil supply for U.S. refiners who normally run a significant fraction of Venezuelan crude oil. The second part of the analysis looks at the impact of the Venezuelan production loss on crude markets in general, with particular emphasis on crude oil imports, refinery crude oil throughput levels, stock levels, and the changes in price differences between light and heavy crude oils.

  11. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang,

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  12. U.S. Crude Oil Production to 2025: Updated Production of Crude...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Figure data Previous Issues 5-29-2014 U.S. Crude Oil Production to 2025: Updated Projection of Crude Types Release date: May 28, 2015 Preface U.S. oil production has grown rapidly ...

  13. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  14. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  15. Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar coastal fields, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockmeulen, H.; Barker, C.; Dickey, P.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain mostly heavy oil with a gravity less than 22/sup 0/ API. Thirty crude oils from the BCF were collected along two parallel and generally southwest-northeast trends. These oils were characterized by their API gravity, percent saturates, aromatics, NSO and asphalitic compounds, gas chromatograms for whole oils, C/sub 4/-C/sub 7/ fractions, and aromatics. Also, 24 associated waters were sampled and analyzed for Ca/sup + +/, Mg/sup + +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup - -/, SO/sub 4//sup - -/, pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS). The geological and geochemical significances of these analyses are discussed with particular emphasis on the genesis of the petroleum.

  16. U.S. oil production forecast update reflects lower rig count

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. oil production forecast update reflects lower rig count Lower oil prices and fewer rigs drilling for crude oil are expected to slow U.S. oil production growth this year and in ...

  17. Planning and management of the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field development, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    As Operator for the Northeast Palawan consortium, Philippines-Cities Service, Inc., commenced the Philippines first commercial offshore oil production from the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field on February 1, 1979, some 11 months after a decision by management to start development. The relative speed at which design, fabrication, and construction were accomplished is attributed to the use of the concepts of project planning, task force approach, and project management. This paper presents the above concepts as applied to the Nido Complex.

  18. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  19. Process for stimulating and upgrading the oil production from a heavy oil reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweany, G.A.

    1981-08-18

    A process for thermally stimulating and upgrading oil production from a heavy oil reservoir wherein the heavy oil produced from the reservoir is combined with a hydrogen donor diluent and the mixture is subjected to thermal cracking to upgrade the heavy oil into more valuable hydrocarbon products. The cracked products are fractionated into a light end vapor fraction, an intermediate liquid fraction, a gas oil fraction and a pitch fraction, and at least a portion of the gas oil fraction is hydrogenated by contacting it with a hydrogen-containing gas stream to produce the hydrogen donor diluent combined with the heavy oil. The pitch fraction is subjected to partial oxidation to produce the hydrogen-containing gas stream and a by-product gas stream containing steam which is combined with additional steam and injected into the heavy oil reservoir to enhance the mobility of heavy oil contained therein. The light end vapor fraction and unreacted hydrogen-containing gas produced by the process are utilized as fuel in the process. The intermediate liquid fraction produce and portion of the gas oil fraction not hydrogenated are readily transportable from the process.

  20. Oil and gas field code master list 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

  1. Oil and gas field code master list 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

  2. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  3. New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  4. Can nonhazardous oil field wastes be disposed of in salt caverns?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal -of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  5. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Hugh; Dentz, Jordan; Doty, Chris

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  6. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  7. Power Plays: Geothermal Energy In Oil and Gas Fields

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SMU Geothermal Lab is hosting their 7th international energy conference and workshop Power Plays: Geothermal Energy in Oil and Gas Fields May 18-20, 2015 on the SMU Campus in Dallas, Texas. The two-day conference brings together leaders from the geothermal, oil and gas communities along with experts in finance, law, technology, and government agencies to discuss generating electricity from oil and gas well fluids, using the flare gas for waste heat applications, and desalinization of the water for project development in Europe, China, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and the US. Other relevant topics include seismicity, thermal maturation, and improved drilling operations.

  8. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  9. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  10. Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields March 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States

  11. Fact #578: July 6, 2009 World Oil Reserves, Production, and Consumptio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: July 6, 2009 World Oil Reserves, Production, and Consumption, 2007 Fact 578: July 6, 2009 World Oil Reserves, Production, and Consumption, 2007 The United States was ...

  12. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the 1993 estimate of undiscovered technically recoverable oil for the onshore lower 48 States (that would come from tens of thousands of small fields) was about 23 billion barrels. ...

  13. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production from Greater...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  14. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production from Less...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  15. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 267 266...

  16. Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms, SUPRI TR-127

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E.; Castanier, Louis M.

    2001-09-07

    The program spans a spectrum of topics and is divided into five categories: (i) multiphase flow and rock properties, (ii) hot fluid injection, (iii) primary heavy-oil production, (iv) reservoir definition, and (v) in-situ combustion.

  17. Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

  18. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific objectives of the project were (1) to determine the prevalence of biosurfactant producers in oil reservoirs, and (2) to develop a nutrient regime that would stimulate biosurfactant production in the oil reservoir.

  19. Oil products distribution in Iran: a planning approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrishami, H.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of this study is that it examines the functions of the most important element in the public sector of the economy of Iran - the Ministry of Oil. Oil is the main source of Iran's foreign earnings and the commodity most crucial to the country's economy as its prime export. Furthermore, it plays a vital role in meeting domestic energy demands. The distribution of oil products affects, on the one hand, households, small businesses, and larger industries while, on the other, it affects the allocation, in general of other national resources. Accordingly, the effects of the Ministry of Oil's policies with regard to its production-distribution system cannot be overemphasized. The research entailed has elicited certain factors: The Ministry of Oil's present system suffers from a number of weaknesses in its production-distribution design. These deficiencies involved, among others, terminal location, number of terminals, assignment of terminals to customers, substitution of other major sources of energy for major oil products, the middle distillates problem, and an outmoded distribution method and techniques. This dissertation addresses alternatives that will eliminate faults in the present system. The approach and conclusions of this research have the potential of application to any type of industry in Iran - oil or otherwise, whether in the private or public sector - that has a similar intricate distribution-system design subject to similar variables.

  20. Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields of 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields of 2009 Introduction This supplement to the Energy Information ... NEW ARK EAST TX 1794.6 1981 1 2 SAN JUAN BAS IN G AS A RE A CO & NM 1295.2 1927 2 3 ...

  1. West Virginia Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0...

  2. Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EthaneEthylene PropanePropylene Normal ButaneButylene IsobutaneIsobutylene Other Liquids HydrogenOxygenatesRenewablesOther Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. ...

  3. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  4. IMPROVED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF POLYMER GEL TREATMENTS IN MATURE OIL FIELDS: FIELD DEMONSTRATION IN DICKMAN FIELD, NESS COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Fowler

    2004-11-30

    This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir characterization it was determined that a second polymer-gel treatment could not be justified. The Mississippian reservoir at Dickman Field is much more complex than originally anticipated with numerous reservoir compartments and potential attic oil beneath the irregular Mississippian karst. It appears that remaining oil in place could be best recovered using improved oil recovery techniques such as target infill drilling and horizontal wells.

  5. Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Supplement from: U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields With Data for 2013 | Release Date: April 2, 2015 | Next Release Date: January 2016 Previous Issues (pdf): Year: 2009 2008 2007 (Appendix B) 2006 (Appendix B) 2005 (Appendix B) 2004 (Appendix B) 2003 (Appendix B) 2002 (Appendix B) 2001 (Appendix B) 2000 (Appendix B) 1999 (Appendix B) 1998 (Appendix B) 1997 (Appendix B) 1996 (Appendix B) Go Introduction This supplement to the U.S. Energy Information

  6. Expectations for Oil Shale Production (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain relatively large amounts of kerogen, which can be converted into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (petroleum liquids, natural gas liquids, and methane) by heating the rock, usually in the absence of oxygen, to 650 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (in situ retorting) or 900 to 950 degrees Fahrenheit (surface retorting). (Oil shale is, strictly speaking, a misnomer in that the rock is not necessarily a shale and contains no crude oil.) The richest U.S. oil shale deposits are located in Northwest Colorado, Northeast Utah, and Southwest Wyoming. Currently, those deposits are the focus of petroleum industry research and potential future production. Among the three states, the richest oil shale deposits are on federal lands in northwest Colorado.

  7. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, R.L.; Bezdek, Roger; Wendling, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  8. Annual Energy Outlook 2014 projects reduced need for U.S. oil imports due to tight oil production growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2014 Annual Energy Outlook 2014 projects reduced need for U.S. oil imports due to tight oil production growth U.S. production of tight crude oil is expected to make up a larger share of total U.S. oil output in the years ahead, and help lower imports share of total U.S. oil consumption. In its annual long-term projections, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects total U.S. crude oil production to reach a record 9.6 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2019, under its baseline

  9. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  10. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  11. Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Appendix 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

    1992-06-01

    This volume contains maps, well logging correlated to porosity and permeability, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plot, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence and reservoir characterization sheet of the following fields in southwest Alabama: Appleton oil field; Barnett oil field; Barrytown oil field; Big Escambia Creek gas and condensate field; Blacksher oil field; Broken Leg Creed oil field; Bucatunna Creed oil field; Chappell Hill oil field; Chatom gas and condensate field; Choctaw Ridge oil field; Chunchula gas and condensate field; Cold Creek oil field; Copeland gas and condensate field; Crosbys Creed gas and condensate field; and East Barnett oil field. (AT)

  12. Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. [Jurassic Smackover Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

    1992-06-01

    This volume contains maps, well logging correlated to porosity and permeability, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plot, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence and reservoir characterization sheet of the following fields in southwest Alabama: Appleton oil field; Barnett oil field; Barrytown oil field; Big Escambia Creek gas and condensate field; Blacksher oil field; Broken Leg Creed oil field; Bucatunna Creed oil field; Chappell Hill oil field; Chatom gas and condensate field; Choctaw Ridge oil field; Chunchula gas and condensate field; Cold Creek oil field; Copeland gas and condensate field; Crosbys Creed gas and condensate field; and East Barnett oil field. (AT)

  13. Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Co-produced and low-temperature ...

  14. Geological reasons for rapid water encroachment in wells at Sutorma oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arkhipov, S.V.; Dvorak, S.V.; Sonich, V.P.; Nikolayeva, Ye.V.

    1987-12-01

    The Sutorma oil field on the northern Surgut dome is one of the new fields in West Siberia. It came into production in 1982, but already by 1983 it was found that the water contents in the fluids produced were much greater than the design values. The adverse effects are particularly pronounced for the main reservoir at the deposit, the BS/sub 10//sup 2/ stratum. Later, similar problems occurred at other fields in the Noyarbr and Purpey regions. It is therefore particularly important to elucidate the geological reasons for water encroachment.

  15. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  16. The drilling of a horizontal well in a mature oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the drilling of a medium radius horizontal well in the Bartlesville Sand of the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma by Rougeot Oil and Gas Corporation (Rougeot) of Sperry, Oklahoma. The report includes the rationale for selecting the particular site, the details of drilling the well, the production response, conclusions reached, and recommendations made for the future drilling of horizontal wells. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Low-Salinity Waterflooding to Improve Oil Recovery - Historical Field Evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-11-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of wa-terfloods. Laboratory water-flood tests and single-well tracer tests have shown that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery, but work designed to test the method on a field scale has not yet been undertaken. Historical waterflood records could unintentionally provide some evidence of improved recovery from waterflooding with lower salinity brine. Nu-merous fields in the Powder River basin of Wyoming have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) obtained from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Three Minnelusa formation fields in the basin were identified as potential candidates for waterflood comparisons based on the salinity of the connate and injection water. Historical pro-duction and injection data for these fields were obtained from the public record. Field waterflood data were manipulated to be displayed in the same format as laboratory coreflood re-sults. Recovery from fields using lower salinity injection wa-ter was greater than that using higher salinity injection wa-ter—matching recovery trends for laboratory and single-well tests.

  18. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  19. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  20. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  1. U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Lubricants 35 27 27 21 33 33 1981-2016 Waxes 8 6 4 3 5 5 1981-2016 Petroleum Coke 13 17 6 1 2 2 1984-2016 Asphalt and Road Oil 29 33 24 19 22 32 1981-2016 Miscellaneous Products 0 ...

  2. Water Management in Mature Oil Fields using Advanced Particle Gels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Management in Mature Oil Fields using Advanced Particle Gels Final Report Contract no.: 11123-32 Jan. 15, 2016  Prime Contractor: The University of Texas at Austin  Participant: Missouri University of Science and Technology Contacts: - Mojdeh Delshad, 512-471-3219, delshad@mail.utexas.edu Baojun Bai, 573-341-4016, baib@mst.edu Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America (RPSEA) Project Manager: John R. Terneus Start Date: January 18, 2013 End Date: January 17, 2015 2 Table of

  3. U.S. net oil and petroleum product imports expected to fall to...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    net oil and petroleum product imports expected to fall to just 29 percent of demand in 2014 With rising domestic crude oil production, the United States will rely less on imports ...

  4. Fact #652: December 6, 2010 U.S. Crude Oil Production Rises

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The production of crude oil in the U.S., including lease condensates, rose in 2009 for the first time since 1991. The general trend of declining oil production began in 1986 after a slight peak in...

  5. U.S. crude oil production in July was the highest in more than...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    crude oil production in July was the highest in more than two decades U.S. crude oil production in July reached 7.5 million barrels per day.....the highest output for any month ...

  6. U.S. crude oil production expected to top 8 million barrels per...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. crude oil production expected to top 8 million barrels per day, highest output since 1988 U.S. crude oil production in 2014 is now expected to top 8 million barrels per day ...

  7. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    monthly crude oil production highest in nearly 26 year Estimated U.S. crude oil production in May averaged almost 8.4 million barrels per day, the highest output for any month ...

  8. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Snow and cold cut into U.S. crude oil production this winter This winter's harsh weather conditions temporarily slowed U.S. crude oil production. In its new forecast....the U.S. ...

  9. Fact #780: May 20, 2013 Crude Oil Reserve to Production Ratio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ratio of reserves to production gives a relative measure of the resources available in different oil producing countries. Assuming 2011 crude oil production rates and holding reserves constant,...

  10. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  11. Accelerated Depletion: Assessing Its Impacts on Domestic Oil and Natural Gas Prices and Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the potential impacts of accelerated depletion on domestic oil and natural gas prices and production.

  12. Enhanced oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ miscible displacement in the Little Knife Field, Billings County, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desch, J.B.; Larsen, W.K.; Lindsay, R.F.; Nettle, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Gulf Oil Exploration and Production Company, in conjunction with the Department of Energy, has successfully conducted a field test of the CO/sub 2/ miscible displacement process in the Little Knife Field. All project objectives were conceived, implemented, and accomplished as a result of the synergetic cooperation and communication between the various departments within Gulf Oil Corporation and the DOE. The minitest succeeded in establishing water-flood residual-oil saturations. It also succeeded in reducing the waterflood residual-oil saturation to a lower value by CO/sub 2//water injection. Finally, and most importantly, the minitest was successfully characterized, developed, and monitored. Monitoring was accomplished by cased-hole logging, fluid sampling, and simulation modeling. 9 refs.

  13. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  14. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Oil and gas production equals jobs and revenue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimes, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The effects of oil and gas production on jobs and revenue are discussed. Some suggestions are presented that should provide the climate to increase jobs, add revenue and increase efficiency in state agencies within the producing states. Some of the ideas and suggestions are summarized. Some of these ideas include: how to extend the economic limits of marginal properties; how the states can encourage additional drilling without incurring loss of revenue; and the use of investment tax credits.

  16. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant formulations for oil field applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; McDaniel, Richard

    2008-10-21

    A sealant for an oil or geothermal well capable of setting within about 3 to about 6 hours at temperatures less than about 250.degree. F. for shallow wells less than about 10,000 feet and deep wells greater than about 10,000 feet having MgO present in the range of from about 9.9 to about 14.5%, KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 present in the range of from about 29.7 to about 27.2%, class C fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 36.3%, class F fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 0%, boric acid or borax present in the range of from about 0.39 to about 1.45%, and water present in the range of from about 20.3 to about 21.86% by weight of the sealant.A method of sealing wells is disclosed as are compositions for very high temperature wells is disclosed as is a composition for treating oil field wastes.

  17. A theoretical model of subsidence caused by petroleum production: Big Hill Field, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.W.; Sharp, J.M. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    In the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain, there is a history of oil and gas production extending over 2 to 5 decades. Concurrent with this production history, there has been unprecedented population growth accompanied by vastly increased groundwater demands. Land subsidence on both local and regional bases in this geologic province has been measured and predicted in several studies. The vast majority of these studies have addressed the problem from the standpoint of groundwater usage while only a few have considered the effects of oil and gas production. Based upon field-based computational techniques (Helm, 1984), a model has been developed to predict land subsidence caused by oil and gas production. This method is applied to the Big Hill Field in Jefferson County, Texas. Inputs include production data from a series of wells in this field and lithologic data from electric logs of these same wells. Outputs include predicted amounts of subsidence, the time frame of subsidence, and sensitivity analyses of compressibility and hydraulic conductivity estimates. Depending upon estimated compressibility, subsidence, to date, is predicted to be as high as 20 cm. Similarly, depending upon estimated vertical hydraulic conductivity, the time frame may be decades for this subsidence. These same methods can be applied to other oil/gas fields with established production histories as well as new fields when production scenarios are assumed. Where subsidence has been carefully measured above petroleum reservoir, the model may be used inversely to calculate sediment compressibilities.

  18. Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

    1985-02-01

    A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

  19. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Tai, Mitchell; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2015-02-10

    Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.

  20. Net Imports of Total Crude Oil and Products into the U.S. by Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Conventional Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reformulated Gasoline Blend. Comp. Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 500

  1. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Preface Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment is a product of the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) Reserves and Production Division. EIA, under various programs, has assessed foreign and domestic oil and gas resources, reserves, and production potential. As a policy-neutral

  2. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  3. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil production in the Gulf of Mexico is also expected to rise this year and again in 2015, marking the first increase in offshore oil output in five years, according to EIA. The ...

  4. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    monthly oil output in Texas recently topped 3 million barrels per day for the first time since the late 1970s and North Dakota's oil production reached a record 1 million ...

  5. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    World oil supply more than adequate to meet demand over next 2 years Rising U.S. crude oil production will help non-OPEC supply growth exceed global demand growth for the next two ...

  6. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to account for 91% of the growth in world oil production in 2015 The United States is expected to provide nine out of every 10 barrels of new global oil supplies in 2015. In its ...

  7. Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million barrels)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",2507.55,2372.5,2255.7,2160.8,2087.8,2022.1,1952.75,1890.7,1850.55,1825,1799.45,1781.2,1766.6,1759.3,1777.55,1788.5,1806.75,1861.5 "AEO

  8. Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million barrels) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 2508 2373 2256 2161 2088 2022 1953 1891 1851 1825 1799 1781 1767 1759 1778 1789 1807 1862 AEO 1995 2402 2307 2205 2095 2037 1967 1953 1924 1916 1905 1894 1883 1887 1887 1920 1945 1967 AEO 1996 2387 2310 2248 2172 2113 2062 2011 1978 1953 1938 1916 1920 1927 1949 1971 1986 2000 2018 2055 AEO 1997 2362 2307

  9. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining Release date: May 5, 2015 Revised: May 12, 2015 (revision) 1. Background and Analytical Framework Background Recent and projected increases in U.S. crude production have sparked discussion about the implications of current limitations on crude oil exports for prices, including both world and domestic crude oil and petroleum product prices, and for the level of domestic crude production

  10. Natural Oil Production from Microorganisms: Bioprocess and Microbe Engineering for Total Carbon Utilization in Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen generated from electricity to produce natural oils that can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels. MIT has designed a 2-stage biofuel production system. In the first stage, hydrogen and CO2 are fed to a microorganism capable of converting these feedstocks to a 2-carbon compound called acetate. In the second stage, acetate is delivered to a different microorganism that can use the acetate to grow and produce oil. The oil can be removed from the reactor tank and chemically converted to various hydrocarbons. The electricity for the process could be supplied from novel means currently in development, or more proven methods such as the combustion of municipal waste, which would also generate the required CO2 and enhance the overall efficiency of MIT’s biofuel-production system.

  11. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  12. Charm production in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G. de; Strickland, M.

    2014-11-11

    We discuss the effects of a strong magnetic field on B and D mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and the masses of the bound states. Using the Color Evaporation Model we discuss the possible changes in the production of J/? and ?. We briefly comment the recent experimental data.

  13. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM APPROACH FOR PLAY PORTFOLIOS TO IMPROVE OIL PRODUCTION IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly Seyler; John Grube

    2004-12-10

    Oil and gas have been commercially produced in Illinois for over 100 years. Existing commercial production is from more than fifty-two named pay horizons in Paleozoic rocks ranging in age from Middle Ordovician to Pennsylvanian. Over 3.2 billion barrels of oil have been produced. Recent calculations indicate that remaining mobile resources in the Illinois Basin may be on the order of several billion barrels. Thus, large quantities of oil, potentially recoverable using current technology, remain in Illinois oil fields despite a century of development. Many opportunities for increased production may have been missed due to complex development histories, multiple stacked pays, and commingled production which makes thorough exploitation of pays and the application of secondary or improved/enhanced recovery strategies difficult. Access to data, and the techniques required to evaluate and manage large amounts of diverse data are major barriers to increased production of critical reserves in the Illinois Basin. These constraints are being alleviated by the development of a database access system using a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach for evaluation and identification of underdeveloped pays. The Illinois State Geological Survey has developed a methodology that is being used by industry to identify underdeveloped areas (UDAs) in and around petroleum reservoirs in Illinois using a GIS approach. This project utilizes a statewide oil and gas Oracle{reg_sign} database to develop a series of Oil and Gas Base Maps with well location symbols that are color-coded by producing horizon. Producing horizons are displayed as layers and can be selected as separate or combined layers that can be turned on and off. Map views can be customized to serve individual needs and page size maps can be printed. A core analysis database with over 168,000 entries has been compiled and assimilated into the ISGS Enterprise Oracle database. Maps of wells with core data have been generated. Data from over 1,700 Illinois waterflood units and waterflood areas have been entered into an Access{reg_sign} database. The waterflood area data has also been assimilated into the ISGS Oracle database for mapping and dissemination on the ArcIMS website. Formation depths for the Beech Creek Limestone, Ste. Genevieve Limestone and New Albany Shale in all of the oil producing region of Illinois have been calculated and entered into a digital database. Digital contoured structure maps have been constructed, edited and added to the ILoil website as map layers. This technology/methodology addresses the long-standing constraints related to information access and data management in Illinois by significantly simplifying the laborious process that industry presently must use to identify underdeveloped pay zones in Illinois.

