Sample records for oil climate zone

  1. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4B Albuquerque, New Mexico Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4B Albuquerque, New...

  2. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 5B Boulder, Colorado Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  3. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4C Seattle, Washington Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  4. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 6B Helena, Montana Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  5. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 8 Fairbanks, Alaska Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  6. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 5A Chicago, Illinois Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  7. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  8. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4A Baltimore, Maryland Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  9. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    akfairbankspre1980v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 8 Fairbanks, Alaska Reference Buildings by Climate Zone...

  10. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    minneapolispre1980v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 6A Minneapolis, Minnesota Reference Buildings by...

  11. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Baltimore, Maryland Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4A Baltimore, Maryland In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view...

  12. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Chicago, Illinois Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 5A Chicago, Illinois In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  13. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B Helena, Montana Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 6B Helena, Montana In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  14. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B Boulder, Colorado Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 5B Boulder, Colorado In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  15. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1A Miami, Florida Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 1A Miami, Florida In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  16. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 Duluth, Minnesota Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 7 Duluth, Minnesota In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  17. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B Phoenix, Arizona Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 2B Phoenix, Arizona In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  18. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B Las Vegas, Nevada Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  19. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    B Los Angeles, California Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3B Los Angeles, California In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can...

  20. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C San Francisco, California Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3C San Francisco, California In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can...

  1. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A Atlanta, Georgia Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3A Atlanta, Georgia In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  2. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A Houston, Texas Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 2A Houston, Texas In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  3. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C Seattle, Washington Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4C Seattle, Washington In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view...

  4. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new2004v1.35.0.zip refbldg3ausagaatlantanew2004v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3A Atlanta, Georgia...

  5. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new2004v1.35.0.zip refbldg1ausaflmiaminew2004v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 1A Miami, Florida...

  6. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new2004v1.35.0.zip refbldg2ausatxhoustonnew2004v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 2A Houston, Texas...

  7. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    B Albuquerque, New Mexico Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4B Albuquerque, New Mexico In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can...

  8. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Toward a Consistent Methodology for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Industry Operations (PDF 378 KB) Download Acrobat Reader Addressing climate...

  9. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  10. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  11. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  12. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  13. Archived Reference Climate Zone: TMY2 Weather Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  14. Archived Reference Climate Zone: TMY2 Weather Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  15. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 2A Houston, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  16. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 2A Houston, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  17. "Table HC9.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Climate Zone...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Climate Zone, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Climate Zone1" ,,"Less than 2,000 CDD and --",,,,"2,000 CDD or More and Less than 4,000...

  18. "Table HC9.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Climate Zone...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Climate Zone, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Climate Zone1" ,,"Less than 2,000 CDD and --",,,,"2,000 CDD or More and Less than 4,000...

  19. Oil Shortages, Climate Change and Collective Action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newbery, David

    strategies, all provide tools to guide policy analysis. Stern (2006) took over 600 pages to both quantify and analyse the economics of climate change, specifically asking how to estimate the social cost of carbon and the benefits of mitigating climate...

  20. Property:Buildings/ModelClimateZone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar GroupInformationInformationYearConstruction1 JumpModelClimateZone

  1. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 with the United States Department of Energy. This study, Appendix II addresses the first Wilhelm Sands and its sub unites and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs toward the end.

  2. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  3. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  4. Role of modern climate and hydrology in world oil preservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szatmari, P. (Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accumulation of oil requires a favorable source, a reservoir, good seal-rock quality, and suitably timed thermal history and structuring. The accumulated oil, especially its light fractions, may be subsequently removed by hydrologically controlled processes such as water washing, biodegradation, and tilting of the oil-water contact. These processes are dependent on the climate. In regions that have become increasingly cold or dry during late Cenozoic time, low rainfall, low ground-water flow rates, and low input of nutrients and microorganisms have protected the oil; in warm or temperate rainy climates, high flow rates and high input of nutrients and microorganisms have led to partial or total removal of oil. Thus, most of the rich (>500,000 barrels/day) oil provinces on land are in cold or dry regions, where water is recharged in highlands that receive little rain (<500 mm/yr), such as Texas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Alaska's North Slope, California, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, the Middle East, the Volga-Ural basin, and western Siberia. Where upland recharge areas are warm or temperate and rainy, as in the eastern United States, western Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, Brazil, India, and most of China, rich oil provinces on land (outside young deltas) are rare, and biodegradation is widespread. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharecha, P A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peaking of global oil production may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 amount and climate change, depending upon choices made for subsequent energy sources. We suggest that, if estimates of oil and gas reserves by the Energy Information Administration are realistic, it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding approximately 450 ppm, provided that future exploitation of the huge reservoirs of coal and unconventional fossil fuels incorporates carbon capture and sequestration. Existing coal-fired power plants, without sequestration, must be phased out before mid-century to achieve this limit on atmospheric CO2. We also suggest that it is important to "stretch" oil reserves via energy efficiency, thus avoiding the need to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is probably needed to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  6. U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 QL1.Past Climate

  7. Climate VISION: PrivateSector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    processing, transportation, and distribution. All of these segments are elements of the natural gas industry and the oil industry but are different for oil than for natural gas....

  8. On the Single-Zone Modeling for Optimal Climate Control of a Real-Sized Livestock Stable System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    climate control systems. A typical modern stable system is usually equipped with a hybrid ventilation [3On the Single-Zone Modeling for Optimal Climate Control of a Real-Sized Livestock Stable System and implementation of a model-based optimal indoor climate control for a real-sized livestock stable system

  9. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Work...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Work Plans API has developed a work plan based on API's commitment letter and the Climate Challenge Program which addresses the overall elements of the Climate VISION program...

  10. DOE, States Seek Closer Collaboration on Oil and Gas Supply and Delivery, Climate Change Mitigation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An agreement aimed at improving cooperation and collaboration in the areas of oil and natural gas supply, delivery, and climate change mitigation, has been signed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC).

  11. Database of Low-e Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an update of a report that describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone.

  12. The transition to renewables: Can PV provide an answer to the peak oil and climate change challenges?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    The transition to renewables: Can PV provide an answer to the peak oil and climate change it becomes apparent that marginal productivity is beginning to drop'' (Tainter, 1988). As of 2010 oil

  13. Project EARTH-12-PPS1: Weathering Rates in the Critical Zone: Soil Erosion, River Chemistry and Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-12-PPS1: Weathering Rates in the Critical Zone: Soil Erosion, River Chemistry., Assessing the role of climate on uranium and lithium isotope behaviour in rivers draining a basaltic terrain

  14. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    energy sources like hydrogen fuels and fusion technologies. Fossil fuels - coal, oil, and natural gas - currently provide more than 85% of all the energy consumed in the United...

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Industry Associations American Petroleum Institute The oil and natural gas industry provides the fuel for American life, warming our homes, powering our businesses and giving us...

  16. Alger County, Michigan ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1AMEEAisinInformation ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to:

  17. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prior to developing the API Compendium of GHG Emissions Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry (PDF 14.6 MB), API reviewed a wide range of government estimates of...

  18. Olig sand, shallow oil zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Olig Sand Reservoirs, classified as part of the Shallow Oil Zone, were studied and evaluated. The reservoirs are located in Section 30R, T30S, R23E and Section 24Z, T30S, R22E, M.D.B. and M., all in Elk Hills Oil Field, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California. The three productive reservoirs studied cover an area of 255 acres, and originally contained 3311 MMCF of gas condensate in 4292 acre-feet of sand. The main reservoir, Fault Block I in Section 30R, has been on production since 1982 and is largely depleted. The reservoirs around wells 324-30R and 385-24Z should still be in a virgin state. They can be depleted either through those wells, when their service as Stevens Zone producers is completed, or by twin well replacements drilled specifically as Olig Sand completions. Thirty-six exhibits have been included to present basic data and study results in a manner that will enhance the readers's understanding of the reservoirs. These exhibits include six maps in the M-series, six sections in the S-Series, and fourteen figures in the F-Series, as well as ten tables. The Appendix includes miscellaneous basic data such as well logs, core analyses, pressure measurements, and well tests. The Calculations Section of the report develops and explains the analytical methods used to define well productivity, determine reserves, and schedule future production of those reserves. Although no MER recommendations have been made for these gas condensate reservoirs, recommended depletion schemes and schedules are presented. These schemes include one eventual recompletion and one new well to maximize present worth of these reservoirs which carry proved reserves of 289 MMCF and probable reserves of 853 MMCF, effective August 1, 1986. In addition, potential future testing is earmarked for wells 322-30R and 344-30R. 11 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have the potential to significantly reduce energy use in homes compared to traditional electric resistance water heaters. Researchers at the National Renewable

  20. The Utilization of the Microflora Indigenous to and Present in Oil-Bearing Formations to Selectively Plug the More Porous Zones Thereby Increasing Oil Recovery During Waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Lewis R.; Byrnes, Martin J.; Stephens, James O.; Vadie, Alex A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was designed to demonstrate that a microbially enhanced oil recovery process (MEOR), developed in part under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-90BC14665, will increase oil recovery from fluvial dominated deltaic oil reservoirs. The process involves stimulating the in-situ indigenous microbial population in the reservoir to grow in the more permeable zones, thus diverting flow to other areas of the reservoir, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the waterflood. This five and a half year project is divided into three phases, Phase I, Planning and Analysis (9 months), Phase II, Implementation (45 months), and Phase III, Technology Transfer (12 months). Phase I was completed and reported in the first annual report. This fifth annual report covers the completion of Phase II and the first six months of Phase III.

  1. Global simulations of smoke from Kuwaiti oil fires and possible effects on climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C.; Kao, C.Y.J.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos Global Climate Model has bee used to simulate the global evolution of the Kuwaiti oil fire smoke and its potential effects on the climate. The initial simulations were done shortly before the fires were lit in January 1991. They indicated that such an event would not result in a ``Mini Nuclear Winter`` as some people were suggesting. Further simulations during the year suggested that the smoke could be responsible for subtle regional climate changes in the spring such as a 5 degree centigrade decrease in the surface temperature in Kuwait, a 10% decrease in precipitation in Saudi Arabia and a 10% increase in precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau region. These results are in qualitative agreement with the observations this year.

  2. Global simulations of smoke from Kuwaiti oil fires and possible effects on climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C.; Kao, C.Y.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos Global Climate Model has bee used to simulate the global evolution of the Kuwaiti oil fire smoke and its potential effects on the climate. The initial simulations were done shortly before the fires were lit in January 1991. They indicated that such an event would not result in a Mini Nuclear Winter'' as some people were suggesting. Further simulations during the year suggested that the smoke could be responsible for subtle regional climate changes in the spring such as a 5 degree centigrade decrease in the surface temperature in Kuwait, a 10% decrease in precipitation in Saudi Arabia and a 10% increase in precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau region. These results are in qualitative agreement with the observations this year.

  3. Method for establishing a combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort having a pocket at the top

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (1904 Glenmont Dr., Bakersfield, CA 93309)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ oil shale retort having a top boundary of unfragmented formation and containing a fragmented permeable mass has a pocket at the top, that is, an open space between a portion of the top of the fragmented mass and the top boundary of unfragmented formation. To establish a combustion zone across the fragmented mass, a combustion zone is established in a portion of the fragmented mass which is proximate to the top boundary. A retort inlet mixture comprising oxygen is introduced to the fragmented mass to propagate the combustion zone across an upper portion of the fragmented mass. Simultaneously, cool fluid is introduced to the pocket to prevent overheating and thermal sloughing of formation from the top boundary into the pocket.

  4. Condensation Risk of Mechanically Attached Roof Systems in Cold Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A white roof, cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with mechanically attached membrane, have shown to have a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparisons with similar construction with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in Northern U.S. climate zones. A white roof surface reflects more of the incident solar radiation in comparisons with a dark surface, which makes a distinguished difference on the surface temperature of the roof. However, flat roofs with either a light or dark surface and if facing a clear sky, are constantly losing energy to the sky due to the exchange of infrared radiation. This phenomenon exists both during the night and the day. During the day, if the sun shines on the roof surface, the exchange of infrared radiation typically becomes insignificant. During nights and in cold climates, the temperature difference between the roof surface and the sky can deviate up to 20 C (Hagentoft, 2001) which could result in a very cold surface temperature compared to the ambient temperature. Further, a colder surface temperature of the roof increases the energy loss and the risk of condensation in the building materials below the membrane. In conclusion, both light and dark coated roof membranes are cooled by the infrared radiation exchange during the night, though a darker membrane is more heated by the solar radiation during the day, thus decreasing the risk of condensation. The phenomenon of night time cooling from the sky and the lack of solar gains during the day is not likely the exclusive problem concerning the risk of condensation in cool roofs with mechanically attached membranes. Roof systems with thermoplastic membranes are prone to be more effected by interior air intrusion into the roof construction; both due to the wind induced pressure differences and due to the flexibility and elasticity of the membrane (Molleti, Baskaran, Kalinger, & Beaulieu, 2011). Depending on the air permeability of the material underneath the membrane, wind forces increase the risk of fluttering (also referred as billowing) of the thermoplastic membrane. Expectably, the wind induced pressure differences creates a convective air flow into the construction i.e. Page 2 air intrusion. If the conditions are right, moisture from the exchanging air may condensate on surfaces with a temperature below dew-point. The definite path of convective airflows through the building envelope is usually very difficult to determine and therefore simplified models (K nzel, Zirkelbach, & Scfafaczek, 2011) help to estimate an additional moisture loads as a result of the air intrusion. The wind uplifting pressure in combination with wind gusts are important factors for a fluttering roof. Unfortunately, the effect from a fluctuating wind is difficult to estimate as this is a highly dynamic phenomenon and existing standards (ASTM, 2011a) only take into account a steady state approach i.e. there is no guidance or regulations on how to estimate the air intrusion rate. Obviously, a more detailed knowledge on the hygrothermal performance of mechanically attached cool roof system is requested; in consideration to varying surface colors, roof air tightness, climate zones and indoor moisture supply.

  5. Application of turbidite facies of the Stevens Oil Zone for reservoir management, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; Thompson, T.W. [Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States); McJannet, G.S. [Dept. of Energy, Tupman, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed depositional model for the uppermost sand reservoirs of the Stevens Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, California, contains three facies: turbidite channel-fill sand bodies, overbank Sandstone and mudstone, and pelagic and hemipelagic siliceous shale. Sand bodies are the primary producing facies and consist of layered, graded sandstone with good permeability. The presence of incipient anticlines with subsea relief in the late Miocene resulted in deposition of lenticular and sinuous sand Was within structurally created channels. Relief of these structural channels was low when the earliest sand bodies were deposited, leading to a wide channel complex bounded by broad overbank deposits of moderate to low permeability. As deposition proceeded, increased structural relief constrained the channels, resulting in narrower sand body width and relatively abrupt channel terminations against very low permeability siliceous shale. With post-Miocene uplift and differential compaction, stratigraphic mounding of sand bodies helped create structural domes such as the 24Z reservoir. Stratigraphic traps including the 26R reservoir were also created. Such traps vary in seal quality from very effective to leaky, depending on the lateral transition from sand bodies to siliceous shale. Application of the Elk Hills turbidity model (1) provides a framework for monitoring production performance in the 24Z and Northwest Stevens waterflood projects; and for tracking gas migration into and out of the 26R reservoir, (2) helps b identify undeveloped locations in the 26R reservoir ideally suited for horizontal wells, (3) has led to the identification of two new production trends in the 29R area, and (4) makes possible the development of exploration plays in western Elk Hills.

  6. Application of turbidite facies of the Stevens Oil Zone for reservoir management, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; Thompson, T.W. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); McJannet, G.S. (Dept. of Energy, Tupman, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed depositional model for the uppermost sand reservoirs of the Stevens Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, California, contains three facies: turbidite channel-fill sand bodies, overbank Sandstone and mudstone, and pelagic and hemipelagic siliceous shale. Sand bodies are the primary producing facies and consist of layered, graded sandstone with good permeability. The presence of incipient anticlines with subsea relief in the late Miocene resulted in deposition of lenticular and sinuous sand Was within structurally created channels. Relief of these structural channels was low when the earliest sand bodies were deposited, leading to a wide channel complex bounded by broad overbank deposits of moderate to low permeability. As deposition proceeded, increased structural relief constrained the channels, resulting in narrower sand body width and relatively abrupt channel terminations against very low permeability siliceous shale. With post-Miocene uplift and differential compaction, stratigraphic mounding of sand bodies helped create structural domes such as the 24Z reservoir. Stratigraphic traps including the 26R reservoir were also created. Such traps vary in seal quality from very effective to leaky, depending on the lateral transition from sand bodies to siliceous shale. Application of the Elk Hills turbidity model (1) provides a framework for monitoring production performance in the 24Z and Northwest Stevens waterflood projects; and for tracking gas migration into and out of the 26R reservoir, (2) helps b identify undeveloped locations in the 26R reservoir ideally suited for horizontal wells, (3) has led to the identification of two new production trends in the 29R area, and (4) makes possible the development of exploration plays in western Elk Hills.

  7. The impact of climate change on vadose zone pore waters and its implication for long-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glassley, William E.; Nitao, John J.; Grant, Charles W.; Johnson, James W.; Steefel, Carl I.; Kercher, James R.

