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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Automatic flue gas heat recovery system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic flue gas heat recovery system for supplementing or replacing a conventional, separate hot water system. In the example described, the heat recovery system is applied to a pizza restaurant where large quantities of heat energy are normally wasted up an oven chimney stack, and large quantities of hot water also are required for restaurant operations. An electric motor driven pump circulates water in a closed loop between a storage tank and a heat exchanger tube located in the oven chimney stack. A thermostat control automatically starts the pump when the oven heats the chimney stack to an effective water heating temperature. When temperature in the storage tank reaches a predetermined maximum, the thermostat control stops the pump, opens a drain valve, and dumps water quickly and completely from the heat exchanger tube. Three different embodiments are shown and described illustrating systems with one or more storage tanks and one or more pumps. In the plural storage tank embodiments, an existing hot water heating tank may be converted for use to augment a main tank supplied with the present system.

Whalen, D.A.

1983-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

2

Improved Recovery from Gulf of Mexico Reservoirs, Volume 4, Comparison of Methane, Nitrogen and Flue Gas for Attic Oil. February 14, 1995 - October 13, 1996. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Gas injection for attic oil recovery was modeled in vertical sandpacks to compare the process performance characteristics of three gases, namely methane, nitrogen and flue gas. All of the gases tested recovered the same amount of oil over two cycles of gas injection. Nitrogen and flue gas recovered oil more rapidly than methane because a large portion of the methane slug dissolved in the oil phase and less free gas was available for oil displacement. The total gas utilization for two cycles of gas injection was somewhat better for nitrogen as compared to methane and flue gas. The lower nitrogen utilization was ascribed to the lower compressibility of nitrogen.

Wolcott, Joanne; Shayegi, Sara

1997-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

3

JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

Robert Patton

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

Robert Patton

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

5

Towards an Automatic Metadata Management Framework for Smart Oil Charalampos Chelmis1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the oil exploration process in the oil industry. Our system is capable of annotating models and images. Introduction Oil and gas organizations are in continuous pressure to investigate and employ innovativeTowards an Automatic Metadata Management Framework for Smart Oil Fields Charalampos Chelmis1 , Jing

Prasanna, Viktor K.

6

automatic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... automatic — Set parameters automatically. Description. Many OOF2 parameters can be set automatically when you cannot or will not do it yourself. ...

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

7

Using Flue Gas Huff 'n Puff Technology and Surfactants to Increase Oil Production from the Antelope Shale Formation of the Railroad Gap Oil Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was designed to test cyclic injection of exhaust flue gas from compressors located in the field to stimulate production from Antelope Shale zone producers. Approximately 17,000 m{sup 3} ({+-}600 MCF) of flue gas was to be injected into each of three wells over a three-week period, followed by close monitoring of production for response. Flue gas injection on one of the wells would be supplemented with a surfactant.

McWilliams, Michael

2001-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

8

Pilot Test of Bauxite Residue Carbonation With Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of bauxite residue in water with flue gas, produced from direct oil burning. ... New Development Model for Bauxite Deposits - Dedicated Compact Refinery.

9

Flue heat reclaimer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A flue heat reclaimer is constructed to be mounted on the exterior of a flue duct of a heater and provide a spiral-shaped heat transfer passage extending around the flue duct. A fan causes air to flow through the heat transfer passage so that the temperature of this air is elevated by reason at its extended heat transfer relationship with the flue duct.

Paolino, R.J.

1983-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

10

Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many of the operating flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems throughout the world, materials corrosion leads to considerable costs and downtime. Utilities are often required to maintain, repair, replace, and/or upgrade existing materials to combat corrosion issues. This document provides the results of a recent EPRI survey that examined the various types of corrosion and materials damage in FGD systems.

2005-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

11

System of treating flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is described for treating or cleaning incinerator flue gas containing acid gases and radioactive and fissionable contaminants. Flue gas and a quench solution are fed into a venturi and then tangentially into the lower portion of a receptacle for restricting volumetric content of the solution. The upper portion of the receptacle contains a scrub bed to further treat or clean the flue gas.

Ziegler, D.L.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Flue Gas Sulfuric Acid Measurement Method Improvements: Second Interim Report, December 2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to improve the ability of electric utilities with coal and oil-fired power plants to measure and report sulfuric emissions. Most coal and oil-fired utility boilers will trigger Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) reporting for sulfuric acid. The Controlled Condensation System (CCS) method for measuring flue gas sulfuric acid concentrations is believed to provide one of the best methods for measuring sulfuric acid in flue gas. However, there are situations where the CCS method m...

2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

14

Induced Flue Gas Recirculation Performance Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Induced Flue Gas Recirculation (IFGR) is a proven, low-cost method for controlling NOx emissions on gas-fired utility boilers. In 1997, IFGR technology for power generation applications was first demonstrated at Entergy's Willow Glen station, near Baton Rouge, LA. Following the success with IFGR at Willow Glen, four members of the Gas/Oil Fired Boiler Performance and Combustion NOx Control Target (No.55 in 2000) installed, or plan to install, IFGR on an additional 27 units. American Electric Power has im...

2000-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

15

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the WES, which involves injection into the flue gas duct upstream of the existing electrostatic 11 precipitator (ESP). The hot flue gas evaporates the water and the...

16

Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

Klunder; ,Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

17

Heat recovery device for exhaust flues  

SciTech Connect

The heat recovery device has a flue pipe assembly including a section of standard flue pipe carrying a plurality of hollow, cylindrical heating tubes extending diametrically through the flue pipe section in axially spaced, parallel relationship and a separate housing defining an air flow chamber surrounding a portion of the flue pipe section. A fan inside the housing draws ambient air into the housing through an ambient air inlet located on the same side of the flue pipe assembly as the inlet of the heating tubes and propels a flow of air both through the heating tubes and over the outer surface of the flue pipe section towards a heated air outlet located on the same side of the flue pipe section as the discharge ends of the heating tubes. The flue pipe assembly is removably mounted on the housing so it can be removed in the event it fatigues and/or becomes plugged with carbon or creosote deposits during use. A thermostat on the flue pipe section turns the fan on and off when the temperature in the flue pipe section is respectively above and below a predetermined temperature. The total open area of the ambient air inlet and the heated air outlet is large enough so that, in the event the fan is inoperative, the natural flow of ambient air through the heating tubes and over the outer surface of the flue pipe is sufficient to prevent the flue pipe section from overheating.

Knoch, D. G.

1985-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

18

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

Recovery of CO2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan G. Chapel (dan.chapel@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) Carl L. Mariz (carl.mariz@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) FluorDaniel One Fluor Drive Aliso Viejo CA, 92698 John Ernest (john.ernest@minimed.com; 818-576-4293) Advanced Quality Services Inc 11024 Balboa Blvd. PMB154, Granada Hills, CA 91344-5007 1 Recovery of CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan Chapel - Fluor Daniel Inc., Senior Vice President Technology; Oil, Gas & Power John Ernest - Advanced Quality Services Inc., Validation Engineer

20

Mercury Sorbent Delivery System for Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,494,632 entitled "Mercury Sorbent Delivery System for Flue Gas." Disclosed in...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Recovery of CO/sub 2/ from flue gas  

SciTech Connect

Within the Permian Basin geographic region, there are a variety of sources for CO/sub 2/ other than naturally occurring deposits. These sources can provide sufficient quantities of CO/sub 2/ for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. The cost associated with pipelining CO/sub 2/ produced from natural sources into the Permian Basin is reported to be $1.50/MSCF or less. Therefore, flue gas sources result in higher CO/sub 2/ costs than natural deposits. However, these costs are within the pricing parameters for the normal CO/sub 2/ market place. The demand for flue gas CO/sub 2/ for EOR is seen to depend largely on the success of CO/sub 2/ floods and the relative price that can be applied to CO/sub 2/ based on the price of oil and the increases in domestic oil production and gas liquids that CO/sub 2/ can provide. Under current conditions, CO/sub 2/ has a value of ca $2.00/MSCF for EOR use.

Hyde, E.P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has been conducted under the auspices of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with individual utilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, and universities. This report describes work conducted in northwestern New Mexico in 2008–2012 as part of that effort. Two separate ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Optimal absorption pressure for CO/sub 2/ recovery from flue gas calculated  

SciTech Connect

This paper calculates the cost of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). It diagrams a carbon dioxide recovery plant and presents tables with costs of carbon dioxide recovery at various absorption pressures, and cost in various EOR project. It shows that the utility cost is a dominant factor and that a gas compressor does not reduce the equipment cost effectively at low pressure and concludes that 70 psig is the optimal operating pressure.

Fang, C.S.; Fan, S.K.

1982-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

24

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas, Environ.mercury oxidation when the chlorine concentration in flue gas

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Process to recover CO/sub 2/ from flue gas gets first large-scale tryout in Texas  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a new plant that will recover 1,120 tons/day of CO/sub 2/ for use in an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project in West Texas. Feed for the plant is flue gas from an adjacent electrical power generating station. Product CO/sub 2/ is pipelined from the recovery plant in a supercritical state at about 2,000 psig. The pilot plant demonstrated the ability of Dow Chemical's Gas Spec amine solvent to recover CO/sub 2/ from industrial flue gas, and confirmed that Procon/Dow's improved solvent adsorption system is effective in reducing the energy requirements.

St. Clair, J.H.; Simister, W.F.

1983-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

26

AUTOMATIC COUNTER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

Robinson, H.P.

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.