  14. World oil and gas resources-future production realities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Welcome to uncertainty was the phrase Jack Schanz used to introduce both layman and professionals to the maze of petroleum energy data that must be comprehended to achieve understanding of this critical commodity. Schanz was referring to the variables as he and his colleagues with Resources for the Future saw them in those years soon after the energy-awakening oil embargo of 1973. In some respects, the authors have made progress in removing uncertainty from energy data, but in general, we simply must accept that there are many points of view and many ways for the blindman to describe the elephant. There can be definitive listing of all uncertainties, but for this paper the authors try to underscore those traits of petroleum occurrence and supply that the author's believe bear most heavily on the understanding of production and resource availability. Because oil and gas exist in nature under such variable conditions and because the products themselves are variable in their properties, the authors must first recognize classification divisions of the resource substances, so that the reader might always have a clear perception of just what we are talking about and how it relates to other components of the commodity in question.

  15. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Provides and overview of ...

  16. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Terriary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    1998-04-08

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO -) 2 flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. Two activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of productive carbonate buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) diagenetic characterization of project field reservoirs, and (2) technology transfer.

  17. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  18. Non-OPEC oil production set to decline for the first time since...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    time since 2008 Total oil production from countries outside of OPEC, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, is expected to decline next year for the first time ...

  19. Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Gulf of Mexico Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    This is a special analysis report on hurricanes and their effects on oil and natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico region.

  20. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.

  1. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen rangedmore » from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.« less

  2. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

  3. Habitat of oil in the Lindsborg field, Salina basin, north-central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The Lindsborg field was discovered in 1938, and is now 14 mi in length and 1-2 mi in width. It has a projected ultimate recovery of 16 MMBO. Three pay zones (5-20 ft thick) produce in the field. The Simpson pay zone (Middle Ordovician) is a well-rounded, quartzitic sandstone that is interpreted to be a paralic, high-energy shelf deposit. The Viola pay (Middle Ordovician) appears to be a dolomitic, lime grainstone but no cores are available to confirm this. The uppermost pay zone, the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa, is a finely laminated, vuggy, cherry dolomite interpreted to have been deposited as a subtidal lime mudstone in a restricted lagoon. The Simpson and Viola pays are structurally trapped in culminations along the crest of the Lindsborg anticline. Although the Maquoketa pay is structurally trapped with the other pay zones in the southern half of the field, its locus of production in the north half of the fields extends 100 ft vertically down the western flank of the anticline. The trapping mechanism is unclear due to lack of core control and modern logging suites, but it may be subtle updip diagenetic change from vuggy to nonvuggy dolomite. The Simpson and Maquoketa oils are geochemically distinct. Both may reflect efficient local source-to-reservoir migration from originally rich but marginally mature Ordovician and Devonian shales that contact each pay zone. If oil in the Lindsborg field is locally generated, the prospectivity of the relatively unproductive and underexplored Salina basin may be enhanced.

  4. On-farm production of soybean oil and its properties as a fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents the design of a system for on-farm production of soybean oil for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. The soybean oil production system consists of a heat exchanger to heat the beans with the exhaust gas of an engine, a screw press and a system for water degumming and drying the expressed crude oil. Optimum parameters of the oil production system were found. The rheological properties of soybean oil, ester of soybean oil and blends of the above with diesel fuel and diesel fuel additives are given. Data on soybean temperature, outlet gas temperature and thermal efficiency were obtained from a developed mathematical model of the heat exchanger. Chemical analyses show that crude oil from the press is similar to that of commercially degummed oil. The degumming process is not needed for the crude oil to be used as a fuel in compression ignition engines. Rheological properties of the soybean oil and soybean oil diesel fuel mixture show that the fluids have viscosities of time independent characteristics and are Newtonian fluids. Diesel fuel additives having low viscosities can be used to lower the viscosity of soybean oil and blends with diesel fuel but the effect is insignificant.

  5. Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate ... Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur ...

  6. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.

  7. Field performance of a laser fluorosensor for the detection of oil spills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neil, R.A.; Buja-Bijunas, L.; Rayner, D.M.

    1980-03-15

    An airborne laser fluorosensor is described that was designed to detect and identify targets by means of the characteristic fluorescence emission spectrum. The first field trials of the sensor over marine oil and dye spills are reported. A correlation technique has been developed that, when applied to the data collected during these field trials, clearly differentiated among dye, the two crude oils, and the general fluorescence background of ocean water.

  8. Crude oil and alternate energy production forecasts for the twenty-first century: The end of the hydrocarbon era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    Predictions of production rates and ultimate recovery of crude oil are needed for intelligent planning and timely action to ensure the continuous flow of energy required by the world`s increasing population and expanding economies. Crude oil will be able to supply increasing demand until peak world production is reached. The energy gap caused by declining conventional oil production must then be filled by expanding production of coal, heavy oil and oil shales, nuclear and hydroelectric power, and renewable energy sources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Declining oil production forecasts are based on current estimated ultimate recoverable conventional crude oil resources of 329 billion barrels for the United States and close to 3 trillion barrels for the world. Peak world crude oil production is forecast to occur in 2020 at 90 million barrels per day. Conventional crude oil production in the United States is forecast to terminate by about 2090, and world production will be close to exhaustion by 2100.

  9. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  10. U.S. crude oil production expected to top 9 million barrels per...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said domestic crude oil production should average 9.3 million barrels per day in 2015. On-shore production in the ...

  11. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  12. Fiber optic penetrator for offshore oil well exploration and production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, J.C.; Warner, C.P.; Henkener, J.A.; Glauser, R.

    1986-07-01

    A fiber optic penetrator arrangement is described for an undersea wall structure of offshore oil well production apparatus, comprising: a. a generally cylindrical housing; b. a cofferdam associated with the undersea production apparatus and defining a generally cylindrical entrance port into which the penetrator is designed to be inserted and mounted; c. a sealing means for sealing the penetrator relative to the entrance port after insertion of the penetrator therein; d. an external bulkhead; e. a second bulkhead positioned internally of the external bulkead; f. a compression spring normally retaining the second bulkhead in a sealed position with the penetrator, the compressing spring being compressed between the second bulkhead and the external bulkhead; g. a breakaway connection affixed to the external bulkhead for coupling an optical fiber transmission cable to the external bulkhead, such that if the transmission cable is snagged or pulled, the external bulkhead will sever along with the breakaway connection so that the penetrator is not pulled from the cofferdam entrance port, the second bulkhead being held in position by ambient water pressure to become the primary bulkhead after the external bulkhead is severed.

  13. Oil and gas production in the Amu Dar`ya Basin of Western Uzbekistan and Eastern Turkmenistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    The resource base, development history, current output, and future outlook for oil and gas production in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are examined by a Western specialist with particular emphasis on the most important gas-oil province in the region, the Amu Dar`ya basin. Oil and gas have been produced in both newly independent countries for over a century, but production from the Amu Dar`ya province proper dates from the post-World War II period. Since that time, however, fields in the basin have provided the basis for a substantial natural gas industry (Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan consistently have trailed only Russia among the former Soviet republics in gas output during the last three decades). Despite high levels of current production, ample oil and gas potential (Turkmenistan, for example, ranks among the top five or six countries in the world in terms of gas reserves) contributes to the region`s prominence as an attractive area for Western investors. The paper reviews the history and status of several international tenders for the development of both gas and oil in the two republics. Sections on recent gas production trends and future outlook reveal considerable differences in consumption patterns and export potential in the region. Uzbekistan consumes most of the gas it produces, whereas Turkmenistan, with larger reserves and a smaller population, exported well over 85% of its output over recent years and appears poised to become a major exporter. A concluding section examines the conditions that will affect these countries` presence on world oil and gas markets over the longer term: reserves, domestic consumption, transportation bottlenecks, the likelihood of foreign investment, and future oil and gas demand. 33 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was determined to be equivalent to the pay sandstone within the Gordon reservoir. Three-dimensional models of the electrofacies in the pilot waterflood showed that electrofacies 4 is present throughout this area, and the other electrofacies are more disconnected. A three-layer, back-propagation artificial neural network with three slabs in the middle layer can be used to predict permeability and porosity from gamma ray and bulk density logs, the first and the second derivatives of the log data with respect to depth, well location, and log baselines. Two flow units were defined based on the stratigraphic model and geophysical logs. A three-dimensional reservoir model including the flow units, values of permeability calculated through the artificial neural network and injection pressure-rate information were then used as inputs for a reservoir simulator to predict oil production performance for the center producers in the pilot area. This description of the reservoir provided significantly better simulation results than earlier results obtained using simple reservoir models. Bulk density and gamma ray logs were used to identify flow units throughout the field. As predicted by the stratigraphic analysis, one of the flow units crosses stratigraphic units in the reservoir. A neural network was used to predict permeability values for each flow unit in producer and injection wells. The reservoir simulator was utilized to predict the performance of two flood patterns located to the north of the pilot area. Considering the simple model utilized for simulation, the results are in very good agreement with the field history.

  15. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2009 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The oil prices reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO) represent the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil in 2007 dollars. Projections of future supply and demand are made for "liquids," a term used to refer to those liquids that after processing and refining can be used interchangeably with petroleum products. In AEO2009, liquids include conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil and natural gas plant liquids -- in addition to unconventional liquids, such as biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  16. Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department works to ensure domestic and global oil supplies are environmentally sustainable and invests in research and technology to make oil drilling cleaner and more efficient.

  17. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-02-06

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  18. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-11-02

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  19. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, S.

    1993-03-01

    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO[sub 2] flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  20. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, S.

    1993-03-01

    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO{sub 2} flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  1. Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umekwe, Pascal; Mongrain, Joanna; Ahmadi, Mohabbat; Hanks, Catherine

    2013-03-15

    The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

  2. U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Notes: Crude oil includes imports for storage in the Stategic Petroleum Reserve. Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. See Definitions, Sources, and ...

  3. Active hurricane season expected to shut-in higher amount of oil and natural gas production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Active hurricane season expected to shut-in higher amount of oil and natural gas production An above-normal 2013 hurricane season is expected to cause a median production loss of about 19 million barrels of U.S. crude oil and 46 billion cubic feet of natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. That's about one-third more than the amount of oil and gas production knocked offline during last year's hurricane season.

  4. A review of the Arun field gas production/cycling and LNG export project. [Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alford, M.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Arun field was discovered by Mobil Oil Indonesia Inc. in late 1971 in its Bee block in the Aceh province on the north coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Mobil's operations in this area are conducted under the terms of a production sharing agreement with Pertamina, the Indonesian state-owned oil and gas enterprise. The scope of operations covered by this paper is from production of gas and raw condensate in the field through stabilization and export of condensate and purification, liquefaction, and export of gas at the LNG plant at Blang Lancang, near Lho Seumawe (Sumatra) Indonesia. Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc. is the field operator and P.T. Arun NGL Company operates the pipelines and LNG plant facilities. All the facilities which will be described are owned by Pertamina; P.T. Arun is owned by Pertamina, Mobil Oil Indonesia, and Japan Indonesia LNG company (JILCO). JILCO represents the five (5) original Japanese LNG purchasers. Brief descriptions are included of the geology, reservoir geometry, well producing characteristics, field producing and cycling facilities, and the treating, liquefaction and export facilities.

  5. 9000 wells planned for heavy oil field. [Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Beginning in 1983, Esso Resources Canada Ltd. will begin drilling the first of an estimated 9000 directional crude bitumen wells in the tar sands at Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada, the final wells being drilled in the year 2008. The area, covering 50 sq miles of extreme E. Alberta along the Saskatchewan border, contains one of the richest deposits of heavy oil sands in Canada. The company and future partners will drill the bitumen wells directionally into the shallow clearwater formation, which can be reached at approx. 100 m (330 ft). The formation contains an estimated 80 billion bbl of crude bitumen at a rate of 60,000 bpd for 25 yr. This volume of crude will be refined in an upgrading plant to 140,000 bpd of synthetic crude oil. When completed, the Cold Lake project will be one of the largest facilities for producing crude bitumen from wells in the world.

  6. Laboratory studies of oil spill behavior in broken ice fields. Final report Nov 80-Nov 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Free, A.P.; Cox, J.C.; Schultz, L.A.

    1981-10-01

    This study examined the short-term behavior of oil spilled in or near a field of broken ice. The mechanics of oil seeping through the spaces between the ice blocks were examined, both on the level of a single straight gap and on the level of a random broken ice field, through experiments performed in ARCTEC, Incorporated's Ice Flume. The spreading of oil due to movement of the ice pack is discussed. The effects of the environment in the spill area, especially currents and winds, are taken into account throughout the study. The report gives information which permits the determination of the one-dimensional spread rate of oil spilled in a broken ice field, such as might be encountered in a natural lead or in a ship channel. The results are presented as a set of recommendations for use in oil spill response planning or for use by on-site response personnel in predicting the behavior of oil spilled in broken ice fields.

  7. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY FROM UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER CARBONATES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AT WOMACK HILL OIL FIELD, CHOCTAW AND CLARKE COUNTIES, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-05-20

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates are undertaking a focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling and an integrated field demonstration project at Womack Hill Oil Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The principal research efforts for Year 3 of the project have been recovery technology analysis and recovery technology evaluation. The research focus has primarily been on well test analysis, 3-D reservoir simulation, microbial core experiments, and the decision to acquire new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field area. Although Geoscientific Reservoir Characterization and 3-D Geologic Modeling have been completed and Petrophysical and Engineering Characterization and Microbial Characterization are essentially on schedule, a no-cost extension until September 30, 2003, has been granted by DOE so that new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field can be acquired and interpreted to assist in the determination as to whether Phase II of the project should be implemented.

  8. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

  9. SMOOTH OIL & GAS FIELD OUTLINES MADE FROM BUFFERED WELLS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... ' put the name of the field being processed in the caption, that ' way if there is a crash, we can select that field and ' step through the program and debug it more easily. ...

  10. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 2. Analysis Discussion Resource Assessment The USGS most recent assessment of oil and gas resources of ANWR Coastal Plain (The Oil and Gas Resource Potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 Area, Alaska, Open File Report 98-34, 1999) provided basic information used in this study. A prior assessment was completed in 1987 by the USGS.

  11. U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 141 2010's 124 481 55 191 164 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate New Field Discove

  12. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  13. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiedemann, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

  14. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

  15. Natural Gas Production and U.S. Oil Imports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Production and U.S. Oil Imports Natural Gas Production and U.S. Oil Imports January 26, 2012 - 11:14am Addthis Matthew Loveless Matthew Loveless Data Integration Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Over the next 33 years, the Energy Information Administration expect domestic natural gas production to increase to 28 trillion cubic feet per year, contributing to a decline in U.S. reliance on imported crude oil. During the State of the Union speech Tuesday

  16. West Coast (PADD 5) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed.

  17. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

  18. EIS-0016: Cumulative Production/Consumption Effects of the Crude Oil Price Incentive Rulemakings, Programmatic

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this Final Statement to FEA-FES-77-7 to assess the environmental and socioeconomic implications of a rulemaking on crude oil pricing incentives as pertains to the full range of oil production technologies (present as well as anticipated.)

  19. Pampo, Linguado, and Badejo Fields: Their discoveries, appraisals, and early production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tigre, C.A.; Possato, S.

    1983-05-01

    The three oil fields Pampo, Linguado and Badejo are located in the southwesternmost known producing areas of the offshore Brazilian Campos Basin. They were discovered as a result of reflection seismic survey and produce from fractured lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) basalts, coquinas of the Aptian Lagoa Feia Formation, carbonates of the Albian Macae Formation and from Eocene sandstones of the Carapebus Member of the Campos Formation. This work describes the prospects, their results, the main reservoirs, correlations, continuity and diagenetic problems. Two early production systems are in operation engaged in gathering a better knowledge of the fields for the planning of a definitive production system.

  20. Common Products Made from Oil and Natural Gas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Educational poster developed by the Office of Fossil Energy that graphically displays items that are made from oil and gas. Appropriate for teachers and students in K-8th grade.

  1. Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  2. U.S. oil production expected to decline over next year, rebounding...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said U.S. crude oil production which averaged 9.4 million barrels per day during the first half of this year is ...

  3. U.S. crude oil production expected to top 9 million barrels per...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In its new short-term forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said monthly average oil production is on track to surpass 9 million barrels per day in December for the ...

  4. U.S. Crude Oil Production Forecast-Analysis of Crude Types

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | U.S. Crude Oil Production Forecast-Analysis of Crude Types i This report was prepared by the U.S....

  5. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    shut-ins The government's weather experts are predicting a relatively mild hurricane season, but U.S. oil and natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico could still be disrupted. ...

  6. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    high of 9.6 million barrels per day set in 1970. Most of the oil production growth will come from increased drilling in the shale formations in North Dakota, Texas and New Mexico. ...

  7. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    barrels per day for the first time since 1988 Estimated U.S. crude oil production in November topped 8 million barrels per day for the first time in 25 years, according to the ...

  8. Fact #578: July 6, 2009 World Oil Reserves, Production, and Consumption, 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The United States was responsible for 8% of the world's petroleum production, held 2% of the world's crude oil reserves, and consumed 24% of the world's petroleum consumption in 2007. The...

  9. Large-Scale Pyrolysis Oil Production: A Technology Assessment and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringer, M.; Putsche, V.; Scahill, J.

    2006-11-01

    A broad perspective of pyrolysis technology as it relates to converting biomass substrates to a liquid bio-oil product and a detailed technical and economic assessment of a fast pyrolysis plant.

  10. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Schamel

    1998-02-27

    A previously idle portion of the Midway-Sunset field, the ARCO Western Energy Pru Fee property, is being brought back into commercial production through tight integration of geologic characterization, geostatistical modeling, reservoir simulation, and petroleum engineering. This property, shut-in over a decade ago as economically marginal using conventional cyclic steaming methods, has a 200-300 foot thick oil column in the Monarch Sand. However, the sand lacks effective steam barriers and has a thick water-saturation zone above the oil-water contact. These factors require an innovative approach to steam flood production design that will balance optimal total oil production against economically viable steam-oil ratios and production rates. The methods used in the Class III demonstration are accessible to most operators in the Midway-Sunset field and could be used to revitalize properties with declining production of heavy oils throughout the region. In January 1997 the project entered its second and main phase with the purpose of demonstrating whether steamflood can be a more effective mode of production of the heavy, viscous oils from the Monarch Sand reservoir than the more conventional cyclic steaming. The objective is not just to produce the pilot site within the Pru Fee property south of Taft, but to test which production parameters optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  11. U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Million Barrels) U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 95 2010's 169 88 129 343 219 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus

  12. PERCENT FEDERAL LAND FOR OIL/GAS FIELD OUTLINES

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The VBA code below calculates the area percent of a first polygon layer (e.g. oilgas field outlines) that are within a second polygon layer (e.g. federal land) and writes out the ...

  13. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by Area of Entry Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel

  14. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Executive Summary This Service Report, Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment, was prepared for the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources at the request of Chairman Frank H. Murkowski in a letter dated March 10, 2000. The request asked the Energy Information

  15. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment References Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2000, DOE/EIA-0383(2000) (Washington, DC, December 1999), Table A11. Energy Information Administration, Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, SR/RNGD/87-01 (Washington, DC, September 1987). U.S. Department of Interior, Arctic National

  16. EIA-914 Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report Revision Policy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-914 Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report Revision Policy December 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | EIA-94 Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report Methodology i This revision policy was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of

  17. EIA-914 Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Naturall Gas Production Report Methodology

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-914 Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report Methodology May 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | EIA-94 Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report Methodology i This methodology was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law,

  18. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  19. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-12-31

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance, multiwell productivity analysis, and reservoir simulation studies indicate that water injection continues to provide stable support to maintain production from wells in the western unitized area of the field and that the strong water drive present in the eastern area of the field is adequate to sustain production from this part of the field. Although the results from the microbial characterization and microbial core experiments are very promising, it is recommended that an immobilized enzyme technology project not be implemented in the Womack Hill Field Unit until live (freshly taken and properly preserved) cores from the Smackover reservoir in the field are acquired to confirm the microbial core experiments to date. From 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation, four areas in the Womack Hill Field were identified as prospective infill drilling sites to recover undrained oil from the field. It was determined that the two areas in the unit area probably can be effectively drained by perforating higher zones in the Smackover reservoir in currently producing wells. The two areas in the eastern (non-unitized) part of the field require the drilling of new wells. The successful drilling and testing of a well in 2003 by J. R. Pounds, Inc. has proven the oil potential of the easternmost site in the non-unitized part of the field. Pruet Production Co. acquired new 2-D seismic data to evaluate the oil potential of the westernmost site. Because of the effects of a fault shadow from the major fault bounding the southern border of the Womack Hill Field, it is difficult to evaluate conclusively this potential drill site. Pruet Production Co. has decided not to drill this new well at this time and to further evaluate the new 2-D seismic profiles after these data have been processed using a pre-stack migration technique. Pruet Production Co. has elected not to continue into Phase II of this project because they are not prepared to make a proposal to the other mineral interest owners regarding the drilling of new wells as part of an infill drilling program at this time. Pruet is integrating the reservoir characterization, 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation results of the project into their field-scale reservoir management strategy for the Womack Hill Field to improve field operations.