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protecting groundwater is of growing interest as pressure on these resources grows. Recharge of groundwater takes place through the vadose zone, where complex interactions between thermal-hydrological-geochemical processes affect water quality. Monitoring processes in the vadose zone is an important means of evaluating the long-term health of aquifer systems, and has become an integral part of many subsurface engineering efforts. Monitoring such systems, however, may be affected by changes in climate that slowly propagate through vadose zone systems. We describe in this paper the use of NUFT-C, a reactive transport simulator designed to run on a high performance, massively parallel computer, to compare quantitatively the evolution of a deep vadose zone with changes expected from an engineered high-level nuclear waste repository. The results suggest that the impacts from waste emplacement are, in some instances, similar to those that would be observed as a result of climate change, whereas others are distinguishable from evolution of the natural system. Such simulations facilitate design of long-term monitoring programs that take account of these complex effects. The results emphasize the importance of developing long-term baseline measurements and control sites, in order to enhance confidence in interpretations of complexly evolving data sets that will be obtained from multi-decade monitoring efforts.

  8. Implications of 'peak oil' for atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate - article no. GB3012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharecha, P.A.; Hansen, J.E. [NASA, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Institute for Space Studies

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Unconstrained CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuel burning has been the dominant cause of observed anthropogenic global warming. The amounts of 'proven' and potential fossil fuel reserves are uncertain and debated. Regardless of the true values, society has flexibility in the degree to which it chooses to exploit these reserves, especially unconventional fossil fuels and those located in extreme or pristine environments. If conventional oil production peaks within the next few decades, it may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate change, depending upon subsequent energy choices. Assuming that proven oil and gas reserves do not greatly exceed estimates of the Energy Information Administration, and recent trends are toward lower estimates, we show that it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO{sub 2} from exceeding about 450 ppm by 2100, provided that emissions from coal, unconventional fossil fuels, and land use are constrained. Coal-fired power plants without sequestration must be phased out before midcentury to achieve this CO{sub 2} limit. It is also important to 'stretch' conventional oil reserves via energy conservation and efficiency, thus averting strong pressures to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels while clean technologies are being developed for the era 'beyond fossil fuels'. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is needed to discourage conversion of the vast fossil resources into usable reserves, and to keep CO{sub 2} beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  9. The Utilization of the Microflora Indigenous to and Present in Oil-Bearing Formations to Selectively Plug the More Porous Zones Thereby Increasing Oil Recovery During Waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex A. Vadie; James O. Stephens; Lewis R. Brown

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a field demonstration of the ability of in-situ indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones of the reservoir, thereby diverting flow to other areas thus increasing the efficiency of the waterflood. The project is divided into three phases-Planning and Analysis (9 months), Implementation (45 months), and Technology Transfer (12 months). This report covers the fourth year of work on the project. During Phase I, cores were obtained from a newly drilled well and employed in laboratory core flood experiments to formulate the schedule and amounts of nutrients to be used in the field demonstration. The field demonstration involves injecting potassium nitrate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and in some cases molasses, into four injector wells (Test) and monitoring the performance of surrounding producer wells. For comparative purposes, the producer wells surrounding four untreated injector wells (Control) also were monitored. Twenty-two months after the injection of nutrients into the reservoir began, three wells were drilled and cores taken therefrom were analyzed. Nitrate ions were found in cores from all three wells and cores from two of these wells also contained phosphate ions- thus demonstrating that the injected nutrients were being distributed widely in the reservoir. Microorganisms were shown to be present in cores from all three wells by cultural methods and by electron microscopy. In some sections of the cores, the number of microbes was large. Oil production volumes and water:oil ratios (WOR) of produced fluids have shown clearly that the MEOR treatment being demonstrated in this project is improving oil recovery. Of the 15 producer wells in the test patterns, seven have responded positively to the injection of microbial nutrients into the reservoir, while all eight of the producer wells only in control patterns have continued their natural decline in oil production, although one well did have some improvement in oil production due to increased water injection into a nearby injector well. Two of the wells have been abandoned because of uneconomical production. In light of these positive findings and with DOE?s approval, the scope of the field demonstration was expanded in July 1997 to include six new injector wells. Two of these wells were previously control injectors while the other four injectors were not included in the original program. Of interest has been the performance of two wells in what was formerly a control pattern. Since the injector in this pattern (formerly Control Pattern 2) began receiving nutrients, two of the wells in the pattern have shown improved oil production for the last three months. While it would be premature to definitely characterize these two wells as yielding a positive response, these early results are certainly encouraging. Of special significance is the fact that over 7953 m (50,022 barrels) of incremental oil have been 3 recovered as a result of the MEOR treatment. Further, calculations show that the economic life of the field will be extended until July 2004 instead of a previously anticipated closure in Dec. 2002. This finding is particularly impressive in view of the fact that only four of the twenty injector wells in the field were treated during the first 30 months of the project. Preliminary indications are that byincreasing the number of injector wells pumping microbial nutrients into the reservoir from four to ten, more oil will be recovered and the economic life of the field will be extended even further. It should be emphasized that the above calculations do not take into account the oil being recovered from the five new wells that were drilled during the course of this project.

  10. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to understand U.S. oil consumption and production in thechallenges that U.S. oil consumption presents: the economicother valuable assets. Oil Consumption and Greenhouse Gases

  11. Study of Reservoir Heterogencities and Structural Features Affecting Production in the Shallow Oil Zone, Eastern Elk Hills Area, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janice Gillespie

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Late Neogene (Plio-Pleistocene) shallow marine strata of the western Bakersfield Arch and Elk Hills produce hydrocarbons from several different reservoirs. This project focuses on the shallow marine deposits of the Gusher and Calitroleum reservoirs in the Lower Shallow Oil Zone (LSOZ). In the eastern part of the study area on the Bakersfield Arch at North and South Coles Levee field and in two wells in easternmost Elk Hills, the LSOZ reservoirs produce dry (predominantly methane) gas. In structurally higher locations in western Elk Hills, the LSOZ produces oil and associated gas. Gas analyses show that gas from the eastern LSOZ is bacterial and formed in place in the reservoirs, whereas gas associated with oil in the western part of the study area is thermogenic and migrated into the sands from deeper in the basin. Regional mapping shows that the gas-bearing LSOZ sands in the Coles Levee and easternmost Elk Hills area are sourced from the Sierra Nevada to the east whereas the oil-bearing sands in western Elk Hills appear to be sourced from the west. The eastern Elk Hills area occupied the basin depocenter, farthest from either source area. As a result, it collected mainly low-permeability offshore shale deposits. This sand-poor depocenter provides an effective barrier to the updip migration of gases from east to west. The role of small, listric normal faults as migration barriers is more ambiguous. Because our gas analyses show that the gas in the eastern LSOZ reservoirs is bacterial, it likely formed in-place near the reservoirs and did not have to migrate far. Therefore, the gas could have been generated after faulting and accumulated within the fault blocks as localized pools. However, bacterial gas is present in both the eastern AND western parts of Elk Hills in the Dry Gas Zone (DGZ) near the top of the stratigraphic section even though the measured fault displacement is greatest in this zone. Bacterial gas is not present in the west in the deeper LSOZ which has less measured fault displacement. The main difference between the DGZ and the LSOZ appears to be the presence of a sandpoor area in the LSOZ in eastern Elk Hills. The lack of permeable migration pathways in this area would not allow eastern bacterial gas to migrate farther updip into western Elk Hills. A similar sand-poor area does not appear to exist in the DGZ but future research may be necessary to verify this.

  12. Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a California Hot Climate Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Peng

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    implement demand-response programs involving buildingthan the building envelope in demand response effectiveness.demand response, thermal mass, hot climates, office buildings

  13. Climate Change Policy and Canada's Oil Sand Resources: An Update and Appraisal of Canada's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    ) and there are minor deposits of oil shale on the eastern edge of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Alberta's oil

  14. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study, Appendix 3, Second Wilhelm Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 under Contract No. DE-ACO1-85FE60600 with the United States Department of Energy. This study Appendix III, the second Wilhelm Sand and it's sub units and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the U.S. Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can not additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs towards these ends. 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General Reservoir Study: Appendix 6, First Calitroleum Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 under Contract No. DE-ACO1-85FE60600 with the United States Department of Energy. This study, Appendix VI, addresses the first Calitroleum Sand and its sub units and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the U.S. Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers todevelop specific programs towards these ends. 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study: Appendix 7, Second Calitroleum Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 under Contract No. DE-AC0185FE60600 with the United States Department of Energy. This study, Appendix VII, the second Calitroleum Sand and its sub units and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the U.S. Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verfication. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing futuree recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs towards these ends. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study, Appendix 4, Fourth Wilhelm sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 with the United States Department of Energy. This study, Appendix IV, addresses the Fourth Wilhelm Sand and its sub units and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. Basic pressure production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs toward the end. 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market Severin BorensteinChallenges in the World Oil Market January 2008 Abstract:context of the worldwide oil market. Severin Borenstein . s

  19. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industry means that all oil demand pushes up the price ofearly 1980s drove down oil demand by 7% worldwide betweento suggest that the demand side of the world oil market or

  20. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at the world price of oil and prices of gasoline and otherincremental pro?ts when oil prices rise come from both U.S.the recent increases in oil prices and attempts to clarify

  1. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 and 1.1A Figure 6: Uses of Crude Oil in the UnitedStates Other Residual Fuel Oil (bunker fuel) PetrochemicalDiesel Fuel and Heating Oil Jet Fuel Figure 7: Sources of

  2. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    incremental income from oil production inside the U.S. “U.S.of increased domestic oil production to the world supplythat it would expand oil production in the U.S. by more than

  3. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General Reservoir Study, Executive Summary: Bittium, Wilhelm, Gusher, and Calitroleum Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 with the United States Department of Energy. The study addresses the Bittium Wilhelm, Gusher, and Calitroleum Sands and their several sub units and pools. A total of twenty-eight (28) separate reservoir units have been identified and analyzed. Areally, these reservoirs are located in 31 separate sections of land including and lying northwest of sections 5G, 8G, and 32S, all in the Elk Hills Oil Fileds, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County California. Vertically, the reservoirs occur as shallow as 2600 feet and as deep as 4400 feet. Underlying a composite productive area of about 8300 acres, the reservoirs originally contained an estimated 138,022,000 stock tank barrels of oil, and 85,000 MMCF of gas, 6300 MMCF of which occurred as free gas in the Bittium and W-1B Sands. Since original discovery in April 1919, a total of over 500 wells have been drilled into or through the zones, 120 of which were completed as Western Shallow Oil Zone producers. Currently, these wells are producing about 2452 barrels of oil per day, 1135 barrels of water per day and 5119 MCF of gas per day from the collective reservoirs. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent vertification. This study has successfully identified the size and location of all commercially productive pools in the Western Shallow Oil Zone. It has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoirs. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Waste oils offer a tremendous recycling potential. An important, dwindling natural resource of great economic and industrial value, oil products are a cornerstone of our modern industrial society. Petroleum is processed into a wide variety of products: gasoline, fuel oil, diesel oil, synthetic rubber, solvents, pesticides, synthetic fibres, lubricating oil, drugs and many more ' (see Figure 1 1. The boilers of Amercian industries presently consume about 40 % of the used lubricating oils collected. In Ontario, the percentage varies from 20 to 30%. Road oiling is the other major use of collected waste oils. Five to seven million gallons (50-70 % of the waste oil col1ected)is spread on dusty Ontario roads each summer. The practice is both a wasteful use of a dwindling resource and an environmental hazard. The waste oil, with its load of heavy metals, particularly lead, additives including dangerous polynuclear aromatics and PCBs, is carried into the natural environment by runoff and dust to contaminate soils and water courses.2 The largest portion of used oils is never collected, but disappears into sewers, landfill sites and backyards. In Ontario alone, approximately 22 million gallons of potentially recyclable lube oil simply vanish each year. While oil recycling has ad-114 Oil

  5. Benton County, Indiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions IncBayBelmontInformation Indiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate

  6. Reaction of the accumulation zone portions of glaciers to climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whillans, I.M.

    1981-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of the accumulation regions of glaciers to changes in accumulation rate and in surface temperature is calculated by considering perturbations to the ice flow. The analysis is limited to glaciers in whch flow is dominated by internal shear and not by bottom sliding and for which flowliners are geographically paralled. In general, glaciers begin to alter thickness immediately after a change in accumulation rate, but the effect of a change in surface temperature is delayed by the time for this temperature change to penetrate to depth in the glacier. A warming leads to glacial thinning. The amount and timing of the response is very different for different glaciers. Characteristic times are on the order of tens of years for mountain glaciers and ten of thousands of years for the east antarctic ice sheet. As an example, the theory is applied to the ice sheet near Byrd Station, Antarctica. For hypothetical changes in surface accumulation rate and temperature, rates and amounts of thickness change are calculated, and it is found that the measured thinning is probably too fast to have been caused by climatic variation alone. The effects of hypothetical climatic variations on the depth-age and depth-temperature relationships through the ice sheet are also calculated. It is hoped that the theory will prove valuable in the interpreation of future drill hole results.

  7. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  8. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    course. Only 45% of re?ned oil product used in the U.S. isand imported re?ned oil products) per day or 7.6 billionto absorb water than re?ned oil products, so more costly to

  9. Modeled Interactive Effects of Precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on Ecosystem Carbon and Water Dynamics in Different Climatic Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Gerten, Dieter [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Le Maire, Guerric [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Parton, William [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Zhou, Xuhuui [University of Oklahoma; Keough, Cindy [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Beier, Claus [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Cramer, Wolfgang [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Dukes, Jeff [University of Massachusetts, Boston; Emmett, Bridget [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd, United Kingdom; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Linder, Sune [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden; Nepstad, Daniel [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Rustad, Lindsey [USDA Forest Service

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interactive effects of multiple global change factors on ecosystem processes are complex. It is relatively expensive to explore those interactions in manipulative experiments. We conducted a modeling analysis to identify potentially important interactions and to stimulate hypothesis formulation for experimental research. Four models were used to quantify interactive effects of climate warming (T), altered precipitation amounts [doubled (DP) and halved (HP)] and seasonality (SP, moving precipitation in July and August to January and February to create summer drought), and elevated [CO2] (C) on net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem production (NEP), transpiration, and runoff.We examined those responses in seven ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and heathlands in different climate zones. The modeling analysis showed that none of the threeway interactions among T, C, and altered precipitation was substantial for either carbon or water processes, nor consistent among the seven ecosystems. However, two-way interactive effects on NPP, Rh, and NEP were generally positive (i.e. amplification of one factor s effect by the other factor) between T and C or between T and DP. A negative interaction (i.e. depression of one factor s effect by the other factor) occurred for simulated NPP between T and HP. The interactive effects on runoff were positive between T and HP. Four pairs of two-way interactive effects on plant transpiration were positive and two pairs negative. In addition, wet sites generally had smaller relative changes in NPP, Rh, runoff, and transpiration but larger absolute changes in NEP than dry sites in response to the treatments. The modeling results suggest new hypotheses to be tested in multifactor global change experiments. Likewise, more experimental evidence is needed for the further improvement of ecosystem models in order to adequately simulate complex interactive processes.

  10. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  11. Understanding the Rate of Clean Up for Oil Zones after a Gel Treatment R.S. Seright, SPE, New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, W. Brent Lindquist, SPE, and Rong Cai,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    SPE 112976 Understanding the Rate of Clean Up for Oil Zones after a Gel Treatment R.S. Seright, SPE, New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, W. Brent Lindquist, SPE, and Rong Cai, Stony Brook at the 2008 SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium held in Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.A., 19­23 April 2008. This paper

  12. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Technical progress report, January 1, 1997--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, J.O.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a field demonstration of the ability of in-situ indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones of the reservoir, thereby diverting flow to other areas thus increasing the efficiency of the waterflood. The project is divided into three phases: Planning and Analysis (9 months), Implementation (45 months), and Technology Transfer (12 months). This report covers the fourth year of work on the project. Twenty-two months after the injection of nutrients into the reservoir began, three wells were drilled and cores taken therefrom were analyzed. Oil production volumes and water:oil ratios (WOR) of produced fluids have shown clearly that the MEOR treatment being demonstrated in this project is improving oil recovery. Of the 15 producer wells in the test patterns, seven have responded positively to the injection of microbial nutrients into the reservoir, while all eight of the producer wells only in control patterns have continued their natural decline in oil production, although one well did have some improvement in oil production due to increased water injection into a nearby injector well. In light of these positive findings and with DOE`s approval, the scope of the field demonstration was expanded in July 1997 to include six new injector wells. Of interest has been the performance of two wells in what was formerly a control pattern. Since the injector in this pattern (formerly Control Pattern 2) began receiving nutrients, two of the wells in the pattern have shown improved oil production for the last three months. While it would be premature to definitely characterize these two wells as yielding a positive response, these early results are certainly encouraging.