1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

28

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

29

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas Background Coal-fired power plants require large volumes of water for efficient operation, primarily for cooling purposes. Public concern over water use is increasing, particularly in water stressed areas of the country. Analyses conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory predict significant increases in power plant freshwater consumption over the coming years, encouraging the development of technologies to reduce this water loss. Power plant freshwater consumption refers to the quantity of water withdrawn from a water body that is not returned to the source but is lost to evaporation, while water withdrawal refers to the total quantity of water removed from a water source.

30

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a solid produced by wet FGD systems with forced air oxidation and is chemically similar to mined gypsum. These gypsums, used as beneficial agricultural amendments, were evaluated for their effects on earthworm populations and trace element concentrations in soils and earthworms at four field sites (Ohio, Indiana, Alabama, and Wisconsin). These sites are part of a network study on agricultural uses of FGD gypsum conducted at sites across the United States. ...

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project  

SciTech Connect

The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

32

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing volumes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum will become available for agricultural use as more utilities install forced oxidation scrubbers and the wallboard market for the resulting gypsum becomes saturated. This interim report describes work performed in 2007 and 2008 to develop a national research network to gain data and experience to support the beneficial uses of FGD products, especially FGD gypsum, in agriculture and other land applications.

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

33

Flue Gas Desulfurization Equipment Issues Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As electric utilities enter a more competitive environment, every aspect of electric power generation is under scrutiny to determine where costs can be reduced. Because flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems represent significant capital, operating, and maintenance expenses for many coal-fired power plants, identification and implementation of cost reduction options are crucial. This report documents successful approaches for determining the cost-effectiveness of key FGD optimization strategies.

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

FlueGen Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FlueGen Inc FlueGen Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name FlueGen, Inc. Place Irvine, California Zip 92614 Product Irvine-based original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of air pollution control systems for the utility industry, including coal-fired power plants, in addition to financing client's projects, thereafter operating and maintaining the system for a fee. Coordinates 41.837752°, -79.268594° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.837752,"lon":-79.268594,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

35

Process for the desulfurization of flue gas  

SciTech Connect

A process for the removal of sulfur oxides from gases is described that is comprised of the steps of contacting the gas with a cerium oxide sorbent at conditions whereby the sulfur oxides present in the gas are sorbed by the cerium oxide sorbent and regenerate the cerium oxide sorbent by contacting it with a reducing atmosphere at conditions whereby the sorbent is substantially converted to a sulfur-free state. The gas may be an exhaust gas, e.g., from an automobile or a flue gas. This invention is especially preferred for treating flue gas. In this preferred embodiment, the flue gas may be contacted with the cerium oxide sorbent at a temperature of from 300/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C, to form cerium sulfate and/or sulfite and the sorbent is regenerated by contacting with a reducing gas, for example, hydrogen in admixture with steam or other inert gases at a temperature of from 500/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C to convert the cerium sulfate or sulfite to cerium oxide. During the regeneration step, the desorbed species is initially sulfur dioxide. However, when about 50% of the sulfur is removed from the sorbent, the desorbed species becomes H/sub 2/S. Thus, the instant invention provides SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S in admixture with the excess reducing gas, which can be fed conveniently to the Claus plant for conversion into elemental sulfur.

Longo, J.M.

1977-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

36

Enriching off gas from oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

Liquid and gaseous products are recovered from oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort in which a combustion zone is advanced therethrough by a method which includes the steps of establishing a combustion zone in the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort and introducing a gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone in the direction the combustion zone is to be advanced through the in situ oil shale retort. The gaseous feed mixture comprises an oxygen supplying gas and water vapor and is introduced into the combustion zone at a rate sufficient to maintain the temperature in the combustion zone within a predetermined range of temperatures above the retorting temperature of the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort and sufficient to advance the combustion zone through the in situ oil shale retort. The introduction of the gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone generates combustion products gases which together with the portion of the gaseous feed mixture which does not take part in the combustion process, is called flue gas. The flue gas passes through the oil shale on the advancing side of the combustion zone, thereby retorting the oil shale to produce liquid and gaseous products. The liquid product and the retort off gas, which comprises gaseous product and flue gas, are withdrawn from the in situ oil shale retort at a point on the advancing side of the retorting zone. 47 claims, 1 figure.

Cha, C.Y.; Ridley, R.D.

1977-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

37

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas  

Disclosed in this patent are catalysts for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas. These novel catalysts include iridium (Ir), ...

38

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

39

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer  

SciTech Connect

Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

DRY FLUE GAS CLEANING PROCESSES FOR ACHIEVING AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was mercury adsorption onto calcium sulfate (CaSO4), a byproduct of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wet., Powers K.W., and Pitoniak E.R. (2004) Method for Purifying Flue Gases from Combustion Sources. PatentCoupling of Advanced Oxidation and Adsorption Processes onto Silica-Titania Composites for Low

Columbia University

42

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,776,780 entitled "Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas." Disclosed in this patent are catalysts for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas. These novel catalysts include iridium (Ir), platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir), and Thief carbons. The catalyst materials will adsorb the oxidizing agents HCl, Cl 2 , and other halogen species in the flue gas stream that are produced when fuel is combusted. These adsorbed oxidizing agents can then react with elemental mercury in the stream, which is difficult to capture, and oxidize it to form Hg (II) species,

43

Enriching off gas from oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

A method whereby liquid and gaseous products are recovered from oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort is discussed. A combustion zone is advanced by establishing a combustion zone in the oil shale and introducing a gaseous feed mixture into the zone in the direction the zone is to be advanced through the oil shale retort. The gaseous feed mixture consists of an oxygen supplying gas and water vapor and is introduced into the combustion zone at a rate sufficient to maintain the temperature in the combustion zone within a predetermined range of temperatures above the retorting temperature of the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort. The introduction of the gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone generates combustion product gases which together with the portion of the gaseous feed mixture which does not take part in the combustion process, is called flue gas. The flue gas passes through the oil shale on the advancing side of the combustion zone, thereby retorting the oil shale to produce liquid and gaseous products. The liquid product and the retort off gas, which consists of gaseous product and flue gas, are withdrawn from the in situ oil shale retort at a point on the advancing side of the retorting zone. (47 claims) (Continuation-in-part of U.S. Appl. 492,289, f. 7/26/74)

Cha, C.Y.; Ridley, R.D.

1977-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

44

Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research program is to determine the feasibility of the alga Botryococcus braunii as a biocatalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. Free and immobilized cells of Botryococcus braunii were grown in aqueous medium supplemented with nitrogen, phosphorus and mineral nutrients. Air and CO{sub 2} enriched air [10% to 15% (V/V) CO{sub 2}] in the gas phase and 0.2% to 2% NaHCO{sub 3} in the liquid medium served as the carbon source. Growth and hydrocarbon formation characteristics of free and immobilized cultures of Botryococcus braunii were determined in bench-scale photobioreactors. Technical and economic feasibility of the conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons by Botryococcus braunii culture systems was evaluated. In free cell systems, the hexane extractable oil productivity was about 15 to 37 grams of oil per 100 grams of cell dry weight. In immobilized cell systems, the oil production ranged between 5% and 47% at different immobilization systems and immobilized surface locations, with an average of 19% of cell biomass dry weight. The feasibility and economic evaluation estimated the cost of oil produced from flue gas CO{sub 2} by algae to range between $45 and $75 per barrel assuming that a hydrocarbon yield of about 50% of the biomass weight is achievable and a credit of $60 per ton of carbon removed is available. A future research program leading to development of a multistage process, consisting of closed systems for heavy inoculum buildup followed by lower cost open systems for oil production is recommended.

Akin, C.; Maka, A.; Patel, S.; Conrad, J. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Benemann, J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Nickel Speciation Measurements at Oil-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nickel in power plant stack gas emissions may be present in several forms, including nickel subsulfide, a known carcinogen. To test for nickel subsulfide, EPRI performed flue gas measurements at four oil-fired power plants, representing a range of fuel sulfur levels as well as NOx and particulate control technologies. This report summarizes the field measurements to determine the form (or speciation) of nickel flue gas emissions. Utilities can use the results to conduct health risk assessments and suppor...

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

46

Identification of Unknown Selenium Species in Flue Gas Desulfurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process used in the electrical power industry to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas produced by coal-fired power plants. In a wet FGD system, circulating water must be periodically blown down and treated to remove solids and dissolved chemicals. Along with SO2, other substances in flue gas may dissolve in water, including selenium (Se). In addition to the common selenium species selenite and selenate, past research has identified selenium-containing species that...

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

47

Flue-gas carbon capture on carbonaceous sorbents: Toward a low-cost multifunctional Carbon Filter for 'Green' energy producers  

SciTech Connect

A low-pressure Carbon Filter Process (patent pending) is proposed to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas. This filter is filled with a low-cost carbonaceous sorbent, such as activated carbon or charcoal, which has a high affinity (and, hence, high capacity) to CO{sub 2} but not to nitrogen (N{sub 2}). This, in turn, leads to a high CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity, especially at low pressures. The Carbon Filter Process proposed in this work can recover at least 90% of flue-gas CO{sub 2} of 90%+ purity at a fraction of the cost normally associated with the conventional amine absorption process. The Carbon Filter Process requires neither expensive materials nor flue-gas compression or refrigeration, and it is easy to heat integrate with an existing or grassroots power plant without affecting the cost of the produced electricity too much. An abundant supply of low-cost CO{sub 2} from electricity producers is good news for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (ECBMR) operators, because it will lead to higher oil and gas recovery rates in an environmentally sensitive manner. A CO{sub 2}-rich mixture that contains some nitrogen is much less expensive to separate from flue-gas than pure CO{sub 2}; therefore, mixed CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-EOR and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-ECBMR methods are proposed to maximize the overall carbon capture and utilization efficiency.