  20. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Costal Plain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-05-31

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance, multiwell productivity analysis, and reservoir simulation studies indicate that water injection continues to provide stable support to maintain production from wells in the western unitized area of the field and that the strong water drive present in the eastern area of the field is adequate to sustain production from this part of the field. Although the results from the microbial characterization and microbial core experiments are very promising, it is recommended that an immobilized enzyme technology project not be implemented in the Womack Hill Field Unit until live (freshly taken and properly preserved) cores from the Smackover reservoir in the field are acquired to confirm the microbial core experiments to date. From 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation, four areas in the Womack Hill Field were identified as prospective infill drilling sites to recover undrained oil from the field. It was determined that the two areas in the unit area probably can be effectively drained by perforating higher zones in the Smackover reservoir in currently producing wells. The two areas in the eastern (non-unitized) part of the field require the drilling of new wells. The successful drilling and testing of a well in 2003 by J. R. Pounds, Inc. has proven the oil potential of the easternmost site in the non-unitized part of the field. Pruet Production Co. acquired new 2-D seismic data to evaluate the oil potential of the westernmost site. Because of the effects of a fault shadow from the major fault bounding the southern border of the Womack Hill Field, it is difficult to evaluate conclusively this potential drill site. Pruet Production Co. has decided not to drill this new well at this time and to further evaluate the new 2-D seismic profiles after these data have been processed using a pre-stack migration technique. Pruet Production Co. has elected not to continue into Phase II of this project because they are not prepared to make a proposal to the other mineral interest owners regarding the drilling of new wells as part of an infill drilling program at this time. Pruet is integrating the reservoir characterization, 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation results of the project into their field-scale reservoir management strategy for the Womack Hill Field to improve field operations.

  1. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  2. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  3. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate gels that were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels maintained gel integrity in linear corefloods after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution at 125 F. At 175 F, Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels were not stable either with or without subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl more oil than only water injection.

  4. Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha

  5. Midwest (PADD 2) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur

  6. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31%

  7. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31

  8. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31%

  9. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31

  10. Midwest (PADD 2) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur

  11. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  12. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  13. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

    2001-12-17

    The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  14. Oil production by entrained pyrolysis of biomass and processing of oil and char

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, James A.; Gorton, Charles W.

    1990-01-02

    Entrained pyrolysis of lignocellulosic material proceeds from a controlled pyrolysis-initiating temperature to completion of an oxygen free environment at atmospheric pressure and controlled residence time to provide a high yield recovery of pyrolysis oil together with char and non-condensable, combustible gases. The residence time is a function of gas flow rate and the initiating temperature is likewise a function of the gas flow rate, varying therewith. A controlled initiating temperature range of about 400.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. with corresponding gas flow rates to maximize oil yield is disclosed.

  15. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAM JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-08-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps.

  16. Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil WTI - Cushing, Oklahoma 31.32 34.43 37.69 38.32 39.18 36.82 1986-2016 Brent - Europe 33.12 36.28 39.30 38.50 39.19 37.0 1987-2016 Conventional Gasoline New York Harbor, ...

  17. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-11-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines (RFG) are estimated. Both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components are included. The effects on energy and crude oil use of using various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis illustrates that production of RFG requires more total energy than that of conventional gasoline but uses less crude oil. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than RFG with MTBE or ETBE. A specific proposal by the EPA designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over that for the base RFG with MTBE.

  18. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-10-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasoline (RFG) are estimated. The scope of the study includes both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components. The effects on energy and crude oil use of employing various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen-content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis shows that production of RFG requires more total energy, but uses less crude oil, than that of conventional gasoline. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than does RFG with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tertiary butyl ether. A specific proposal by the US Environmental Protection Agency, designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG, would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over the corresponding values for the base RFG with MTBE.

  19. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  20. World heavy oil and bitumen riches - update 1983: Part two, production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-08

    Despite world recession, overabundance of conventional oil and light product supplies, softer oil prices, and certain important reversals in development policies, worldwide production of heavy and extra-heavy crude oil increased 11.3% in 1982 compared to 1981; latest 1983 data confirm this trend. For the top ten heavy-oil-producing nations, the increase was 17.7% over the same period, mainly due to increases in Venezuela, Mexico, and Nigeria. In 1981, world heavy and extra-heavy crude production was 6.1% of world conventional oil production; in 1982 it increased to 7.2%. Bitumen production in Canada, the only country with 1982 production figures, increased 46% over 1981. It is probable that further technological advances and experimentation in other countries, including the Soviet Union, have resulted in other bitumen production increases as well. Although multinational cooperation in research for extraction, upgrading, and transportation of heavy crudes and bitumens has not grown to the extent that many industry experts had hoped, several broad areas of cooperation stand supported and many of them have been strengthened. Such progress in the face of economic and political uncertainties are demonstrations of world leadership for the next petroleum age. This issue presents the Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for June 1983 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  1. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  2. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  3. Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, G.L.; Suchanek, A.

    1996-12-01

    As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

  4. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama -- Year 2. Annual report, March 1997--March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.

    1998-09-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and has produced oil from fractured chalk of the Cretaceous Selma Group and glauconitic sandstone of the Eutaw Formation. Nearly all of Gilbertown Field is still in primary recovery, although waterflooding has been attempted locally. The objective of this project is to analyze the geologic structure and burial history of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas in order to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. Indeed, the decline of oil production to marginally economic levels in recent years has made this type of analysis timely and practical. Key technical advancements being sought include understanding the relationship of requisite strain to production in Gilbertown reservoirs, incorporation of synsedimentary growth factors into models of area balance, quantification of the relationship between requisite strain and bed curvature, determination of the timing of hydrocarbon generation, and identification of the avenues and mechanisms of fluid transport.

  5. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Field Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Plant Field Production" "Sourcekey","MNGFPUS1","MPPFPUS1","MLPFPUS1","METFPUS1","MPRFPUS1","MBNFPUS1","MBIFPUS1" "Date","U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids ...

  6. ,"Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  7. Conformal field theories at nonzero temperature: Operator product...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nonzero temperature: Operator product expansions, Monte Carlo, and holography Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conformal field theories at nonzero temperature: Operator ...

  8. West Coast (PADD 5) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reformulated Gasoline Blend. Comp. Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas

  9. Economics of on-farm production and use of vegetable oils for fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, C.S.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of oilseed processing, on a small scale, is much simpler than that for ethanol production. This, coupled with the fact that most energy intensive farm operations use diesel powered equipment, has created substantial interest in vegetable oils as an alternative source of liquid fuel for agriculture. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on gross margins resulting from vegetable oil production and utilization in two case study areas, Latah and Power Counties, in Iadho. The results indicate that winter rape oil became a feasible alternative to diesel when the price of diesel reached $0.84 per liter in the Latah County model. A diesel price of $0.85 per liter was required in the Power County model before it became feasible to produce sunflower oil for fuel. 5 tables.

  10. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2008 (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO) defines the world oil price as the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil delivered in Cushing, Oklahoma. Since 2003, both "above ground" and "below ground" factors have contributed to a sustained rise in nominal world oil prices, from $31 per barrel in 2003 to $69 per barrel in 2007. The AEO2008 reference case outlook for world oil prices is higher than in the AEO2007 reference case. The main reasons for the adoption of a higher reference case price outlook include continued significant expansion of world demand for liquids, particularly in non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, which include China and India; the rising costs of conventional non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) supply and unconventional liquids production; limited growth in non-OPEC supplies despite higher oil prices; and the inability or unwillingness of OPEC member countries to increase conventional crude oil production to levels that would be required for maintaining price stability. The Energy Information Administration will continue to monitor world oil price trends and may need to make further adjustments in future AEOs.

  11. Western states enhanced oil shale recovery program: Shale oil production facilities conceptual design studies report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This report analyzes the economics of producing syncrude from oil shale combining underground and surface processing using Occidental's Modified-In-Situ (MIS) technology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hot Recycled Solids (HRS) retort. These retorts form the basic technology employed for oil extraction from oil shale in this study. Results are presented for both Commercial and Pre-commercial programs. Also analyzed are Pre-commercialization cost of Demonstration and Pilot programs which will confirm the HRS and MIS concepts and their mechanical designs. These programs will provide experience with the circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), the MIS retort, the HRS retort and establish environmental control parameters. Four cases are considered: commercial size plant, demonstration size plant, demonstration size plant minimum CFBC, and a pilot size plant. Budget cost estimates and schedules are determined. Process flow schemes and basic heat and material balances are determined for the HRS system. Results consist of summaries of major equipment sizes, capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates and economic analyses. 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  12. The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Daniel, J. [Lafarge Corp., Alpena, MI (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

  13. Fluid and Rock Property Controls On Production And Seismic Monitoring Alaska Heavy Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liberatore, Matthew; Herring, Andy; Prasad, Manika; Dorgan, John; Batzle, Mike

    2012-10-30

    The goal of this project is to improve recovery of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) heavy oil resources in the Ugnu formation by improving our understanding of the formation's vertical and lateral heterogeneities via core evaluation, evaluating possible recovery processes, and employing geophysical monitoring to assess production and modify production operations.

  14. Application of turbidite facies of the Stevens Oil Zone for reservoir management, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; Thompson, T.W.; McJannet, G.S.

    1996-12-31

    A detailed depositional model for the uppermost sand reservoirs of the Stevens Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, California, contains three facies: turbidite channel-fill sand bodies, overbank Sandstone and mudstone, and pelagic and hemipelagic siliceous shale. Sand bodies are the primary producing facies and consist of layered, graded sandstone with good permeability. The presence of incipient anticlines with subsea relief in the late Miocene resulted in deposition of lenticular and sinuous sand Was within structurally created channels. Relief of these structural channels was low when the earliest sand bodies were deposited, leading to a wide channel complex bounded by broad overbank deposits of moderate to low permeability. As deposition proceeded, increased structural relief constrained the channels, resulting in narrower sand body width and relatively abrupt channel terminations against very low permeability siliceous shale. With post-Miocene uplift and differential compaction, stratigraphic mounding of sand bodies helped create structural domes such as the 24Z reservoir. Stratigraphic traps including the 26R reservoir were also created. Such traps vary in seal quality from very effective to leaky, depending on the lateral transition from sand bodies to siliceous shale. Application of the Elk Hills turbidity model (1) provides a framework for monitoring production performance in the 24Z and Northwest Stevens waterflood projects; and for tracking gas migration into and out of the 26R reservoir, (2) helps b identify undeveloped locations in the 26R reservoir ideally suited for horizontal wells, (3) has led to the identification of two new production trends in the 29R area, and (4) makes possible the development of exploration plays in western Elk Hills.

  15. Application of turbidite facies of the Stevens Oil Zone for reservoir management, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; Thompson, T.W. ); McJannet, G.S. )

    1996-01-01

    A detailed depositional model for the uppermost sand reservoirs of the Stevens Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, California, contains three facies: turbidite channel-fill sand bodies, overbank Sandstone and mudstone, and pelagic and hemipelagic siliceous shale. Sand bodies are the primary producing facies and consist of layered, graded sandstone with good permeability. The presence of incipient anticlines with subsea relief in the late Miocene resulted in deposition of lenticular and sinuous sand Was within structurally created channels. Relief of these structural channels was low when the earliest sand bodies were deposited, leading to a wide channel complex bounded by broad overbank deposits of moderate to low permeability. As deposition proceeded, increased structural relief constrained the channels, resulting in narrower sand body width and relatively abrupt channel terminations against very low permeability siliceous shale. With post-Miocene uplift and differential compaction, stratigraphic mounding of sand bodies helped create structural domes such as the 24Z reservoir. Stratigraphic traps including the 26R reservoir were also created. Such traps vary in seal quality from very effective to leaky, depending on the lateral transition from sand bodies to siliceous shale. Application of the Elk Hills turbidity model (1) provides a framework for monitoring production performance in the 24Z and Northwest Stevens waterflood projects; and for tracking gas migration into and out of the 26R reservoir, (2) helps b identify undeveloped locations in the 26R reservoir ideally suited for horizontal wells, (3) has led to the identification of two new production trends in the 29R area, and (4) makes possible the development of exploration plays in western Elk Hills.

  16. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    365 29 3,734 1,930 3,700 8 55 3,685 284 5,743 Crude Oil 47 - - - - 875 395 5 91 1,093 139 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 318 0 9 83 -19 - - -49 44 35 361 Pentanes Plus 35 0 - - - 0 - - 1 7 1 24 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 283 - - 9 83 -18 - - -50 36 34 337 Ethane/Ethylene 111 - - 0 - -118 - - 6 - - -12 Propane/Propylene 118 - - 33 79 100 - - -52 - 30 352 Normal Butane/Butylene 37 - - -23 1 0 - - -4 23 4 -8 Isobutane/Isobutylene 17 - - -1 3 0 - - 1 14 0 5 Other Liquids - -

  17. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,519 948 4,459 2,809 -864 -155 -6 4,234 463 5,025 Crude Oil 1,756 - - - - 2,675 -476 -195 78 3,627 55 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 763 -20 59 103 -130 - - -173 104 297 547 Pentanes Plus 87 -20 - - 0 126 - - 16 11 214 -47 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 676 - - 59 103 -257 - - -189 93 83 594 Ethane/Ethylene 213 - - - - -75 - - -1 - 76 64 Propane/Propylene 306 - - 113 89 -130 - - -101 - 3 475 Normal Butane/Butylene 108 - - -53 8 -59 - - -86 44 5 42 Isobutane/Isobutylene 49 -

  18. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,033 13 625 311 -624 -4 18 593 10 733 Crude Oil 686 - - - - 292 -387 -11 4 575 0 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 347 0 12 15 -243 - - -3 19 7 107 Pentanes Plus 55 0 - - - -39 - - -1 5 5 7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 292 - - 12 15 -205 - - -2 15 2 100 Ethane/Ethylene 83 - - - - -50 - - 0 - - 33 Propane/Propylene 133 - - 8 14 -96 - - -1 - - 61 Normal Butane/Butylene 52 - - 3 - -37 - - -3 7 2 11 Isobutane/Isobutylene 23 - - 1 1 -22 - - 1 7 - -6 Other Liquids - - 14 - - 2 7

  19. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,144 20 3,034 1,322 534 10 -90 2,858 384 2,914 Crude Oil 1,074 - - - - 1,113 129 -26 10 2,279 - 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 71 0 15 8 - - - -27 81 37 3 Pentanes Plus 34 0 - - - - - - 0 29 0 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 37 - - 15 8 - - - -27 52 37 -2 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 12 - - 40 8 - - - -7 - 32 35 Normal Butane/Butylene 14 - - -29 - - - - -23 32 4 -29 Isobutane/Isobutylene 11 - - 4 - - - - 3 20 - -7 Other Liquids - - 21 - - 119

  20. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,070 15 662 340 -715 -21 10 637 18 686 Crude Oil 746 - - - - 326 -425 -28 9 602 8 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 323 0 13 10 -297 - - 1 20 7 21 Pentanes Plus 55 0 - - - -45 - - 0 6 5 -1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 268 - - 13 10 -252 - - 1 14 2 22 Ethane/Ethylene 77 - - - - -76 - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 122 - - 9 9 -110 - - 0 - 0 29 Normal Butane/Butylene 50 - - 3 0 -40 - - 1 7 2 5 Isobutane/Isobutylene 19 - - 0 1 -25 - - 0 7 0 -13 Other Liquids - - 15 - - 1 16 -12 1

  1. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Riley; John Wicks; Christopher Perry

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian 'Clinton' sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test ('Huff-n-Puff') was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a 'Clinton'-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day 'soak' period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the 'Clinton' sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test; (C) there was a subsequent, gradual flashout of the CO2 within the reservoir during the ensuing monitored production period; and (D) a large amount of CO2 continually off-gassed from wellhead oil samples collected as late as 3 1/2 months after injection. After the test well was returned to production, it produced 174 bbl of oil during a 60-day period (September 22 to November 21, 2008), which represents an estimated 58 percent increase in incremental oil production over preinjection estimates of production under normal, conditions. The geologic model was used in a reservoir simulation model for a 700-acre model area and to design a pilot to test the model. The model was designed to achieve a 1-year response time and a five-year simulation period. The reservoir simulation modeling indicated that the injection wells could enhance oil production and lead to an additional 20 percent recovery in the pilot area over a five-year period. The base case estimated that by injecting 500 MCF per day of CO2 into each of the four corner wells, 26,000 STBO would be produced by the central producer over the five-year period. This would compare to 3,000 STBO if a new well were drilled without the benefit of CO2 injection. This study has added significant knowledge to the reservoir characterization of the 'Clinton' in the ECOF and succeeded in identifying a range on CO2-EOR potential. However, additional data on fluid properties (PVT and swelling test), fractures (oriented core and microseis), and reservoir characteristics (relative permeability, capillary pressure, and wet ability) are needed to further narrow the uncertainties and refine the reservoir model and simulation. After collection of this data and refinement of the model and simulation, it is recommended that a larger scale cyclic-CO2 injection test be conducted to better determine the efficacy of CO2-EOR in the 'Clinton' reservoir in the ECOF.

  2. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Ronald; Wicks, John; Perry, Christopher

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian Clinton sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test (Huff-n-Puff) was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a Clinton-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day soak period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the Clinton sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test; (C) there was a subsequent, gradual flashout of the CO2 within the reservoir during the ensuing monitored production period; and (D) a large amount of CO2 continually off-gassed from wellhead oil samples collected as late as 3 months after injection. After the test well was returned to production, it produced 174 bbl of oil during a 60-day period (September 22 to November 21, 2008), which represents an estimated 58 percent increase in incremental oil production over preinjection estimates of production under normal, conditions. The geologic model was used in a reservoir simulation model for a 700-acre model area and to design a pilot to test the model. The model was designed to achieve a 1-year response time and a five-year simulation period. The reservoir simulation modeling indicated that the injection wells could enhance oil production and lead to an additional 20 percent recovery in the pilot area over a five-year period. The base case estimated that by injecting 500 MCF per day of CO2 into each of the four corner wells, 26,000 STBO would be produced by the central producer over the five-year period. This would compare to 3,000 STBO if a new well were drilled without the benefit of CO2 injection. This study has added significant knowledge to the reservoir characterization of the Clinton in the ECOF and succeeded in identifying a range on CO2-EOR potential. However, additional data on fluid properties (PVT and swelling test), fractures (oriented core and microseis), and reservoir characteristics (relative permeability, capillary pressure, and wet ability) are needed to further narrow the uncertainties and refine the reservoir model and simulation. After collection of this data and refinement of the model and simulation, it is recommended that a larger scale cyclic- CO2 injection test be conducted to better determine the efficacy of CO2-EOR in the Clinton reservoir in the ECOF.

  3. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Daily Petroleum Production Rate: The amount of petroleum extracted per day from a well, group of wells, region, etc. (usually expressed in barrels per day) EIA: Energy Information ...

  4. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Environmental considerations and the possibility of drilling restrictions would directly impact the time interval to reach first production. The USGS economic analysis of the ANWR ...

  5. Corrosion-resistant alloy products for oil and gas industries by the HIP clad process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, M.

    1984-10-01

    Sour gas wells, which have extremely corrosive environments, are occurring more and more frequently as oil companies are forced to drill deeper wells to find new reserves. This places a premium on tubular goods and wellhead components that can withstand the hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), brine, and sulphur found in sour gas. The oil industry is currently injecting water or oil-base inhibitors into the bottom of the wells to prevent corrosion of the tubulars and wellhead components. The inhibitor coats the steel, as it flows upward with the oil or gas, protecting it from corrosion. Unfortunately, it is often uneconomical to transport inhibitors to offshore rigs, and high temperature wells can cause the inhibitors to break down and render them useless. Because of these problems, products made from corrosion-resistant alloys are being developed and tested. One of the most important developments in this area is the use of cladding.