  13. Environmental assessment of a proposed steam flood of the Shallow Oil Zone, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy proposes to develop a limited enhanced oil recovery project in the Shallow Oil Zone at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) Elk Hills. The project would employ steam forced into the oil-bearing formation through injector wells, and would involve two phases. The initiation of the second phase would be dependent on the economic success of the first phase. The total project would require the drilling of 22 new wells in a 45-acre area supporting seven existing production wells. It would also require construction of various surface facilities including a tank setting (gas-oil separation system), steam generators, and a water treatment plant. Adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed steam flood project would include the effects on vegetation, wildlife and land-use resulting from the total reconfiguration of the topography within the project bondaries. Other adverse impacts include the emission of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and particulates from steam generators, vehicles and associated surface facilities. Minor adverse impacts include localized noise and dust during constuction, and reduction of visual quality. 48 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding, Class 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, James O.; Brown, Lewis R.; Vadie, A. Alex

    2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project were (1) to demonstrate the in situ microbial population in a fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir could be induced to proliferate to such an extent that they will selectively restrict flow in the more porous zones in the reservoir thereby forcing injection water to flow through previously unswept areas thus improving the sweep efficiency of the waterflood and (2) to obtain scientific validation that microorganisms are indeed responsible for the increased oil recovery. One expected outcome of this new technology was the prolongation of economical life of the reservoir, i.e. economical oil recovery should continue for much longer periods in areas of the reservoir subjected to the MPPM technology than it would if it followed its historic trend.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: critical marginal ice zone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marginal ice zone NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Process Experiment (MIZOPEX) On February 24, 2015, in Analysis, Climate, Modeling & Analysis, Monitoring, News,...

  16. Database of Low-E Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones (Task ET-WIN-PNNL-FY13-01_5.3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Culp, Thomas D.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced in support of the Emerging Technologies Low-e Storm Windows Task 5.3: Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone. Both sets of calculation results will be made publicly available through the Building America Solution Center.

  17. Identification and delineation of low resistivity, low permeability reservoirs using qualitative sidewall sample log k * S[sub O] relationships in the western shallow oil zone, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beacom, E.K.; Kornreich, I.S. (System Technology Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 500 wells, including wells producing from the deeper Miocene Stevens sands, penetrate the Western Shallow Oil Zone (Pliocene Etchegoin Formation) at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve in California. The Western Shallow Oil Zone Gusher and Calitroleum sands are very fine grained, silty and pyritic and are interbedded with silty shales. Electric logs generally show 1[1/2]-2[1/2] ohm-meters of deep resistivity and the spontaneous potential displays little or no response to the sands. However, approximately 180 wells in each of the mapped productive sands have sidewall sample data to visually inspect the rock for hydrocarbons. Each productive interval within the Western Shallow Oil Zone has two or more pools. The most exploited (and most heavily drilled) of these pools is at the western end of the Eastern anticline. The pools on the Western anticline have few tests and production is limited and generally commingled. In order to identify productive intervals and to delineate the areal extent of these sands, qualitative assessment of sidewall sample data was done and maps of log permeability times oil saturation were prepared for each zone. The analysis showed large amounts of unexploited hydrocarbons in the Western pools. Complete exploitation of the Gusher and Calitroleum sands will recover in excess of 11 million additional barrels of 38 degree gravity oil.

  18. Identification and delineation of low resistivity, low permeability reservoirs using qualitative sidewall sample log k * S{sub O} relationships in the western shallow oil zone, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beacom, E.K.; Kornreich, I.S. [System Technology Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 500 wells, including wells producing from the deeper Miocene Stevens sands, penetrate the Western Shallow Oil Zone (Pliocene Etchegoin Formation) at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve in California. The Western Shallow Oil Zone Gusher and Calitroleum sands are very fine grained, silty and pyritic and are interbedded with silty shales. Electric logs generally show 1{1/2}-2{1/2} ohm-meters of deep resistivity and the spontaneous potential displays little or no response to the sands. However, approximately 180 wells in each of the mapped productive sands have sidewall sample data to visually inspect the rock for hydrocarbons. Each productive interval within the Western Shallow Oil Zone has two or more pools. The most exploited (and most heavily drilled) of these pools is at the western end of the Eastern anticline. The pools on the Western anticline have few tests and production is limited and generally commingled. In order to identify productive intervals and to delineate the areal extent of these sands, qualitative assessment of sidewall sample data was done and maps of log permeability times oil saturation were prepared for each zone. The analysis showed large amounts of unexploited hydrocarbons in the Western pools. Complete exploitation of the Gusher and Calitroleum sands will recover in excess of 11 million additional barrels of 38 degree gravity oil.

  19. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, J.; Brown, L.; Vadie, A.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a field demonstration of the ability of in situ indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones thereby diverting flow to other areas of the reservoir and thus increase the efficiency of the waterflooding operation. This effect is to be accomplished by adding inorganic nutrients in the form of potassium nitrate and orthophosphate to the injection water. Work on the project is divided into three phases, Planning and Analysis (9 months), Implementation (45 months), and Technology Transfer (12 months). This report covers the second year of work on the project. During the first year of the project, Phase 1 was completed and Phase 2 begun. Two wells were drilled in an area of the field where approximately 20 feet of Carter sand were found and appeared to contain oil bypassed by the existing waterflood. Cores from one well were obtained and used in laboratory core flood experiments. On the basis of the results, the schedule and amounts of nutrients to be employed in the field were formulated. The injection of nutrients into the first of four injector wells began November 21, 1994. The addition of nutrients into three additional injector wells began in January and February, 1995. Of the four injectors in the test patterns, two are receiving potassium nitrate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate while the other two are receiving 0.1% molasses in addition. Early, but as yet inconclusive, results from producing wells fin the first test pattern indicate increasing oil production and/or decreasing water-oil ratio. Preliminary geological and petrophysical characterization of the reservoir has been made and baseline chemical and microbiological data have been obtained on all wells in all test and control patterns.

  20. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a field demonstration of the ability of in-situ indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones thereby diverting flow to other areas of the reservoir and thus increase the efficiency of the waterflooding operation. This effect is to be accomplished by adding microbial nutrients to the injection water. Work on the project is divided into three phases, Planning and Analysis (9 months), Implementation (45 months), and Technology Transfer (12 months). This report covers the third year of work on the project. During Phase I, two wells were drilled in an area of the field where approximately twenty feet of Carter sand were found and appeared to contain oil bypassed by the existing waterflood. Cores from one well were obtained and used in laboratory core flood experiments. The schedule and amounts of nutrients to be employed in the field were formulated on the basis of the results from laboratory core flood experiments.

  1. ENERGY IN THE PACIFIC COASTAL ZONE DOES D.O.E. HAVE A ROLE?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coastal Zone annual oil production, 10 E + 06 bbl per year.58 percent of all regional oil production is in the coastalgenerating capacity, crude oil production~ total petroleum

  2. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Third quarterly report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

    1993-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents research objectives, discusses activities, and presents technical progress for the period April 1, 1993 through June 31, 1993 on Contract No. DE-FC21-86LC11084 with the Department of Energy, Laramie Project Office. The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  3. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Fourth quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1993-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  4. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  5. Building Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation Building Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation Photo showing climate zone maps based on the IECC...

  6. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Final report, November 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study is described on the hydrological and geotechnical behavior of an oil shale solid waste. The objective was to obtain information which can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil shale solid waste disposal in the Green River Basin. The spent shale used in this study was combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. Laboratory bench-scale testing included index properties, such as grain size distribution and Atterberg limits, and tests for engineering properties including hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Large-scale tests were conducted on model spent shale waste embankments to evaluate hydrological response, including infiltration, runoff, and seepage. Large-scale tests were conducted at a field site in western Colorado and in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL)at the University of Wyoming. The ESL tests allowed the investigators to control rainfall and temperature, providing information on the hydrological response of spent shale under simulated severe climatic conditions. All experimental methods, materials, facilities, and instrumentation are described in detail, and results are given and discussed. 34 refs.

  7. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Annual report for the period, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.; Vadie, A.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a field demonstration of the ability of insitu indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones thereby diverting flow to other areas of the reservoir and thus increase the efficiency of the waterflooding operation. This effect is to be accomplished by adding inorganic nutrients in the form of Potassium nitrate and orthophosphate, to the injection water. In Phase I, which has been completed, the following results were obtained. Two new wells were drilled in the field and live cores were recovered. Analyses of the cores proved that viable microorganisms were present and since no sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were found, the area in which the wells were drilled, probably had not been impacted by injection water, since SRB were prevalent in fluids from most wells in the field. Laboratory waterflooding tests using live cores demonstrated that the rate of flow Of simulated production water through the core increased with time when used alone while the rate of flow decreased when nitrate and phosphate salts were added to the simulated production water. Since there is only a small amount of pressure on the influent, the simulated production water was not forced to sweep other areas of the core. The field demonstration (Phase II) involves adding nutrients to four injector wells and monitoring the surrounding producers. The exact kind and amounts of nutrients to be employed and the schedule for their injection were formulated on the basis of information obtained in the laboratory waterflooding tests conducted using the live cores from the field. Results obtained in these tests will not only be compared to historical data for the wells but also to four injectors and their corresponding producers (control) which were chosen for their similarity to the four test patterns.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Marginal Ice Zone Observations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment mission Sierra Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Begin Flights Over Arctic Sea Ice On July 25, 2013, in Climate, Customers &...

  9. An investigation of the evolution and present distribution of residual oil zones (ROZ) in the Permian Basin, West Texas and its implications for carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    , and widespread development of CO2-EOR in the Permian Basin have made production from ROZ economically attractive) in the Permian Basin, West Texas and its implications for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage West, L. 1 logan significant new resources for tertiary oil production through carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (CO2

  10. Climate Zones | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEAN AIR ACT

  11. Pace of shifts in climate regions increases with global temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahlstein, Irina

    Human-induced climate change causes significant changes in local climates, which in turn lead to changes in regional climate zones. Large shifts in the world distribution of Köppen–Geiger climate classifications by the end ...

  12. Review: The Transition Handbook: From Oil Dependency to Local Resilience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhoury, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a useful starting point into peak oil and transition issuesThe intertwined emergencies of peak oil and climate changenow widely understood as ‘peak oil’: as the production of

  13. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  14. Liquid zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  15. Oil shale retorting method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    York, E.D.

    1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

  16. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J. P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,E . • 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone the

  17. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J. P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,V. E . • 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone

  18. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  19. Climate Change 1999 -~$10/b 2008 -~$147/b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) will not meet the demand. Peak Oil has occurred or will occur soon. Why? existing oil fields are declining at ~5Peak Oil and Climate Change 1999 - ~$10/b 2008 - ~$147/b James W. Murray School of Oceanography suggesting that we are reaching the time when the supply of fossil fuel energy (oil + gas + coal

  20. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

  1. 2001 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES Zone Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    2001 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES Zone Numbers & Detailed Definitions #12;2001 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES of Toronto Joint Program in Transportation January 2003 #12;PREFACE This report presents the 2001 traffic zone numbers by local municipalities in the 2001 TTS survey area. The second part presents detailed

  2. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    growth. For data on world oil consumption and long- term oilOil Production Domestic Oil Consumption a variety of

  3. ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind6:00-06:00 U.S.ratios inAS 42.05, AlaskaASEM GreenA

  4. Details of U.S. Climate Zones:

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469Decade Year-0Cubic Feet)Delaware23.

  5. Climate Zone Number 2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCityFund Jump to: navigation, searchNumber

  6. Climate Zone Number 3 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCityFund Jump to: navigation,

  7. Climate Zone Number 5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCityFund Jump to: navigation,is defined as

  8. Climate Zone Subtype A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCityFund Jump to: navigation,is defined

  9. Climate Zone Subtype B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCityFund Jump to: navigation,is definedB)

  10. Climate Zone Subtype C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCityFund Jump to: navigation,is

  11. Climate Zone 1A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to: navigation,type

  12. Climate Zone 1B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to: navigation,type1B

  13. Climate Zone 2A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:

  14. Climate Zone 2B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:6300 < CDD50ºF

  15. Climate Zone 3A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:6300 <

  16. Climate Zone 3B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:6300 <B is

  17. Climate Zone 3C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:6300 <B isas

  18. Climate Zone 4A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:6300 <B

  19. Climate Zone 4B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:6300 <BCDD50ºF

  20. Climate Zone 4C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:6300

  1. Climate Zone 5A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:63005A Jump to:

  2. Climate Zone 5B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:63005A Jump to:B

  3. Climate Zone 5C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:63005A Jump

  4. Climate Zone 6A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:63005A JumpCold -

  5. Climate Zone 6B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:63005A JumpCold -

  6. Climate Zone 7A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:63005A JumpCold

  7. Climate Zone 7B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:63005A

  8. Climate Zone 8A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:63005Adefined as

  9. Climate Zone 8B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:63005Adefined

  10. Climate Zone Number 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump to:63005Adefinedis

  11. Climate Zone Number 4 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust Jump

  12. Climate Zone Number 6 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust JumpA) with IP Units 7200

  13. Climate Zone Number 7 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust JumpA) with IP Units

  14. Climate Zone Number 8 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork:Trust JumpA) with IP

  15. Essays on the Impact of Climate Change and Building Codes on Energy Consumption and the Impact of Ozone on Crop Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aroonruengsawat, Anin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    climate zone has a representative city. These are for eachdisplays the name of a representative city for that climatedisplays the name of a representative city for that climate

  16. CO2 Mitigation Costs for Canada and the Alberta Oil Sands Justin David Anderson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    climate change and climate change regulation are heterogeneous. Canada, and her oil sands industry-Kyoto targets put forward by the opposition are predicted by the model. Oil sands upgrading/refining experiencesCO2 Mitigation Costs for Canada and the Alberta Oil Sands By Justin David Anderson Bachelor

  17. Workshop Program Grasping Oil and Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Løw, Erik

    is a biologist and the head of the Climate Policy department at Statkraft, Norway's stateowned renewable energy committee for the recent IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation heWorkshop Program Grasping Oil and Water Venue: University of Oslo, P.A. Munch's Hus, ground floor

  18. Cefas contract report: -SLEA2 Oil and Gas Fisheries Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cefas contract report: - SLEA2 Oil and Gas Fisheries Risk Assessment Advice Updated Cefas: Oil and Gas Fisheries Risk Assessment Advice Submitted to: Department of Energy and Climate Change Recommendations for Spawning Finfish ­ English & Welsh Blocks Oil and Gas Fisheries Risk Assessment Advice Updated

  19. Enterprise Zone Incentives (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Enterprise Zone Incentives encourage business growth within certain geographic areas targeted for economic revitalization. Businesses which create jobs within a designated zone are eligible for...

  20. Cracking blends of gas oil and residual oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, G.D.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a catalytic cracking process unit wherein a gas oil feed is cracked in a cracking zone at an elevated temperature in the presence of a cracking catalyst, the cracking catalyst is regenerated in a regeneration zone by burning coke of the catalyst, and catalyst is circulated between the cracking zone and the regeneration zone. The improvement is described for obtaining a naphtha product of improved octane number comprising introducing sufficient of a nickel and vanadium metals-containing heavy feedstock with the gas oil feed introduced into the cracking zone to deposit nickel and vanadium metals on the catalyst and raise the nickel and metals-content of the catalyst to a level ranging from about 1500 to about 6000 parts per million of the metals expressed as equivalent nickel, based on the weight of the catalyst, and maintaining the nickel and vanadium metals level on the catalyst by withdrawing high nickel and vanadium metals containing catalyst and adding low nickel and vanadium metals-containing catalyst to the regeneration zone.

  1. Crude oil and shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrotra, A.K. [Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

    1995-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This year`s review on crude oil and shale oil has been prepared by classifying the references into the following main headings: Hydrocarbon Identification and Characterization, Trace Element Determination, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties, Viscosity, and Miscellaneous Topics. In the two-year review period, the references on shale oils were considerably less in number than those dealing with crude oils. Several new analytical methodologies and applications were reported for hydrocarbon characterization and trace element determination of crude oils and shale oils. Also included in this review are nine U.S., Canadian British and European patents. 12 refs.

  2. The Study on Thermal Performance and Applicability of Energy-saving Wall Materials in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, W.; Lan, M.; Hao, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hot summer and cold winter zone is a transition zone between the cold zone and hot zone, sweltering in summer and chilly in winter, of which climate is worse. In recent years, with people's raised requirements on indoor living environments...

  3. NATIONAL RESEARCH IRKUTSK STATE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    , timber, fish, fur Mineral resources coal, oil, gas, iron, gold Climate sharp continental Time zone GMT

  4. Not Excavated (still on site) As All data Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .12 11.68 10.29 AL: 50 xrf_allzones_20060810 Page 1 of 174notx summary #12;Mo All data Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone.35 2.36 2.37 U95: 57.95 62.41 60.56 51.63 70.50 U99: 58.98 64.27 62.34 52.75 74.38 AL: 550 xrf99: 12.48 AL: xrf_allzones_20060810 Page 3 of 174x summary #12;Mo All data Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone

  5. Shale oil recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  6. Climate(Change:( Energy(and(Community(Impacts! Jonathan!Pershing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of flooding increases the risk to inland thermoelectric facilities, and to rail and barge transport of crude oil, petroleum products, and coal Climate Trends * Relative sea levels...

  7. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON MUNICIPAL, MINING, AND AGRICULTURAL WATER SUPPLIES IN CHILE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NorthernAmericanmarketduring winter. This region relies entirely on snow and ice- melt streams to provide irrigation water. Santiago-likeareas,humidsubtropicalregions, temperate zones, oceanic-dominated climates, sub- polar areas, alpine tundra, and ice caps. These climates

  8. Alternative Energy Zone (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ohio's Alternative Energy Zones are made possible through Ohio's Senate Bill 232, which reduced taxes on alternative energy projects. The Alternative Energy Zones are designated on a county-by...