Radosz, M.; Hu, X.D.; Krutkramelis, K.; Shen, Y.Q. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Thief Process Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,521,021 entitled "Thief Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas." Disclosed in this patent is a novel process in which partially combusted coal is removed from the combustion chamber of a power plant using a lance (called a "thief"). This partially combusted coal acts as a thermally activated adsorbent for mercury. When it is in- jected into the duct work of the power plant downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber, mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury

49

Multi-component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,255,842 entitled "Multi-component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia." This patent discloses a method for the removal of potential environmental-impacting compounds from flue gas streams. The method oxidizes some or all of the acid precursors such as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitric oxides (NO x ) into sulfur trioxide and nitrogen dioxide, respectively. Following this step, the gas stream is then treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide to capture the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions where a fertilizer is formed.

50

CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research and Development (R&D)...

51

Mathematical modeling of wet magnesia flue gas desulphurization process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Desulphurization of flue gases from various chemical industries in a techno-econo-enviro manner is a demanding technology. The concentrations of sulphur dioxide in and around these plants overshoot the danger point. In recent years, the process analysis ...

M. K. Mondal

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4966 jose.figueroa@netl.doe.gov Carbon DioxiDe Capture from flue Gas usinG Dry reGenerable sorbents Background Currently...

53

Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization State of the Art Survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intent of this report is to provide a summary of state-of-the-art dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies, including circulating dry scrubbers (CDS), spray dryer absorbers (SDA), and the Alstom Novel Integrated Desulfurization (NID) technology. These can all be considered “semi-dry” technologies, as the flue gas is cooled and humidified as part of each of these processes. This report also discusses a completely dry FGD technology, dry sorbent injection (DSI), which is ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

54

Evaluation of Selenium Species in Flue Gas Desulfurization Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process used in the electrical power industry to remove sulfur dioxide from flue gas produced by coal-fired power plants. The trace element selenium is found in coal and can become concentrated in the wastewater from the FGD process. Some chemical forms, or species, of selenium are more resistant to removal by water treatment processes than others; thus, understanding the speciation of selenium is important to designing effective wastewater treatment systems. In additi...

2009-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

55

Guidelines for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Water Sampling and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers are being installed on coal-fired power plants in response to federal and state air pollution regulations limiting sulfur dioxide emissions. FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous waste stream that contains metals adsorbed from flue gas. At the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is reviewing, and may tighten, water discharge limits on trace metals. Collection of accurate data on the trace metal composition of FGD water discharges is therefore esse...

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

56

Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

57

Trace Metals Determination in Flue Gas Desulfurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers are used on coal-fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions to air. While effective for this purpose, wet FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous blowdown stream that contains trace levels of metals adsorbed from flue gas. Power plant owners need to measure concentrations of these metals for purposes of process control, discharge monitoring, or design and operation of wastewater treatment systems. FGD water has proven to be a very difficult matrix to analyze a...

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

58

Method and apparatus for forming flues on tubular stock  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a die mechanism utilized for forming flues on long, relatively narrow tubular stock. These flues are formed by displacing a die from within the tubular stock through perforations previously drilled through the tubular stock at selected locations. The drawing of the die upsets the material to form the flue of the desired configuration. The die is provided with a lubricating system which enables the lubricant to be dispensed uniformly about the entire periphery of the die in contact with the material being upset so as to assure the formation of the flues. Further, the lubricant is dispensed from within the die onto the peripheral surface of the latter at pressures in the range of about 2000 to 10,000 psi so as to assure the adequate lubrication of the die during the drawing operation. By injecting the lubricant at such high pressures, low viscosity liquid, such as water and/or alcohol, may be efficiently used as a lubricant and also provides a mechanism by which the lubricant may be evaporated from the surface of the flues at ambient conditions so as to negate the cleansing operations previously required prior to joining the flues to other conduit mechanisms by fusion welding and the like.

Beck, D.E.; Carson, C.

1979-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

59

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

60

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is divided into four tasks. Task 1 is the Development of a Management Plan. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. The results of the work performed under Tasks 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under Task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under Task 4. This quarterly report covers four months in order to synchronize the reporting periods for this project with US Government quarters. Work performed on the project during the past quarter consisted almost entirely of the review of literature pertaining to the objectives of Tasks 2 and 3. The primary results of that review are discussed at length in Topical Reports 1 and 2, submitted January 9, 1992. As a consequence of the work described in the topical reports, several of the project's Measures of Success that were described in the first quarterly report have been achieved. This quarterly report will discuss these achievements.

Snyder, T.R.

1992-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) initiated this project as part of a program to study the control of fine particles from coal combustion. Our project focus was flue gas conditioning. Various conditioning processes have lowered operating costs and increased collection efficiency at utility particulate control devices. By improving fine particle collection, flue gas conditioning also helps to control the emission of toxic metals, which are concentrated in the fine particle fraction. By combining a review of pertinent literature, laboratory characterization of a variety of fine powders and ashes, pilot-scale studies of conditioning mechanisms, and field experiences, Southern Research Institute has been able to describe many of the key processes that account for the effects that conditioning can have on fine-particle collection. The overall goal of this research project was to explain the mechanisms by which various flue gas conditioning processes alter the performance of particulate control devices. Conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of the forces acting on the fly ash particles. Resistivity, chemistry, cohesivity, size distribution, and particle morphology are among the basic properties of fly ash that significantly influence fine particle collection. Modifications of particulate properties can result in improved or degraded control device performance. These modifications can be caused by (1) changes to the process design or operation that affect properties of the flue gas, (2) addition of particulate matter such as flue-gas desulfurization sorbents to the process effluent stream, (3) injection of reactive gases or liquids into the flue gas. We recommend that humidification be seriously considered as a flue gas conditioning option. 80 refs., 69 figs., 23 tabs.

Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.; Dahlin, R.S.

1996-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

63

Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The studies reported here confirmed our preliminary observations that Botryococcus braunii can tolerate and grow well in flue gas CO{sub 2} concentrations of 10 to 15%, and produce oil. The highest extracted oil was observed in 10% CO{sub 2} enriched air. Initial pH of the medium at or near 10 pH is favorable to cell growth probably by stimulating the CO{sub 2} solubilization in the medium. This is also indicated in Botryococcus braunii growth and oil formation in NaHCO{sub 3} added medium. The lack of growth in Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} containing media was probably due to high pH. The CaCO{sub 3} precipitation from the CA{sup ++} gelled alginate beads indicate the need for alternative immobilization systems. But the attachment of the Botryococcus braunii cells to the bottom inner surfaces of the photobioreactors may eliminate the need for gel entrapment systems as the immobilization matrices. Attachment of the Botryococcus braunii cells to the bottom inner surfaces of the photobioreactors, rather than remaining in the suspension, reduces the significance of self shadowing and related liquid height (thickness) effect. The capability of Botryococcus braunii to grow in NaHCO{sub 3} solutions is very encouraging toward development of an alkaline scrubbing system for the flue gas followed by removal of the CO{sub 2} from the alkaline solution. In such a system the pH 10 is the currently observed upper limit.

Akin, C.; Maka, A.; Pradhan, S. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Banerjee, D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

An EOR Application @ Liaohe Oil Field in China  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AN EOR APPLICATION @ LIAOHE OIL AN EOR APPLICATION @ LIAOHE OIL FIELD IN CHINA Tests of Pumping Boiler Flue Gas into Oil Wells Chenglin Zhu (huafugs@sohu.com 011-86-427-7809254 ) Huafu Electrical Appliance Co., Ltd. Xing long Tai District City of Pan Jing, Lioning Province, PRC 124013 Zhang, Fengshan ( huafugs@sohu.com 011-86-427-7809254 ) Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau Xing Long Tai District City of Pan Jing, Lioning Province, PRC 124013

65

Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increased visibility provided by advanced measurement and control techniques has shown that control of oil and coal fired boilers is a complex problem involving simultaneous determination of flue gas carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, opacity and temperature levels. A microcomputer-based control system which recognizes the inter-relationship of these variables has produced fuel savings averaging about 3% on coal and oil fired boilers. The system is described and case study data is presented for both coal and oil fired boilers.

Swanson, K.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Mercury Control Research: Effects of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Parameters on Mercury Speciation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fly ash parameters on the oxidation of HgOin simulated flue gases containing hydrogen chloride (Hel-combustion region are unknown, and the major reaction pathways for Hg oxidation in combustion flue gases remain in the oxidation ofHgo in flue gases containingHC!. Thus, an important parameter that influences the oxidation of

Columbia University

68

Application Investigation on Polyureas Anticorrosion for Concrete Surface in Desulphurization Flue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application investigation on polyureas anticorrosion in flue of Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization Equipment (FGD) (product model: DTTW-? -150) was carried out according to corrosive environment and technical parameters of a coal-fired power plan. And ... Keywords: spray, polyureas, flue, corrosion margin

Song Wei; Liu Zongyu

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO2 sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, alkaline Ca-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum samples were carbonated to a varying extent. These materials ... Keywords: FGD gypsum, carbonation, carbon dioxide

Hongqi Wang; Ningning Sun; Rona J. Donahoe

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Modeling Incinerator Flue Train Performance with a Digital Computer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a matrix of pressure/volume points, along with fan speed and horsepower requirements at the design point of incinerator performance under a wide range of conditions, Furnace and flue train design data are fed that requirements can be met under all conditions at a reasonable cost. The municipal design picture is complicated

Columbia University

71

BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

72

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Gypsum Dewatering Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Gypsum Dewatering Area provides fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on this system. This report will assist the plant maintenance personnel in improving the reliability and reducing the maintenance costs for this area of their scrubber system.