  6. U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Estimated Production from Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Estimated Production from Reserves (Million Barrels) U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Estimated Production from Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,929 2010's 1,991 2,065 2,386 2,729 3,200 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus

  7. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining May 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Implications of Increasing Light Oil Production on the U.S. Refining System i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  8. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  9. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  10. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

  11. Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

  12. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    361,277 32,595 560,048 290,577 3,090 4,014 529,373 143,480 570,721 2,044,571 Crude Oil 264,739 - - - - 229,402 -3,032 19,621 460,629 10,860 0 1,214,807 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 96,538 -620 12,130 6,369 - - -17,151 16,455 36,109 79,004 147,761 Pentanes Plus 11,708 -620 - - 289 - - 922 3,963 6,464 28 20,579 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 84,830 - - 12,130 6,080 - - -18,073 12,492 29,646 78,975 127,182 Ethane/Ethylene 33,304 - - 114 - - - -510 - 2,197 31,731 32,733

  13. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,458 1,124 19,312 10,020 107 138 18,254 4,948 19,680 Crude Oil 9,129 - - - - 7,910 -105 677 15,884 374 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,329 -21 418 220 - - -591 567 1,245 2,724 Pentanes Plus 404 -21 - - 10 - - 32 137 223 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,925 - - 418 210 - - -623 431 1,022 2,723 Ethane/Ethylene 1,148 - - 4 - - - -18 - 76 1,094 Propane/Propylene 1,149 - - 566 190 - - -470 - 884 1,490 Normal Butane/Butylene 326 - - -149 9 - - -161 234 57 57

  14. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0,595 836 108,298 55,971 107,313 222 1,592 106,873 8,222 166,548 201,514 Crude Oil 1,376 - - - - 25,376 11,443 158 2,627 31,685 4,041 0 18,847 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 9,219 -14 258 2,412 -544 - - -1,435 1,271 1,017 10,478 5,074 Pentanes Plus 1,002 -14 - - - -10 - - 21 217 35 705 169 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 8,217 - - 258 2,412 -534 - - -1,456 1,054 982 9,773 4,905 Ethane/Ethylene 3,228 - - 10 - -3,420 - - 164 - - -346 317 Propane/Propylene 3,422 - - 945 2,285

  15. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    73,037 27,491 129,316 81,450 -25,060 -4,495 -172 122,777 13,415 145,719 338,140 Crude Oil 50,914 - - - - 77,572 -13,800 -5,649 2,262 105,182 1,592 0 153,779 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 22,123 -566 1,709 2,997 -3,783 - - -5,025 3,017 8,624 15,864 37,883 Pentanes Plus 2,530 -566 - - 2 3,657 - - 460 321 6,205 -1,363 9,836 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 19,593 - - 1,709 2,995 -7,440 - - -5,485 2,696 2,419 17,227 28,047 Ethane/Ethylene 6,172 - - - - -2,169 - - -36 - 2,197 1,842

  16. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14,513 3,300 216,319 105,782 -79,661 7,172 4,678 199,656 110,417 152,673 1,307,049 Crude Oil 161,429 - - - - 85,725 9,831 3,529 14,314 240,985 5,215 0 960,459 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 53,084 -17 9,383 287 11,383 - - -9,829 9,271 25,194 49,484 99,337 Pentanes Plus 5,602 -17 - - 287 -2,524 - - 466 2,464 72 346 10,222 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 47,482 - - 9,383 - 13,907 - - -10,295 6,807 25,122 49,138 89,115 Ethane/Ethylene 21,487 - - 104 - 7,029 - - -649 - - 29,269

  17. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,397 114 7,459 3,648 -2,747 247 161 6,885 3,807 5,265 Crude Oil 5,567 - - - - 2,956 339 122 494 8,310 180 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,830 -1 324 10 393 - - -339 320 869 1,706 Pentanes Plus 193 -1 - - 10 -87 - - 16 85 2 12 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,637 - - 324 - 480 - - -355 235 866 1,694 Ethane/Ethylene 741 - - 4 - 242 - - -22 - - 1,009 Propane/Propylene 580 - - 371 - 127 - - -309 - 819 567 Normal Butane/Butylene 116 - - -48 - 96 - - -46 128 41 41

  18. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    29,944 385 18,121 9,024 -18,088 -110 524 17,196 286 21,271 46,253 Crude Oil 19,880 - - - - 8,463 -11,220 -305 125 16,681 12 0 24,347 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 10,064 -10 353 436 -7,056 - - -81 558 205 3,105 3,003 Pentanes Plus 1,598 -10 - - - -1,123 - - -27 131 149 212 311 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 8,466 - - 353 436 -5,933 - - -54 427 57 2,892 2,692 Ethane/Ethylene 2,415 - - - - -1,440 - - 11 - - 964 452 Propane/Propylene 3,870 - - 245 420 -2,796 - - -25 - - 1,764

  19. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33,189 582 87,994 38,350 15,497 301 -2,608 82,871 11,140 84,511 151,614 Crude Oil 31,141 - - - - 32,266 3,747 -765 293 66,096 - 0 57,375 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,048 -13 427 237 - - - -781 2,338 1,069 73 2,464 Pentanes Plus 976 -13 - - - - - - 2 830 2 129 41 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,072 - - 427 237 - - - -783 1,508 1,066 -55 2,423 Ethane/Ethylene 2 - - - - - - - - - - 2 - Propane/Propylene 338 - - 1,169 237 - - - -200 - 937 1,007 733 Normal Butane/Butylene 401

  20. U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    280,042 272,798 273,770 301,517 301,768 290,577 1981-2016 Crude Oil 216,669 220,747 221,117 244,915 237,910 229,402 1920-2016 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,046 4,026 4,880 5,580 6,189 6,369 1981-2016 Pentanes Plus 2 316 647 318 332 289 1981-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,044 3,710 4,233 5,262 5,857 6,080 1981-2016 Ethane 43 1993-2016 Ethylene 1993-2015 Propane 1,935 2,476 3,127 3,853 3,929 4,835 1995-2016 Propylene 433 344 383 608 625 682 1993-2016 Normal Butane 175

  1. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,636,835 399,635 7,260,943 3,431,210 125,091 158,333 6,882,105 1,733,771 7,079,504 2,014,788 Crude Oil 3,442,205 - - - - 2,682,946 49,626 91,814 5,915,532 167,258 173 1,176,487 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,194,630 -7,655 223,448 52,563 - - 21,920 188,270 353,016 899,780 197,273 Pentanes Plus 156,568 -7,655 - - 4,027 - - -45 53,404 66,494 33,087 20,543 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,038,062 - - 223,448 48,536 - - 21,965 134,866 286,522 866,693 176,730 Ethane/Ethylene

  2. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12,704 1,095 19,893 9,401 343 434 18,855 4,750 19,396 Crude Oil 9,431 - - - - 7,351 136 252 16,207 458 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,273 -21 612 144 - - 60 516 967 2,465 Pentanes Plus 429 -21 - - 11 - - 0 146 182 91 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,844 - - 612 133 - - 60 369 785 2,375 Ethane/Ethylene 1,108 - - 6 0 - - -3 - 65 1,051 Propane/Propylene 1,117 - - 559 112 - - 51 - 615 1,121 Normal Butane/Butylene 324 - - 55 10 - - 12 169 98 110 Isobutane/Isobutylene 296 - - -7

  3. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    19,248 10,299 1,386,705 615,305 1,340,322 41,374 35,012 1,368,120 90,331 2,019,791 192,970 Crude Oil 18,216 - - - - 227,582 153,688 40,084 1,159 409,330 28,908 173 16,298 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 101,032 -191 14,223 16,761 -4,395 - - 937 12,599 16,573 97,321 8,270 Pentanes Plus 11,667 -191 - - 9 4 - - 99 583 706 10,101 209 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 89,365 - - 14,223 16,752 -4,399 - - 838 12,016 15,867 87,220 8,061 Ethane/Ethylene 30,795 - - 170 - -31,804 - - 30 - -

  4. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    327 28 3,799 1,686 3,672 113 96 3,748 247 5,534 Crude Oil 50 - - - - 624 421 110 3 1,121 79 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 277 -1 39 46 -12 - - 3 35 45 267 Pentanes Plus 32 -1 - - 0 0 - - 0 2 2 28 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 245 - - 39 46 -12 - - 2 33 43 239 Ethane/Ethylene 84 - - 0 - -87 - - 0 - - -2 Propane/Propylene 110 - - 37 41 76 - - 3 - 38 223 Normal Butane/Butylene 36 - - 2 1 0 - - -1 23 6 11 Isobutane/Isobutylene 14 - - -1 4 0 - - 0 10 0 7 Other Liquids - - 29 -

  5. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    937,536 337,875 1,648,603 880,978 -178,536 6,251 45,559 1,573,850 158,221 1,855,077 334,507 Crude Oil 683,387 - - - - 841,415 -149,878 -6,282 39,872 1,299,921 28,849 0 150,472 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 254,149 -6,980 40,909 25,611 -16,520 - - 2,143 33,456 92,412 169,158 54,687 Pentanes Plus 32,237 -6,980 - - 45 46,186 - - 857 6,692 62,712 1,227 9,997 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 221,912 - - 40,909 25,566 -62,706 - - 1,286 26,764 29,700 167,931 44,690 Ethane/Ethylene

  6. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    569 926 4,517 2,414 -489 17 125 4,312 433 5,082 Crude Oil 1,872 - - - - 2,305 -411 -17 109 3,561 79 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 696 -19 112 70 -45 - - 6 92 253 463 Pentanes Plus 88 -19 - - 0 127 - - 2 18 172 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 608 - - 112 70 -172 - - 4 73 81 460 Ethane/Ethylene 191 - - 0 0 -27 - - 2 - 65 98 Propane/Propylene 274 - - 112 57 -122 - - -2 - 4 318 Normal Butane/Butylene 94 - - 2 7 -26 - - 4 27 12 33 Isobutane/Isobutylene 48 - - -1 6 4 - - 0 46 0

  7. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    775,820 37,360 2,865,360 1,309,259 -1,093,041 44,970 70,483 2,650,249 1,331,308 1,887,688 1,297,642 Crude Oil 2,078,550 - - - - 1,085,333 95,440 -263 41,650 3,113,888 103,522 0 931,007 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 697,270 -207 145,337 4,588 129,222 - - 18,599 109,314 228,253 620,044 125,761 Pentanes Plus 81,397 -207 - - 3,955 -29,697 - - -991 34,994 439 21,006 9,983 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 615,873 - - 145,337 633 158,919 - - 19,590 74,320 227,814 599,038 115,778

  8. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,605 102 7,850 3,587 -2,995 123 193 7,261 3,647 5,172 Crude Oil 5,695 - - - - 2,974 261 -1 114 8,531 284 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,910 -1 398 13 354 - - 51 299 625 1,699 Pentanes Plus 223 -1 - - 11 -81 - - -3 96 1 58 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,687 - - 398 2 435 - - 54 204 624 1,641 Ethane/Ethylene 755 - - 5 - 190 - - -4 - - 955 Propane/Propylene 599 - - 360 0 156 - - 52 - 551 512 Normal Butane/Butylene 131 - - 40 2 67 - - 6 86 66 81 Isobutane/Isobutylene 202 -

  9. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    390,381 5,367 241,768 124,089 -261,107 -7,805 3,558 232,453 6,470 250,212 45,547 Crude Oil 272,388 - - - - 119,074 -155,263 -10,098 3,234 219,796 3,070 0 23,545 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 117,993 -123 4,589 3,561 -108,299 - - 387 7,148 2,691 7,495 3,622 Pentanes Plus 20,168 -123 - - - -16,493 - - 20 2,045 1,914 -427 310 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 97,825 - - 4,589 3,561 -91,806 - - 367 5,103 777 7,922 3,312 Ethane/Ethylene 27,979 - - - - -27,855 - - -86 - - 210 432

  10. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    413,849 8,734 1,118,507 501,579 192,362 40,300 3,721 1,057,433 147,442 1,066,735 144,121 Crude Oil 389,663 - - - - 409,542 56,014 26,186 5,899 872,597 2,909 0 55,165 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 24,186 -154 18,390 2,042 -8 - - -146 25,753 13,086 5,763 4,933 Pentanes Plus 11,099 -154 - - 18 - - - -30 9,090 723 1,180 44 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,087 - - 18,390 2,024 -8 - - -116 16,663 12,363 4,583 4,889 Ethane/Ethylene 35 - - - - - - - - - - 35 - Propane/Propylene

  11. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,134 24 3,064 1,374 527 110 10 2,897 404 2,923 Crude Oil 1,068 - - - - 1,122 153 72 16 2,391 8 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 66 0 50 6 0 - - 0 71 36 16 Pentanes Plus 30 0 - - 0 - - - 0 25 2 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 36 - - 50 6 0 - - 0 46 34 13 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 12 - - 41 5 - - - -2 - 22 39 Normal Butane/Butylene 12 - - 7 0 - - - 2 25 12 -20 Isobutane/Isobutylene 11 - - 3 0 0 - - 0 21 0 -6 Other Liquids - - 24 - - 114 314 15 3

  12. U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11,793 11,436 10,598 9,859 9,241 9,401 1973-2015 Crude Oil 9,213 8,935 8,527 7,730 7,344 7,351 1910-2015 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 179 183 170 182 143 144 1983-2015 Pentanes Plus 26 48 29 34 14 11 1983-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 153 135 141 148 128 133 1973-2015 Ethane 1993-2007 Ethylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993-2015 Propane 93 82 85 103 89 93 1995-2015 Propylene 29 28 31 24 19 19 1993-2015 Normal Butane 12 8 9 6 7 6 1995-2015 Butylene 9 7 6 5 6 4 1993-2015 Isobutane 10

  13. Venezuela offshore oil and gas production development: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez La Salvia, H.; Schwartz, E.; Contreras, M.; Rodriguez, J.I.; Febres, G.; Gajardo, E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a short history of offshore oil and gas production in Venezuela starting in Lake Maracaibo in 1923. The main emphasis has been the results of the recent R and D and the exploratory offshore programs in areas like Orinoco Delta located in the Atlantic Ocean, Northeast and Northwest Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. In the R and D offshore program the main objectives were: (1) To establish the local environmental, oceanographical, geotechnical and seismicity conditions for the Venezuelan Continental Platform. (2) To give a technical support to the PDVSA Operating Affiliates during the exploratory programs including: (a) to develop accurate drilling vessel positioning systems; (b) evaluation of sea bottom geotechnical conditions for safely operating the jack-ups and drilling vessels involved in the exploratory wells and (c) to identify those areas which because of their special nature require further investigation to establish preliminary type of platforms required for the areas to be developed or to evaluate other solutions proposed by Foreign Consultant Engineering Companies to the PDVSA Operating Affiliated Companies. The main objective of PDVSA for the coming future will be to develop the North of Paria Gas Field through the initially named Christopher Columbus Project now Sucre Gas, S.A., a consortium conformed by LaGoven, S.A. Shell, Exxon and Mitsubishi. objective of this paper is to give an idea of the history of the Venezuelan Oil and Gas Offshore development giving emphasis to the results of the INTEVEP S.A. Red offshore program and to show some results of the particular characteristics of oceanographical, environmental, geotechnical and seismic conditions in the main areas evaluated during the exploratory program: Orinoco Delta, Gulf of Paria and North of Paria.

  14. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frailey, Scott M.; Krapac, Ivan G.; Damico, James R.; Okwen, Roland T.; McKaskle, Ray W.

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  15. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, mule, Blue Hogan, heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The reservoir engineering component of the work completed to date included analysis of production data and well tests, comprehensive laboratory programs, and preliminary mechanistic reservoir simulation studies. A comprehensive fluid property characterization program was completed. Mechanistic reservoir production performance simulation studies were also completed.

  16. Selectively reducing offshore royalty rates in the Gulf of Mexico could increase oil production and federal government revenue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowsher, C.A.

    1985-05-10

    The US government leases large areas in the Outer Continental Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico for the development of oil resources and receives royalties on the oil produced. Conventional methods of oil recovery have recovered or are expected to recover about half of the 16 billion barrels of oil discovered in this area. Other oil recovery methods, collectively known as enhanced oil recovery (EOR), could potentially increase production by about 1 billion barrels of oil. EOR in the Gulf is expensive and does not appear to be economically justified in most cases. Under existing economic conditions and federal policies, GAO's review indicates that utilizing EOR methods will probably produce only about 10 percent of the additional recoverable oil. However, financial incentives in the form of royalty reductions could increase both oil production and federal government revenue if applied on a project-by-project basis. Universal applications of royalty reduction for EOR, however, while achieving increased oil production, would not increase federal government revenue. GAO recommends that the Department of the Interior's Minerals Management Service initiate action that would allow for selective royalty reductions for EOR projects in the Gulf in instances where both total oil production and federal government revenue will increase. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Oil Production Capacity Expansion Costs for the Persian Gulf

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    Provides estimates of development and operating costs for various size fields in countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. In addition, a forecast of the required reserve development and associated costs to meet the expected demand through the year 2010 is presented.

  18. Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2009-10-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis undertaken at PNNL. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of catalyst formulations were tested over a range of operating parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow-rate with bio-oil derived from several different biomass feedstocks. Effects of liquid hourly space velocity and catalyst bed temperature were assessed. Details of the process results were presented including mass and elemental balances. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition, chemical functional type determined by mass spectrometry, and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to bio-oil.

  19. Applications of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) technology in field projects--1990 update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pautz, J.F.; Thomas, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in the type and number of US enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are analyzed for the period from 1980 through 1989. The analysis is based on current literature and news media and the Department of Energy (DOE) EOR Project Data Base, which contains information on over 1,348 projects. The characteristics of the EOR projects are grouped by starting date and process type to identify trends in reservoir statistics and applications of process technologies. Twenty-two EOR projects starts were identified for 1989 and ten project starts for 1988. An obvious trend over recent years has been the decline in the number of project starts since 1981 until 1988 which corresponds to the oil price decline during that period. There was a modest recovery in 1989 of project starts, which lags the modest recovery of oil prices in 1987 that was reconfirmed in 1989. During the time frame of 1980 to 1989, there has been a gradual improvement in costs of operation for EOR technology. The perceived average cost of EOR has gone down from a $30/bbl range to low $20/bbl. These costs of operation seems to stay just at the price of oil or slightly above to result in marginal profitability. The use of polymer flooding has drastically decreased both in actual and relative numbers of project starts since the oil price drop in 1986. Production from polymer flooding is down more than 50%. Long-term plans for large, high-cost projects such as CO{sub 2} flooding in West Texas, steamflooding in California, and hydrocarbon flooding on the North Slope have continued to be implemented. EOR process technologies have been refined to be more cost effective as shown by the continued application and rising production attributable to EOR. 8 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. DOE-Sponsored Field Test Demonstrates Viability of Simultaneous CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A field test conducted by a U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has demonstrated that using carbon dioxide in an enhanced oil recovery method dubbed "huff-and-puff" can help assess the carbon sequestration potential of geologic formations while tapping America's valuable oil resources.

  1. An integrated approach to seismic stimulation of oil reservoirs: laboratory, field and theoretical results from DOE/industry collaborations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, P. M.; Majer, Ernest Luther; Lo, W. C.; Sposito, Garrison,; Daley, T. M.

    2003-01-01

    It has been observed repeatedly that low-frequency (10-500 Hz) seismic stress waves can enhance oil production from depleted reservoirs . Until recently, the majority of these observations have been anecdotal or at the proof-of-concept level. The physics coupling stress waves to multiphase fluid flow behavior in porous media is still poorly understood, even though numerous underlying physical mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observations . Basic research on the phenomenon is being conducted through a U .S. Department of Energy funded collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the U .S . oil and gas industry . The project has focused on three main areas of research: (1) laboratory core flow experiments, (2) field seismic monitoring of downhole stimulation tests, and (3) theoretical modeling of the coupled stress/flow phenomenon . The major goal is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the seismic stimulation phenomenon so that field application technologies can be improved. Initial developments and experimental results in all three research focus areas confirm historic observations that the stimulated flow phenomenon is real and that a fundamental scientific understanding can be obtained through continued research . Examples of project results and developments are presented here.

  2. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  3. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas

    1999-11-03

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  4. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1997-10-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide- (CO{sub 2}-) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  5. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  6. EIA revises up forecast for U.S. 2013 crude oil production by 70,000 barrels per day

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA revises up forecast for U.S. 2013 crude oil production by 70,000 barrels per day The forecast for U.S. crude oil production keeps going higher. The U.S. Energy Information Administration revised upward its projection for crude oil output in 2013 by 70,000 barrels per day and for next year by 190,000 barrels per day. U.S. oil production is now on track to average 7.5 million barrels per day this year and rise to 8.4 million barrels per day in 2014, according to EIA's latest monthly forecast.

  7. A Fuzzy Feed-Forward/Feedback Control System for a Three-Phase Oil Field Centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Smith, R. E.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Ross, Timothy J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad; Miller, N.

    2002-01-01

    A set of fuzzy controllers was designed and applied to a commercial three-phase oil field centrifuge. This centrifuge is essentially a one of a kind unit. It is used to recover oil from tank bottoms and oil field and/or refinery sludge. It is unique because it can separate oily emulsions into three separate phases, oil, water, and solids, in one operation. The centrifuge is a large but portable device. It is moved form site to site and is used to separate a large variety of waste emulsions. The centrifuge feedstock varies significantly from site to site and often varies significantly during the daily operation. In this application, fuzzy logic was used on a class of problems not easily solved by classical control techniques. The oil field centrifuge is a highly nonlinear system, with a time varying input. We have been unable to develop a physical-mathematical model of the portion of the centrifuge operation that actually separates the oil, water, and solids. For this portion of the operation we developed a fuzzy feedback control system that modeled a skilled operator's knowledge and actions as opposed to the physical model of the centrifuge itself. Because of the variable feed we had to develop a feed-forward controller that would sense and react to feed changes prior to the time that the actual change reached the centrifuge separation unit. This portion of the control system was also a fuzzy controller designed around the knowledge of a skilled operator. In addition to the combined feed-forward and feedback control systems, we developed a soft-sensor that was used to determine the value of variables needed for the feed-forward control system. These variables could not actually be measured but were calculated from the measurement of other variables. The soft-sensor was developed with a combination of a physical model of the feed system and a skilled operator's expert knowledge. Finally the entire control system is tied together with a fuzzy-SPC (Statistical Process Control) filter, used to filter process and instrument noise and a fuzzy conflict resolution code used to keep the feed-forward and feedback control systems working well together.

  8. Fission Product Transmutation in Mixed Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, Frank; Burgett, Erick; Starovoitova, Valeriia; Tsveretkov, Pavel

    2015-01-15

    Work under this grant addressed a part of the challenge facing the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle; reducing the radiotoxicity of lived fission products (LLFP). It was based on the possibility that partitioning of isotopes and accelerator-based transmutation on particular LLFP combined with geological disposal may lead to an acceptable societal solution to the problem of management. The feasibility of using photonuclear processes based on the excitation of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) by bremsstrahlung radiation as a cost effective transmutation method was accessed. The nuclear reactions of interest: (?,xn), (n,?), (?,p) can be induced by bremsstrahlung radiation produced by high power electron accelerators. The driver of these processes would be an accelerator that produces a high energy and high power electron beam of ~ 100 MeV. The major advantages of such accelerators for this purpose are that they are essentially available off the shelf and potentially would be of reasonable cost for this application. Methods were examined that used photo produced neutrons or the bremsstrahlung photons only, or use both photons and neutrons in combination for irradiations of selected LLFP. Extrapolating the results to plausible engineering scale transmuters it was found that the energy cost for 129I and 99Tc transmutation by these methods are about 2 and 4%, respectively, of the energy produced from 1000MWe.