  9. What measures climate? A variety of variables including their variability and extreme values determine climate for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    climate zones? The sun is the ultimate power source for the climate "machine". The uneven distribution conditions. Typical variables to consider are temperature (maximum, miniumum), precipitation (includes rain, sleet, snow, hail, etc), sunlight/cloudiness, wind, humidity, ice cover, sea temperature, etc... Many

  10. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitrolo, Augustine A. (Fairmont, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Shang, Jerry Y. (Fairfax, VA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  11. Carbometallic oil conversion with ballistic separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, P.W.; Benslay, R.M.; Barger, D.F.

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes improvement in a method for converting carbo-metallic containing residual oils to form upgraded liquid products by mixing. The improvement comprises: discharging the suspension from the reaction zone at a velocity of 55 to 100 ft/sec. imparting greater momentum to the solid particles than to the hydrocarbon product vapors whereby instantaneous separation of at least about 80 wt % of the vapors from the solid particles occurs; encouraging separation of solids from remaining vapors following discharge from the reaction zone by diverting solids from the remaining vapors by directional impingement on a target baffle and by providing a lower pressure vapor recovery zone in open communication with one or more cyclone separation zones outside the reaction zone open end; recovering solid particles separated by momentum from the suspension and diverted laterally from the vapor recovery zone as a mass of collected solid particles; stripping and regenerating the collected the particles in a sequence of separate zones; and recycling hot regenerated solids to the reaction zone for contact with the residual oil feed.

  12. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  13. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  14. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

  15. Modelling the costs of non-conventional oil: A case study of Canadian bitumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Méjean, A; Hope, Chris

    in conventional deposits. The longer- term problem of climate change arises from the fuller and longer-term use of coal, and of unconventional deposits such as heavy oils, tar sands and oil shales.” (Grubb, 2001) As conventional oil becomes scarcer, the transport... , it is not mobile at reservoir conditions, (Cupcic, 2003): density Oil shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock rich in organic matter, (USGS, 2005): oil shales contain kerogen, which is a solid, insoluble organic material...

  16. Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

  17. Oil and Gas CDT Predicting fault permeability at depth: incorporating natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Predicting fault permeability at depth: incorporating natural permeability controls on fluid flow in oil and gas reservoirs. Fault zones are composed of many deformation elements will receive 20 weeks bespoke, residential training of broad relevance to the oil and gas industry: 10 weeks

  18. Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the purposes of renaissance zone designation, “renewable energy facility” means a facility that creates energy, fuels, or chemicals directly from the wind, the sun, trees, grasses, biosolids,...

  19. Renaissance Zones (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Renaissance Zones allow qualifying businesses and individuals to claim one or more tax incentives for purchasing, leasing, or making improvements to real property located in a North Dakota...

  20. Geothermal: Educational Zone

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Educational Zone Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News Related Links...

  1. Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5.7 Energy Security Considerations and the Low Carbon Fuel1.6.3 Energy Security and the Low Carbon Fuel Standard . .The Canadian Oil Sands, Energy Security vs. Climate Change

  2. Zoning administrators and others con-cerned with airport land use will soon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Zoning administrators and others con- cerned with airport land use will soon have help when of the current regulatory rules and climate. The manual describes proce- dural requirements and guidelines, along

  3. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  4. NOAAINMFS Developments NOAA Raises Coastal Zone Management Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    attention on the coastal zone for deepwater ports, floating nuclear power plants, and offshore oil and gas to eight vessels supplying three processing plants, with a total output of around 1.2 million pounds of the deep-sea red crab, and declining consumer buying power, make the fu- ture for the red crab market

  5. Incorporating uncertainty about species' potential distributions under climate change into the selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, David

    A B S T R A C T This analysis presents a conservation planning framework for decisions under. The 109th United States Con- gress and 2008 federal budget proposed opening for oil and gas development oil and gas development and climate change. For instance, climate change accompanied by no development

  6. A BCience Service Feature Released oil receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A BCience Service Feature Released oil receipt but intended for use September 10, 1929. ? 'WXY TKE Canada, the United States (including Alaska and a West Indian service), Mexico, Costa Rica, Canal Zone there are services for Australia, New Zealand and Samoa& (All rights reserved- by---_Science--- Service, Inc

  7. Reach Zones Try this experiment: Place one of your arms out in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , doc- ument stand, folders, staplers, books and other resources that you access regularly. The Tertiary, binders and office resources. Workplace Health and Wellness Monthly Issue Includes Cholesterol Reach Zones oil Olive oil contains antioxidants that can lower your "bad" (LDL) cholesterol but leave your "good

  8. Changing Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and a wide range of academic areas are investigating the different compo- nents. More recently, they are taking information gleaned from the global climate models and applying them to research questions pertaining to Texas. Dr. Bruce Mc...Carl, Regents Professor of agricultural economics at Texas A&M University, has researched the economics of climate change for the last 20 years. McCarl, as a lead CHANGING CLIMATES tx H2O | pg. McCarl ] tx H2O | pg. 4 Changing Climates author...

  9. Queen Anne's County- Solar Zoning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Queen Anne's County zoning code allows for ground mounted solar arrays in areas zoned as "open space," "agricultural," and "countryside" districts.

  10. Opportunity and Enterprise Zones (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Opportunity and Enterprise Zones provide enhanced financial incentives for businesses located in such zones aimed at stimulating economic expansion in rural and disadvantaged communities...

  11. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; Craig D. Morgan; Roger L. Bon

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall production of the well, identify areas that may be by-passed by a waterflood, and prevent rapid water breakthrough. In the eastern Paradox Basin, Colorado, optimal drilling, development, and production practices consist of increasing the mud weight during drilling operations before penetrating the overpressured Desert Creek zone; centralizing treatment facilities; and mixing produced water from pumping oil wells with non-reservoir water and injecting the mixture into the reservoir downdip to reduce salt precipitation, dispose of produced water, and maintain reservoir pressure to create a low-cost waterflood. During this quarter, technology transfer activities consisted of technical presentations to members of the Technical Advisory Board in Colorado and the Colorado Geological Survey. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  12. Keystone Opportunity Zones (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Keystone Opportunity Zones allows businesses located within designated areas to qualify for a tax exemption, deduction, credit, or abatement of state and local taxes such as sales and use tax,...

  13. Streamside Management Zones (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter sets streamside management zones as encompassing a strip at least 50 feet wide on each side of a stream, lake, or other body of water, measured from the ordinary high-water mark, and...

  14. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  15. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 7.1: Guide to Determining Climate Regions by County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Cole, Pamala C.; Hefty, Marye G.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report for DOE's Building America program helps builders identify which Building America climate region they are building in. The guide includes maps comparing the Building America regions with climate designations used in the International Energy Conservation Code for Residential Buildings and lists all U.S. counties by climate zone. A very brief history of the development of the Building America climate map and descriptions of each climate zone are provided. This report is available on the Building America website www.buildingamerica.gov.

  16. Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate

  17. Removal of particulate solids from a hot hydrocarbon slurry oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rush, J.B.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method of treating a hot, refractory hydrocarbon slurry oil having an initial boiling point at atmospheric pressure at least as high as 500{degrees} F and having a gravity of from about 5{degrees} API to about 15{degrees} API, to remove solid particulate material the slurry oil. It comprises mixing with the hot slurry oil, a hot vacuum reduced crude oil having an initial boiling point at atmospheric pressure which is higher than the initial boiling plant at atmospheric pressure of the slurry oil, and having an end point at atmospheric pressure which is higher than the end point at atmospheric pressure of the slurry oil; charging the mixture of hot vacuum reduced crude oil and hot slurry oil to a vacuum flash zone having a pressure of from 1.0 mm Hg to about 10.0 mm Hg and at the selected temperature of less than 700{degrees} F and more than 300{degrees} F to thereby vaporize a major portion of the slurry oil in the mixture, and to thereby transfer substantially all of the solid particulate material into the bottoms liquid remaining in the flash zone following the completion of the vaporization; recovering the overhead; and recovering the liquid bottoms containing the solid particulate material.

  18. Climate Engineering Responses to Climate Emergencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    Novim Climate Engineering Responses to Climate Emergencies Jason J. Blackstock David S. Battisti Santa Barbara, California #12;Climate Engineering Responses to Climate Emergencies This report should, A. A. N. Patrinos, D. P. Schrag, R. H. Socolow and S. E. Koonin, Climate Engineering Responses

  19. Predicting PVT data for CO2brine mixtures for black-oil simulation of CO2 geological storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Predicting PVT data for CO2­brine mixtures for black-oil simulation of CO2 geological storage efficiency of the black-oil approach promote application of black-oil simulation for large-scale geological into geological formations has been considered as a potential method to mitigate climate change. Accurate

  20. COLL-C 103: Critical Approaches to the Arts & Sciences, Fall 2012 TOPIC: Pleasure, Pain, and Peak Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Oil Instructor: Dr. Lisa Sideris Department of Religious Studies lsideris@indiana.edu Class meetings: Tuesday/Thursday 11:15-12:30 Course Description: American society is addicted to oil. Halting any. Pressing environmental issues such as peak oil and climate change may well bring a radical reevaluation

  1. Introductory remarks by Julian Hunt talks at CoZSSA 2, Nov 2005 Ministerial colleagues, I am greatly honoured to open this conference on Coastal Zones in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    for economic and social development consistent with adapting to the special features of the changing climate. Environmental and climate change present great challenges to every country in the world and especially such as those in oil rich areas. The effects of deforestation also have major effects on regional climate

  2. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    over time even if the oil market were perfectly competitive.a big role in world oil markets, that era is long past.and re?ning oil and delivering it to the market. We could

  3. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appeared in the world oil market in the last fifteen years.have on the world oil markets and international relationsthe stability of the oil markets. 11 This literature,

  4. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China made an Iranian oil investment valued at $70 billion.across Iran, China’s oil investment may exceed $100 billionthese involving investment in oil and gas, really undermine

  5. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),the faster its growth in oil demand over the last half ofthe income elasticity of oil demand to fall signi?cantly.

  6. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    current pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentthis point, China’s demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supply inand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

  7. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

  8. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crudein predicting quarterly real oil price change. variable real

  9. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq KuwaitEIA Table 1.2, “OPEC Crude Oil Production (Excluding Lease2008, from EIA, “Crude Oil Production. ” Figure 16. U.S.

  10. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unfettered access to oil resources including the possibleChina’s search for oil resources around the world. However,a survey of China’s oil resources, while others focus

  11. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

  12. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

  13. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

  14. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in U.S. real GDP and oil consumption, 1949-2006. slope =Historical Chinese oil consumption and projection of trend.1991-2006: Chinese oil consumption in millions of barrels

  15. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait,day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.and the peak in U.S. oil production account for the broad

  16. "Managing Department Climate Change"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    "Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

  17. Changing Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    these data with predictions from the IPCC. Professor of geography at Texas State University, Dr. David Butler, does climate change research mainly in the Rocky Moun- tains with U.S. Geological Survey funding. He has also done research on how climate...://wiid.twdb.state.tx.us Detailed information about individual water wells. This system uses a geographic information system-based tool to show locations of water wells and download data on water levels and water quality. Reports that were developed about on-site conditions...

  18. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, China’s demand Oil

  19. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    historical data for claiming to be able to predict oil pricehistorical data. The second is to look at the predictions of economic theory as to how oil prices

  20. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007”. comparison, Mexico used 6.6— Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexico’s Cantarell,

  1. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study, Appendix V, addresses the Gusher Sands and their sub units and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical dta were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off points for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs towards these ends. 16 refs., 9 tabs.

  2. Regional-Scale Climate Change: Observations and Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This collaborative proposal addressed key issues in understanding the Earthâ??s climate system, as highlighted by the U.S. Climate Science Program. The research focused on documenting past climatic changes and on assessing future climatic changes based on suites of global and regional climate models. Geographically, our emphasis was on the mountainous regions of the world, with a particular focus on the Neotropics of Central America and the Hawaiian Islands. Mountain regions are zones where large variations in ecosystems occur due to the strong climate zonation forced by the topography. These areas are particularly susceptible to changes in critical ecological thresholds, and we conducted studies of changes in phonological indicators based on various climatic thresholds.

  3. www.VadoseZoneJournal.org Vadose Zone Journal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vrugt, Jasper A.

    , biofuels, sustainability, and nanotechnology. Since its inception, Vadose Zone Journal has grown tre, multicomponent (reactive) transport modeling, radionuclide transport, multiphase flow, recharge in arid transport, remote sensing of vadose zone properties, hillslope hydrology, gas diffusion, environmental

  4. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  5. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  6. EnginEEring ZonE "The Engineering Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    EnginEEring ZonE "The Engineering Zone will push the limits in collaborative learning and research, and empower people to change the world. "Winthrop Professor John Dell Dean, Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics #12;2 | nEw CEntury Campaign ­ EnginEEring ZonE #12;nEw CEntury Campaign ­ EnginEEring ZonE | 3

  7. The Enterprise Zone (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Enterprise Zone offers tax incentives to business expanding their workforce by 5% at facilities in designated enterprise zones. The tax credit is equal to 50% of the annual wages paid to a new...

  8. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  9. Effects of scale-up on oil and gas yields in a solid-recycle bed oil shale retorting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Vego, A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized bed pyrolysis of oil shale in a non-hydrogen atmosphere has been shown to significantly increase oil yield in laboratory-scale reactors compared to the Fischer assay by many workers. The enhancement in oil yield by this relatively simple and efficient thermal technique has led to the development of several oil shale retorting processes based on fluidized bed and related technologies over the past fifteen years. Since 1986, the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) has been developing one such process, KENTORT II, which is mainly tailored for the Devonian oil shales that occur in the eastern U.S. The process contains three main fluidized bed zones to pyrolyze, gasify, and combust the oil shale. A fourth fluidized bed zone serves to cool the spent shale prior to exiting the system. The autothermal process utilizes processed shale recirculation to transfer heat from the combustion to the gasification and pyrolysis zones. The CAER is currently testing the KENTORT II process in a 22.7-kg/hr process-development unit (PDU).

  10. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  11. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  12. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption would be reduced and incentives for production increased whenever the price of crude oil

  13. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  14. Building Climate Zones -2012 File created: August 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crescent City 1 95432 Elk 1 95501 Eureka 1 95503 Eureka 1 95536 Ferndale 1 95437 Fort Bragg 1 95540 Fortuna

  15. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included. refbldg2busaazphoenixnew2004v1.35.0.zip refbldg2busaazphoenixnew2004v1-47-2.zip More...

  16. Category:ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainableCSLInformationMissouri:Catalyst2-M Probe Survey as

  17. Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Number | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to:Information Promoting Clean Cars: Case

  18. Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to:Information Promoting Clean Cars: CaseSubtype Jump to:

  19. Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to:Information Promoting Clean Cars: CaseSubtype Jump

  20. U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) ConnecticutProduct:2009U.S.

  1. Category:County Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashton Greens Jump Lease.UT"OH"county

  2. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4B

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |

  3. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4B

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |Albuquerque, New Mexico | Department

  4. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4B

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |Albuquerque, New Mexico |

  5. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 6A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |Albuquerque, NewColorado |Colorado

  6. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 6A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |Albuquerque, NewColorado

  7. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 6A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |Albuquerque, NewColoradoMinneapolis,

  8. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 7 Duluth,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |Albuquerque,Montana |

  9. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 7 Duluth,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |Albuquerque,Montana |Minnesota |

  10. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 7 Duluth,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |Albuquerque,Montana |Minnesota

  11. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 8 Fairbanks,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |Albuquerque,Montana |MinnesotaAlaska

  12. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 8 Fairbanks,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |Albuquerque,Montana

  13. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 8 Fairbanks,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida |Albuquerque,MontanaAlaska |

  14. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development Daniel H. Cole*THE COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE . ADAPTATIONCONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE . IV. A.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MonitoringClimate Security Climate Security Climate Security Global reductions in greenhouse gases will eventually be motivated by an international climate treaty and will entail...

  16. Short Communication Securing ocean benefits for society in the face of climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    statement Recent disasters such as the tsunami in Japan, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, and Hurricane Sandy of benefits in the face of future climate change. & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Problem

  17. abnormal resistive zones: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE Kainen, Paul C. 11 Seismic Amplitude Versus Offset (AVO) Character of Geopressured Transition Zones Geosciences...

  18. Coastal communities and climate change : a dynamic model of risk perception, storms, and adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck, Travis Read

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change impacts, including sea-level rise and changes in tropical storm frequency and intensity, will pose signicant challenges to city planners and coastal zone managers trying to make wise investment and protection ...

  19. Daylight Analysis with Microcomputers for School Buildings in a Hot, Humid Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leaver, J.; McQueen, T.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of microcomputer-generated models, especially as they relate to building studies in zones of extreme climate. The hot, humid environment of Louisiana poses unique problems and calls for creative solutions. The use of microcomputers as analytical tools to develop...