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

73

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Absorber Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Absorber Area provides fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on this system and will help to improve the reliability of and reduce the maintenance costs for this area of their scrubber system.

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

74

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Reagent Preparation Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Reagent Preparation Area provides the fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on this system and will help improve the reliability and reduce the maintenance costs for this area of their scrubber system.

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Mercury typically forms the sulfide (HgS) #12;4 because of the prevalence of sulfides in volcanic gases Aq + 2e-- ´ Hg0 Atmos Equation 1 Ionic mercury can form from the oxidation of elemental mercury Coal is known to contain mercury as a result of testing done upon the flue gas emitted from power plant

Laughlin, Robert B.

76

Investigation of Flue Gas Desulfurization Chemical Process Problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An understanding of flue gas desulfurization process chemistry is crucial in troubleshooting problems in operating FGD systems. This report discusses a variety of problems and solutions associated with process chemistry for 25 different wet FGD systems, including lime/limestone and double alkali processes. Among the problems addressed are SO2 removal, mist eliminator scaling, poor solids dewatering, and water management.

1990-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

77

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Zevenhoven, Ron

78

Automatic array privatization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter discusses techniques for automatic array privatization developed as part of the Polaris project at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Array privatization is one of the most important transformations for effective program parallelization. ...

Peng Tu; David Padua

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Automatic thesaurus construction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we introduce a novel method of automating thesauri using syntactically constrained distributional similarity. With respect to syntactically conditioned cooccurrences, most popular approaches to automatic thesaurus construction simply ignore ... Keywords: distribution, similarity, syntactic dependency

Dongqiang Yang; David M. Powers

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

CO2 separation from flue gas using hollow fiber membrane contactors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research on CO Research on CO 2 Separation from Flue Gas Prof. Mengxiang Fang State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, China Global CO 2 Emissions Country CO 2 Emission (MtCO2) 1990 2003 2004 2010 USA 4,989 5,800 5,923 6,156 China 2,241 3,898 4,707 6,432 Russia 2,334 1,602 1,685 1,840 Japan 1,015 1,244 1,262 1,260 World 21,246 25,508 26,922 30,670 Source: Energy Information Administration/International Energy Outlook 2004 with High Oil Price Case CO 2 Emission in China Year Total Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Mt CO2 Mtc % Mtc % Mtc % 1990 2,241 1,886 84.2 325 14.5 30 1.34 2003 3,898 3,117 80.0 711 18.2 70 1.80 2004 4,707 3,809 80.9 816 17.3 83 1.76 2010 6,432 5,103 79.3 1,151 17.9 178 2.76 2015 7,376 5,946 80.6 1,184 16.1 246 3.33 Source: Energy Information Administration/International Energy Outlook 2004 with High Oil Price Case.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

Durham, M.D.

1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

83

Measurement of biocarbon in flue gases using 14C  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary investigation of the biocarbon fraction in carbon dioxide emissions of power plants using both fossil- and biobased fuels is presented. Calculation of the biocarbon fraction is based on radiocarbon content measured in power plant flue gases. Samples were collected directly from the chimneys into plastic sampling bags. The C-14 content in CO{sub 2} was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Flue gases from power plants that use natural gas, coal, wood chips, bark, plywood residue, sludge from the pulp factory, peat, and recovered fuel were measured. Among the selected plants, there was one that used only fossil fuel and one that used only biofuel; the other investigated plants burned mixtures of fuels. The results show that C-14 measurement provides the possibility to determine the ratio of bio and fossil fuel burned in power plants.

Haemaelaeinen, K.M.; Jungner, H.; Antson, O.; Rasanen, J.; Tormonen, K.; Roine, J. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland). Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas Background The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Program is performing research to develop advanced technologies focusing on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control for existing pulverized coal-fired plants. This new focus on post-combustion and oxy-combustion CO 2 emissions control technology, CO 2 compression, and beneficial reuse is in response to the priority for advanced

85

Biominetic Membrane for Co2 Capture from Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomimetic Membrane for CO Biomimetic Membrane for CO 2 Capture from Flue Gas Background Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is a three-step process including capture, pipeline transport, and geologic storage of which the capture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most costly and technically challenging. Current available methods impose significant energy burdens that severely impact their overall effectiveness as a significant deployment option. Of the available capture technologies for post

86

2009 Update on Mercury Capture by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update presents results of four research and development projects focused on understanding and enhancing mercury emissions control associated with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology. The first project was directed at characterizing partitioning of elemental and oxidized mercury species in solid, liquid, and gas phases within process streams involved in an operating commercial system. The second project explored dewatering options with an objective of producing low-mercury-conten...

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Wastewater Characterization and Management: 2007 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tightened air regulations on acid-gas-forming emissions are leading more electric utilities to install flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, typically wet scrubbers. However, there are challenges associated with such decisions in terms of utility wastewater management. Volatile metals, such as selenium and mercury, are better captured in wet scrubber systems than in electrostatic precipitators and may be present at higher concentrations in utility wastewater systems. This report is designed to help pow...

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update on three tasks associated with the EPRI project, Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems. The first task is an investigation of the factors that influence and control the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) at which a limestone forced oxidation FGD system operates. Both a literature review and a numerical analysis of full-scale wet FGD data were conducted. Results from this task are presented and discussed in Section 2 of the ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Thief Process for Mercury Removal from Flue Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Thief Process is a cost-effective variation to activated carbon injection (ACI) for removal of mercury from flue gas. In this scheme, partially combusted coal from the furnace of a pulverized coal power generation plant is extracted by a lance and then re-injected into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater. Recent results on a 500-lb/hr pilot-scale combustion facility show similar removals of mercury for both the Thief Process and ACI. The tests conducted to date at laboratory, bench, and pilot-scales demonstrate that the Thief sorbents exhibit capacities for mercury from flue gas streams that are comparable to those exhibited by commercially available activated carbons. Independent verification of the sorbent activity at a pilot-plant that uses a slipstream from a Wisconsin utility has been accomplished. A patent for the process was issued in February 2003 [1]. The Thief sorbents are cheaper than commerciallyavailable activated carbons; exhibit excellent capacities for mercury; and the overall process holds great potential for reducing the cost of mercury removal from flue gas [1-4].

Evan J. Granite; Mark C. Freeman; Richard A. Hargis; William J. O’dowd; Henry W. Pennline

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency by sulfur and/or chlorine containing compounds atfired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds Nai-Qiang Yanremoval. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

NETL: IEP ? Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Flue Gas...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion Project No.: DE-NT0005309 Air Products and Chemicals Inc. will...

92

Co-Removal of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustion conditions, and air pollution control devices upstream of a power plant FGD system have an impact on the types and concentration of flue gas mercury at the...

93

Microsoft Word - Flue Gas Moisture.Final Report.Abstract.Summary...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The...

94

Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

Dexin Wang

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Proving Theorems Automatically, Semi-Automatically, and Interactively  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-automatic using MONSTRO · Automatic using DIY #12;Church's Type Theory Alonzo Church, "A Formulation of the Simple the wffs needed to instan- tiate quantifiers from wffs already present in the proof. Use DIY-L to fill

Clarke, Edmund M.

96

Reactor component automatic grapple  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

Greenaway, Paul R. (Bethel Park, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Automatic sweep circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium carbonate in these tests is initially very rapid and high degrees of removal are possible. The exothermic nature of the carbonation reaction resulted in a rise in bed temperature and subsequent decline in removal rate. Good temperature control, possibly through addition of supplemental water and evaporative cooling, appears to be the key to getting consistent carbon dioxide removal in a full-scale reactor system. The tendency of the alkali carbonate sorbents to cake on contact with liquid water complicates laboratory investigations as well as the design of larger scale systems. Also their low attrition resistance appears unsuitable for their use in dilute-phase transport reactor systems. Sodium and potassium carbonate have been incorporated in ceramic supports to obtain greater surface area and attrition resistance, using a laboratory spray dryer. The caking tendency is reduced and attrition resistance increased by supporting the sorbent. Supported sorbents with loading of up to 40 wt% sodium and potassium carbonate have been prepared and tested. These materials may improve the feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} capture systems based on short residence time dilute-phase transport reactor systems.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium carbonate in these tests is initially very rapid and high degrees of removal are possible. The exothermic nature of the carbonation reaction resulted in a rise in bed temperature and subsequent decline in removal rate. Good temperature control, possibly through addition of supplemental water and evaporative cooling, appears to be the key to getting consistent carbon dioxide removal in a full-scale reactor system. The tendency of the alkali carbonate sorbents to cake on contact with liquid water complicates laboratory investigations as well as the design of larger scale systems. Also their low attrition resistance appears unsuitable for their use in dilute-phase transport reactor systems. Sodium and potassium carbonate have been incorporated in ceramic supports to obtain greater surface area and attrition resistance, using a laboratory spray dryer. The caking tendency is reduced and attrition resistance increased by supporting the sorbent. Supported sorbents with loading of up to 40 wt% sodium and potassium carbonate have been prepared and tested. These materials may improve the feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} capture systems based on short residence time dilute-phase transport reactor systems.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson; Santosh Gangwal; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Margaret Williams; Douglas P. Harrison

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

Mes, M.J. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Tananger (Norway); Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C. [TerraSat GmbH, Hoehenkirchen-Sieghertsbrumm (Germany)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) R&D Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D Program portfolio of post- and