  9. U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    146,514 143,463 144,525 163,526 151,212 143,480 1981-2016 Crude Oil 12,273 15,501 9,596 12,167 11,273 10,860 1920-2016 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 34,091 30,066 31,743 33,089 38,614 36,109 1981-2016 Pentanes Plus 7,006 4,753 6,020 5,261 6,162 6,464 1984-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 27,085 25,312 25,723 27,827 32,452 29,646 1981-2016 Ethane/Ethylene 1,532 2,113 1,976 1,985 2,610 2,197 1981-2016 Propane/Propylene 22,171 19,292 20,268 23,266 26,840 25,644 1981-2016

  10. Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Thoma; John Veil; Fred Limp; Jackson Cothren; Bruce Gorham; Malcolm Williamson; Peter Smith; Bob Sullivan

    2009-05-31

    This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project 'Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.' The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

  11. Thermal upgrading of residual oil to light product and heavy residual fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y.; Shu, P.

    1986-08-05

    The method is described of upgrading residual oil boiling in the range of 1050/sup 0/F+ comprising: thermally cracking the residual oil at a temperature of 650/sup 0/-900/sup 0/F, a pressure of 0-100 psig, and a residence time of 0.1 to 5 hours at the highest severity in the range between about 1,000-18,000 seconds, as expressed in equivalent reaction time at 800/sup 0/F, sufficient to convert at least about 50 wt% of the residual oil to light products, substantially without the formation of solid coke; recovering separate fractions of light product and emulsifiable heavy bottom product which has a fusion temperature below about 150/sup 0/C and a quinoline-insoluble content between about 10 wt% and 30 wt% and wherein the highest severity is determined by a functional relationship between the asphaltene content of the residual oil feedstock and the heavy bottom product yield and quinoline-insoluble content.

  12. Water Treatment in Oil and Gas Production | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Treatment and Reuse in Unconventional Gas Production Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Water Treatment and Reuse in Unconventional Gas Production A key challenge in tapping vast reserves of natural gas from shale deposits is treating the water that is used to bring this gas to the surface. GE

  13. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

  14. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Glossary ANILCA: Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act ANS: Alaskan North Slope ANWR: Arctic National Wildlife Refuge BBbls: billion barrels Bbls: barrels Daily Petroleum Production Rate: The amount of petroleum extracted per day from a well, group of wells, region, etc. (usually expressed in barrels per day) EIA: Energy Information

  15. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 3. Summary The 1.5 million-acre coastal plain of the 19 million-acre Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is the largest unexplored, potentially productive geologic onshore basin in the United States. The primary area of the coastal plain is the 1002 Area of ANWR established when ANWR was created. A decision on permitting the exploration and development

  16. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plan (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Joe Benson; David Hilton; David Cate; Lewis Brown

    2006-05-29

    The principal research efforts for Phase II of the project were drilling an infill well strategically located in Section 13, T. 10 N., R. 2 W., of the Womack Hill Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, and obtaining fresh core from the upper Smackover reservoir to test the feasibility of implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in this field. The Turner Land and Timber Company 13-10 No. 1 well was successfully drilled and tested at a daily rate of 132 barrels of oil in Section 13. The well has produced 27,720 barrels of oil, and is currently producing at a rate of 60 barrels of oil per day. The 13-10 well confirmed the presence of 175,000 barrels of attic (undrained) oil in Section 13. As predicted from reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation, the top of the Smackover reservoir in the 13-10 well is structurally high to the tops of the Smackover in offsetting wells, and the 13-10 well has significantly more net pay than the offsetting wells. The drilling and testing of the 13-10 well showed that the eastern part of the field continues to have a strong water drive and that there is no need to implement a pressure maintenance program in this part of the Womack Hill Field at this time. The success achieved in drilling and testing the 13-10 infill well demonstrates the benefits of building a geologic model to target areas in mature fields that have the potential to contain undrained oil, thus increasing the productivity and profitability of these fields. Microbial cultures that grew at 90 C and converted ethanol to acid were recovered from fresh cuttings from the Smackover carbonate reservoir in an analogous field to the Womack Hill Field in southwest Alabama; however, no viable microorganisms were found in the Smackover cores recovered from the drilling of the 13-10 well in Womack Hill Field. Further evaluation is, therefore, required prior to implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in the Womack Hill Field.

  17. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  18. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.

    2000-07-28

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  19. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels … Bio-Oil Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Report-Out Webinar February 9, 2012 David Dayton, Ph.D. RTI International Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov 2 Dr. David C. Dayton Director, Chemistry and Biofuels Center for Energy Technology RTI International 2007 - present RTI International 1993 - 2007 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1991-1993 U.S. Army Research Laboratory * Ph.D., Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2000 * B.S., Biochemistry, cum laude, Washington

  20. Oil: Crude and Petroleum Products - Energy Explained, Your Guide To

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Understanding Energy - Energy Information Administration Products Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come

  1. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  2. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  3. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  4. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF/STB. The bubblepoint pressure for live oil samples varied between 1600 psi and 2100 psi. Wax precipitation is one of the most important phenomena in wax deposition and, hence, needs to be modeled. There are various models present in the literature. Won's model, which considers the wax phase as a non-ideal solution, and Pedersen's model, which considers the wax phase as an ideal solution, were compared. Comparison indicated that Pedersen's model gives better results, but the assumption of wax phase as an ideal solution is not realistic. Hence, Won's model was modified to consider different precipitation characteristics of the various constituents in the hydrocarbon fraction. The results obtained from the modified Won's model were compared with existing models, and it was found that predictions from the modified model are encouraging.

  5. Method for enhancing heavy oil production using hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Smith, R.C.

    1991-04-09

    This patent describes a method for producing viscous substantially fines-free hydrocarbonaceous fluids from an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated formation. It comprises drilling into the formation at least one well into a first productive interval of the formation; fracturing hydraulically the well with a viscous fracturing fluid containing a proppant therein which is of a size sufficient to prop a created fracture and restrict fines movement into the fracture which proppant comprises silicon carbide, silicon nitride, or garnet; injecting a pre-determined volume of steam into the well in an amount sufficient to soften the viscous fluid and lower the viscosity of the fluid adjacent a fracture face producing the well at a rate sufficient to allow formation fines to build up on a fracture face communicating with the well thereby resulting in a filter screen sufficient to substantially remove formation fines from the hydrocarbonaceous fluids; injecting a second volume of steam into the well and producing substantially fines free hydrocarbonaceous fluids to the surface; repeating steps until a desired amount of hydrocarbonaceous fluids have been produced from the first interval; and isolating mechanically the first interval and repeating steps in a second productive interval of the formation.

  6. East Coast (PADD 1) Net Receipts of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail Type: Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Type Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 112,149 114,648 107,666 116,665 111,318 107,313 1981-2016 Crude Oil 15,410 12,981 11,067 11,825 12,222 11,443 1981-2016 Petroleum Products 97,974 103,197 97,415 107,593 100,144 95,869

  7. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  8. Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation -- Determination of the Status of Oil and Gas Operations: Task 1. Development of Survey Procedures and Protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Procedures and protocols were developed for the determination of the status of oil, gas, and other mineral operations on the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate. The strategy for surveying Osage County, Oklahoma, was developed and then tested in the field. Two Osage Tribal Council members and two Native American college students (who are members of the Osage Tribe) were trained in the field as a test of the procedures and protocols developed in Task 1. Active and inactive surface mining operations, industrial sites, and hydrocarbon-producing fields were located on maps of the county, which was divided into four more or less equal areas for future investigation. Field testing of the procedures, protocols, and training was successful. No significant damage was found at petroleum production operations in a relatively new production operation and in a mature waterflood operation.

  9. Crude Oil and Lease Condensate Production by API Gravity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Lease Condensate Production by API Gravity Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes API Gravity Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History Lower 48 States 8,980 8,882 8,806 8,723 8,664 8,622 2015-2016 20.0º or Lower 437 437 440 428 409 414 2015-2016 20.1º to 25.0º 248 252 232 251 237 203 2015-2016 25.1º to 30.0º 635 653 697 708 641 762 2015-2016 30.1º to

  10. The boomerang area: An example of oil and gas fields related to a transfer zone development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, M.; Colletta, B.; Letouzey, J. ); Baby, P. ); Oller, J.; Montemuro, G. ); Guillier, B. )

    1993-02-01

    We present results of a study realized from petroleum data of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos of the most important transfer zone of the Bolivian Andean belt: the Santa Cruz transfer zone. Frontal part of the Bolivian Andean belt consists of a thick series (6 to 8 km) of paleozoic to cenozoic sedimentary rocks thrusted eastwards on a sole thrust located in paleozoic series. The frontal part of the belt, globally N-S oriented, undergoes an important deviation East of Santa Cruz with a left lateral offset of 100 Km. Taking into account the E-W shortening direction, this transfer zone can be interpreted as a lateral ramp. The Santa Cruz transfer zone coincide with a set of small oil and gas fields whereas frontal structures lack hydrocarbon occurrences. We are then faced with a two-fold problem: (1) what is the origin of the transfer zone (2) why are the oil and gas concentrated in the transfer zone Our synthesis shows that the transfer zone is superimposed on the limit of a detached Paleozoic basin whose border direction is oblique to the regional shortening direction. We then interpret the oil and gas formation in two steps: (1) source rock maturation and hydrocarbon migration towards the top of the Paleozoic sedimentary wedge before Andean deformation. (2) hydrocarbon dismigration towards anticlinal structures developed during the lateral ramp propagation. In order to test our interpretation we performed a set of analog model experiments whose 3D visualization was analyzed by computerized X-ray tomography.

  11. Feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery for fields in decline. Export trade information (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The report, generated by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. for Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The primary objective of the project was to describe the reservoirs that have been discovered and their reserves, describe which would be the best alternatives for development of these reservoirs, and to determine the best alternatives for development of all the reserves together. The report, volume 4 of 4, concerns the feasibility of enhancing the oil or condensate recovery from a chosen group of fields (Yapacani, Humberto Suarez Roca, Vibora, La Pena, San Roque, and Camiri).

  12. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, R.; Clarke, D.; Walker, S.; Phillips, C.; Nguyen, J.; Moos, D.; Tagbor, K.

    1997-10-21

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the `Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist`. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with a pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to convert shear wave velocity measured through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius and ultra-short radius lateral recompletions as well as other techniques.

  13. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker.

    1998-01-26

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period October - December 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist . The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with cased-hole logging tools. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to translate measurements through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius lateral recompletions as well as other recompletion techniques such as the sand consolidation through steam injection.

  14. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1998-04-22

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period January - March 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the "Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist". The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with cased-hole logging tools. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to translate measurements through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius lateral recompletions as well as other recompletion techniques such as the sand consolidation through steam injection.

  15. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nauyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    1997-07-28

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the `Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist`. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with a pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to convert shear wave velocity measured through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius and ultra-short radius lateral recompletions as well as other techniques.

  16. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1998-01-26

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period October - December 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the "Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist". The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with cased-hole logging tools. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to translate measurements through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius lateral recompletions as well as other recompletion techniques such as the sand consolidation through steam injection.

  17. Table 2. U.S. tight oil plays: production and proved reserves, 2013-14

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tight oil plays: production and proved reserves, 2013-14" "million barrels" ,,,2013,2013,"2014 Production","2014 Reserves","Change 2013-14 Reserves" "Basin","Play","State(s)","Production","Reserves" "Williston","Bakken","ND, MT, SD",270,4844,387,5972,1128 "Western Gulf","Eagle Ford","TX",351,4177,497,5172,995 "Permian","Bone

  18. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-04-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  19. Technical constraints limiting application of enhanced oil recovery techniques to petroleum production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    In the interval since the publication in September 1980 of the technical constraints that inhibit the application of enhanced oil recovery techniques in the United States, there has been a large number of successful field trials of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. The Department of Energy has shared the costs of 28 field demonstrations of EOR with industry, and the results have been made available to the public through DOE documents, symposiums and the technical literature. This report reexamines the constraints listed in 1980, evaluates the state-of-the-art and outlines the areas where more research is needed. Comparison of the 1980 constraints with the present state-of-the-art indicates that most of the constraints have remained the same; however, the constraints have become more specific. 26 references, 6 tables.

  20. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability trends. The Lower Grandstand sand consists of two coarsening-upward shoreface sands sequences while the Upper Grandstand consists of a single coarsening-upward shoreface sand. Each of the shoreface sands shows a distinctive permeability profile with high horizontal permeability at the top getting progressively poorer towards the base of the sand. In contrast, deltaic sandstones in the overlying Ninuluk are more permeable at the base of the sands, with decreasing permeability towards the sand top. These trends impart a strong permeability anisotropy to the reservoir and are being incorporated into the reservoir model. These observations also suggest that horizontal wells should target the upper part of the major sands. Natural fractures may superimpose another permeability pattern on the Umiat reservoir that need to be accounted for in both the simulation and in drilling. Examination of legacy core from Umiat field indicate that fractures are present in the subsurface, but don't provide information on their orientation and density. Nearby surface exposures of folds in similar stratigraphy indicate there are at least three possible fracture sets: an early, N/S striking set that may predate folding and two sets possibly related to folding: an EW striking set of extension fractures that are parallel to the fold axes and a set of conjugate shear fractures oriented NE and NW. Analysis of fracture spacing suggests that these natural fractures are fairly widely spaced (25-59 cm depending upon the fracture set), but could provide improved reservoir permeability in horizontal legs drilled perpendicular to the open fracture set. The phase behavior of the Umiat fluid needed to be well understood in order for the reservoir simulation to be accurate. However, only a small amount of Umiat oil was available; this oil was collected in the 1940’s and was severely weathered. The composition of this ‘dead’ Umiat fluid was characterized by gas chromatography. This analysis was then compared to theoretical Umiat composition derived using the Pedersen method with original Umiat fluid properties published in the original reports. This comparison allowed estimation of the ‘lost’ light hydrocarbon fractions. An Umiat 'dead' oil sample then could be physically created by adding the lost light ends to the weatherized Umiat dead oil sample. This recreated sample was recombined with solution gas to create a 'pseudo-live' Umiat oil sample which was then used for experimental PVT and phase behavior studies to determine fluid properties over the range of reservoir pressures and temperatures. The phase behavior of the ‘pseudo-live’ oil was also simulated using the Peng- Robinson equations of state (EOS). The EOS model was tuned with measured experimental data to accurately simulate the differential liberation tests in order to obtain the necessary data for reservoir simulation studies, including bubble point pressure and oil viscosity. The bubble point pressure of the reconstructed Umiat oil is 345 psi, suggesting that maintenance of reservoir pressures above that pressure will be important for the any proposed production technique. A major part of predicting how the Umiat reservoir will perform is determining the relative permeability of oil in the presence of ice. Early in the project, UAF work on samples of the Umiat reservoir indicated that there is a significant reduction in the relatively permeability of oil in the presence of ice. However, it was not clear as to why this reduction occurred or where the ice resided. To explore this further, additional experimental and theoretical work was conducted. Core flood experiments were performed on two clean Berea sandstone cores under permafrost conditions to determine the relative permeability to oil (kro) over a temperature range of 23ºC to - 10ºC and for a range of connate water salinities. Both cores showed maximum reduction in relative permeability to oil when saturated with deionized water and less reduction when saturated with saline water. This reduction in relative permeability can be explained by formation of ice crystals in the center of pores. Theoretically, the radius of ice formed in the center of the pore can be determined using the Kozeny–Carman Equation by assuming the pores and pore throats as a cube with ‘N’ identical parallel pipes embedded in it. Using the values of kro obtained from the experimental work as input to the Kozeny–Carman Equation at -10ºC, the radius of ice crystals dropped from 0.145 μm to 0.069 μm when flooding-water salinity is increased to 6467 ppm. This explains the reduction of relative permeability with decreasing salinity but does not take into consideration other effects such as variations in pore throat structure. In addition, fluids like deionized water, saline water, and antifreeze (a mixture of 60% ethylene or propylene glycol with 40% water) were tested to find the best flooding agent for frozen reservoirs. At 0ºC, 9% greater recovery was observed with antifreeze was used as a flooding agent as compared to using saline water. Antifreeze showed 48% recovery even at -10ºC, at which temperature the rest of the fluids failed to increase production. Preliminary evaluation of drilling fluids indicate that the brine-based muds caused significantly less swelling in the Umiat reservoir sands when compared to fresh-water based muds. However since freezing filtrate is another cause of formation damage, a simple water-based-mud may not a viable option. It is recommended that new fluids be tested, including different salts, brines, polymers and oil-based fluids. These fluids should be tested at low temperatures in order to determine the potential for formation damage, the fluid properties under these conditions and to ensure that the freezing point is below that of the reservoir. In order to reduce the surface footprint while accessing the maximum amount of the Lower Grandstand interval, simulations used development from 5 surface locations with a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers. There is no active aquifer support due to small peizometric head in the area and no existing gas cap, so an alternative method of pressure support is needed. Cold gas injection was used in the simulations as it is considered the most viable means of providing pressure maintenance while maintaining wellbore stability and reducing impact on the permafrost. Saline water injection may be a viable alternative, though this may have a detrimental effect on permafrost. In the short term, the results of this work are being incorporated into Linc Energy’s drilling and development plan. This project has also provided valuable information on the rock and fluid properties of low temperature reservoirs as well as the efficacy of potential production techniques for Umiat or similar shallow frozen reservoirs in the circum-Arctic.

  1. Silica phase changes: Diagenetic agent for oil entrapment, Lost Hills field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julander, D.R.; Szymanski, D.L. )

    1991-02-01

    The siliceous shales of the Monterey Group are the primary development target at Lost Hills. Silica phase changes have influenced the distribution and entrapment of hydrocarbons. With increasing temperature, opal A phase diatomite is converted to opal CT and finally quartz phase rock. All phases are low in permeability. The opal A diatomite is characteristically high in oil saturation and productive saturation. Productivity from this phase is dependent on structural position and fieldwide variations in oil viscosity and biodegradation. The deeper chert reservoir coincides with the opal CT to quartz phase transition. Porosity is again reduced in this transition, but saturations in the quartz phase rocks increase. Tests in the chert reservoir indicate a single, low-permeability system, suggesting the importance of matric contribution. resistivity and porosity in the diatomite, and resistivity and velocity in the chert, are the physical properties which best reflect saturation. Methods exploiting these properties (FMS, BHTV, borehole, and surface shear wave studies) should be helpful in further characterizing the reservoirs and identifying future pay.

  2. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  3. An evaluation of gas field rules in light of current conditions and production practices in the Panhandle non-associated gas fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, C.L.; O`Rear, C.H.

    1996-09-01

    During the early years of development in the Panhandle fields the Rule of Capture was king. Under the Rule of Capture each property owner has the right to drill as many wells as desired at any location. Adjacent property owners protect their rights by doing the same. Courts adopted the Rule of Capture to protect mineral owners from liability due to migration of oil and gas across property boundary lines. This general practice {open_quotes}to go and do likewise{close_quotes} generally leads to enormous economic and natural resource waste. Established to offset the waste created under the Rule of Capture is the doctrine of Correlative Rights. Correlative Rights is the fight of each mineral owner to obtain oil and gas from a common source of supply under lawful operations conducted from his property. However, each mineral owner has a duty to every other mineral owner not to extract oil and gas in a manner injurious to the common source of supply. This paper will examine the historical context of these common law principles with regard to the Panhandle non-associated gas fields. Discovered in 1917, the Panhandle fields are ideal to evaluate the merit of statutes and regulations enacted in response to production practices. As in many Texas fields, proration in the Panhandle fields is the primary mechanism to protect correlative rights and prevent waste. Signed and made effective May 1989, the current field rules pre-date much of the enhanced recovery techniques that use well-head vacuum compression. This paper reviews the gas rules in the 1989 Texas Railroad Commission order in light of current reservoir conditions and production practices.

  4. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1997--February 8, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil are at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. This study utilized representative core and modern geophysical logs to characterize and grade each of the five fields for suitability of enhanced recovery projects. The typical vertical sequence or cycle of lithofacies from each field, as determined from conventional core, was tied to its corresponding log response. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found in the various hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of each field can be an indicator of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for water- and/or CO{sub 2}-flooding. Diagenetic histories of the various Desert Creek reservoirs were determined from 50 representative samples selected from the conventional cores of each field. Thin sections were also made of each sample for petrographic description.

  5. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  6. U.S. Crude Oil Production to 2025: Updated Projection of Crude Types

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Production to 2025: Updated Projection of Crude Types May 28, 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | U.S. Crude Oil Production to 2025 - Updated Projection of Crude Types i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  7. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Groshong, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and produces oil from chalk of the Upper Cretaceous Selma Group and from sandstone of the Eutaw Formation along the southern margin of the Gilbertown fault system. Most of the field has been in primary recovery since establishment, but production has declined to marginally economic levels. This investigation applies advanced geologic concepts designed to aid implementation of improved recovery programs. The Gilbertown fault system is detached at the base of Jurassic salt. The fault system began forming as a half graben and evolved in to a full graben by the Late Cretaceous. Conventional trapping mechanisms are effective in Eutaw sandstone, whereas oil in Selma chalk is trapped in faults and fault-related fractures. Burial modeling establishes that the subsidence history of the Gilbertown area is typical of extensional basins and includes a major component of sediment loading and compaction. Surface mapping and fracture analysis indicate that faults offset strata as young as Miocene and that joints may be related to regional uplift postdating fault movement. Preliminary balanced structural models of the Gilbertown fault system indicate that synsedimentary growth factors need to be incorporated into the basic equations of area balance to model strain and predict fractures in Selma and Eutaw reservoirs.