  20. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venezuelan Oil Industry Total Wells Drilled and InvestmentWells Drilled and Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industryopenness of the oil sector to foreign investment contributes

  1. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is described below. Data Crude oil production data is fromproductivity measure is crude oil production per worker, andwhich is measured as crude oil production per worker, is

  2. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal drilling, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  3. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal continuity, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  4. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . .2.6: Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico 350 Productivity

  5. Climate Change Scoping Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources BoardBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  6. Climate Change Scoping Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change as approved Prepared by the California AirBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  7. Climate change action plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan ©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing

  8. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  9. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly sorbed onto this fraction of colloids also transport without retardation. The transport times for these radionuclides will be the same as those for nonsorbing radionuclides. The fraction of nonretarding colloids developed in this analysis report is used in the abstraction of SZ and UZ transport models in support of the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This analysis report uses input from two Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) analysis reports. This analysis uses the assumption from ''Waste Form and In-Drift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary'' that plutonium and americium are irreversibly sorbed to colloids generated by the waste degradation processes (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025]). In addition, interpretations from RELAP analyses from ''Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170010]) are used to develop the retardation factor distributions in this analysis.

  10. Climate Past, Climate Present, Climate Future Douglas Nychka,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nychka, Douglas

    series and an energy balance model. 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 -1.5-1.0-0.50.00.5 Year Degree. Supported by US NSF 7th World Congress Prob. and Stat., Singapore July 2008 #12;What is climate? Climate will use statistics to talk about the "known un- knowns" for the Earth's climate Statistics uses

  11. Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical definition of oil-shale facies in the lower Parachute Creek Member of Green River Formation, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.D.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of two drill cores penetrating the lower Saline zone of the Parachute Creek Member (middle L-4 oil-shale zone through upper R-2 zone) of the Green River Formation in north-central Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, indicate the presence of two distinct oil-shale facies. The most abundant facies has laminated stratification and frequently occurs in the L-4, L-3 and L-2 oil-shale zones. The second, and subordinate facies, has ''streaked and blebby'' stratification and is most abundant in the R-4, R-3 and R-2 zones. Laminated oil shale originated by slow, regular sedimentation during meromictic phases of ancient Lake Uinta, whereas streaked and blebby oil shale was deposited by episodic, non-channelized turbidity currents. Laminated oil shale has higher contents of nahcolite, dawsonite, quartz, K-feldspar and calcite, but less dolomite/ankerite and albite than streaked and blebby oil shale. Ca-Mg-Fe carbonate minerals in laminated oil shale have more variable compositions than those in streaked and blebby shales. Streaked and blebby oil shale has more kerogen and a greater diversity of kerogen particles than laminated oil shale. Such variations may produce different pyrolysis reactions when each shale type is retorted.

  12. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  13. Libyan oil industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddams, F.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of the growth and progress of Libya's oil industry since the first crude oil discovery in 1961 are: (1) relations between the Libyan government and the concessionary oil companies; (2) the impact of Libyan oil and events in Libya on the petroleum markets of Europe and the world; and (3) the response of the Libyan economy to the development of its oil industry. The historical review begins with Libya's becoming a sovereign nation in 1951 and traces its subsequent development into a position as a leading world oil producer. 54 references, 10 figures, 55 tables.

  14. Climate Action Plan (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To better understand the current and future vulnerabilities and risks to climate change, DNREC Secretary Collin O’Mara directed the Division of Energy and Climate to conduct a statewide climate...

  15. Climate Data Operators (CDO)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Data Operators (CDO) Climate Data Operators (CDO) Description and Overview CDO is a large tool set for working on climate data. NetCDF 34, GRIB including SZIP compression,...

  16. Protecting climate with forests.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing feedbacks in the climate–biosphere system Front.313–32 Bonan G B 2008 Forests and climate change: forcings,feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests Science

  17. Climate Code Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Nick; Jones, David

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate Code Foundation - who are we? A non-profit organisation founded in August 2010; our goal is to promote the public understanding of climate science, by increasing the visibility and clarity of the software used in climate science...

  18. REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appanna, Vasu

    , the majority of applied microbiologi- cal methods of enhanced oil recovery also dete- riorates oil and appearsREVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived products: a review Natalia A. Yemashova January 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil

  19. Down in Front Business is already acting on the climate threat --and waiting for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Andrew J.

    Inc. Captains of industry want to know what's up ahead. Photo: iStockphoto The company relies on ice, such as oil rigs and pipelines -- the very systems that bring us the oil that's feeding the climate crisis is now moving away from flaring methane gas in its exploration and refining operations to capturing

  20. *Corresponding author: Email: rainer.volkamer@colorado.edu; British Journal of Environment & Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ratios for Ox' production, that are affected by emissions from large oil and natural gas operations author: Email: rainer.volkamer@colorado.edu; British Journal of Environment & Climate Change 3: A research flight on June 15, 2010was conducted over Bakersfield, CA and nearby areas with oil and natural

  1. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminants in vadose zone environments pose a long-term source and threat to groundwater resources, human health, and the environment. Several technical, regulatory, and policy challenges and opportunities are associated with contamination in vadose zone environments, particularly in remediation. In this special issue, ten papers present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate, and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments.

  2. Climate VISION: Contact Us

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Energy Office of Climate Change Policy and Technology (PI-50) 202-586-8339 Mining - Contacts Association Climate VISION Lead Constance Holmes Senior Economist, Director...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate A Model for the Nation: Promoting Education and Innovation in Vermont's Electricity Sector On May 8, 2012, in Climate, Customers & Partners, Energy, Energy Surety,...

  4. Climate Action Plan (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recognizing the profound implications that global warming and climate variation could have on the economy, environment and quality of life in Montana, the Climate Change Advisory Committee (CCAC)...

  5. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...

  6. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...

  7. Climate Change Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Interior Climate Change Response "From the Everglades to the Great Lakes to Alaska and everywhere in between, climate change is a leading threat to natural and cultural...

  8. Western Renewable Energy Zones (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, J.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes recent developments and trends pertaining to competitive renewable energy zones, transmission planning and the integration of renewable generation resources.

  9. Using Oils As Pesticides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott; Metz, Bradley

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum and plant-derived spray oils show increasing potential for use as part of Integrated Pest Management systems for control of soft-bodied pests on fruit trees, shade trees, woody ornamentals and household plants. Sources of oils, preparing...

  10. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an alternative investment strategy to buying oil today andinvestments necessary to catch up. This was the view o?ered by oilinvestment strategy. date t) in order to purchase a quantity Q barrels of oil

  11. Gas and Oil (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

  12. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  13. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  14. Shale oil demetallization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, M. A.

    1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace metals, particularly As, Fe and Ni, are removed from hydrocarbonaceous oils, particularly shale oil by contacting the shale oil with quadrolobe alumina with or without a processing gas such as hydrogen or nitrogen at 500/sup 0/ F. to 800/sup 0/ F. at 250 to 750 psig and LHSV of 0.4 to 3.0 to deposit a portion of said trace metal onto said alumina and recover an oil product having substantially reduced amounts of trace metal.

  15. Oil Peak or Panic?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this balanced consideration of the peak-oil controversy, Gorelick comes down on the side of the optimists.

  16. Oil and gas basins in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, J. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pripyat basin is a Late Devonian rift characterized by a typical fault-block structure. Two synrift salt formations separate the Devonian stratigraphic succession into the subsalt, intersalt, and postsalt sections. Oil is produced from carbonate reservoirs of the subsalt and intersalt sections. Traps are controlled by crests of tilted fault blocks. We analyzed 276 shale and carbonate-rock samples and 21 oils to determine oil-source bed relationships in the basin. Maturities of the oils are from very immature, heavy (9[degrees] API), to very mature, light (42[degrees] API). All fields are in a narrow band on the north side of the basin, and only shows of immature, heavy oil have been obtained from the rest of the basin. Three genetic oil types are identified. Oil type A has high pristane/phytane ratios (>1.0), high amounts of C[sub 29] 18[alpha] (H) trisnorneohopane, and [delta]13C of hydrocarbons in the range of -31 to -27%. Oil types B and C contain very high amounts of gammacerane, which suggests that the oils were derived from carbonate-evaporite source facies. Type B oils are isotopically similar to type A, whereas type C oils are isotopically light (about -33%). Organic carbon content is as much as 5%, and kerogen types range from I to IV. Our data indicate that rocks within the intersalt carbonate formation are the source of the type B oils of low maturity. Thermally mature rocks that might be the source for the mature oils have not been found. Such rocks may occur in depressions adjacent to tilted fault blocks. Higher levels of thermal maturity on the north part of the basin in the vicinity of the most mature oils may be related to higher heat flow during and soon after rifting or to a suspected recently formed magmatic body in the crust below the northern zone. Present-day high temperatures in parts of the northern zone may support the latter alternative.

  17. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics Products 23. Sloan dolomite quarry 24. Weiser gypsum quarry Oil Fields 1. Blackburn field 2. North WillowMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  18. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  19. Exploiting heavy oil reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    North Sea investment potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Beneath the waves in 3D Aberdeen the potential of heavy oil 8/9 Taking the legal lessons learned in the north Sea to a global audience 10 potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Aberdeen: A community of science AT WORK FOR THE ENERGY SECTOR ISSUE

  20. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  1. Building America Best Practices Series: Guide to Determining Climate Regions by County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the eight climate region designations used by the US Department of Energy Building America Program. In addition to describing the climate zones, the document includes a complete list of every county in the United States and their climate region designations. The county lists are grouped by state. The doucment is intended to assist builders to easily identify what climate region they are building in and therefore which climate-specific Building America best practices guide would be most appropriate for them.

  2. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  3. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  4. TSPA Model for the Yucca Mountain Unsaturated Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho

    2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being considered as a potential site for a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) calculations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Such calculations require submodels for all important engineered and natural components of the disposal system. There are five submodels related to the unsaturated zone: climate, infiltration, mountain-scale flow of water, seepage into emplacement drifts, and radionuclide transport. For each of these areas, models have been developed and implemented for use in TSPA. The climate model is very simple (a set of climate states have been deduced from paleoclimate data, and the times when climate changes occur in the future have been estimated), but the other four models make use of complex process models involving time-consuming computer runs. An important goal is to evaluate the impact of uncertainties (e.g., incomplete knowledge of the site) on the estimates of potential repository performance, so particular attention is given to the key uncertainties for each area. Uncertainties in climate, infiltration, and mountain-scale flow are represented in TSPA simulations by means of discrete high, medium, and low cases, Uncertainties in seepage and radionuclide transport are represented by means of continuous probability distributions for several key parameters.

  5. TSPA Model for the Yucca Mountain Unsaturated Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, M. L.; Ho, C. K.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being considered as a potential site for a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) calculations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Such calculations require submodels for all important engineered and natural components of the disposal system. There are five submodels related to the unsaturated zone: climate, infiltration, mountain-scale flow of water, seepage into emplacement drifts, and radionuclide transport. For each of these areas, models have been developed and implemented for use in TSPA. The climate model is very simple (a set of climate states have been deduced from paleoclimate data, and the times when climate changes occur in the future have been estimated), but the other four models make use of complex process models involving time-consuming computer runs. An important goal is to evaluate the impact of uncertainties (e.g., incomplete knowledge of the site) on the estimates of potential repository performance, so particular attention is given to the key uncertainties for each area. Uncertainties in climate, infiltration, and mountain-scale flow are represented in TSPA simulations by means of discrete high, medium, and low cases. Uncertainties in seepage and radionuclide transport are represented by means of continuous probability distributions for several key parameters.

  6. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  7. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  8. 3, 335364, 2006 Hyporheic zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 3, 335­364, 2006 Hyporheic zone dynamics E. Hoehn and O. A. Cirpka Title Page Abstract dynamics in two alluvial flood plains of the Southern Alps using water temperature and tracers E. Hoehn: E. Hoehn (hoehn@eawag.ch) 335 #12;HESSD 3, 335­364, 2006 Hyporheic zone dynamics E. Hoehn and O. A

  9. Climate Leadership Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted and organized by the Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO), Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES), and the Climate Registry, the three-day conference will showcase how new business opportunities, current policies, technologies, climate solutions and energy transformation will drive our low-carbon future.

  10. programs in climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    existing programs in climate change science and infrastructure. The Laboratory has a 15- year history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change

  11. Ecology of freshwater shore zones David L. Strayer Stuart E. G. Findlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activities, resource extraction, introducing alien species, changing climate, and intensive development in terms of the ecological services that they provide--habitat for many species, recreation, harvestable, maintenance of water quality, and dispersal corridors for plants and animals. Humans have used shore zones

  12. Alternate Air Delivery Systems for Hot and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, M.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -zone units in the Harris County Criminal Courts Building in Houston, one of the most hot and humid climates in the United States, as well as in several other facilities. This paper will discuss the adoption of ASHRAE 62, its effects on VAV systems, and how...

  13. Formulating Climate Change Scenarios to Inform Climate - Resilient...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Formulating Climate Change Scenarios to Inform Climate - Resilient Development Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Formulating Climate Change...

  14. Remarks in the National Assembly of France The European Climate Foundation kindly helped arrange a discussion about global climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Remarks in the National Assembly of France The European Climate Foundation kindly helped arrange not go after every drop of oil/gas on the planet. Reality. Governments worldwide are ignoring on their internal consumption of fossil fuels. Why would China agree: to avoid fossil fuel addiction, clean up its

  15. Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polz, Martin

    Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate Engineering Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States 2 Response Strategies to ClimateResponse Strategies to Climate ChangeChange

  16. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  17. Video camera log used for water isolation in the Main Body B pool, Elk Hills field, Kern Co., California -- Water and oil identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starcher, M.G.; Murphy, J.R.; Alexander, P.D.; Whittaker, J.L.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Main Body B reservoir in the Elk Hills Field is a peripherally waterflooded, +400 ft thick series of layered, turbidite Stevens sands. Permeability variation between layers adversely affects the vertical sweep, resulting in production from lower permeability oil sands dominated by production from higher permeability sands. This paper discusses the unique use of various tools to identify water zones to isolate and oil zones to stimulate. Tools used to identify water and oil entry are discussed with respect to their capabilities of identifying oil and water entry into the wellbore.

  18. Climate change risk and response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Changeand Kate Scow. 2006. “Climate Change: Page 117 ChallengesLandscapes. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.

  19. Climate change risk and response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Kate Scow. 2006. “Climate Change: Page 117 ChallengesLandscapes. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.Sea Level. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.

  20. Climate Change and National Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alyson, Fleming; Summer, Kelly; Summer, Martin; Lauren, Franck; Jonathan, Mark

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CLIMATE CHANGE Multiplying Threats to National Securityfor the impacts of climate change on national security. Pagea warming world. Page 11 “Climate change acts as a threat

  1. Climate change risk and response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    net impact of climate change on agriculture in California,of Climate Change on California Agriculture. ” PresentationEffects of Climate Change on California Agriculture Positive

  2. Climate Change and Agriculture Reconsidered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Anthony

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2009 Paper 1080 Climate Change and Agriculture Reconsideredby author(s). Climate Change and Agriculture Reconsideredimpact of climate change on agriculture, there still exists

  3. World Oil: Market or Mayhem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world oil market is regarded by many as a puzzle. Why are oil prices so volatile? What is OPEC and what does OPEC do? Where are oil prices headed in the long run? Is “peak oil” a genuine concern? Why did oil prices ...

  4. Near Shore Submerged Oil Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Near Shore Submerged Oil Assessment September 2010 In the context of the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, submerged oil refers to near shore oil which has picked up sediments from very different physical and chemical processes. In this spill, the oil was released more than 5

  5. Climatic change at high elevation sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Henry F. Diaz

    1998-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A Workshop on climatic change at high elevation sites was held September 11-15, 1995 in Wengen, Switzerland. The meeting was sponsored by both U.S. (Department of Energy, National Science Foundation and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) and European (Swiss National Science Foundation, European Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) agencies. The goals of the workshop were to (1) focus the attention of the world climate community on the existence of unique high elevation geophysical records around the world, (2) highlight the value of these observing sites for climate change detection efforts and to help insure the continued support of governments and of relevant institutions in the maintenance of these high elevation data gathering efforts, (3) discuss and evaluate climatic trends that may be present in these records, and to compare the information with available paleoenvironmental records of glaciers, tree-rings and varved sediments from the alpine zones, and (4) discuss and evaluate information about elevational differences in current and projected greenhouse-gas induced climatic changes in coupled General Circulation Models.

  6. Wrenching and oil migration, Mervine field, Kay County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, H.G.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1913, Mervine field (T27N, R3E) has produced oil from 11 Mississippian and Pennsylvanian zones, and gas from 2 Permian zones. The field exhibits an impressive asymmetric surface anticline, with the steeper flank dipping 30/sup 0/E maximum. A nearly vertical, basement-involved fault develops immediately beneath the steeper flank of the surface anticline. Three periods of left-lateral wrench faulting account for 93% of all structural growth: 24% in post-Mississippian-pre-Desmoinesian time, 21% in Virgilian time, and 48% in post-Wolfcampian time. In Mesozoic through early Cenozoic times, the Devonian Woodford Shale (and possibly the Desmoinesian Cherokee shales) locally generated oil, which should have been structurally trapped in the Ordovician Bromide sandstone. This oil may have joined oil already trapped in the Bromide, which had migrated to the Mervine area in the Early Pennsylvanian from a distant source. Intense post-Wolfcampian movement(s) fractured the competent pre-Pennsylvanian rocks, allowing Bromide brine and entrained oil to migrate vertically up the master fault, finally accumulating in younger reservoirs. Pressure, temperature, and salinity anomalies attest to vertical fluid migration continuing at the present time at Mervine field. Consequently, pressure, temperature, and salinity mapping should be considered as valuable supplements to structural and lithologic mapping when prospecting for structural hydrocarbon accumulations in epicratonic provinces.