103

Spray tower: the workhorse of flue-gas desulfurization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recently developed spray tower system for use in a utility flue gas desulfurization system is simple, durable, and capable of achieving very high sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies, possibly approaching 100%. The principles behind the design and operation of the spray tower are discussed. The quality of water used for washing, tower size limitations, construction materials liquid distribution, gas-inlet design, gas distribution, mass transfer, and operating characteristics are examined. Procedures to maintain the reliability and high performance of the spray tower are described. (5 diagrams, 5 photos, 12 references, 1 table)

Saleem, A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Refuse Composition And flue-Gas Analyses from Mun;c;pal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(see Figure 3 and 4). In the fixed-bed or moving-bed process, the pollutant-loaded flue gases in the flue gases which occur during combustion and total approx. 350,000 m3(STP, dryt/hr is separatedReduction in Mercury Emissions with Lignite Coke W. Esser-Schmittmann, J. Wirling and U. Lenz Due

Columbia University

105

Flue Gas Conditioning Trial at Rochester Gas and Electric Russell Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents data and results of a full-scale evaluation of two flue gas conditioning agents considered as upgrades for the existing electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) at Rochester Gas and Electric's (RG&E) Russell Station. The flue gas additives evaluated were anhydrous ammonia and a proprietary chemical agent, ADA-23.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

106

The Lightspeed Automatic . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an automated approach for high-quality preview of feature-film rendering during lighting design. Similar to previous work, we use a deep-framebuffer shaded on the GPU to achieve interactive performance. Our first contribution is to generate the deep-framebuffer and corresponding shaders automatically through data-flow analysis and compilation of the original scene. Cache compression reduces automatically-generated deep-framebuffers to reasonable size for complex production scenes and shaders. We also propose a new structure, the indirect framebuffer, that decouples shading samples from final pixels and allows a deep-framebuffer to handle antialiasing, motion blur and transparency efficiently. Progressive refinement enables fast feedback at coarser resolution. We demonstrate our approach in real-world production.

Jonathan Millard Ragan-Kelley

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2004 and March 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. RTI has produced laboratory scale batches (approximately 300 grams) of supported sorbents (composed of 20 to 40% sodium carbonate) with high surface area and acceptable activity. Initial rates of weight gain of the supported sorbents when exposed to a simulated flue gas exceeded that of 100% calcined sodium bicarbonate. One of these sorbents was tested through six cycles of carbonation/calcination by thermogravimetric analysis and found to have consistent carbonation activity. Kinetic modeling of the regeneration cycle on the basis of diffusion resistance at the particle surface is impractical, because the evolving gases have an identical composition to those assumed for the bulk fluidization gas. A kinetic model of the reaction has been developed on the basis of bulk motion of water and carbon dioxide at the particle surface (as opposed to control by gas diffusion). The model will be used to define the operating conditions in future laboratory- and pilot-scale testing.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O' Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

2003-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

109

Natural and industrial analogues for release of CO2 from storage reservoirs: Identification of features, events, and processes and lessons learned  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil, natural gas, and gas turbine power plants. As shown,Flue Flue Flue Fuel oil Natural gas Natural gas Gas turbineGas turbine Gas turbine Coal IGCC Flue Flue Flue Flue Fuel

Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other...

111

OIL PRODUCTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OIL PRODUCTION Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a term applied to methods used for recovering oil from a petroleum reservoir beyond that recoverable by primary and secondary methods....

112

CO2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,842,126 entitled "Co 2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases." Disclosed in this patent are novel methods for processing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from combustion gas streams. Researchers at NETL are focused on the development of novel sorbent systems that can effectively remove CO 2 and other gases in an economically feasible manner with limited impact on energy production cost. The current invention will help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by using an improved, regenerable aqueous amine and soluble potassium carbonate sorbent system. This novel solvent system may be capable of achieving CO 2 capture from larger emission streams at lower overall cost. Overview Sequestration of CO

113

Biomimetric Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomimetic memBrane for co Biomimetic memBrane for co 2 capture from flue Gas Background Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is a three-step process including capture, pipeline transport and geologic storage of which the capture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most costly and technically challenging. Current available methods impose significant energy burdens that severely impact their overall effectiveness as a significant deployment option. Of the available capture technologies for post combustion applications - absorption, adsorption, reaction and membranes chemically facilitated absorption promises to be the most cost-effective membrane solution for post combustion application. The Carbozyme technology extracts CO 2 from low concentration, low pressure sources by means of chemical facilitation of a polymer membrane. The chemical

114

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project A DOE Assessment August 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

115

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the strength and durability of samples of compacted, stabilized, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are reported. The results of laboratory tests show a clear relationship between higher water contents and increasing vulnerability to freeze-thaw effects. In the samples tested, water contents at or above 40% were characteristic of all the freeze-thaw specimens exhibiting low strengths. Lime content and curing time were also shown to have a marked influence on the durability of the FGD material. It was shown that samples can maintain good strength under freeze-thaw conditions provided 5% lime was added before compaction and the time from compaction to first freeze was at least 60 days.

Chen, X.; Wolfe, W.E.; Hargraves, M.D.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuels used for power generation, transportation, and by industry are the primary source of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. Much of the CO{sub 2} emission reduction effort will focus on large point sources, with fossil fuel fired power plants being a prime target. The CO{sub 2} content of power plant flue gas varies from 4% to 9% (vol), depending on the type of fossil fuel used and on operating conditions. Although new power generation concepts that may result in CO{sub 2} control with minimal economic penalty are under development, these concepts are not generally applicable to the large number of existing power plants.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Supported polyethylenimine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic CO2 emissions produced from fossil fuel combustion are believed to contribute to undesired consequences in global climate. Major contributors towards CO2 emissions are fossil fuel-fired power plants for electricity production. For this reason, CO2 capture from flue gas streams together with permanent sequestration in geologic formations is being considered a viable solution towards mitigation of the major greenhouse gas1. Technologies based on chemical absorption with alkanolamines have been assessed for first generation CO2 post-combustion capture primarily due to its advanced stage of development. However, limitations associated with these chemical solvents (i.e., low CO2 loadings, amine degradation by oxygen, equipment corrosion) manifest themselves in high capital and operating costs with reduced thermal efficiencies. Therefore, necessary design and development of alternative, lower cost approaches for CO2 capture from coal-fired combustion streams are warranted.

Fauth, D.J.; Gray, M.L.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Automatic temperature control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic temperature control system is described for maintaining a preset temperature in an enclosed space in a building, comprising: heating and cooling means for conditioning the air in the enclosed space to maintain the preset temperature; exterior thermostat means outside the building for sensing ambient exterior temperature levels; interior thermostat means in the enclosed space, preset to the preset temperature to be maintained and connected with the heating and cooling means to energize the means for heating or cooling, as appropriate, when the preset temperature is reached; means defining a heat sink containing a volume of air heated by solar radiation, the volume of the heat sink being such that the temperature level therein is not affected by minor or temporary ambient temperature fluctuations; and heat sink thermostat means in the heat sink sensing the temperature in the heat sink, the heat sink thermostat means being connected in tandem with the exterior thermostat means and operative with the exterior thermostat means to switch the interior thermostat means to either a first readiness state for heating or a second readiness state for cooling, depending upon which mode is indicated by both the exterior and heat sink thermostat means, whereby the system automatically switches between heating and cooling, as required, in response to a comparison of exterior and heat sink temperatures.

Sheridan, J.P.

1986-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

123

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas  

sions in coal-burning power plants, incin-erators, oil-burning boilers and power plants, and refuse-derived fuel power plants • They can adsorb ...

124

Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by using the heat in furnace flue gases to preheat material coming into the furnace to improve combustion.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

NETL: CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

molecular basket sorbent for CO2 capture from flue gas. Energy Fuels 2011, 25, 456-458. XX Wang, SQ Zhao, XL Ma, CS Song, CO2 capture from gas streams with low CO2...

127

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy efficiency+ power plant energy efficiency+ Home Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Description: Increased natural gas energy efficiency = Reduced utility bills = Profit In 2011 the EIA reports that commercial buildings, industry and the power plants consumed approx. 17.5 Trillion cu.ft. of natural gas. How much of that energy was wasted, blown up chimneys across the country as HOT exhaust into the atmosphere? 40% ~ 60% ? At what temperature? Links: The technology of Condensing Flue Gas Heat Recovery natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building

128

Membrane Process to Sequester CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MeMbrane Process to sequester co MeMbrane Process to sequester co 2 froM Power Plant flue Gas Background Carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to contribute significantly to global warming climate change. The direct approach to address this problem is to capture the carbon dioxide in flue gas and sequester it underground. However, the high cost of separating and capturing CO 2 with conventional technologies prevents the adoption of this approach. This project investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a new membrane process to capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. Description Direct CO 2 capture from power plant flue gas has been the subject of many studies. Currently, CO 2 capture with amine absorption seems to be the leading candidate technology-although membrane processes have been suggested. The principal

129

Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

Tilly, Jean

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Evaluating energy dissipation during expansion in a refrigeration cycle using flue pipe acoustic resonators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research evaluates the feasibility of using a flue pipe acoustic resonator to dissipate energy from a refrigerant stream in order to achieve greater cooling power from a cryorefrigeration cycle. Two models of the ...

Luckyanova, Maria N. (Maria Nickolayevna)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

removal from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Environ.Speciation in a 100-MW Coal-Fired Boiler with Low-NOxControl Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants, DOE/NETL

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Environ. Sci. &Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants, DOE/NETL Mercurynumber of coal-fired generating plants (1-3). The mercury is

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/Fly Ash  

to fossil fuel burning power plants to control mineral precipitation in cooling water. Flue gas, which is 10% CO2, could be diverted into a plant’s cooling water

134

CO2 Removal from Flue Gas Using MIcroporous Metal Organic Frameworks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Removal from Flue Gas Using Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions, & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

135

CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using SOlid Molecular Basket Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from Flue Gas Using Solid from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-

136

Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: Indiana Kingman Research Station (Corn and Soybeans)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is an excellent source of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) that is created when sulfur dioxide is removed from the exhaust gases during the combustion of coal for energy production. Research on FGDG has been conducted as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration with individual utilities, the U.S. EPA, the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural ...