  8. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standardmore » operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.« less

  9. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  10. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1997-02-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Three activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of productive carbonate buidups in the Paradox basin: (1) interpretation of new seismic data in the Mule field area, (2) reservoir engineering analysis of the Anasazi field, and (3) technology transfer.

  11. Upgraging heavy crude oils to lighter products with a dispersed zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollmann, L. D.

    1985-08-20

    This invention provides a process for upgrading a variety of hydrocarbon oils including low-grade crudes and fractions thereof. In this process, a hydrocarbon oil having an ASTM 50% temperature not higher than 550/sup 0/ F. is converted at low temperature and pressure to more volatile products by a dispersion of crystalline zeolite catalysts having a silica: aluminia ratio of at least 12 and a C.I. within 1-12. Initially, 0.02-10 wt % of the catalyst is dispersed in the feed until the catalyst inventory in the reactor stage accumulates. Thereafter, catalyst is added and removed to maintain a total catalyst content not greater than about 35 wt % of the feed in the reactor.

  12. 97e Intermediate Temperature Catalytic Reforming of Bio-Oil for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marda, J. R.; Dean, A. M.; Czernik, S.; Evans, R. J.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.

    2008-01-01

    With the world's energy demands rapidly increasing, it is necessary to look to sources other than fossil fuels, preferably those that minimize greenhouse emissions. One such renewable source of energy is biomass, which has the added advantage of being a near-term source of hydrogen. While there are several potential routes to produce hydrogen from biomass thermally, given the near-term technical barriers to hydrogen storage and delivery, distributed technologies such that hydrogen is produced at or near the point of use are attractive. One such route is to first produce bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of biomass close to its source to create a higher energy-density product, then ship this bio-oil to its point of use where it can be reformed to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This route is especially well suited for smaller-scale reforming plants located at hydrogen distribution sites such as filling stations. There is also the potential for automated operation of the conversion system. A system has been developed for volatilizing bio-oil with manageable carbon deposits using ultrasonic atomization and by modifying bio-oil properties, such as viscosity, by blending or reacting bio-oil with methanol. Non-catalytic partial oxidation of bio-oil is then used to achieve significant conversion to CO with minimal aromatic hydrocarbon formation by keeping the temperature at 650 C or less and oxygen levels low. The non-catalytic reactions occur primarily in the gas phase. However, some nonvolatile components of bio-oil present as aerosols may react heterogeneously. The product gas is passed over a packed bed of precious metal catalyst where further reforming as well as water gas shift reactions are accomplished completing the conversion to hydrogen. The approach described above requires significantly lower catalyst loadings than conventional catalytic steam reforming due to the significant conversion in the non-catalytic step. The goal is to reform and selectively oxidize the bio-oil and catalyze the water gas shift reaction without catalyzing methanation or oxidation of CO and H{sub 2}, thus attaining equilibrium levels of H{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2} at the exit of the catalyst bed. Experimental Bio-oil (mixed with varied amounts of methanol to reduce the viscosity and homogenize the bio-oil) or selected bio-oil components are introduced at a measured flow rate through the top of a vertical quartz reactor which is heated using a five zone furnace. The ultrasonic nozzle used to feed the reactants allows the bio-oil to flow down the center of the reactor at a low, steady flow rate. Additionally, the fine mist created by the nozzle allows for intimate mixing with oxygen and efficient heat transfer, providing optimal conditions to achieve high conversion at relatively low temperatures in the non-catalytic step thus reducing the required catalyst loading. Generation of the fine mist is especially important for providing good contact between non-volatile bio-oil components and oxygen. Oxygen and helium are also delivered at the top of the reactor via mass flow meters with the amount of oxygen being varied to maximize the yields of H{sub 2} and CO and the amount of helium being adjusted such that the gas phase residence time in the hot zone is {approx}0.3 and {approx}0.45 s for bio-oil and methanol experiments, respectively. A catalyst bed can be located at the bottom of the reactor tube. To date, catalyst screening experiments have used Engelhard noble metal catalysts. The catalysts used for these experiments were 0.5 % rhodium, ruthenium, platinum, and palladium (all supported on alumina). Experiments were performed using pure alumina as well. Both the catalyst type and the effect of oxygen and steam on the residual hydrocarbons and accumulated carbon containing particulates were investigated. The residence time before the catalyst is varied to determine the importance of the non-catalytic step and its potential effect on the required catalyst loading. Non-catalytic experiments (primarily homogeneous cracking) use a bed of quartz placed to capture any deposits that are formed in the volatilization and cracking zones. The inner reactor effluent is quenched by a flow of 10 SLPM He which serves to sweep the products quickly ({approx}0.03 s) to a triple quadrupole molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) for analysis. The MBMS serves as a universal detector and allows for real time data collection. The study of pyrolysis by MBMS has been described previously. The dilution of the reactor effluent reduces the potential problems caused by matrix effects associated with the MBMS analysis. Argon is used as an internal standard in the quantitative analysis of all the major products (CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and benzene) as well as any residual carbon, which is determined by subsequent oxidation of carbon (monitored as CO{sub 2}) after shutting off the feed and maintaining the oxygen/helium flow.

  13. Comparison of soft computing techniques for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. E.; Parkinson, w; Miller, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we compare fuzzy techniques to neural network techniques for building a soft sensor for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The soft sensor is used in a feed-forward control system that augments a feedback control system. Two approaches were used to develop the soft sensor. The first approach was to use a fuzzy rule based system based upon the experience of an expert operator. The expert operator's experience was supplemented using a computer model of the system. The second approach was to use a neural network to build the inverse of the computer model. The pros and cons of both techniques are discussed. KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic, neural networks, soft sensor, soft computing

  14. Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  15. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1996--February 8, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The Anasazi field was selected for the initial geostatistical modeling and reservoir simulation. A compositional simulation approach is being used to model primary depletion, waterflood, and CO{sub 2}-flood processes. During this second year of the project, team members performed the following reservoir-engineering analysis of Anasazi field: (1) relative permeability measurements of the supra-mound and mound-core intervals, (2) completion of geologic model development of the Anasazi reservoir units for use in reservoir simulation studies including completion of a series of one-dimensional, carbon dioxide-displacement simulations to analyze the carbon dioxide-displacement mechanism that could operate in the Paradox basin system of reservoirs, and (3) completion of the first phase of the full-field, three-dimensional Anasazi reservoir simulation model, and the start of the history matching and reservoir performance prediction phase of the simulation study.

  16. Filamentous carbon particles for cleaning oil spills and method of production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim

    2010-04-06

    A compact hydrogen generator is coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. The hydrogen generator can be conveniently integrated with high temperature fuel cells to produce an efficient and self-contained source of electrical power.

  17. Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 expanded GTP's demonstration work into geopressured fields and geothermal co-production from oil and natural gas fields. GTP ...

  18. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion ...

  19. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  20. Product component genealogy modeling and field-failure prediction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, Caleb; Hong, Yili; Meeker, William Q.

    2016-04-13

    Many industrial products consist of multiple components that are necessary for system operation. There is an abundance of literature on modeling the lifetime of such components through competing risks models. During the life-cycle of a product, it is common for there to be incremental design changes to improve reliability, to reduce costs, or due to changes in availability of certain part numbers. These changes can affect product reliability but are often ignored in system lifetime modeling. By incorporating this information about changes in part numbers over time (information that is readily available in most production databases), better accuracy can bemore » achieved in predicting time to failure, thus yielding more accurate field-failure predictions. This paper presents methods for estimating parameters and predictions for this generational model and a comparison with existing methods through the use of simulation. Our results indicate that the generational model has important practical advantages and outperforms the existing methods in predicting field failures.« less

  1. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 1. Overview of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Background The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) 1002 Area of the Alaska North Slope represents an area of 1.5 million acres. The ANWR Coastal Plain Area includes the 1002 Area, State of Alaska lands to the 3-mile limit from the coast line, and approximately 92,000 acres of Native Inupiat lands.

  2. U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    576,739 599,856 575,825 605,862 590,718 570,721 1981-2016 Crude Oil 0 0 173 0 0 0 1981-2016 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 64,042 75,293 76,572 85,729 91,675 79,004 1981-2016 Pentanes Plus 1,874 4,194 1,087 2,486 1,837 28 1981-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 62,168 71,100 75,485 83,244 89,838 78,975 1981-2016 Ethane/Ethylene 31,059 33,115 35,088 35,366 34,222 31,731 1981-2016 Propane/Propylene 26,884 31,606 34,361 42,033 48,892 43,203 1981-2016 Normal Butane/Butylene 1,967 3,065 2,976 2,463 3,385

  3. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  4. Transmission, storage and export of product from the Arun field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soeryanto, J.

    1982-01-01

    Arun liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is the second Indonesian LNG plant. It began production in August 1978. Plant feed is supplied from the Arun gas condensate field located ca. 30 km from the plant. The overall complex is designed to produced LNG equivalent to 18 million cu m/day of gas, and 12,000 cu m/day of stabilized condensate. Field facilities produce and separate gas and condensate for delivery through separate pipelines to the LNG plant. At the plant, condensate is stabilized and stored in four 78,705-cu m floating roof tanks and shipped in conventional tankers, moored off shore. The gas is treated, dehydrated, and liquefied. Gas treating is accomplished by the Benfield Hi-pure Process. Liquefaction is accomplished using the propane pre-cooled multi-component refrigerant process. Refrigerant components required for the liquefaction process are produced from 2 fractionation trains.

  5. Let's Try That Again: Selling the Teapot Dome Oil Field | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A solitary oil pump at the Teapot Dome Oilfield in Wyoming. | Department of Energy photo. Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs In ...

  6. Usefulness of effective field theory for boosted Higgs production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, S.; Lewis, I. M.; Zeng, Mao

    2015-04-07

    The Higgs + jet channel at the LHC is sensitive to the effects of new physics both in the total rate and in the transverse momentum distribution at high pT. We examine the production process using an effective field theory (EFT) language and discussing the possibility of determining the nature of the underlying high-scale physics from boosted Higgs production. The effects of heavy color triplet scalars and top partner fermions with TeV scale masses are considered as examples and Higgs-gluon couplings of dimension-5 and dimension-7 are included in the EFT. As a byproduct of our study, we examine the region of validity of the EFT. Dimension-7 contributions in realistic new physics models give effects in the high pT tail of the Higgs signal which are so tiny that they are likely to be unobservable.

  7. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the types of offsite commercial disposal facilities that are found in each state. In later sections, data are presented by waste type and then by disposal method.

  8. Disposal of oil field wastes and NORM wastes into salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    1999-01-27

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), the risk to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne's research indicates that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and, in most cases, would not be prohibited by state agencies (although those agencies may need to revise their wastes management regulations). A risk analysis of several cavern leakage scenarios suggests that the risk from cavern disposal of NOW and NORM wastes is below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  9. Risk analyses for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed of in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing the contaminants` toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks have been found to be within the US EPA target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  10. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  11. Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other Petroleum Products Natural Gas Coal Purchased Electricity Purchased Steam Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1986-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 0 0 0 0

  12. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetatexanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide gels, chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels, silicate-polymer, and chromium-xanthan gum gels did not alter an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution's ability to produce incremental oil. Incremental oil was reduced with the resorcinol-formaldehyde gel system. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were generally similar. Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow.

  13. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/teritiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Four activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization: (1) interpretation of outcrop analogues; (2) reservoir mapping, (3) reservoir engineering analysis of the five project fields; and (4) technology transfer.

  14. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Final technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-01-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Five activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of carbonate mound buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) regional facies evaluation, (2) evaluation of outcrop analogues, (3) field-scale geologic analysis, (4) reservoir analysis, and (5) technology transfer.

  15. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}-) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Four activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of carbonate mound buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) field studies, (2) development well completion operations, (3) reservoir analysis and modeling, and (4) technology transfer. This paper reviews the status.

  16. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments, Annual Report, June 16,2000-June 15, 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, C.S.

    2002-05-22

    This program was aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production.

  17. Dual Layer Monolith ATR of Pyrolysis Oil for Distributed Synthesis Gas Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawal, Adeniyi

    2012-09-29

    We have successfully demonstrated a novel reactor technology, based on BASF dual layer monolith catalyst, for miniaturizing the autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil to syngas, the second and most critical of the three steps for thermochemically converting biomass waste to liquid transportation fuel. The technology was applied to aged as well as fresh samples of pyrolysis oil derived from five different biomass feedstocks, namely switch-grass, sawdust, hardwood/softwood, golden rod and maple. Optimization of process conditions in conjunction with innovative reactor system design enabled the minimization of carbon deposit and control of the H2/CO ratio of the product gas. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis of the integrated process using in part, experimental data from the project, indicates (1) net energy recovery of 49% accounting for all losses and external energy input, (2) weight of diesel oil produced as a percent of the biomass to be ~14%, and (3) for a ‘demonstration’ size biomass to Fischer-Tropsch liquid plant of ~ 2000 daily barrels of diesel, the price of the diesel produced is ~$3.30 per gallon, ex. tax. However, the extension of catalyst life is critical to the realization of the projected economics. Catalyst deactivation was observed and the modes of deactivation, both reversible and irreversible were identified. An effective catalyst regeneration strategy was successfully demonstrated for reversible catalyst deactivation while a catalyst preservation strategy was proposed for preventing irreversible catalyst deactivation. Future work should therefore be focused on extending the catalyst life, and a successful demonstration of an extended (> 500 on-stream hours) catalyst life would affirm the commercial viability of the process.

  18. Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

    1982-12-21

    The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships. 3 figs.

  19. Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-12-21

    The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships.

  20. Statement from Energy Secretary Bodman on OPEC's Decision to Cut Crude Oil Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "We continue to believe that it is best for oil producers and consumers alike to allow free markets to determine issues of supply, demand and price.  Despite the recent downturn in crude oil prices...

  1. Fact #758: December 17, 2012 U.S. Production of Crude Oil by State, 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Texas is by far the State that produces the most crude oil in the U.S., but 30 other States also produced oil in 2011. Alaska, California, North Dakota, and Oklahoma were next in the top five crude...

  2. Crude Oil | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oil fields to fuel distribution terminals. Different components of this system (e.g., crude oil import terminals, refineries, transmission pipelines, and tank farms) can be ...

  3. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, S.

    2001-01-09

    The objective of this project is not just to produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  4. Benin: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports Ashland discovered additional oil reserves deeper than current production in Seme, Benin's only oil field. The field is on a steep decline, producing as little as 2,500 bopd, down from 7,671 bopd in 1984. In an effort to restart offshore exploration, three offshore blocks have been designated. Hardy Oil and Gas (UK) Ltd. has since acquired 20% interest in Blocks 1 and 2 from International Petroleum Ltd. (IPL). IPL completed seismic work during 1990 that identified two large channel prospects similar to those that produce offshore elsewhere in West Africa. The first well is expected in 1991.

  5. Hydropyrolysis process for upgrading heavy oils and solids into light liquid products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Shabtai, J.

    1981-11-03

    A hydropyrolysis process is disclosed for upgrading heavy, high molecular weight feedstocks such as coal-derived liquids, petroleum crudes, tar sand bitumens, shale oils, bottom residues from process streams, and the like, to lighter, lower molecular weight liquid products. The process includes subjecting the feedstocks to pyrolysis in the presence of hydrogen under carefully controlled conditions of temperature and pressure. The process can be defined as hydrogen-modified, thermal cracking in the specific temperature range of 450* C. To 650* C. And in the hydrogen pressure range of about 120 psi to 2250 psi. The amount of hydrogen present can be varied according to the type of feedstock and the liquid product desired. Although the hydrogen is not consumed in large amounts, it does participate in and modifies the process, and thereby provides a means of controlling the process as to the molecular weight range and structural type distribution of the liquid products. The presence of hydrogen also inhibits coke formation. The process also eliminates the requirement for a catalyst so that the reaction will proceed in the presence of heavy metal contaminants in the feedstock which contaminants would otherwise poison any catalyst.

  6. Ultrapyrolytic upgrading of plastic wastes and plastics/heavy oil mixtures to valuable light gas products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovett, S.; Berruti, F.; Behie, L.A.

    1997-11-01

    Viable operating conditions were identified experimentally for maximizing the production of high-value products such as ethylene, propylene, styrene, and benzene, from the ultrapyrolysis of waste plastics. Using both a batch microreactor and a pilot-plant-sized reactor, the key operating variables considered were pyrolysis temperature, product reaction time, and quench time. In the microreactor experiments, polystyrene (PS), a significant component of waste plastics, was pyrolyzed at temperatures ranging from 800 to 965 C, with total reaction times ranging from 500 to 1,000 ms. At a temperature of 965 C and 500 ms, the yields of styrene plus benzene were greater than 95 wt %. In the pilot-plant experiments, the recently patented internally circulating fluidized bed (ICFB) reactor (Milne et al., US Patent Number 5,370,789, 1994b) was used to ultrapyrolyze low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in addition to LDPE (5% by weight)/heavy oil mixtures at a residence time of 600 ms. Both experiments produced light olefin yields greater than 55 wt % at temperatures above 830 C.

  7. Decision guide to farm fuel production: ethanol, methanol, or vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerstetter, J.D.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform farmers of the choices they have today regarding production of motor vehicle fuels. Its intent is to inform farmers of what is involved in producing an alternative fuel, its compatibility with existing engines, the costs involved, and the markets for the fuel and any by-products. This paper is not a how-to-do-it manual or a policy document. Some of the data has been developed from the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program managed by the Washington State Energy Office. Part One provides background information on Washington's fuel use patterns, highlighting the agricultural sector. In Part Two, general considerations common to all alternative fuels are covered. Part Three contains three detailed discussions of the alternative fuels most favored by Washington farmers for production and use - ethanol, vegetable oils, and methanol. The Appendix contains a brief summary of the 11 ethanol projects in Washington funded as a result of the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program. 5 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-07-14

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  9. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  10. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-05-30

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  11. Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Co-produced and low-temperature demonstration projects presentation at the 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon coproduced_demoprojects_peerreview2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Chena Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Coproduced from Oil and/or Gas Wells Electrical Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Co-produced from Oil & Gas track 1: Low Temp | geothermal 2015 peer review

  12. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

  13. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  14. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or "sweet") crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. The Energy Information Administration makes projections of future supply and demand for "total liquids,"" which includes conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gain -- in addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  15. Fuzzy SPC filter for a feed-forward control system for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Smith, R. E.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad; Ross, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we describe a signal filter for a feed-forward controller based on the application of fuzzy logic combined with statistical process control (SPC), The feed-forward controller is for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The centrifuge system is used to separate meta-stable three-phase emulsions consisting of oil and water stabilized by solids. These emulsions are considered to be unusable wastes and must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The centrifuge is capable of turning these wastes into clean saleable oil, water that can be reused in an operating process or re-injected into oil wells and, solids that can be disposed of in landfills. The feed-forward controller is used for feed disturbance rejection. It works in conjunction with and, is capable of over-riding the actions of, a feedback controller. The measured feed variables for the feed-forward controller each exhibit reasonably large random fluctuations. It is therefore quite important to use a signal filter that truly recognizes the difference between random noise and a 'caused' event, in order to prevent overriding a perfectly good correction from the feedback controller.

  16. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-01-13

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  17. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-05-01

    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]).

  18. H.R. 577: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a tax credit for the production of oil and gas from existing marginal oil and gas wells and from new oil and gas wells. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 577, A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a tax credit for the production of oil and gas from existing marginal oil and gas wells and from new oil and gas wells. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, January 19, 1995.

  19. S.32: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a tax credit for the production of oil and gas from existing marginal oil and gas wells and from new oil and gas wells. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This bill would establish tax credits for the production of oil and natural gas from existing marginal oil or gas wells, and from new oil and gas wells. It does so by adding a section to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which spells out the rules, the credit amounts, the scope of the terms used to define such facilities, and other rules.

  20. OPEC and lower oil prices: Impacts on production capacity, export refining, domestic demand and trade balances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Isaak, D.; Totto, L.; Wilson, T.

    1988-12-01

    The East-West Center has received a research grant from the US Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis to study the impact of lower oil prices on OPEC production capacity, on export refineries, and petroleum trade. The project was later extended to include balance-of-payments scenarios and impacts on OPEC domestic demand. As the study progressed, a number of preliminary presentations were made at the US Department of Energy in order to receive feedback from DOE officials and to refine the focus of our analysis. During one of the presentations on June 4, 1987, the then Director of Division of Oil and Gas, John Stanley-Miller, advised us to focus our work on the Persian Gulf countries, since these countries were of special interest to the United States Government. Since then, our team has visited Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia and obtained detailed information from other countries. The political turmoil in the Gulf, the Iran/Iraq war, and the active US military presence have all worked to delay the final submission of our report. Even in countries where the United States has close ties, access to information has been difficult. In most countries, even mundane information on petroleum issues are treated as national secrets. As a result of these difficulties, we requested a one-year no cost extension to the grant and submitted an Interim Report in May 1988. As part of our grant extension request, we proposed to undertake additional tasks which appear in this report. 20 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differentia

  2. Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio-oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, George W; Vispute, Tushar P; Routray, Kamalakanta

    2014-06-03

    Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio-oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio-oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio-oil.