  7. Oil spill response resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muthukrishnan, Shankar

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and development program. Title VIII concerns the amendments to the Trans Alaska Pipeline System Act. Title I deals with probably the most important part of OPA-90 ? liability and compensation. Claim procedures, federal authority, financial responsibility... minimum. LITERATURE REVIEW From the time that oil was discovered, drilled and transported, oil spills have been occurring. As long as crude oils and petroleum products are transported across the seas by ships or pipelines, there is the risk of spillage...

  8. Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management in Wisconsinin Wisconsin NASECA February 3, 2011 David S. Liebl #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts · Adaptation strategies #12;Visible Light Energy in = Energy out Absorbed

  9. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    disruptions, and the peak in U.S. oil production account foroil increased 81.1% (logarithmically) between January 1979 and the peak

  10. Oil and Gas (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

  11. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that address the unique nature and challenging locations of many of our remaining oil and natural gas accumulations. The National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL)...

  12. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO); Fernandes, Robert J. (Bakersfield, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  13. The study on flow electrification of oil-cellulose insulating system in large power transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Cao, L.J. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical breakdown due to charge accumulation from transformer oil flow has caused many failures of large power transformers world wide. The problem is due to the entrainment of diffused electrical double layer charges into circulating transformer oil. As the charges accumulate on the surface of solid insulating materials and in volume oil, static potential builds up. If the rate of charge accumulation is greater than the rate of charge relaxation, harmful spark discharge may occur. By employing a pressboard pipe model, the present study carried out revealed the influence of higher oil flow rate and upstream charge on flow electrification. By simulating an actual transformer internal structure, it is noticed that there is a probability of partial discharge inception under higher oil circulation velocity. However, the upstream charge and dry zone can lead to a great increase of electric field strength, which may become important potential causes of partial discharge inception under the condition of relative low oil velocity.

  14. Gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD) process for improved oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, Dandina N. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapid and inexpensive process for increasing the amount of hydrocarbons (e.g., oil) produced and the rate of production from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by displacing oil downwards within the oil reservoir and into an oil recovery apparatus is disclosed. The process is referred to as "gas-assisted gravity drainage" and comprises the steps of placing one or more horizontal producer wells near the bottom of a payzone (i.e., rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities) of a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir and injecting a fluid displacer (e.g., CO.sub.2) through one or more vertical wells or horizontal wells. Pre-existing vertical wells may be used to inject the fluid displacer into the reservoir. As the fluid displacer is injected into the top portion of the reservoir, it forms a gas zone, which displaces oil and water downward towards the horizontal producer well(s).

  15. In situ method for recovering hydrocarbon from subterranean oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, R.H.

    1987-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes in situ method for recovering hydrocarbons from subterranean oil shale deposits, the deposits comprising mineral rock and kerogen, comprising (a) penetrating the oil shale deposit with at least one well; (b) forming a zone of fractured and/or rubbilized oil shale material adjacent the well by hydraulic or explosive fracturing; (c) introducing a hydrogen donor solvent including tetralin into the portion of the oil shale formation treated in step (b) in a volume sufficient to fill substantially all of the void space created by the fracturing and rubbilizing treatment; (d) applying hydrogen to the tetralin and maintaining a predetermined pressure for a predetermined period of time sufficient to cause disintegration of the oil shale material; (e) thereafter introducing an oxidative environment into the portion of the oil shale deposit (f) producing the solvent in organic fragments to the surface of the earth, and (g) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

  16. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reserves. In the data, crude oil reserve addi- tions consistForce and Proven Reserves in the Venezuelan Oil Industry .such as crude oil production, proved reserves, new reserves,

  17. Oil and Gas Production (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A State Oil and Gas Council regulates and oversees oil and gas production in Missouri, and conducts a biennial review of relevant rules and regulations. The waste of oil and gas is prohibited. This...

  18. The Legacy of Oil Spills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevors, J. T.; Saier, M. H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    010-0527-5 The Legacy of Oil Spills J. T. Trevors & M. H.workers were killed, and oil has been gushing out everday. It is now June, and oil continues to spew forth into

  19. Climate WorkshopsClimate Workshops for Department Chairsp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilbury, Dawn

    Climate WorkshopsClimate Workshops for Department Chairsp University of Wisconsin ADVANCE-IT Slides) #12;Why focus on departmental climate? Individuals experience climate in their immediate workplace negative climate than male faculty Improving department climate is critical for retention and advancement

  20. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  1. Dry Gas Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study: Geologic text and tables: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dry Gas Zone was defined by US Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 Engineering Committee (1957) as ''/hor ellipsis/all sands bearing dry gas above the top of the Lower Scalez marker bed. The term is used to include the stratigraphic interval between the Scalez Sand Zone and the Tulare Formation - the Mya Sand Zone. The reservoirs in this upper zone are thin, lenticular, loosely cemented sandstones with relatively high permeabilities.'' Other than the limited Tulare production in the western part of the field, the Dry Gas Zone is the shallowest productive zone in the Elk Hills Reserve and is not included in the Shallow Oil Zone. It is Pliocene in age and makes up approximately eighty percent of the San Joaquin Formation as is summarized in Exhibit TL-1. The lithologic character of the zone is one of interbedded shales and siltstones with intermittent beds of various thickness sands. The stratigraphic thickness of the Dry Gas Zone ranges from 950 to 1150 feet with a general thickening along the flanks and thinning over the crests of the anticlines. The productive part of the Dry Gas Zone covers portions of 30 sections in an area roughly 10 miles long by 4 miles wide. 4 refs.

  2. Climate Leadership Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Climate Leadership Conference is your annual exchange for addressing global climate change through policy, innovation, and business solutions. Forward-thinking lead­ers from busi­ness, gov­ern...

  3. The Climate Policy Dilemma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent GHG abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists over the likelihood of ...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to address the most challenging and demanding climate-change issues. Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) is designed to accel-erate the development and applica-tion of...

  5. The Climate Policy Dilemma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists concerning ...

  6. Kirchhoff integrals and Fresnel zones Ludek Klimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Kirchhoff integrals and Fresnel zones LudŸek KlimeŸs Department of Geophysics, Charles University of discrete values necessary for the numerical quadra­ ture. The Fresnel zones are then derived as the minimum of Fresnel zones is purely local, independent of the reference travel times. The definition of Fresnel zones

  7. OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Qian; J. Wang; S. Li

    In this paper history, current status and forecast of Chinese oil shale indus-try, as well as the characteristics of some typical Chinese oil shales are given.

  8. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  9. Petroleum Oil | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Petroleum Oil Petroleum Oil The production of energy feedstock and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass and agricultural...

  10. Synthetic aircraft turbine oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, R.

    1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprising a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a polyhydroxy anthraquinone, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester and a dialkyldisulfide.

  11. Shale oil by 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaac, E.D.; Svoboda, D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial processing of oil shale is currently being carried out in two countries, these being Manchuria and Estonia. Germany, Israel, Australia, Brazil and the United States are planning commercial development of oil shale during the 1980's. In the United States, developers currently pursuing production facilities in the Piceance Basin in Colorado are the Union Oil Company; Colony Development Company, now owned by Tosco and Exxon; Occidental Oil Shale Inc.; The Rio Blanco Shale Company (Amoco and Gulf) CA Tract; The Cathedral Bluff's Oil Shale Company (Oxy and Tenneco) at CB tract; The Anvil Points Bureau of Mines Site under the direction of DOE which has been leased to the Paraho Development Company to optimize their process; and Superior Oil. Superior Oil plans to recover Negcolite and Dowsonite that are associated with their oil shale. The processes used by these companies are described briefly. These are the Union B process, Tosco II process, Paraho process, and Occidental process. It is estimated that between 400,000 to 500,000 barrels per day (63,600 to 79,500 m/sup 3//day) production would be achieved by 1990 if all of the effects on the infrastructure are planned for and constructed in an orderly manner.

  12. Marathon Oil Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Marine oil shale from the Shenglihe oil shale section in the Qiangtang basin, northern Tibet, China, was dated by the Re-Os technique using Carius Tube digestion, Os distillation, Re extraction by acetone and ICP-MS measure-ment. An isochron was obtained giving an age of 101±24 Ma with an initial

  13. Oil Quantity : The histori

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    model for Prudhoe Bay. Figure 11: Historical Prudhoe Bay oil production data, modeled economically Production (million bbl per Month) Historical Production Best Fit (Hist. Tax w/ELF, Ref. P) High Price 120 140 160 19 Oil Quantity Con Wel N E A N N ng Results e Bay : The histori Bay over tim : Prudhoe Ba

  14. Climate Change Economics and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, Daniela

    AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society a growing population in a changing climate is, therefore, a major global challenge. Changes in climate

  15. Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attari, Shahzeen Z.

    booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994 that will address climate change. Scientists tell us that the climate of the earth is warming, and that the warming into the foundation of the world economy and into the everyday things we do (driving) and use (electricity). Thus

  16. METEOROLOGICAL Journal of Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Ming

    AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Journal of Climate EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary PDF it is available. © 201 American Meteorological Society1 #12;Sun et al. climate downscaling of the Australian currents 1 Marine downscaling of a future climate scenario for Australian boundary currents Chaojiao Sun

  17. Campus Climate Camden Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Stephen José

    Campus Climate Report Camden Campus New Brunswick/Piscataway Campus Newark Campus Student Survey #12;I. INTRODUCTION Executive Summary The Rutgers Campus Climate Survey was designed to determine how University, the campus climate surveys revealed strong areas of satisfaction with the Rutgers University

  18. Forest Research: Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

  19. Climate Change Workshop 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet

  20. Combination process for upgrading residual oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, L.E.; Walters, P.W.; Zandona, O.

    1990-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method for upgrading high boiling residual portions of crude oils comprising metal contaminants, porphyrins, asphaltenes and high molecular weight multi-ring hydrocarbon material. It comprises: charging a high boiling residual portion of crude oil admixed with diluent in contact with suspended upflowing substantially inert fluidizable solids particulate material at an elevated thermal visbreaking temperature in a riser contact zone for a time sufficient to recover therefrom a vaporous hydrocarbon product higher boiling than gasoline partially decarbonized and demetallized to a lower contaminating metals level, quenching the vaporous product of thermal visbreaking below its dew point after separation from solids, charging quenched thermally modified high boiling hydrocarbon product with a crystalline zeolite cracking catalyst under cracking conditions for a hydrocarbon residence time in a riser cracking zone; recovering a hydrocarbon conversion product; separating a combined C{sub 4} minus wet gas product stream of the visbreaking and zeolite catalyst cracking operating to recover a C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} rich fraction separately from a C{sub 2} minus dry gas product fraction, and regenerating the crystalline zeolite contcontaining catalyst.

  1. Economic evaluation of mine assisted oil recovery using a reservoir simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontaine, Russell Charles

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF FIGURES APPENDIX 8 Page I Map of Texas Showing Location of Pecos County. . . . 80 Oil and Gas Field Map of West Texas Showing Location of Pecos Valley High Gravity Field . . . . . . . . . 81 Structure Contour Map of Pecos Valley High Gravity Field... - Both Patterns . 112 34 Gas Production Curve for Lower Zone - Both Patterns. 113 35 Sensitivity Analysis for Pattern ?1 36 Sensitivity Analysis for Pattern ?2 37 Sensitivity to Oil Price - Both Patterns 114 115 116 1. INTRODUCTION 1. 1 General...

  2. Application of computed tomography to enhanced oil recovery studies in naturally fractured reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fineout, James Mark

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    producing zones in the Austin Chalk. . . 3. 3 Spraberry production potential due to fracture distribution and orientation . 27 3. 4 Florence field, Colorado with oil contained in fractures only. . . 3. S Niobrara stratagraphic diagram. . 29 Figure Page.... . Florence Field. . . 26 26 Niobrara Trend . . IV FRACTURED RESERVOIR IMBIBITION EXPERIMENTS . . . . . . . . 30 Experimental Method 30 CT Porosity Calculation. 31 CT Oil Saturations 31 CT Image Resolution. Experimental Sequence. . 34 Determining...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF BYPASSED OIL RESERVES USING BEHIND CASING RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Conner; Jeffrey A. Blesener

    2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Tubing and rods of the S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.1 well were pulled and the well was prepared for running of Schlumberger's Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool (CHFR) in selected intervals. The CHFR tool was successfully run and data was captured. The CHFR formation resistivity readings were compared to original open hole resistivity measurements. Separation between the original and CHFR resistivity curves indicate both swept and un-swept sand intervals. Both watered out sand intervals and those with higher remaining oil saturation have been identified. Due to the nature of these turbidite sands being stratigraphically continuous, both the swept and unswept layers have been correlated across to one of the four nearby offset shallow wells. As a result of the cased hole logging, one well was selected for a workover to recomplete and test suspected oil saturated shallow sand intervals. Well S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.2 was plugged back with cement excluding the previously existing production interval, squeeze cemented behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Bell'' zone and placed on production to develop potential new oil reserves and increase overall well productivity. Prior workover production averaged 3.0 BOPD for the previous six-months from the original ''Meyer'' completion interval. Post workover well production was increased to 5.3 BOPD on average for the following fifteen months. In December 2005, a bridge plug was installed above the ''Bell'' zone to test the ''Foix'' zone. Another cement squeeze was performed behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Foix'' zone and placed on production. The ''Foix'' test has produced water and a trace of oil for two months.

  4. Paraho oil shale module. Site development plan, Task 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A management plan and schedule which covers all requirements for gaining access to the site and for conducting a Paraho Process demonstration program have been prepared. The oil shale available should represent a regional resource of suitable size and quality for commercial development. Discussed in this report are: proof of ownership; requirements for rights-of-way for access to the site; local zoning restrictions; water rights; site availability verification; and other legal requirements. (DMC)

  5. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    1 Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011 J. Hansen, M. Sato, coincident with increased global warming. The most dramatic and important change of the climate dice change is the natural variability of climate. How can a person discern long-term climate change, given

  6. Oil removal from water via adsorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, William Edward

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION I I. LITERATURE REVIEW Significance of Oil Spill Proble. ". . s Growth of Marine Commerce Superport Oil Spills Oil Spills and the Law Oil Spill Control Methods Physical Removal of Oil III. MATERIALS... IV Table V Table VI Significant Facts about Major Oil Spills Viscosity of Test Oils Determined by Capillary Viscometer Percent of Oil Remaining in Water After Removal of Oil-Carrier Combination Maximum Oil Adsorption Capacity for Light Crude...

  7. 5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for gasoline, diesel and other petroleum products. This chapter provides an overview of world oil trends agreements on export routes have limited development. Petroleum production in the United States, including half of petroleum supplies to the United States. OPEC petroleum production also increased in 1994

  8. The effect of high-pressure injection of gas on the reservoir volume factor of a crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honeycutt, Baxter Bewitt

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The gas was taken from the casing annulus at 180 psig pressure after the well had flowed for about 3 hours. An analysis of the gas is given in Table 4. Gravity of the oil was 37. 3 API at 60oF. Reservoir pressure in the Charlotte Field... are different at different locations in the reservoir. In the high-pressure zone about the injection well ? a substantial amount of the oil dissolves in the gas, leaving a low residual oil saturation consisting of the heaviest fraction of the oil...

  9. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  10. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

    1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  11. Spot-Oiling Johnsongrass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Fred C.; Norris, M. J.; Rea, H. E.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kerosene or diesel fuel oil reduced the stand of the grass 95 percent following 4 applications in each of 4 tests. Ten thousand gallons of this mixture were used at College Station for crown-oiling scattered second gowth Johnsongrass in 49 1 acres... and kerosene kill tender second-growth ~hnsongrass when temperatures are high. lowever, they are slow in killing the grass uring low temperatures and when the grass .ears the boot stage. Oil-soluble dinitro and :her proved fortifiers can be added to diesel...

  12. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  13. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  14. Climate VISION: Program Mission

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sectors: oil and gas production, transportation, and refining; electricity generation; coal and mineral production and mining; manufacturing (automobiles, cement, iron and steel,...

  15. Climate Vision: Technology Pathways

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cement Chemical Manufacturing Electric Power Forest Products Iron and Steel Mining Oil and Gas Technology Pathways The DOE's Industries of the Future process helps...

  16. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Imperial College London The Imperial College London provides research into the use and storage of energy by buildings and how energy may be supplied to buildings in the future, and...

  17. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Results

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the GHG intensity of operations over the long-term. Current areas of effort include energy efficiency, alternative technologies, and carbon capture and sequestration...

  18. Climate VISION: PrivateSector Initiatives: Oil and Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    longer-term effort to reduce or sequester GHG emissions. Current areas of effort include energy efficiency, alternative energy technologies, and carbon capture and sequestration...