2013-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

138

Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems - Site 3 Topical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers conducted field tests to evaluate the ability of a variety of materials to oxidize vapor-phase elemental mercury at a coal-fired power plant equipped with a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results, while confounded by measurement difficulties, showed that under bituminous coal flue gas conditions, two catalysts, Pd #1 and Carbon #6, continued to oxidize at least 85 percent of the inlet elemental mercury after three months.

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

139

A Review of Manufacturing Uses for Gypsum Produced by Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gypsum is widely used as a source material to manufacture products for building construction applications8212primarily wallboard, cement, and concrete8212and has a number of other commercial applications. The mineral is mined throughout the world (natural gypsum) and also is produced as a result of various industrial processes (synthetic gypsum). The largest source of synthetic gypsum used for manufacturing applications is flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, the product of wet flue gas desulfurization...

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

140

Evaluation of the NeuStream-S™ Flue Gas Desulfurization Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Harris Group Inc. (HGI) of Denver, Colorado, was contracted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to monitor, evaluate, and prepare this report on a dual-alkali flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process developed by Neumann Systems Group, Inc. (NSG). The process is being demonstrated in a nominal 20-MW demonstration plant, treating a slip stream of flue gas from the Colorado Springs Utilities 142-MW Drake Unit 7. HGI evaluated performance, operability, and readiness for scale-up of the process. Co...

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer model that supports prediction of heat transfer profiles for larger permeators Tasks 3. 4.1, 4.2--Temperature Range of Enzymes--The goal was to determine if the enzyme operating temperature would limit the range of thermal conditions available to the capture system. We demonstrated the ability of various isozymes (enzyme variants) to operate from 4-85 C. Consequently, the operating characteristics of the enzyme are not a controlling factor. Further, any isozyme whose upper temperature bound is at least 10 C greater than that of the planned inlet temperature will be stable under unanticipated, uncontrolled 'hiccups' in power plant operation. Task 4.4, 4.4--Examination of the Effects of SOx and NOx on Enzyme Activity (Development of Flue Gas Composition Acceptance Standards)--The purpose was to define the inlet gas profile boundaries. We examined the potential adverse effects of flue gas constituents including different acids from to develop an acceptance standard and compared these values to actual PC flue gas composition. Potential issues include changes in pH, accumulation of specific inhibitory anions and cations. A model was developed and validated by test with a SO{sub 2}-laden stream. The predicted and actual data very largely coincided. The model predicted feed stream requirements to allow continuous operation in excess of 2500 hours. We developed operational (physical and chemical) strategies to avoid or ameliorate these effects. Avoidance, the preferred strategy (noted above), is accomplished by more extensive cleanup of the flue gas stream. Task 5--Process Engineering Model--We developed a process-engineering model for two purposes. The first was to predict the physical and chemical status at each test point in the design as a basis for scale-up. The second was to model the capital and operating cost of the apparatus. These were accomplished and used to predict capex, opex and cost of energy. Task 6--Preliminary Commercialization Plan--We carried out analyses of the market and the competition by a variety of parameters. The conclusion was that there is a l

Michael C. Trachtenberg

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

145

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2003 and June 30, 2003 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for concentration of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Grade 1 sodium bicarbonate performed similarly to grade 5 sodium bicarbonate in fixed bed testing in that activity improved after the first carbonation cycle and did not decline over the course of 5 cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that sodium bicarbonate sorbents produced by calcination of sodium bicarbonate are superior to either soda ash or calcined trona. Energy requirements for regeneration of carbon dioxide sorbents (either wet or dry) is of primary importance in establishing the economic feasibility of carbon dioxide capture processes. Recent studies of liquid amine sorption processes were reviewed and found to incorporate conflicting assumptions of energy requirements. Dry sodium based processes have the potential to be less energy intensive and thus less expensive than oxygen inhibited amine based systems. For dry supported sorbents, maximizing the active fraction of the sorbent is of primary importance in developing an economically feasible process.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Douglas P. Harrison

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates or intermediate salts through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that high calcination temperatures decrease the activity of sodium bicarbonate Grade 1 (SBC No.1) during subsequent carbonation cycles, but there is little or no progressive decrease in activity in successive cycles. SBC No.1 appears to be more active than SBC No.3. As expected, the presence of SO{sub 2} in simulated flue gas results in a progressive loss of sorbent capacity with increasing cycles. This is most likely due to an irreversible reaction to produce Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. This compound appears to be stable at calcination temperatures as high as 200 C. Tests of 40% supported potassium carbonate sorbent and plain support material suggest that some of the activity observed in tests of the supported sorbent may be due to adsorption by the support material rather than to carbonation of the sorbent.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

A Step Towards Automatic Documentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a system which automatically generates program documentation. Starting with a plan generated by analyzing the program, the system computes several kinds of summary information about the program. The ...

Frank, Claude

148

Automatic Adjustment of AVHRR Navigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic adjustment method of the Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images navigation has been developed for operational use at the Centre de Météorologic Spatiale (CMS) in Lannion, France. Selected coastal landmarks are ...

Philippe Bordes; Pascal Brunel; Anne Marsouin

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Automatic categorization of query results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exploratory ad-hoc queries could return too many answers - a phenomenon commonly referred to as "information overload". In this paper, we propose to automatically categorize the results of SQL queries to address this problem. We dynamically generate ...

Kaushik Chakrabarti; Surajit Chaudhuri; Seung-won Hwang

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Automatic safety rod for reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation was observed at SO{sub 2} concentrations of 400 ppmv and higher. In contrast, SO{sub 2} concentrations as low as 50 ppmv significantly reduced mercury oxidation by bromine, this reduction could be due to both gas and liquid phase interactions between SO{sub 2} and oxidized mercury species. The simultaneous presence of chlorine and bromine in the flue gas resulted in a slight increase in mercury oxidation above that obtained with bromine alone, the extent of the observed increase is proportional to the chlorine concentration. The results of this study can be used to understand the relative importance of gas-phase mercury oxidation by bromine and chlorine in combustion systems. Two temperature profiles were tested: a low quench (210 K/s) and a high quench (440 K/s). For chlorine the effects of quench rate were slight and hard to characterize with confidence. Oxidation with bromine proved sensitive to quench rate with significantly more oxidation at the lower rate. The data generated in this program are the first homogeneous laboratory-scale data on bromine-induced oxidation of mercury in a combustion system. Five Hg-Cl and three Hg-Br mechanisms, some published and others under development, were evaluated and compared to the new data. The Hg-halogen mechanisms were combined with submechanisms from Reaction Engineering International for NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. The homogeneous kinetics under-predicted the levels of mercury oxidation observed in full-scale systems. This shortcoming can be corrected by including heterogeneous kinetics in the model calculations.

Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

155

The Influence of Flue Gas Recirculation on the Formation of NOx in the Process of Coal Grate-Fired  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the improvement of environmental protection requirements, the problems of NOx emission from industrial boiler become more and more notable. To explore a real effective method of low NOx combustion, the article discusses the influence of flue gas ... Keywords: flue gas recirculation, grate-fired, temperature, Nox

Li Xu; Jianmin Gao; Guangbo Zhao; Laifu Zhao; Zhifeng Zhao; Shaohua Wu

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

The Discussion of a New Exhausting Smoke Solution in Natural Draft Cooling Tower with Flue Gas Injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

First, the three-dimensional model of NDCT with flue gas injection and the boundary conditions was established by GAMBIT2.3 on the basis of structural parameter. On theFLUENT6.3 technology platform with self-designed program, it was found that: The new ... Keywords: NDCT with flue gas injection, jet mechanics numerical simulation, natural draft cooling towers

Yang Shuo; Qing-Jie Qi; Xin-Le Yang; Shi Lei; Chun-Yang Li

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Automatic Library Tracking Database Infrastructure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Libraries » ALTD Libraries » ALTD ALTD Automatic Library Tracking Database Infrastructure To track and monitor library usage and better serve your software needs, we have enabled the Automatic Library Tracking Database (ALTD) on our prodcution systems, Hopper and Edison. ALTD is also availailable on Carver, but has not enabled for all users by default yet. ALTD, developed by National Institute for Computational Sciences, automatically and transparently tracks all libraries linked into an application at compile time, as well as the libraries used at run time, by intercepting the linker (ld) and the job launcher (aprun, or mpirun). It is a light-weight tool, and should not change your experience with compilation and execution of codes on the machine. However, if you encounter any problems due to ALTD,

158

Automatic rapid attachable warhead section  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

Trennel, A.J.

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

159

Automatic rapid attachable warhead section  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

Trennel, Anthony J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

The Fate of Mercury Absorbed in Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are known to remove a percentage of the mercury in coal flue gases. This raises several questions about the fate of mercury removed by wet FGD systems: Does the absorbed mercury stay in the FGD liquor or does it leave with the byproduct solids? What happens to mercury in the FGD liquor and solid byproducts when they leave the FGD system? To address such questions, this report describes results from an EPRI project that involves field sample collection and labora...

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

EPRI Environmental Control Technology Center: FGD Wet Scrubber Performance At High Flue Gas Velocities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the impact of operating a wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber system at high flue gas velocities up to 20ft/sec (6.1 m/sec). It includes results for countercurrent spray, tray, and packing designs a variety of nozzle types. The report also describes the effect of adding dibasic acid and the impact of operation of state-of-the-art mist elimination systems. These results will be useful for planning compliance with SO2 emission regulations whether a new system is planned or addition...