  3. Table 4.2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, 1977-2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil and Natural Gas Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, 1977-2010 Year Crude Oil and Lease Condensate 1 Natural Gas (Dry) Cumulative Production Proved Reserves 2 Cumulative Production Proved Reserves 3 Million Barrels Billion Cubic Feet 1977 118,091 31,780 514,439 207,413 1978 121,269 31,355 533,561 208,033 1979 124,390 31,221 553,224 200,997 1980 127,537 31,335 572,627 199,021 1981 130,665 31,006 591,808 201,730 1982 133,822 29,459 609,628 201,512 1983 136,993 29,348 625,722

  4. Balanced-activity improved inverse emulsion to inhibit brittle lutite hydration in oil fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmedo, E. P.; de J. Hernandez Alvarez, R.; Barrera, C. D.; Ramos, J. D. G.

    1984-10-02

    An improved inverse emulsion for use as a drilling fluid that inhibits brittle lutite hydration. The emulsion includes a heavy oil; brine; a viscosity agent with thermostabilizing properties; an emulsifying agent; a thickening agent; a gelatinizing additive; and an alkaline earth metal hydroxide. The emulsion avoids hole collapsing and improves well gage stability.

  5. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  6. Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-15

    Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

  7. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  8. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-07-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone. Examination of upper Ismay cores identified seven depositional facies: open marine, middle shelf, inner shelf/tidal flat, bryozoan mounds, phylloid-algal mounds, quartz sand dunes, and anhydritic salinas. Lower Desert Creek facies include open marine, middle shelf, protomounds/collapse breccia, and phylloid-algal mounds. Mapping the upper Ismay zone facies delineates very prospective reservoir trends that contain porous, productive buildups around the anhydrite-filled intra-shelf basins. Facies and reservoir controls imposed by the anhydritic intra-shelf basins should be considered when selecting the optimal location and orientation of any horizontal drilling from known phylloidalgal reservoirs to undrained reserves, as well as identifying new exploration trends. Although intra-shelf basins are not present in the lower Desert Creek zone of the Blanding sub-basin, drilling horizontally along linear shoreline trends could also encounter previously undrilled, porous intervals and buildups. Technology transfer activities consisted of a technical presentation at a Class II Review conference sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory at the Center for Energy and Economic Diversification in Odessa, Texas. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  9. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike

    2002-02-21

    The objective of the project is not just to commercially produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production volumes and costs.

  10. Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production in North American tight geologic formations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Earth's Future Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production in North American tight geologic formations Oliver Schneising 1 , John P. Burrows 1,2,3 , Russell R. Dickerson 2 , Michael Buchwitz 1 , Maximilian Reuter 1 , and Heinrich Bovensmann 1 1 Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany, 2 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA, 3 NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,

  11. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R.; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  12. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A.; Kraiem, T.; Naoui, S.; Belayouni, H.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 C and a heating rate of 5 C/min. The chemical (GCMS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compoundsetc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  13. Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amy Childers

    2011-03-30

    Never before has the reduction of oil and gas exploration and production impacts been as important as it is today for operators, regulators, non-governmental organizations and individual landowners. Collectively, these stakeholders are keenly interested in the potential benefits from implementing effective environmental impact reducing technologies and practices. This research project strived to gain input and insight from such a broad array of stakeholders in order to identify approaches with the potential to satisfy their diverse objectives. The research team examined three of the most vital issue categories facing onshore domestic production today: (1) surface damages including development in urbanized areas, (2) impacts to wildlife (specifically greater sage grouse), and (3) air pollution, including its potential contribution to global climate change. The result of the research project is a LINGO (Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil) handbook outlining approaches aimed at avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating environmental impacts. The handbook identifies technical solutions and approaches which can be implemented in a practical and feasible manner to simultaneously achieve a legitimate balance between environmental protection and fluid mineral development. It is anticipated that the results of this research will facilitate informed planning and decision making by management agencies as well as producers of oil and natural gas. In 2008, a supplemental task was added for the researchers to undertake a 'Basin Initiative Study' that examines undeveloped and/or underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources on a regional or geologic basin scope to stimulate more widespread awareness and development of domestic resources. Researchers assessed multi-state basins (or plays), exploring state initiatives, state-industry partnerships and developing strategies to increase U.S. oil and gas supplies while accomplishing regional economic and environmental goals.

  14. Phenolic compounds containing/neutral fractions extract and products derived therefrom from fractionated fast-pyrolysis oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L.; Black, Stuart K.; Diebold, James P.; Kreibich, Roland E.

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde novolak resins and molding compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils. The fractionation consists of a neutralization stage which can be carried out with aqueous solutions of bases or appropriate bases in the dry state, followed by solvent extraction with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen bonding capacity. Phenolic compounds-containing/neutral fractions extracts obtained by fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils from a lignocellulosic material, is such that the oil is initially in the pH range of 2-4, being neutralized with an aqueous bicarbonate base, and extracted into a solvent having a solubility parameter of approximately 8.4-9.11 [cal/cm.sup.3 ].sup.1/2 with polar components in the 1.8-3.0 range and hydrogen bonding components in the 2-4.8 range and the recovery of the product extract from the solvent with no further purification being needed for use in adhesives and molding compounds. The product extract is characterized as being a mixture of very different compounds having a wide variety of chemical functionalities, including phenolic, carbonyl, aldehyde, methoxyl, vinyl and hydroxyl. The use of the product extract on phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting resins is shown to have advantages over the conventional phenol-formaldehyde resins.

  15. Analysis of Crude Oil Production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ted Stevens that the Energy Information Administration provide an assessment of federal oil and natural gas leasing in the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska.

  16. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    summer gasoline price higher due to rising crude oil costs The price U.S. drivers pay for gasoline this summer is expected to average 3.61 per gallon....that's 3 cents more than ...

  17. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gasoline prices in december expected to be lowest in nearly 4 years Falling crude oil prices are expected to push U.S. retail gasoline prices in December to their lowest level in ...

  18. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Oil demand expected to rise in non-industrialized countries, led by strong growth in China Nonindustrialized countries are expected to account for all of the growth in global ...

  19. Process for preparing phenolic formaldehyde resole resin products derived from fractionated fast-pyrolysis oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L.; Kreibich, Roland E.

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.

  20. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Li, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  1. Analysis of Oil and Gas Production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact on future oil imports and expenditures of opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to petroleum development. High, low, and mean ANWR oil resource case projections were compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case. The study also examined whether potential synergies exist in opening ANWR to petroleum development and the construction of an Alaska gas pipeline from the North Slope to the lower 48 states.

  2. USING 3D COMPUTER MODELING, BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS, AND HIGH CAPACITY PUMPS TO RESTORE PRODUCTION TO MARGINAL WELLS IN THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Bassett

    2003-06-09

    Methods for extending the productive life of marginal wells in the East Texas Field were investigated using advanced computer imaging technology, geophysical tools, and selective perforation of existing wells. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy, TENECO Energy and Schlumberger Wireline and Testing. Drillers' logs for more than 100 wells in proximity to the project lease were acquired, converted to digital format using a numerical scheme, and the data were used to create a 3 Dimensional geological image of the project site. Using the descriptive drillers' logs in numerical format yielded useful cross sections identifying the Woodbine Austin Chalk contact and continuity of sand zones between wells. The geological data provided information about reservoir continuity, but not the amount of remaining oil, this was obtained using selective modern logs. Schlumberger logged the wells through 2 3/8 inch tubing with a new slimhole Reservoir Saturation Tool (RST) which can measure the oil and water content of the existing porosity, using neutron scattering and a gamma ray spectrometer (GST). The tool provided direct measurements of elemental content yielding interpretations of porosity, lithology, and oil and water content, confirming that significant oil saturation still exists, up to 50% in the upper Woodbine sand. Well testing was then begun and at the end of the project new oil was being produced from zones abandoned or bypassed more than 25 years ago.

  3. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  4. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; Dwasi Tagbor; John Nguygen; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period January - March 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the "Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist". The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  5. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Don; Koerner, Roy; Moos, Dan; Nguyen, John; Phillips, Chris; Tagbor, Kwasi; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  6. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  7. United Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Oil Company Place: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Product: Vegetable-Oil producer Biodiesel producer based in Pittsburgh, PA...

  8. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHASTAN: USING OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION BY-PRODUCT SULFUR FOR COST-EFFECTIVE SECONDARY END-USE PRODUCTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KALB, P.D.; VAGIN, S.; BEALL, P.W.; LEVINTOV, B.L.

    2004-09-25

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing to develop its extensive petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region of the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Large quantities of by-product sulfur are being produced as a result of the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and gas produced in the region. Lack of local markets and economic considerations limit the traditional outlets for by-product sulfur and the buildup of excess sulfur is a becoming a potential economic and environmental liability. Thus, new applications for re-use of by-product sulfur that will benefit regional economies including construction, paving and waste treatment are being developed. One promising application involves the cleanup and treatment of mercury at a Kazakhstan chemical plant. During 19 years of operation at the Pavlodar Khimprom chlor-alkali production facility, over 900 tons of mercury was lost to the soil surrounding and beneath the buildings. The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication (Almaty) is leading a team to develop and demonstrate a vacuum-assisted thermal process to extract the mercury from the soil and concentrate it as pure, elemental mercury, which will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process. The use of locally produced sulfur will recycle a low-value industrial by-product to treat hazardous waste and render it safe for return to the environment, thereby helping to solve two problems at once. SPSS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and low solubility, and then physically encapsulates the material in a durable, monolithic solid sulfur polymer matrix. Thus, mercury is placed in a solid form very much like stable cinnabar, the form in which it is found in nature. Previous research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wt% mercury in the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). The research and development to deploy Kazakhstan recycled sulfur for secondary applications described in this paper is being conducted with support from the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the U.S. Department of Energy Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (DOE IPP).

  9. Fact #863 March 9, 2015 Crude Oil Accounts for the Majority of Primary Energy Imports while Exports are Mostly Petroleum Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, seventy percent of the primary energy imports were crude oil, followed by petroleum products (16%) and natural gas (12%). The remaining sources of primary energy imports: coal, coal coke,...

  10. Drilling Productivity Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  11. Gupco's experience in treating Gulf of Suez seawater for waterflooding the El Morgan oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Hattab, M.I.

    1982-07-01

    Pressure maintenance by waterflooding in some reservoirs may be considered essential for satisfactory oil recovery. The main objective of waterflooding is to place water into a rock formation at both the desired rate and pressure with minimal expense and trouble. This objective, however, cannot be achieved unless this water has certain characteristics. The water, therefore, should be treated and conditioned before injection. This study addresses the treatment phases adopted to improve seawater quality before injection, and to control problems associated with untreated seawater. Also discussed are GUPCO'S (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.) experience in seawaterfloods, problems encountered, and corrective actions taken to overcome these problems. The chemical treatment programs adopted are presented along with final conclusions and recommendations that can be applied to similar floods in Egypt with (Gulf of Suez) GOS. 47 refs.

  12. Oil- and gas-supply modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gass, S.I.

    1982-05-01

    The symposium on Oil and Gas Supply Modeling, held at the Department of Commerce, Washington, DC (June 18-20, 1980), was funded by the Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy and co-sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards' Operations Research Division. The symposium was organized to be a forum in which the theoretical and applied state-of-the-art of oil and gas supply models could be presented and discussed. Speakers addressed the following areas: the realities of oil and gas supply, prediction of oil and gas production, problems in oil and gas modeling, resource appraisal procedures, forecasting field size and production, investment and production strategies, estimating cost and production schedules for undiscovered fields, production regulations, resource data, sensitivity analysis of forecasts, econometric analysis of resource depletion, oil and gas finding rates, and various models of oil and gas supply. This volume documents the proceedings (papers and discussion) of the symposium. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  13. Increased reserves through horizontal drilling in a mature waterflood, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Oil Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ranger Zone development started in 1965. A waterflood was initiated from the start using a staggered line-drive pattern. Infill drilling in the early 1980s and again in the 1990s revealed bypassed oil in the upper Ranger Fo sand. Detailed studies of the aerial extent of the remaining oil resulted in drilling 17 horizontal wells to recover these reserves. The Fo target sand thickness is 20 to 50 feet. Well courses are between 10 and 15 feet below the top of the Fo with lengths varying from 800 to 1,000 feet. The success of the Fo drilling program has prompted expansion of horizontal drilling into thin-bedded sand units. Well lengths have increased to between 1,500 and 1,800 feet with structural trend used to advantage. Where needed, probes are designed to penetrate the target sand before setting intermediate casing. The drilling program has been extended into bilateral horizontal completions. Geosteering with MWD/GR and a 2 MHz dual propagation resistivity tool is used to the casing point. In the completion interval, only the MWD/GR tool is used and a drillpipe conveyed E-log is run afterward to confirm expected resistivities. Despite the many well penetrations in the Ranger Zone, structural control is only fair. Accuracy of MWD data is generally low and geosteering is done by TVD log correlation. With a recovery factor of over 30 percent in Ranger West, from approximately 800 wells drilled in the last 30 years, the horizontal drilling program targeting bypassed reserves has brought new life to this mature reservoir.

  14. Increased reserves through horizontal drilling in a mature waterflood, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Oil Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, B.H. )

    1996-01-01

    Ranger Zone development started in 1965. A waterflood was initiated from the start using a staggered line-drive pattern. Infill drilling in the early 1980s and again in the 1990s revealed bypassed oil in the upper Ranger Fo sand. Detailed studies of the aerial extent of the remaining oil resulted in drilling 17 horizontal wells to recover these reserves. The Fo target sand thickness is 20 to 50 feet. Well courses are between 10 and 15 feet below the top of the Fo with lengths varying from 800 to 1,000 feet. The success of the Fo drilling program has prompted expansion of horizontal drilling into thin-bedded sand units. Well lengths have increased to between 1,500 and 1,800 feet with structural trend used to advantage. Where needed, probes are designed to penetrate the target sand before setting intermediate casing. The drilling program has been extended into bilateral horizontal completions. Geosteering with MWD/GR and a 2 MHz dual propagation resistivity tool is used to the casing point. In the completion interval, only the MWD/GR tool is used and a drillpipe conveyed E-log is run afterward to confirm expected resistivities. Despite the many well penetrations in the Ranger Zone, structural control is only fair. Accuracy of MWD data is generally low and geosteering is done by TVD log correlation. With a recovery factor of over 30 percent in Ranger West, from approximately 800 wells drilled in the last 30 years, the horizontal drilling program targeting bypassed reserves has brought new life to this mature reservoir.

  15. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

  16. Improved oil production using economical biopolymer-surfactant blends for profile modification and mobility control. Final report, November 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabitto, J.; Barrufet, M.A.; Burnett, D.B.

    1998-12-01

    In the past, starch hydrocolloids have not been effective alternates to partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides, copolymers, and xanthan gum polymers as water shutoff agents in fractures and in matrix flow configurations. Poor injectivity and questionable stability have usually prevented their use in profile control applications. However, in recent years, the demands of the oil and gas drilling industry have led to the development of new drilling, drill-in, and completion fluids with improved functionality. New types of modified starches have contributed to these new drill in fluid (DIF) products. It was felt that the properties of the new products would lend themselves to applications in improved recovery. The objective of this project has been to evaluate the use of agricultural starch biopolymers for gelled and polymer applications in oil recovery processes. The authors believe that there is great potential for finding new functional starch products because of their chemical and structural flexibility, low cost, and wide availability. The goals of this project have been, therefore, to systematically investigate how the physical properties and chemical composition of relatively inexpensive agricultural starch products will influence their use as effective selective permeability control agents or as gels for water shut-off.

  17. Process for fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils, and products derived therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L.; Black, Stuart K.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for fractionating lignocellulosic materials fast-prolysis oils to produce phenol-containing compositions suitable for the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The process includes admixing the oils with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen The United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC02-83CH10093 between the United States Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute, a Division of the Midwest Research Institute.

  18. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-07-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the first six months of 2004 (January 1, 2004-June 30, 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Azotea Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Azote Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico.

  19. U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-Model application to a field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Guoping; Watson, David B; Wu, Wei-min; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    A one-time 2-hour emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection in a fast flowing aquifer decreased U discharge to a stream for over a year. Using a comprehensive biogeochemical model developed in the companion article based on microcosm tests, we approximately matched the observed acetate, nitrate, Fe, U, and sulfate concentrations, and described the major evolution trends of multiple microbial functional groups in the field test. While the lab-determined parameters were generally applicable in the field-scale simulation, the EVO hydrolysis rate constant was estimated to be an order of magnitude greater in the field than in the microcosms. The model predicted substantial biomass (sulfate reducers) and U(IV) accumulation near the injection wells and along the side boundaries of the treatment zone where electron donors (long-chain fatty acids) from the injection wells met electron acceptors (sulfate) from the surrounding environment. While EVO retention and hydrolysis characteristics were expected to control treatment longevity, modeling results indicated that electron acceptors such as sulfate may not only compete for electrons but also play a conducive role in degrading complex substrates and enhancing U(VI) reduction and immobilization. As a result, the spacing of the injection wells could be optimized for effective sustainable bioremediation.

  20. East Coast (PADD 1) Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History Total 49,770 49,022 45,969 51,354 54,063 56,468 1981-2016 Crude Oil 17,256 22,078 22,779 22,763 25,011 25,873 1981-2016 Total ...

  1. Study on detailed geological modelling for fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Hanqing; Fu Zhiguo; Lu Xiaoguang

    1997-08-01

    Guided by the sedimentation theory and knowledge of modern and ancient fluvial deposition and utilizing the abundant information of sedimentary series, microfacies type and petrophysical parameters from well logging curves of close spaced thousands of wells located in a large area. A new method for establishing detailed sedimentation and permeability distribution models for fluvial reservoirs have been developed successfully. This study aimed at the geometry and internal architecture of sandbodies, in accordance to their hierarchical levels of heterogeneity and building up sedimentation and permeability distribution models of fluvial reservoirs, describing the reservoir heterogeneity on the light of the river sedimentary rules. The results and methods obtained in outcrop and modem sedimentation studies have successfully supported the study. Taking advantage of this method, the major producing layers (PI{sub 1-2}), which have been considered as heterogeneous and thick fluvial reservoirs extending widely in lateral are researched in detail. These layers are subdivided into single sedimentary units vertically and the microfacies are identified horizontally. Furthermore, a complex system is recognized according to their hierarchical levels from large to small, meander belt, single channel sandbody, meander scroll, point bar, and lateral accretion bodies of point bar. The achieved results improved the description of areal distribution of point bar sandbodies, provide an accurate and detailed framework model for establishing high resolution predicting model. By using geostatistic technique, it also plays an important role in searching for enriched zone of residual oil distribution.

  2. Case report: Profound neurobehavioral deficits in an oil field worker overcome by hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilburn, K.H. )

    1993-11-01

    A 24-year-old oil well tester was rendered semiconscious by hydrogen sulfide (H2S). He received oxygen and was hospitalized but released in 30 minutes. The next day, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and incontinence of urine and stool led to rehospitalization. These problems and leg shaking, dizziness, sweating, trouble sleeping, and nightmares prevented his return to work. A physical examination, chest x-ray, and pulmonary function tests were normal 39 months after the episode but vibration sense was diminished. Two choice visual reaction times were delayed. Balance was highly abnormal (5 to 6 cm/sec) with eyes closed. Blink reflex latency was slow (R-1 17.5 msec versus normal 14.3 msec). Numbers written on finger tips were not recognized. Verbal and visual recall were impaired but overlearned memory was intact. Cognitive functions measured by Culture Fair, block design, and digit symbol were impaired. Perceptual motor was slow. Scores for confusion, tension-anxiety, depression, and fatigue were elevated and vigor was reduced. Forty-nine months after exposure his reaction time, sway speed, and color vision had not improved. His recall and his cognitive, constructional, and psychomotor speeds had improved but remained abnormal. These deficits are most likely due to H2S. Similar testing of other survivors is recommended.

  3. Net Movements of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge, and Rail Between PAD Districts, January 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 PAD District 2 PAD District 3 Receipts Shipments Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Net Receipts Crude Oil 1 ................................................................ 11,209 1,213 9,996 35,554 35,363 190 23,680 28,598 -4,918 Petroleum Products 2 .............................................. 106,990 8,669 107,347 29,831 18,055 -6,599 16,594 124,991 -103,885 Pentanes Plus

  4. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    Summaries are presented for the DOE contracts related to supported research for thermal recovery of petroleum, geoscience technology, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Data included for each project are: title, contract number, principal investigator, research organization, beginning date, expected completion date, amount of award, objectives of the research, and summary of technical progress.

  5. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  6. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 82, quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This document consists of a list of projects supporting work on oil recovery programs. A publications list and index of companies and institutions is provided. The remaining portion of the document provides brief descriptions on projects in chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, resource assessment, and reservoir class field demonstrations.