  19. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    upgrades, and savings and effectiveness of energy efficiency measures. DOE Processing Heating Assessment and Survey Tool Qualification (PHAST) PHAST assists users to survey...

  20. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fossil Energy and other organizations: Office of Fossil Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy International Energy Agency (IEA) IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme...

  1. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Software Tools DOE BestPractices Software Tools DOE BestPractices offers a range of software tools and databases that help manufacturers assess their plant's steam, compressed air,...

  2. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plant Assessments DOE Plant-Wide Assessments Plant-wide assessments are one way to work with the DOE Industrial Technologies Programmost companies realize a minimum of 1 million...

  3. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by DOE's Office of Fossil Energy and the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO): Key Natural Gas and Petroleum Publications Balancing Natural Gas Policy - Fueling the Demands...

  4. Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour;1 Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour? Thomas D. Lowe 1 these kinds of messages (which have recently been dubbed `climate porn' (Ereaut and Segnit, 2006)), can

  5. Climate history and paleoclimate -HS 2011 Climate proxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Climate history and paleoclimate - HS 2011 Climate proxies 18O Climate History & Paleoclimate ­ September 30, 2011 #12;How do we know about the past? Instrumental Historical Through proxies Climate proxies Climate history and paleoclimate - HS 2011 #12;What is a `proxy'? "Proxy, as used here

  6. Ensemble climate predictions using climate models and observational constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REVIEW Ensemble climate predictions using climate models and observational constraints BY PETER A. STOTT 1,* AND CHRIS E. FOREST 2 1 Hadley Centre for Climate Change (Reading Unit), Meteorology Building for constraining climate predictions based on observations of past climate change. The first uses large ensembles

  7. Climate history and paleoclimate -HS 2011 Future climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Climate history and paleoclimate - HS 2011 Future climate Climate History & Paleoclimate - December 9, 2011 1 #12;Climate history and paleoclimate - HS 2011 IPCC 2007 4th Assessment report (AR4) More information can be found: http://www.ipcc.ch/ Remark: 5th assessment report is due in 2013/2014 2 #12;Climate

  8. Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulme, Mike

    Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Accelerated Climate Modeling for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy New Project Is the ACME of Computer Science to Address Climate Change On December 3, 2014, in Analysis, Climate, Global Climate & Energy,...

  10. Oil shale research in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

  11. Production of Shale Oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loper, R. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intensive pre-project feasibility and engineering studies begun in 1979 have produced an outline plan for development of a major project for production of shale oil from private lands in the Piceance Basin in western Colorado. This outline plan...

  12. Oil Market Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

  13. Improved oil recovery using bacteria isolated from North Sea petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davey, R.A.; Lappin-Scott, H. [Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During secondary oil recovery, water is injected into the formation to sweep out the residual oil. The injected water, however, follows the path of least resistance through the high-permeability zones, leaving oil in the low-permeability zones. Selective plugging of these their zones would divert the waterflood to the residual oil and thus increase the life of the well. Bacteria have been suggested as an alternative plugging agent to the current method of polymer injection. Starved bacteria can penetrate deeply into rock formations where they attach to the rock surfaces, and given the right nutrients can grow and produce exo-polymer, reducing the permeability of these zones. The application of microbial enhanced oil recovery has only been applied to shallow, cool, onshore fields to date. This study has focused on the ability of bacteria to enhance oil recovery offshore in the North Sea, where the environment can be considered extreme. A screen of produced water from oil reservoirs (and other extreme subterranean environments) was undertaken, and two bacteria were chosen for further work. These two isolates were able to grow and survive in the presence of saline formation waters at a range of temperatures above 50{degrees}C as facultative anaerobes. When a solution of isolates was passed through sandpacks and nutrients were added, significant reductions in permeabilities were achieved. This was confirmed in Clashach sandstone at 255 bar, when a reduction of 88% in permeability was obtained. Both isolates can survive nutrient starvation, which may improve penetration through the reservoir. Thus, the isolates show potential for field trials in the North Sea as plugging agents.

  14. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  15. The Climate Impacts LINK Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    The Climate Impacts LINK Project The Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia Funded by the UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Contract Ref EPG 1/1/68 The Climate Impacts LINK Project: Applying Results from the Hadley Centre's Climate Change Experiments for Climate

  16. Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises Committee on Abrupt Climate Change Ocean Studies Board of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abrupt climate change : inevitable surprises / Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, Ocean Studies Board, Polar Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

  17. Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air ResourcesBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  18. Conservation and Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landweber, Laura

    V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

  19. Global climatic catastrophes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budyko, M.I.; Golitsyn, G.S.; Izrael, A

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work inquires into global climatic catastrophes of the past, presenting data not easily available outside of the Socialist Countries, and applies these results to the study of future climatic developments, especially as they threaten in case of Nuclear Warfare - Nuclear Winter. The authors discuss probable after effects from the Soviet point of view on the basis of research, stressing the need to avoid all conflict which might lead to the next and final Global Climatic Catastrophy.

  20. Climate Action Plan (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Governor Timothy M. Kaine established the Governor's Commission on Climate Change in December 2007. The commission prepared a plan for Virginia that identified ways to reduce greenhouse gas...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from improved climate models to performance models for underground waste storage to 3D printing and digital rock physics. Marianne Walck (Director ... NASA Award for Marginal...

  2. Climate Change, Drought & Environment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Afternoon Plenary Session: Current Trends in the Advanced Bioindustry Climate Change, Drought, and Environment—Michael Champ, Executive Director, The Sustainable Water Challenge

  3. Climate Vision: Presidential Statements

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Remarks by the President at Major Economies Meeting on Energy Security and Climate Change September 28, 2007 THE PRESIDENT: Good morning. Thank you. Welcome to the State...

  4. Protecting climate with forests.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    much more than carbon sequestration does, and often in abiophysics, carbon sequestration, climate change, climatethe accompanying carbon sequestration does—and sometimes in

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Management On January 27, 2011, in A growing consensus exists among climate scientists, economists, and policy makers that the link between man-made emissions of greenhouse...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protected: White House Water Roundtable: Question 4 On September 20, 2011, in Climate, Water There is no excerpt because this is a protected post. Protected: White House Water...

  7. Welcome to Climate VISION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Mission Private Sector Initiatives Asia Pacific Partnership ClimateTechnology.gov Resources and Links 1605(b) Site Map Technology Pathways Contact Us News and Events How...

  8. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pride, S.R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic wavesbe expected to enhance oil production. INTRODUCTION The hopethe reservoir can cause oil production to increase. Quite

  9. Water Heaters (Storage Oil) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil) Water Heaters (Storage Oil) Water Heater, Storage Oil - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Storage Electric)...

  10. Renewable Energy Generation Zone Property Tax Abatement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Local areas in Mimssouri can be designated as Renewable Energy Generation Zones and receive property tax abatements as part of the Enhanced Enterprise Zone program. Legislation (H.B. 737) enacted...

  11. Enterprise Zone Sales Tax Exemption (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Enterprise Zone Sales Tax Exemption offers businesses located in such economic development zones a 100 percent sales tax exemption on the purchase of labor and materials to construct or remodel...

  12. Statewide Empire Zone Program (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Business that do not meet the requirements for standard financing, but are in need of capital, may qualify for NYBDC’s Statewide Empire Zone Program. The Statewide Zone Capital Corporation (SZCC),...

  13. Local Option- Rural Renewable Energy Development Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cities, counties, or several contiguous counties in Oregon can set up Rural Renewable Energy Development Zones. The zone can only cover territory outside of the urban growth boundary of any large...

  14. Keystone Innovation Zone Tax Credit Program (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Keystone Innovation Zone Tax Credit Program provides tax credits to companies less than eight years old who operate within designated innovation zones. A total pool of $25 million in tax...

  15. Virginia Enterprise Zone Job Creation Grant (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Virginia Enterprise Zone Job Creation Grant provides cash grants to businesses located in Enterprise zones that create permanent new jobs over a four-job threshold. State incentives are...

  16. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively fractured and sealed by overlying argillaceous and non-fractured units. The best outcrop analogs for Twin Creek reservoirs are found at Devils Slide and near the town of Peoa, Utah, where fractures in dense, homogeneous non-porous limestone beds are in contact with the basal siltstone units (containing sealed fractures) of the overlying units. The shallow marine, Mississippian Leadville Limestone is a major oil and gas reservoir in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado. Hydrocarbons are produced from basement-involved, northwest-trending structural traps with closure on both anticlines and faults. Excellent outcrops of Leadville-equivalent rocks are found along the south flank of the Uinta Mountains, Utah. For example, like the Leadville, the Mississippian Madison Limestone contains zones of solution breccia, fractures, and facies variations. When combined with subsurface geological and production data, these outcrop analogs can improve (1) development drilling and production strategies such as horizontal drilling, (2) reservoir-simulation models, (3) reserve calculations, and (4) design and implementation of secondary/tertiary oil recovery programs and other best practices used in the oil fields of Utah and vicinity. In the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin, optimal drilling, development, and production practices consist of: (1) owning drilling rigs and frac holding tanks; (2) perforating sandstone beds with more than 8 percent neutron porosity and stimulate with separate fracture treatments; (3) placing completed wells on primary production using artificial lift; (4) converting wells relatively soon to secondary waterflooding maintaining reservoir pressure above the bubble point to maximize oil recovery; (5) developing waterflood units using an alternating injector--producer pattern on 40-acre (16-ha) spacing; and (6) recompleting producing wells by perforating all beds that are productive in the waterflood unit. As part of technology transfer activities during this quarter, an abstract describing outcrop reservoir analogs was accepted by the American Assoc

  17. Santa Clara County- Zoning Ordinance (California)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Santa Clara County's Zoning Ordinance includes standards for wind and solar structures for residential, agricultural, and commercial uses.

  18. ClimateChangeLIVE Webcast: Join the Climate Conversation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join ClimateChangeLIVE's webcast, bringing together students and climate experts for a discussion about climate change and what students and classes around the country are doing to be part of the climate solution. Students will be able to interact with climate scientists and experts online through Facebook and Twitter. A GreenWorks! grant will be offered to help schools with climate action projects.

  19. 1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate A BrAzil-UK AnAlysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;3DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL April 2011Alysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;4 DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE

  20. Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Webinar. Presentation More Documents & Publications...

  1. Global transition zone tomography Jeroen Ritsema1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritsema, Jeroen

    Global transition zone tomography Jeroen Ritsema1 and Hendrik Jan van Heijst Seismological on accurate models of seismic velocity variation in the upper mantle transition zone (400­1000 km depth. Such data provide new global transition zone constraints. We combined more than a million measurements

  2. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other stakeholders in the Eastern Interconnection identify geographic areas suitable for the development of clean energy resources (natural gas, sequestration or utilitization locations for C02 from coal, nuclear, and renewable) which can potentially provide significant amounts of new electric power generation.

  3. Global air quality and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of Chemistry- Climate Models 5, 2010. 320 S. Wu,and R. Van Dorland, in Climate Change 2007: The PhysicalInter- governmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. D. Qin, M.

  4. Climate Change at Annual Timescales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stine, Alexander Robin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1900–93, Journal of Climate, 10 (5), 1004–1020, 1997. Zhou,University of East Anglia’s Climate Research Unit (Jones etand those from WCRP “Climate of the Twentieth Century”

  5. MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

  6. Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http://aerosol.ucsd.edu/courses.html Text: Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http

  7. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature, type of shale and oil content of shale isof Sulfur in Colorado Oil Shale Oil yield of shale, gal/toncontent of the shale, and shale oil content of the rock can

  8. Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only". Maintain a written log to document all amounts and types of oil added to the container. No solvents, oil contaminated with solvents, PCBs, non-petroleum based oils, or any other

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W. Travis [Purdue University] [Purdue University; Groll, Eckhard A. [Purdue University] [Purdue University; Braun, James E. [Purdue University] [Purdue University

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goals of the proposed project were to develop, test, and evaluate a high performance and cost-effective vapor compression air-source heat pump for use in cold climate regions. Vapor compression heat pumps are a proven technology, and have been used for many years to meet heating requirements for buildings in residential, commercial, and industrial applications. However, in climate regions that experience very low outdoor ambient temperatures both the heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of traditional air-source vapor compression heat pumps drops dramatically with a decrease in the outdoor air temperature. The efficiency of heat pumping equipment has improved substantially over the past 20 years; however, the efficiencies of the highest rated equipment on the market are approaching practical limits that cannot be surpassed without modifications to the basic cycle and possibly the use of additional hardware. In this report, three technologies to improve the efficiency of vapor compression systems are described. These are a) vapor injected compression, b) oil flooded compression and c) hybrid flow control of the evaporator. Compressor prototypes for both, oil flooded and vapor injected compression were developed by Emerson Climate Technologies. For the oil flooded compressor, the oil injection port location was optimized and an internal oil separator was added using several design iterations. After initial testing at Emerson Climate Technologies, further testing was done at Purdue University, and compressor models were developed. These models were then integrated into a system model to determine the achievable improvement of seasonal energy efficiency (SEER) for Minneapolis (Minnesota) climate. For the oil flooded compression, a 34% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency was found while a 21% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency ratio was found for the vapor injected compression. It was found that one benefit of both tested compression technologies is a lower discharge temperature, which allows for continued operation at lower ambient temperatures. A bin analysis of the vapor injected prototype cold climate heat pump predicts a 6% improvement in HSPF for Minneapolis. This improvement is mainly a result of the increased capacity of the system for active vapor injection. For the oil flooded system, a slightly larger performance improvement is predicted, in this case mostly caused by an increase in heating COP. Based on an economic analysis of these results, the maximum additional cost of the system changes, for the Minneapolis location, are $430 for the vapor injected system and $391 for the oil flooded system. These estimates assume that a 3-year simple payback period is accepted by the customer. For the hybrid flow control of evaporators, a new type of balancing valve was developed together with Emerson Climate technologies to reduce the cost of the control scheme. In contrast to conventional stepper motor valves, this valve requires less cables and can be driven by a cheaper output circuit on the control board. The correct valve size was determined in a dedicated test stand in several design iterations. The performance benefits of the hybrid control of the evaporator coil were determined for clean coil conditions as well as with partial blockage of the air inlet grille and under frosting conditions. For clean coil conditions, the benefits in terms of COP and capacity are negligible. However, significant benefits were noted for severely air-maldistributed operating conditions. For the H2-test, the maximum COP improvement of 17% along with a capacity improvement of nearly 40% was observed. Overall, the hybrid control scheme leads to a significant amount of performance improvement, if the air inlet conditions to the evaporator are maldistributed.

  10. Oil removal from water via adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, William Edward

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Inorganic adsorbents, such as perlite and glass wool, do not have high oil adsorption capacities compared to organ- ics and the capacities are dependent on the viscosity of the oils. The inorganic adsorbents have higher oil adsorption capacities in more... IV Table V Table VI Significant Facts about Major Oil Spills Viscosity of Test Oils Determined by Capillary Viscometer Percent of Oil Remaining in Water After Removal of Oil-Carrier Combination Maximum Oil Adsorption Capacity for Light Crude...

  11. Enhanced Oil Recovery of Viscous Oil by Injection of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Made with Used Engine Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Xuebing

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    was proposed for emulsion generation because of several key advantages: more favorable viscosity that results in better emulsion injectivity, soot particles within the oil that readily promote stable emulsions, almost no cost of the oil itself and relatively...

  12. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Randy Cortright, Founder & Chief Technology Officer, Virent

  13. Oil and Gas Conservation (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Parts 1 and 2 of this chapter contain a broad range of regulations pertaining to oil and gas conservation, including requirements for the regulation of oil and gas exploration and extraction by the...

  14. Oil and Gas Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oil and Gas section of the Tennessee Code, found in Title 60, covers all regulations, licenses, permits, and laws related to the production of natural gas. The laws create the Oil and Gas...

  15. Business cycles in oil economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon.

  16. fuel_oil.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand Motor444B (11-19-10)Fuel Oil

  17. Oil | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732onMake YourDepartment ofCDepartmentthe ChiefOil Oil For the

  18. How Can We Avert Dangerous Climate Change?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent analyses indicate that the amount of atmospheric CO2 required to cause dangerous climate change is at most 450 ppm, and likely less than that. Reductions of non-CO2 climate forcings can provide only moderate, albeit important, adjustments to the CO2 limit. Realization of how close the planet is to "tipping points" with unacceptable consequences, especially ice sheet disintegration with sea level rise out of humanity's control, has a bright side. It implies an imperative: we must find a way to keep the CO2 amount so low that it will also avert other detrimental effects that had begun to seem inevitable, e.g., ocean acidification, loss of most alpine glaciers and thus the water supply for millions of people, and shifting of climatic zones with consequent extermination of species. Here I outline from a scientific perspective actions needed to achieve low limits on CO2 and global warming. These changes are technically feasible and have ancillary benefits. Achievement of needed changes requires overcoming t...

  19. Oil and Gas Air Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  20. Analysis Patterns for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Zhen; Guangzhen Shao

    We present analysis patterns to describe the structure of oil refineries. The Refinery Produc tion Unit Pattern describes the structure of units and unit groups. The Oil Storage Pattern describes the structure of tanks and tank groups. The Oil Delivery Pattern describes the structure of stations for import and export of oil. The Production Process Pattern describes the productionprocess. The audience for this paper includes analysts, designers, and programmers who are involved in developing Refinery Information Systems.