1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

162

Oil and Oil Derivatives Compliance Requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... for international connection of oiled residues discharge ... C to + 163°C, fuels, lubricating oils and hydraulic ... fuel of gas turbine, crude oil, lubricating oil ...

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

163

Critical review of mercury chemistry in flue gas.  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) and its compounds have long been recognized as potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Many man-made sources of mercury have been reduced in recent years through process changes and control measures. However, emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants, while exceedingly dilute by the usual pollution standards, still constitute a major source when considered in the aggregate. Concerns over those emissions and the prospect of impending emissions regulations have led to a wide range of research projects dealing with the measurement and control of mercury in flue gas. This work has made considerable progress in improving the understanding of mercury emissions and their behavior, but inconsistencies and unexpected results have also shown that a better understanding of mercury chemistry is needed. To develop a more complete understanding of where additional research on mercury chemistry is needed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a critical review of the available information as reported in the technical literature. The objectives were to summarize the current state of the art of chemistry knowledge, identify significant knowledge gaps, and recommend future research to resolve those gaps. An initial evaluation of potential review topics indicated that the scope of the review would need to be limited and focused on the most important topics relative to mercury control. To aid in this process, Argonne developed a brief survey that was circulated to researchers in the field who could help identify and prioritize the many aspects of the problem. The results of the survey were then used to design and guide a highly focused literature search that identified key papers for analysis. Each paper was reviewed, summarized, and evaluated for the relevance and quality of the information presented. The results of that work provided the basis for conclusions regarding the state of knowledge of mercury chemistry and recommendations for further research. This report begins by summarizing the survey process and describing how the results were used to shape the critical review. Analyses of information obtained from the various publications are presented chronologically, beginning with the earliest relevant publication found and concluding with the end of the review in early 2003. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations for future research are presented. The survey instrument is included in Appendix A, while detailed information on each of the publications reviewed is given in Appendix B.

Mendelsohn, M. H.; Livengood, C. D.

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

164

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, five cycle thermogravimetric tests were conducted at the Louisiana State University (LSU) with sodium bicarbonate Grade 3 (SBC{number_sign}3) which showed that carbonation activity declined slightly over 5 cycles following severe calcination conditions of 200 C in pure CO{sub 2}. Three different sets of calcination conditions were tested. Initial carbonation activity (as measured by extent of reaction in the first 25 minutes) was greatest subsequent to calcination at 120 C in He, slightly less subsequent to calcination in 80% CO{sub 2}/20% H{sub 2}O, and lowest subsequent to calcination in pure CO{sub 2} at 200 C. Differences in the extent of reaction after 150 minutes of carbonation, subsequent to calcination under the same conditions followed the same trend but were less significant. The differences between fractional carbonation under the three calcination conditions declined with increasing cycles. A preliminary fixed bed reactor test was also conducted at LSU. Following calcination, the sorbent removed approximately 19% of the CO{sub 2} in the simulated flue gas. CO{sub 2} evolved during subsequent calcination was consistent with an extent of carbonation of approximately 49%. Following successful testing of SBC{number_sign}3 sorbent at RTI reported in the last quarter, a two cycle fluidized bed reactor test was conducted with trona as the sorbent precursor, which was calcined to sodium carbonate. In the first carbonation cycle, CO{sub 2} removal rates declined from 20% to about 8% over the course of three hours. Following calcination, a second carbonation cycle was conducted, at a lower temperature with a lower water vapor content. CO{sub 2} removal and sorbent capacity utilization declined under these conditions. Modifications were made to the reactor to permit addition of extra water for testing in the next quarter. Thermodynamic analysis of the carbonation reaction suggested the importance of other phases, intermediate between sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, and the potential for misapplication of thermodynamic data from the literature. An analysis of initial rate data from TGA experiments suggested that the data may fit a model controlled by the heat transfer from the sorbent particle surface to the bulk gas.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Energy Efficient Pump Control for an Offshore Oil Processing System Yang, Zhenyu; Soleiman, Kian ; Lhndorf, Bo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Efficient Pump Control for an Offshore Oil Processing System Yang, Zhenyu; Soleiman, Kian. (2012). Energy Efficient Pump Control for an Offshore Oil Processing System: IFAC Workshop - Automatic of a pump system for an offshore oil processing system is investigated. The seawater is lifted up by a pump

Yang, Zhenyu

166

Development of an oil-water pollution monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Overboard discharge of bilge and ballast water is necessary, so oil-water separators have been researched extensively. The monitoring problem is to be able to determine the oil concentration continuously. An automatic monitor using carbon analyzer techniques is described. With only one calibration curve, the system can detect accurately the concentration of any type of oil in the water. (1 diagram, 2 graphs, 1 photo)

Tyler, B.; Gongaware, W.; Houlihan, T.M.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Hybrid Automatic Meter Reading System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Malaysia, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) as the power utility company have two methods to take the metering data from their customer. For their ordinary customers (OPC, Ordinary Power Customer), they used conventional method, by sending meter-readers ... Keywords: Automatic Meter Reading, ZigBee, GSM

Aryo Handoko Primicanta; Mohd Yunus Nayan; Mohammad Awan

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

A Manual on the Use of Flue Gas Conditioning for ESP Performance Enhancement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas conditioning can boost the effectiveness of electrostatic precipitators. This manual quantifies both the performance and the cost-benefits, with low-sulfur coals for example cases. It also outlines a procedure that will allow utilities to make estimates for their own units.

1985-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

169

Case Studies to Evaluate Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Physical/Chemical Treatment Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focuses on physical/chemical wastewater treatment technologies used to remove trace metals from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) wastewater. The scope of this study includes FGD wastewater treatment for trace metals.BackgroundThe United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently revising the Effluent Limitations Guidelines (ELGs) for the steam electric power generating industry. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

170

Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

171

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Wastewater Treatment and Gypsum Handling Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Wastewater Treatment and Gypsum Handling Area provides fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on these systems. This guide will assist plant maintenance personnel in improving the reliability and reducing the maintenance costs for these areas of their scrubber system.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

172

"LIMITS AND CHANCES IN FLUE-GAS CLEANING -INTE RNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and elemental mercury (Hg«» under oxidizing conditions of the off-gases downstream of the refuse incinerator), sulfur dioxide (S02)' nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), PCDDs/PCDFs, cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg emission regulations. Mercury Control in MWCs The capture of Hg in flue gas cleaning devices depends on the

Columbia University

173

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products: Phase 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry currently generates about 20 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products annually, and the quantity is expected to increase as utilities institute further controls to comply with Clean Air Act requirements. This report presents the results of the second phase of a large-scale study of beneficial land-use applications of these by-products.

1998-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

174

Stabilization of Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge for Application in Marine Environments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Flue Gas Desulfurization sludge (FGD, CaSO4·2H2O, CaSO3·1/2H2O) is a waste by-product produced when sorbent slurry is passed through wet scrubbers. FGD contains higher concentrations of… (more)

Kour, Tej

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Automatic recognition of personality in conversation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The identification of personality by automatic analysis of conversation has many applications in natural language processing, from leader identification in meetings to partner matching on dating websites. We automatically train models of the main five ...

François Mairesse; Marilyn Walker

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval ...  

Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an ...

177

Effect of H{sub 2}O on the desulfurization of simulated flue gas by an ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect

Functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) have been demonstrated to absorb SO{sub 2} from mixed gases or simulated flue gases efficiently. However, after absorbing a large amount of SO{sub 2}, the viscosity of the ILs increases greatly, which might limit their eventual applications in large-scale desulfurization from mixed gases or flue gases. In this work, the effect of the presence of water in a simulated flue gas on the absorption of SO{sub 2} by a functionalized ionic liquid, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium lactate, has been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the presence of water in the simulated flue gas can decrease the viscosity of the IL greatly, and it has no effect on the absorptivity of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. The densities of the IL absorbing SO{sub 2} from the flue gas with or without water are also studied. They increase with the increase of the amount of SO{sub 2} absorbed from the flue gas in both cases.

Ren, S.H.; Hou, Y.C.; Wu, W.Z.; Chen, X.T.; Fan, J.L.; Zhang, J.W. [Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Oil reserves  

SciTech Connect

As of March 1988, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory totaled 544.9 million barrels of oil. During the past 6 months the Department of Energy added 11.0 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR. During this period, DOE distributed $208 million from the SPR Petroleum Account. All of the oil was purchased from PEMEX--the Mexican national oil company. In FY 1988, $164 million was appropriated for facilities development and management and $439 million for oil purchases. For FY 1989, DOE proposes to obligate $173 million for facilities development and management and $236 million for oil purchases. DOE plans to postpone all further drawdown exercises involving crude oil movements until their effects on cavern integrity are evaluated. DOE and the Military Sealift Command have made progress in resolving the questions surrounding nearly $500,000 in payments for demurrage charges.

Not Available

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Automatic service deployment using virtualisation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Manual deployment of the application usually requires expertise both about the underlying system and the application. Automatic service deployment can improve deployment significantly by using on-demand deployment and selfhealing services. To support these features this paper describes an extension the Globus Workspace Service [10]. This extension includes creating virtual appliances for Grid services, service deployment from a repository, and influencing the service schedules by altering execution planning services, candidate set generators or information systems. 1 2 1.