  7. Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

    2000-04-01

    This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

  8. Enhanced oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ miscible displacement in the Little Knife Field, Billings County, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desch, J.B.; Larsen, W.K.; Lindsay, R.F.; Nettle, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    A CO/sub 2/ minitest employing the miscible displacement process was conducted in the Mission Canyon Formation (lower Mississippian) at Little Knife Field, North Dakota. The Mission Canyon is a dolomitized carbonate reservoir which is undergoing primary depletion. Four wells were drilled in an inverted four-spot configuration, covering five acres. The central well served as the injection well and was surrounded by three non-producing observation wells. A WAG-type injection sequence utilized five alternate slugs of formation water and CO/sub 2/. Preflush injection began December 11, 1980, followed by the WAG slugs from January 7 to March 25, 1981. Drive water injection commenced immediately and was completed on September 24, 1981. Injection rates were maintained at 1150 B/D during water injection and 40 T/D during CO/sub 2/ injection. Tracers were used during the waterflood preflush and with the water during the WAG. A pressure core behind the flood front was obtained to confirm residual-oil saturations in the project interval. Overall rock recovery was excellent, 90%, but sample recovery under reservoir pressure was less than anticipated. Invasion of drilling fluids during coring was checked by introduction of a radioactive tracer into the coring fluid. Project analysis is still ongoing and once completed, the simulation models will be updated and used to predict field-wide applicability. (JMT)

  9. Review of disaster management implementation for the community safety in the vicinity of oil and gas field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musa, R. Abdullah; Heni, Siti; Harjanto, Meddy

    2015-04-24

    Sukowati site which is operated by Production Sharing Contract (PSC) Joint Operating Body Pertamina Petrochina East Java (JOB P-PEJ) located at Bojonegoro regency East Java Province. This site is close to densely populated settlements with approximately 6,010 people within a radius less than 600 m. The fluid produced have a dangerous potential to the above mention community, due to accompanying of hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S) with a concentration about 0.6% 2% from the total gas produced. In 2006, there was incident of gas leak from drilling development well of Sukowati # 5. The incident made the surrounding community panic due to lack of preparedness and awareness. Learning from the incident, the company together with the government and local communities initiated to make improvements through the disaster management system approach. The efforts are carried out in accordance with the 4 (four) periods in a continuous cycle consist of (1) mitigation; (2) preparation; (3) response and (4) recovery. Emergency response drills conducted regularly at least once a year, its main purpose is to find out the results of the implementation of the existing disaster management. The results of the drills showed an increase in public awareness and responsiveness to emergency situations caused by the operational failures of oil and gas exploration and production activities near their settlement.

  10. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiedemann, H.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The report contains a general introduction and background to DOE's revised National Energy Strategy Advanced Oil Recovery Program and activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; a detailed synopsis of the symposium, including technical presentations, comments and suggestions; a section of technical information on deltaic reservoirs; and appendices containing a comprehensive listing of references keyed to general deltaic and geological aspects of reservoirs and those relevant to six selected deltaic plays. Enhanced recovery processes include chemical floodings, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, and microbial recovery.

  11. Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air Products is partnering with Denbury Green Pipeline – Texas, LLC to capture and sequester one million tons of carbon dioxide per year from two existing steam-methane reformers at Air Products’ hydrogen-production facility in Port Arthur, Texas. The captured CO2 is transported by pipeline to oil fields in eastern Texas for enhanced oil recovery. The total award value of the project is $431 million, with $284 million comprising DOE’s 66 percent share.

  12. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the precipitate readily enables removal of asphaltenes. Thus, an upgraded crude low in heavy metal, sulfur and nitrogen is more conducive for further purification.

  13. Jumpstarting commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage with ethylene production and enhanced oil recovery in the US Gulf

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Middleton, Richard S.; Levine, Jonathan S.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Carey, J. William; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2015-04-27

    CO2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology has yet to be widely deployed at a commercial scale despite multiple high-profile demonstration projects. We suggest that developing a large-scale, visible, and financially viable CCUS network could potentially overcome many barriers to deployment and jumpstart commercial-scale CCUS. To date, substantial effort has focused on technology development to reduce the costs of CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Here, we propose that near-term investment could focus on implementing CO2 capture on facilities that produce high-value chemicals/products. These facilities can absorb the expected impact of the marginal increase in the cost of production onmore » the price of their product, due to the addition of CO2 capture, more than coal-fired power plants. A financially viable demonstration of a large-scale CCUS network requires offsetting the costs of CO2 capture by using the CO2 as an input to the production of market-viable products. As a result, we demonstrate this alternative development path with the example of an integrated CCUS system where CO2 is captured from ethylene producers and used for enhanced oil recovery in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.« less

  14. Novel Cleanup Agents Designed Exclusively for Oil Field Membrane Filtration Systems Low Cost Field Demonstrations of Cleanup Agents in Controlled Experimental Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Burnett; Harold Vance

    2007-08-31

    The goal of our project is to develop innovative processes and novel cleaning agents for water treatment facilities designed to remove fouling materials and restore micro-filter and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane performance. This project is part of Texas A&M University's comprehensive study of the treatment and reuse of oilfield brine for beneficial purposes. Before waste water can be used for any beneficial purpose, it must be processed to remove contaminants, including oily wastes such as residual petroleum hydrocarbons. An effective way of removing petroleum from brines is the use of membrane filters to separate oily waste from the brine. Texas A&M and its partners have developed highly efficient membrane treatment and RO desalination for waste water including oil field produced water. We have also developed novel and new cleaning agents for membrane filters utilizing environmentally friendly materials so that the water from the treatment process will meet U.S. EPA drinking water standards. Prototype micellar cleaning agents perform better and use less clean water than alternate systems. While not yet optimized, the new system restores essentially complete membrane flux and separation efficiency after cleaning. Significantly the amount of desalinated water that is required to clean the membranes is reduced by more than 75%.

  15. Fire flood recovery process effects upon heavy oil properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichert, C.; Fuhr, B.; Sawatzky, H.; Lefleur, R.; Verkoczy, B.; Soveran, D.; Jha, K.

    1988-06-01

    The steady decline in proven conventional oil deposits world wide has increased the emphasis on the use of heavy oil and bitumen. Most of the heavy oil and oil sand deposits share the common problem of providing very little or no primary production. They require a reduction in viscosity of the oil to make it flow. The oil in place and the reservoir characteristics are generally studied carefully to determine the design of the recovery process most applicable to the deposit and to evaluate its potential. Many of these same characteristics are also used to evaluate the oil with respect to upgrading, refining and final usage in the form of products. A variety of processes have been developed most of which utilize heat either in the form of steam or combustion to mobolize the oil in the reservoir. These processes vary considerably from rather mild conditions for steam stimulation to quite severe for combustion recovery. Figure 1 shows a typical schematic of an insitu combustion process. Many variations of forward combustion are used in the field to produce oil. Depending upon the severity of the recovery process in the recovered oil may be similar to the oil in the deposit or may be highly modified (oxidized, polymerized or upgraded). A memorandum of Understanding was signed by the Governments of the United States of America, Canada and the Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta to study different aspects of the problems related to the recovery of oil from heavy oil and sand deposits. One phase of the study is to determine the effects of different methods of in-situ recovery on the composition of recovered bitumen and heavy oils. This paper describes the findings from a study of fireflood process in a heavy oil deposit located in the Cummings formation of the Eyehill Field in Saskatchewan, Canada.

  16. INCREASING OIL RECOVERY THROUGH ADVANCED REPROCESSING OF 3D SEISMIC, GRANT CANYON AND BACON FLAT FIELDS, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric H. Johnson; Don E. French

    2001-06-01

    Makoil, Inc., of Orange, California, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy has reprocessed and reinterpreted the 3D seismic survey of the Grant Canyon area, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. The project was supported by Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG26-00BC15257. The Grant Canyon survey covers an area of 11 square miles, and includes Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields. These fields have produced over 20 million barrels of oil since 1981, from debris slides of Devonian rocks that are beneath 3,500 to 5,000 ft of Tertiary syntectonic deposits that fill the basin of Railroad Valley. High-angle and low-angle normal faults complicate the trap geometry of the fields, and there is great variability in the acoustic characteristics of the overlying valley fill. These factors combine to create an area that is challenging to interpret from seismic reflection data. A 3D seismic survey acquired in 1992-93 by the operator of the fields has been used to identify development and wildcat locations with mixed success. Makoil believed that improved techniques of processing seismic data and additional well control could enhance the interpretation enough to improve the chances of success in the survey area. The project involved the acquisition of hardware and software for survey interpretation, survey reprocessing, and reinterpretation of the survey. SeisX, published by Paradigm Geophysical Ltd., was chosen as the interpretation software, and it was installed on a Dell Precision 610 computer work station with the Windows NT operating system. The hardware and software were selected based on cost, possible addition of compatible modeling software in the future, and the experience of consulting geophysicists in the Billings area. Installation of the software and integration of the hardware into the local office network was difficult at times but was accomplished with some technical support from Paradigm and Hewlett Packard, manufacturer of some of the network equipment. A number of improvements in the processing of the survey were made compared to the original work. Pre-stack migration was employed, and some errors in muting in the original processing were found and corrected. In addition, improvements in computer hardware allowed interactive monitoring of the processing steps, so that parameters could be adjusted before completion of each step. The reprocessed survey was then loaded into SeisX, v. 3.5, for interpretation work. Interpretation was done on 2, 21-inch monitors connected to the work station. SeisX was prone to crashing, but little work was lost because of this. The program was developed for use under the Unix operating system, and some aspects of the design of the user interface betray that heritage. For example, printing is a 2-stage operation that involves creation of a graphic file using SeisX and printing the file with printer utility software. Because of problems inherent in using graphics files with different software, a significant amount of trial and error is introduced in getting printed output. Most of the interpretation work was done using vertical profiles. The interpretation tools used with time slices are limited and hard to use, but a number to tools and techniques are available to use with vertical profiles. Although this project encountered a number of delays and difficulties, some unavoidable and some self-inflicted, the result is an improved 3D survey and greater confidence in the interpretation. The experiences described in this report will be useful to those that are embarking on a 3D seismic interpretation project.

  17. Study of Reservoir Heterogencities and Structural Features Affecting Production in the Shallow Oil Zone, Eastern Elk Hills Area, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janice Gillespie

    2004-11-01

    Late Neogene (Plio-Pleistocene) shallow marine strata of the western Bakersfield Arch and Elk Hills produce hydrocarbons from several different reservoirs. This project focuses on the shallow marine deposits of the Gusher and Calitroleum reservoirs in the Lower Shallow Oil Zone (LSOZ). In the eastern part of the study area on the Bakersfield Arch at North and South Coles Levee field and in two wells in easternmost Elk Hills, the LSOZ reservoirs produce dry (predominantly methane) gas. In structurally higher locations in western Elk Hills, the LSOZ produces oil and associated gas. Gas analyses show that gas from the eastern LSOZ is bacterial and formed in place in the reservoirs, whereas gas associated with oil in the western part of the study area is thermogenic and migrated into the sands from deeper in the basin. Regional mapping shows that the gas-bearing LSOZ sands in the Coles Levee and easternmost Elk Hills area are sourced from the Sierra Nevada to the east whereas the oil-bearing sands in western Elk Hills appear to be sourced from the west. The eastern Elk Hills area occupied the basin depocenter, farthest from either source area. As a result, it collected mainly low-permeability offshore shale deposits. This sand-poor depocenter provides an effective barrier to the updip migration of gases from east to west. The role of small, listric normal faults as migration barriers is more ambiguous. Because our gas analyses show that the gas in the eastern LSOZ reservoirs is bacterial, it likely formed in-place near the reservoirs and did not have to migrate far. Therefore, the gas could have been generated after faulting and accumulated within the fault blocks as localized pools. However, bacterial gas is present in both the eastern AND western parts of Elk Hills in the Dry Gas Zone (DGZ) near the top of the stratigraphic section even though the measured fault displacement is greatest in this zone. Bacterial gas is not present in the west in the deeper LSOZ which has less measured fault displacement. The main difference between the DGZ and the LSOZ appears to be the presence of a sandpoor area in the LSOZ in eastern Elk Hills. The lack of permeable migration pathways in this area would not allow eastern bacterial gas to migrate farther updip into western Elk Hills. A similar sand-poor area does not appear to exist in the DGZ but future research may be necessary to verify this.

  18. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-08-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant oil, but contrary to early reports, the area does not contain the huge volumes of heavy oil that, along with the development of steam and in situ combustion as oil production technologies, sparked the area`s oil boom of the 1960s. Recovery of this heavy oil has proven economically unfeasible for most operators due to the geology of the formations rather than the technology applied to recover the oil. The geology of the southern Midcontinent, as well as results of field projects using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) methods to produce the heavy oil, was examined based on analysis of data from secondary sources. Analysis of the performance of these projects showed that the technology recovered additional heavy oil above what was produced from primary production from the consolidated, compartmentalized, fluvial dominated deltaic sandstone formations in the Cherokee and Forest City basins. The only projects producing significant economic and environmentally acceptable heavy oil in the Midcontinent are in higher permeability, unconsolidated or friable, thick sands such as those found in south-central Oklahoma. There are domestic heavy oil reservoirs in other sedimentary basins that are in younger formations, are less consolidated, have higher permeability and can be economically produced with current TEOR technology. Heavy oil production from the carbonates of central and wester Kansas has not been adequately tested, but oil production is anticipated to remain low. Significant expansion of Midcontinent heavy oil production is not anticipated because the economics of oil production and processing are not favorable.

  19. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  20. Increasing waterflood reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. Annual report, March 21, 1995--March 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, D.; Clarke, D.; Walker, S.; Phillips, C.; Nguyen, J.; Moos, D.; Tagbor, K.

    1997-08-01

    This project uses advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three- dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturation sands will be stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as short radius and ultra-short radius laterals. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  1. Oman Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil Company (S.A.O.C.) Name: Oman Oil Company (S.A.O.C.) Place: Muscat, Oman Product: Oil exploration and production Year Founded: 1966 Phone Number: + 968 - 2457 3100 Website:...

  2. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins' heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas' liquid fuels needs.

  3. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins` heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas` liquid fuels needs.

  4. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  5. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Robust production is also supporting increased natural gas exports to Mexico and reductions in natural gas imports from Canada. Several companies plan to build U.S. terminals to ...

  6. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oil and Hydrotreated Product from Pine Feedstock Characterized by Heteronuclear Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy and FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Cort, John R.; Hallen, Richard T.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) crude oil and hydrotreated product from pine tree farm waste (forest product residual, FPR) have been analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes and high-resolution twodimensional heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. FT-ICR MS resolves thousands of compounds in complex oils and provides unparalleled compositional details for individual molecules for identification of compound class (heteroatom content), type (number of rings plus double bonds to carbon or double bond equivalents (DBE) and carbon number (degree of alkylation). Heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy provides one-bond and multiple-bond correlations between pairs of 1H and 13C chemical shifts that are characteristic of different organic functional groups. Taken together this information provides a picture of the chemical composition of these oils. Pyrolysis crude oil product from pine wood was characterized for comparison. Generally, pyrolysis oil is comprised of a more diverse distribution of heteroatom classes with higher oxygen number relative to HTL oil as shown by both positive- and negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS. A total of 300 N1, 594 O1 and 267 O2 compounds were observed as products of hydrotreatment. The relative abundance of N1O1, N1O2, N1O3, N2, N2O1, N2O2 and O3 compounds are reduced to different degrees after hydrotreatment and other higher heteroatom containing species (O4-O10, N1O4, N1O5 and N2O3) are completely removed by hydrotreatment.

  7. Oil Production by a Consortium of Oleaginous Microorganisms grown on primary effluent wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Mary; French, Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Donaldson, Janet; Mondala, Andro; Holmes, William

    2011-01-01

    Municipal wastewater could be a potential growth medium that has not been considered for cultivating oleaginous microorganisms. This study is designed to determine if a consortium of oleaginous microorganism can successfully compete for carbon and other nutrients with the indigenous microorganisms contained in primary effluent wastewater. RESULTS: The oleaginous consortium inoculated with indigenous microorganisms reached stationary phase within 24 h, reaching a maximum cell concentration of 0.58 g L -1. Water quality post-oleaginous consortium growth reached a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of approximately 81%, supporting the consumption of the glucose within 8 h. The oleaginous consortium increased the amount of oil produced per gram by 13% compared with indigenous microorganisms in raw wastewater. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results show a substantial population increase in bacteria within the first 24 h when the consortium is inoculated into raw wastewater. This result, along with the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) results, suggests that conditions tested were not sufficient for the oleaginous consortium to compete with the indigenous microorganisms.

  8. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    oil companies in the world. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company oversees many phases of oil and gas exploration and production, as well as other business activities. References...

  9. Oman Ministry of Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of oil and gas. Prepare legislation and regulations governing oil and gas. Oversee oil and gas exploration and production activities. Establish "Petroleum Agreements" with...

  10. Hefty tests buoy Philippine oil sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-13

    This paper reports that Alcorn International Inc., Houston, has disclosed a test of another hefty oil flow off Philippines. Alcorn last month completed its third high flowing delineation well in the West Linapacan area off Palawan Island. Development of West Linapacan field will help boost lagging Philippines oil production, which fell 31% in 1991 from 1990 levels. Philippines Office of Energy Affairs (OEA) also outlined other aspects of the country's oil and gas activity in 1991. Recent drilling successes have redirected the country's focus north to the West Linapacan area from older Northwest Palawan oil fields. Meantime, two geophysical survey and exploration contracts (GSECs) were awarded in 1991, and two service contracts (SCs) were relinquished during the year. Several seismic program were completed last year, and in agreement between Australia and Philippines will yield added seismic data during the next 3 years.

  11. Future oil and gas: Can Iran deliver?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takin, M.

    1996-11-01

    Iran`s oil and gas production and exports constitute the country`s main source of foreign exchange earnings. The future level of these earnings will depend on oil prices, global demand for Iranian exports, the country`s productive capability and domestic consumption. The size of Iranian oil reserves suggests that, in principle, present productive capacity could be maintained and expanded. However, the greatest share of production in coming years still will come from fields that already have produced for several decades. In spite of significant remaining reserves, these fields are not nearly as prolific as they were in their early years. The operations required for further development are now more complicated and, in particular, more costly. These fields` size also implies that improving production, and instituting secondary and tertiary recovery methods (such as gas injection), will require mega-scale operations. This article discusses future oil and gas export revenues from the Islamic Republic of Iran, emphasizing the country`s future production and commenting on the effects of proposed US sanctions.

  12. ,"Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids ",16,"Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1981" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel

  13. Heavy oil. upgrading integrated with steam drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Driesen, R.; Viens, C.H.; Fornoff, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the upgrading of heavy oil from a representative Venezuelan Jobo crude (9.2/sup 0/API, 4.1% sulfur, and 500 ppm total metals) from the Orinoco area involved 110 computer simulations based on a modified C-E Lummus Refinery Linear Program model on the assumptions of a 125,000 bbl/day refinery built, starting at 1979 prices, for completion by 1986 near the producing field to supply the fuel oil needed to provide oil field steam. All of the upgrading systems were economically attractive; the per cent return-on-investment (ROI) before taxes for the methods studied were: for Lummus LC-Fining, 135.9%; for Exxon's FLEXICOKING, 132.4%; for delayed coking, 119.2%; and for deasphalting, 106.5%. LC-Fining provided the best over-all combination of flexibility, product yield, product quality, and return on investment. The economics favored upgrading to the maximum extent possible; there was a reduction in the ROI for all the upgrading systems when product specifications were lowered from the premium base case (1.2% SO/sub 2/ emitted per million Btu fired). The premium upgraded heavy crude oils should be worth $3.00-$3.50/bbl more than comparable conventional crude oils, could be of up to 27/sup 0/API, and could be substituted, at up to 50%, for conventional crude oils in a typical U.S. refinery.

  14. Method for providing solids-free production from heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.R.; Smith, R.C.

    1991-08-06

    This patent describes a method for producing viscous substantially solids free hydrocarbonaceous fluids from an unconsolidated formation or reservoir. It includes drilling into the reservoir first and second spaced apart wells into a lower productive interval of the formation; perforating both wells in the lower productive interval; fracturing hydraulically the wells at the lower productive interval with a viscous fracturing fluid containing a proppant therein so as to prop a created fracture; injecting a pre-determined volume of steam into the first well in an amount sufficient to soften the viscous fluid and lower the viscosity of the fluid adjacent a fractured face; producing the first well at a rate sufficient to allow formation fines to build up on a fracture face communicating with the first well thereby resulting in a filter screen sufficient to substantially remove formation fines from the hydrocarbonaceous fluids.

  15. Dynamics of particle production by strong electric fields in non-Abelian plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, John F.; Mihaila, Bogdan; Cooper, Fred

    2010-03-01

    We develop methods for computing the dynamics of fermion pair production by strong color electric fields including backreaction using the semiclassical Boltzmann-Vlasov (B-V) equation. We implement the Schwinger pair production by inserting a source term in the B-V equation which includes Pauli-Blocking effects. We present numerical results for a model with SU(2) symmetries in (1+1) Cartesian dimensions.

  16. South American oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  17. US Crude oil exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014 EIA Energy Conference U.S. Crude Oil Exports July 14, 2014 By Lynn D. Westfall U.S. Energy Information Administration U.S. crude oil production has grown by almost 50% since 2008 and is up by 1.0 million b/d (14%) since April of 2013 U.S. crude oil production million barrels of oil per day Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration Lynn Westfall, 2014 EIA Energy Conference, U.S. Crude Oil Exports, July 14, 2014 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990

  18. Method for improving sustained solids-free production from heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.R.; Smith, R.C.

    1991-08-06

    This patent describes a method for producing viscous substantially solids-free hydrocarbonaceous fluids from an unconsolidated formation or reservoir. It includes drilling into the reservoir first and second spaced apart wells into a lower productive interval of the formation; perforating both wells in the lower productive interval; fracturing hydraulically the wells at the productive interval with a viscous fracturing fluid containing a propant therein so as to prop a created fracture and form a fines screen; injecting a pre-determined volume of steam into the first well in an amount sufficient to soften the viscous fluid and lower the viscosity of the fluid adjacent a fracture face; producing the first well at a rate sufficient to allow formation fines to build up on a fracture face communicating with the first well thereby resulting in a filter screen sufficient to substantially remove formation fines from the hydrocarbonaceous fluids; shutting in the first well while injecting steam in a predetermined amount in the second well; shutting in the second well.

  19. SciTech Connect: "oil shale"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oil shale" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "oil shale" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  20. Oil and Gas Gateway | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    States, oil and gas boards and commissions are the place for finding data related to oil and gas activities. These activities include well records, permitting, and production...