  1. Oil and Gas Air Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  2. Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

  3. Dealing in Doubt: The Climate Denial Industry and Climate Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairchild, Mark D.

    Dealing in Doubt: The Climate Denial Industry and Climate Science A Brief History of Attacks action on climate change has become more likely. This time, though, there is a difference. In recent, despite its lack of evidence or scientific support. The last peak in the climate denial campaign

  4. Climate simulators and climate projections Jonathan Rougier1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, Peter

    Climate simulators and climate projections Jonathan Rougier1 Department of Mathematics University;Abstract We provide a statistical interpretation of current practice in climate mod- elling. This includes: definitions for weather and climate; clarifying the relationship between simulator output and simulator

  5. The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: · Central · Climate with enhanced cloud absorption Synthesis of models and aerosol observations: · Development

  6. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  7. Accommodation Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind6:00-06:00About OpenEIAccionaAccommodation Zone Jump

  8. OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS This test method is a good routine test for the overall condition of the oil, the cleanliness, and can indicate the presence of wear metals that could be coming of magnetic metal particles within the oil. This may represent metals being worn from components (i

  9. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a novel alkaline-steam well completion technique for the containment of the unconsolidated formation sands and control of fluid entry and injection profiles. (5) Installation of a 2100 ft, 14 inch insulated, steam line beneath a harbor channel to supply steam to an island location. (6) Testing and proposed application of thermal recovery technologies to increase oil production and reserves: (a) Performing pilot tests of cyclic steam injection and production on new horizontal wells. (b) Performing pilot tests of hot water-alternating-steam (WAS) drive in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Perform a pilot steamflood with the four horizontal injectors and producers using a pseudo steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process. (8) Advanced reservoir management, through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring and evaluation.

  11. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (?m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  12. Oil and Global Adjustment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brad Setser

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current account surplus of the world’s major oil exporting economies – defined as the IMF’s fuel-exporting emerging economies plus Norway – increased from $110b to about $500b between 2002 and 2006. 2 In 2006, the current account surplus of the Gulf

  13. Dying for oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, A.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses the fight and execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa, the Ogoni leader who defended his people`s land on the Niger delta against oil development encouraged by the government and persued by the Royal/Dutch Shell Co. Political reprocussions and heightened vigilance of environmental activists are discussed at length.

  14. Production of Shale Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loper, R. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the principal features of a proposed $5 billion project to develop facilities for production of 100,000 barrels per day of synthetic crude from oil shale. Subjects included are resource evaluation, environmental baseline studies, plans for acquisition of permits...

  15. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. (BHP Petroleum, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  16. World Oil Transit Chokepoints

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

  17. Global climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

  18. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

    2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  19. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  20. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

  1. Biological Impacts of Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarty, John P.

    Biological Impacts of Climate Change John P McCarty, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE and reproduction depend on how well adapted individuals are to local climate patterns. Climate change can disrupt subsequent impacts on populations or species' distributions across geographic regions. Climate change may

  2. Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gvirtzman, Haim

    climate and cultural changes are observed in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East [e.g., Bookman et1 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes and Implications of Climatic Change ISSN 0165-0009 Volume 112 Combined 3-4 Climatic Change (2012) 112:769-789 DOI

  3. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Reservoirs of South Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H.; Knox, P.R.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Play of South Texas is one example of a mature play where reservoirs are being abandoned at high rates, potentially leaving behind significant unrecovered resources in untapped and incompletely drained reservoirs. Nearly 1 billion barrels of oil have been produced from Frio reservoirs since the 1940`s, yet more than 1.6 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil is estimated to remain in the play. Frio reservoirs of the South Texas Gulf Coast are being studied to better characterize interwell stratigraphic heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic depositional systems and determine controls on locations and volumes of unrecovered oil. Engineering data from fields throughout the play trend were evaluated to characterize variability exhibited by these heterogeneous reservoirs and were used as the basis for resource calculations to demonstrate a large additional oil potential remaining within the play. Study areas within two separate fields have been selected in which to apply advanced reservoir characterization techniques. Stratigraphic log correlations, reservoir mapping, core analyses, and evaluation of production data from each field study area have been used to characterize reservoir variability present within a single field. Differences in sandstone depositional styles and production behavior were assessed to identify zones with significant stratigraphic heterogeneity and a high potential for containing unproduced oil. Detailed studies of selected reservoir zones within these two fields are currently in progress.

  4. Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and the Organization of the Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC) that these concerns have been officially acknowledged transfers raise questions about both their amount and their efficiency for sustaining economic activity. The first question relates to the evaluation of climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries, which

  5. Steroids in sediments from Zabuye Salt Lake, western Tibet: diagenetic, ecological or climatic signals?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    diagenesis and climate signals. Steroids, including sterols and sterenes, dominate the soluble organic matter to the biogeochemical change of organic matter during early diagenesis. 4,4-dimethyl spirosterenes and their possible rocks, as well as crude oils. Diagenesis of the organic matter occurring in waters and sediments

  6. Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This course provides an introduction to planning for climate change impacts, with examples of tribes that have been going through the adaptation planning process. The course is intended for tribal...

  7. Cool Farming: Climate impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    Cool Farming: Climate impacts of agriculture and mitigation potential greenpeace.org Campaigningfor meat categories as well as milk and selected plant products for comparison. 36 Figure 1: Total global

  8. Climate Action Plan (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a growing scientific consensus that increasing emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are affecting the temperature and variability of the Earth’s climate. Recognizing the...

  9. Climate Action Plan (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On November 14, 2007, Governor Jennifer M. Granholm issued Executive Order No. 2007-42 establishing the Michigan Climate Action Council (MCAC). The Council is comprised of members representing...

  10. Refining climate models

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Warren, Jeff; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Ricciuto, Daniel

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Using dogwood trees, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers are gaining a better understanding of the role photosynthesis and respiration play in the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. Their findings will aid computer modelers in improving the accuracy of climate simulations.

  11. Climate Action Plan (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recognizing the implications that global climate change may have on the economy, environment and quality of life in Minnesota, Governor Tim Pawlenty signed into law the 2007 Next Generation Energy...

  12. Refining climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Jeff; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Ricciuto, Daniel

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Using dogwood trees, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers are gaining a better understanding of the role photosynthesis and respiration play in the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. Their findings will aid computer modelers in improving the accuracy of climate simulations.

  13. Climate VISION: Events

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficiency and CO2 Intensity Improvement (PDF 24 KB) October 24-26, 2005 12th Annual EPA Natural Gas STAR Workshop September 28-30, 2005 Climate RESOLVE GHG Management Workshop...

  14. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF OIL product, product that does notthe quantity of oil products that escapes from pipelines. ”transport of crude oil and petroleum products accounted for

  15. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VII. IMPACTS OF OIL CONSUMPTION . . . . . . .and the location of oil consumption necessitates that crudere?neries. VII. IMPACTS OF OIL CONSUMPTION The combustion of

  16. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bution of the impacts of oil production and consumption. Theof harmful effects from oil production and use. A criticaland procedural impacts of oil production and consumption

  17. Climate Science and Drought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas Climate Change and Drought Wendy Gordon, Ph.D. The University of Texas ? Austin Environmental Science Institute Texas Wildfires 2011 From the beginning of the fire season on November 15, 2010 to October 31, 2011 nearly 28,000 fires had... have been particularly severe due to the ongoing 2011 Southern US drought, and exacerbating the problem is land management practices, the unusual convergence of strong winds, unseasonably warm temperatures, and low humidity. Climate...

  18. Refraction of shear zones in granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Unger

    2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study strain localization in slow shear flow focusing on layered granular materials. A heretofore unknown effect is presented here. We show that shear zones are refracted at material interfaces in analogy with refraction of light beams in optics. This phenomenon can be obtained as a consequence of a recent variational model of shear zones. The predictions of the model are tested and confirmed by 3D discrete element simulations. We found that shear zones follow Snell's law of light refraction.

  19. Peut-on connaitre le climat sans connaitre la meteo ? Corentin Herbert1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    variables est d´etermin´ee par les diff´erentes composantes du syst`eme Terre : l'atmosph`ere et l temps de r´eponse de l'atmosph`ere `a une perturbation ext´erieure est plus court que celui de l, moyenn´ees sur des zones assez 104 Historical Overview of Climate Change Science Chapter 1 Frequently

  20. Anomalous zones in Gulf Coast Salt domes with special reference to Big Hill, TX, and Weeks Island, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Thoms, R.L. [AGM, Inc., College Station, TX (United States); Autin, W.J.; McCulloh, R.P. [Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Denzler, S.; Byrne, K.O. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous features in Gulf Coast Salt domes exhibit deviations from normally pure salt and vary widely in form from one dome to the next, ranging considerably in length and width. They have affected both conventional and solution mining in several ways. Gas outbursts, insolubles, and potash (especially carnallite) have led to the breakage of tubing in a number of caverns, and caused irregular shapes of many caverns through preferential leaching. Such anomalous features essentially have limited the lateral extent of conventional mining at several salt mines, and led to accidents and even the closing of several other mines. Such anomalous features, are often aligned in anomalous zones, and appear to be related to diapiric processes of salt dome development. Evidence indicates that anomalous zones are found between salt spines, where the differential salt intrusion accumulates other materials: Anhydrite bands which are relatively strong, and other, weaker impurities. Shear zones and fault displacement detected at Big Hill and Weeks Island domes have not yet had any known adverse impacts on SPR oil storage, but new caverns at these sites conceivably may encounter some potentially adverse conditions. Seismic reflection profiles at Big Hill dome have shown numerous fractures and faults in the caprock, and verified the earlier recognition of a major shear zone transecting the entire salt stock and forming a graben in the overlying caprock. Casing that is placed in such zones can be at risk. Knowledge of these zones should create awareness of possible effects rather than preclude the future emplacement of caverns. To the extent possible, major anomalous zones and salt stock boundaries should be avoided. Shear zones along overhangs may be particularly hazardous, and otherwise unknown valleys in the top of salt may occur along shear zones. These zones often can be mapped geophysically, especially with high-resolution seismic techniques.

  1. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  2. Enterprise Zone Retraining Credit Program (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Enterprise Zone Retraining Credit Program is a discretionary incentive that helps existing industries maintain their competitive edge and retain their existing workforce by allowing them to...

  3. Maricopa County- Renewable Energy Systems Zoning Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maricopa County Zoning Ordinance contains provisions for siting renewable energy systems. The ordinance defines renewable energy as "energy derived primarily from sources other than fossil...

  4. The Ohio Enterprise Zone program (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ohio Enterprise Zone program is an economic development tool administered by municipal and county governments that provides real and personal property tax exemptions to businesses making...

  5. Climate Models from the Joint Global Change Research Institute

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Staff at the Joint Institute develop and use models to simulate the economic and physical impacts of global change policy options. The GCAM, for example, gives analysts insight into how regional and national economies might respond to climate change mitigation policies including carbon taxes, carbon trading, and accelerated deployment of energy technology. Three available models are Phoenix, GCAM, and EPIC. Phoenix is a global, dynamic recursive, computable general equilibrium model that is solved in five-year time steps from 2005 through 2100 and divides the world into twenty-four regions. Each region includes twenty-six industrial sectors. Particular attention is paid to energy production in Phoenix. There are nine electricity-generating technologies (coal, natural gas, oil, biomass, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, and geothermal) and four additional energy commodities: crude oil, refined oil products, coal, and natural gas. Phoenix is designed to answer economic questions related to international climate and energy policy and international trade. Phoenix replaces the Second Generation Model (SGM) that was formerly used for general equilibrium analysis at JGCRI. GCAM is the Global Change Assessment Model, a partial equilibrium model of the world with 14 regions. GCAM operates in 5 year time steps from 1990 to 2095 and is designed to examine long-term changes in the coupled energy, agriculture/land-use, and climate system. GCAM includes a 151-region agriculture land-use module and a reduced form carbon cycle and climate module in addition to its incorporation of demographics, resources, energy production and consumption. The model has been used extensively in a number of assessment and modeling activities such as the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF), the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program, and the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and IPCC assessment reports. GCAM is now freely available as a community model. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) Model is a process-based agricultural systems model composed of simulation components for weather, hydrology, nutrient cycling, pesticide fate, tillage, crop growth, soil erosion, crop and soil management and economics. Staff at PNNL have been involved in the development of this model by integrating new sub-models for soil carbon dynamics and nitrogen cycling.

  6. Effect of chronic oil pollution on salt-marsh nitrogen fixation (acetylene redution). [Spartina alterniflora

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, A.D.; Webb, K.L.

    1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual acetylene reduction rates associated with intertidal communities in a chronically oil polluted Virgina salt marsh were compared to rates measured in an undisturbed marsh. Chronic oil treatment resulted in visible damage to the higher plants of the Spartina alterniflora zones; however, vegetation-associated acetylene reduction was not different from the untreated control. Sediment rates generally were affected little by oil application, except during the summer when rates in the median tidal elevation zones were considerably higher than those of the control. Acetylene reduction occurred in all transects, each of which extended from upper mudflat to the Spartina patens zone. Intertidal sediment acetylene reduction was patchy, both spatially and seasonally. Estimated rates were greatest near the surface; free-living bacterial N/sub 2/ fixation activity averaged 2.23 mg N per m/sup 2/ per d (range = undetectable to 365 mg N per m/sup 2/ per d) in the untreated and 3.17 mg N per m/sup 2/ per d (range = undetectable to 564 mg N per m/sup 2/ per d) in the oil-treated marsh during the year. Vegetation-associated N/sub 2/ fixation activity yielded highest overall mean rates (156 mg N per M/sub 2/ per d). The seasonal pattern of sediment and vegetation-associated fixation may be controlled by temperature and availability of oxidizable substrates. 39 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EOR continues to unlock oil resources. Oil & Gas Journal, [of conventional oil resource availability. Estimates ofthe tar sands and heavy oil resource in Figure 10. Note that

  8. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate/Environment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ClimateEnvironment ClimateEnvironment On January 27, 2011, in ClimateEnvironment Sensing and Monitoring Modeling and Analysis Carbon Management Water & Environment Publications...

  10. Climate Change Science Institute | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Science Institute SHARE Climate Change Science Institute To advance understanding of the Earth system, describe the consequences of climate change, and evaluate and...

  11. Imbibition assisted oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pashayev, Orkhan H.

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    as two superimposed continuous porous media. In the dual porosity model, the fluid flow between the matrix blocks and the surrounding fractures is characterized by the transfer functions. For the transfer functions, it is a prerequisite.... 1.2 Capillary Imbibition Capillary imbibition is described as a spontaneous penetration of a wetting phase into a porous media while displacing a non-wetting phase by means of capillary pressure, e.g., water imbibing into an oil-saturated rock...

  12. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  13. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  14. Geoengineering the Earth's Climate

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Google Tech Talks

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emergency preparedness is generally considered to be a good thing, yet there is no plan regarding what we might do should we be faced with a climate emergency. Such an emergency could take the form of a rapid shift in precipitation patterns, a collapse of the great ice sheets, the imminent triggering of strong climate system feedbacks, or perhaps the loss of valuable ecosystems. Over the past decade, we have used climate models to investigate the potential to reverse some of the effects of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by deflecting some incoming sunlight back to space. This would probably be most cost-effectively achieved with the placement of small particles in or above the stratosphere. Our model simulations indicate that such geoengineering approaches could potentially bring our climate closer to the state is was in prior to the introduction of greenhouse gases. This talk will present much of what is known about such geoengineering approaches, and raise a range of issues likely to stimulate lively discussion. Speaker: Ken Caldeira Ken Caldeira is a scientist at the Carnegie Institution Department of Global Ecology and a Professor (by courtesy) at the Stanford University Department of Environmental and Earth System Sciences. Previously, he worked for 12 years in the Energy and Environment Directorate at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Department of Energy). His research interests include the numerical simulation of Earth's climate, carbon, and biogeochemistry; ocean acidification; climate emergency response systems; evaluating approaches to supplying environmentally-friendly energy services; ocean carbon sequestration; long-term evolution of climate and geochemical cycles; and marine biogeochemical cycles. Caldeira has a B.A. in Philosophy from Rutgers College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences from New York University.

  15. Urban Enterprise Zone Program (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Jersey's Urban Enterprise (UEZ) Program operates under the Department of Community Affairs. The UEZ Program exists to foster an economic climate that revitalizes designated urban communities...

  16. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  17. Reference Phase of Fresnel Zone Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. W. Webb

    2003-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard zone plate assumes that the shortest ray connecting a radiation source and a detection point has a phase of 0 deg thereby defining a reference phase. Here we examine the experimental consequences of varying this reference phase from 0 deg to 360 deg. It is concluded that reference phase is an intrinsic and useful property of zone plates.

  18. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  19. NEW WORK AND STUDY OPPORTUNITIES IN CLIMATE CHANGE Climate System Analysis Group (CSAG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    . - Postdoc: Climate modeling - Postdoc: Climate change information communication and dissemination - Research Associate: Climate change information communication and dissemination - PhD: Climate change information communication and dissemination - MSc/PhD: Physical science of climate change What to expect: Successful

  20. Debating Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.