Gabor Kecskemeti; Peter Kacsuk; Gabor Terstyanszky; Tamas Kiss; Thierry Delaitre

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compressin of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flue Gas Purification Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SO X /NO X Reactions During Compression of CO 2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion Background Oxy-combustion in a pulverized coal-fired power station produces a raw carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) product containing contaminants such as water vapor, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon from impurities in the oxygen used and any air leakage into the system. Acid gases are also produced as combustion products, such as sulfur oxides (SO

182

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry with Collision/Reaction Cell Technology for Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastew aters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater is produced by pollution control equipment used on coal-fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions to air. Wet FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous blowdown stream that contains trace levels of metals that have been adsorbed from flue gas. Power plant owners need to measure concentrations of these metals for purposes of process control, discharge monitoring, or design and operation of wastewater treatment systems. FGD water is a very difficult matrix ...

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

183

Environmental performance of air staged combustor with flue gas recirculation to burn coal/biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The environmental and thermal performance of a 1.07 m diameter, 440 kW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor operated at 700{degrees}C-920{degrees}C and burning coal was studied. Flue gas recirculation was incorporated to enhance the thermal performance and air staging was used to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. Studies focused on the effect of excess air, firing rate, and use of sorbent on system performance. The recirculation-staging mode with limestone had the highest thermal efficiency (0.67) using the firing equation. Emission data showed that flue gas recirculation (ratio of 0.7) significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions; and that use of limestone sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of 3 reduced SO{sub 2} emissions by 64% to approximately 0.310 g/MJ.

Anuar, S.H.; Keener, H.M.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dexin Wang Dexin Wang Principal Investigator Gas Technology Institute 1700 South Mount Prospect Rd Des Plaines, Il 60018 847-768-0533 dexin.wang@gastechnology.org TransporT MeMbrane Condenser for WaTer and energy reCovery froM poWer planT flue gas proMIs/projeCT no.: nT0005350 Background One area of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program's research is being performed to develop advanced technologies to reuse power plant cooling water and associated waste heat and to investigate methods to recover water from power plant flue gas. Considering the quantity of water withdrawn and consumed by power plants, any recovery or reuse of this water can significantly reduce the plant's water requirements. Coal occurs naturally with water present (3-60 weight %), and the combustion

185

Advanced Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases by Shrikar Chakravarti (shrikar_chakravarti@praxair.com; 716-879-4760) Amitabh Gupta (ami_gupta@praxair.com; 716-879-2194) Balazs Hunek (balazs_hunek@praxair.com; 716-879-2250) Praxair, Inc. Process & Systems R&D, CO 2 Technology 175 East Park Drive, P.O. Box 44 Tonawanda, NY 14150 USA key words: flue gas, carbon dioxide, separation, amine absorption, oxygen tolerant process, amine blends First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration Washington, DC, May 15-17, 2001 Copyright 2001, Praxair Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 Abstract Cost effective carbon sequestration schemes have been identified as a key need for dealing with carbon dioxide's (CO 2 ) impact on global climate change. Two main

186

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

187

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - CO2 Capture from Flue  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption Project No.: FG26-05NT42488 Basic Illustration of the Phase Transitional Absorption Process. Basic Illustration of the Phase Transitional Absorption Process. Hampton University researched a novel carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption concept, phase transitional absorption, that utilizes a two-part proprietary absorbent consisting of an activated agent dissolved in a solvent. Phase separation of the activated agent from the chemical solvent occurs during CO2 absorption and physical separation of the two phases exiting the absorber reduces the volume of process liquid requiring thermal regeneration. This unique aspect of phase transitional absorption also decreases the amount of energy (i.e., steam) required to liberate the CO2. If the proper liquid

188

Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

Durham, M.D.

1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

189

Model predictive control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

A model predictive control (MPC) strategy based on a dynamic matrix (DMC) is designed and applied to a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) pilot plant to evaluate what enhancement in control performance can be achieved with respect to a conventional decentralized feedback control strategy. The results reveal that MPC can significantly improve both reference tracking and disturbance rejection. For disturbance rejection, the main control objective in WLFGD plants, selection of tuning parameters and sample time, is of paramount importance due to the fast effect of the main disturbance (inlet SO{sub 2} load to the absorber) on the most important controlled variable (outlet flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration). The proposed MPC strategy can be easily applied to full-scale WLFGD plants.

Perales, A.L.V.; Ollero, P.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Gomez-Barea, A. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Dept. of Chemical & Environmental Engineering

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Power-plant flue gas can serve as a source of CO{sub 2} for microalgae cultivation, and the algae can be cofired with coal. This life cycle assessment (LCA) compared the environmental impacts of electricity production via coal firing versus coal/algae cofiring. The LCA results demonstrated lower net values for the algae cofiring scenario for the following using the direct injection process (in which the flue gas is directly transported to the algae ponds): SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, methane, and fossil energy consumption. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons emissions were statistically unchanged. Lower values for the algae cofiring scenario, when compared to the burning scenario, were observed for greenhouse potential and air acidification potential. However, impact assessment for depletion of natural resources and eutrophication potential showed much higher values. This LCA gives us an overall picture of impacts across different environmental boundaries, and hence, can help in the decision-making process for implementation of the algae scenario.

Kadam, K. L.

2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

191

Membrane Process to Capture CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Membrane Process to Capture CO Membrane Process to Capture CO 2 from Power Plant Flue Gas Background The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program is performing research to develop advanced technologies focusing on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control for existing pulverized coal-fired plants. This new focus on post-combustion and oxy-combustion CO 2 emissions control technology, CO 2 compression, and beneficial reuse is in response to the priority for advanced

192

Effects of Chlorine and Other Flue Gas Parameters on SCR Catalyst Mercury Oxidation and Capture Efficiencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although catalyst behavior is relatively well understood with respect to deNOx and SO2 oxidation, relatively little is known about mercury oxidation behavior. This test program seeks to evaluate the mercury oxidation performance of multiple types of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst as a function of changes in various flue gas parameters, including chlorine level, ammonia level, flow rate, and temperature. This interim report describes the results from parametric testing on the first catalyst.

2008-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

193

Predicting extents of mercury oxidation in coal-derived flue gases  

SciTech Connect

The extent of Hg oxidation determines the portion of Hg in the flue gas from a coal-fired power station that can be removed in SO{sub 2} scrubbers. This article evaluates predicted extents of Hg oxidation from a detailed chemical reaction mechanism, emphasizing the data from 1 and 29 MW pilotscale furnaces for diverse coal types. The proposed mercury (Hg) oxidation mechanism consists of a 168-step gas phase mechanism that accounts for interaction among all important flue gas species and a heterogeneous oxidation mechanism on unburned carbon (UBC) particles, similar to established chemistry for dioxin production under comparable conditions. The mechanism was incorporated into a gas cleaning system simulator to predict the proportions of elemental and oxidized Hg species in the flue gases, given relevant coal properties (C/H/O/N/S/Cl/Hg), flue gas composition (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, HCl), emissions (NOx, SOx, CO), the recovery of fly ash, fly ash loss-on-ignition (LOI), and a thermal history. Predictions are validated without parameter adjustments against datasets from lab-scale and from pilot-scale coal furnaces at 1 and 29 MWt. Collectively, the evaluations cover 16 coals representing ranks from sub-bituminous through high-volatile bituminous, including cases with Cl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} injection. The predictions are, therefore, validated over virtually the entire domain of Cl-species concentrations and UBC levels of commercial interest. Additional predictions identify the most important operating conditions in the furnace and gas cleaning system, including stoichiometric ratio, NOX, LOI, and residence time, as well as the most important coal properties, including coal-Cl. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Stephen Niksa; Naoki Fujiwara [Niksa Energy Associates, Belmont, CA (US)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Thermal Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment Processes for Zero Liquid Discharge Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a worldwide inventory of power plant flue gas desulfurization (FGD) blowdown treatment systems using thermal technologies to achieve zero liquid discharge (ZLD) water management. The number of thermal treatment systems presently operating is very few, with the majority using chemical pretreatment followed by evaporation in a brine concentrator and crystallizer and finally dewatering of the residual salts. Of the operating thermal ZLD systems identified, six are located in Italy and o...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Effects of Ammonia and Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Wastewater on Power Plant Effluent Toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments and subsequently the Clean Air Interstate Rule and other state-level actions have resulted in implementation of a variety of technologies to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and to further reduce emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx). Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and SNCR (non-catalytic) are two of the primary NOx emission reduction technologies. Often, ammonia is injected into flue gas as the reductant for the chemical reaction that converts NOx to nitrogen gas. ...

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

196

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: North Dakota Sites 1 and 2 (Wheat)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes work performed in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum at two sites in North Dakota. This work was part of a national research network evaluating beneficial uses of FGD gypsum in agriculture. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of FGD gypsum applications on soil quality and on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields and seed quality. Three application rates of FGD gypsum were compared with s...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

197

Demonstration Test of Iron Addition to a Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Absorber to Enhance Mercury Removal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the findings from a full-scale demonstration test of the effects on trace elements of adding iron to a forced oxidation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Three specific effects were evaluated: lowering mercury emissions to the atmosphere; lowering the concentration of soluble or sub-micron-sized mercury particles in FGD purge water, which could improve removal of mercury in FGD purge water treatment; and lowering the concentration of selenate in FGD purge water, which could i...

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

Performance Evaluation of a Radial Deionization System for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency’s proposed effluent limitation guidelines for steam electric power generating units could affect not only how power plants use water but also how they discharge it. The revised guidelines propose discharge limits for selenium, mercury, arsenic, and nitrite/nitrate in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Final rule approval is expected by the middle of 2014. Additional regulation of these contaminants and other constituents may occur through ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

200

A Review of Agricultural and Other Land Application Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products, especially FGD gypsum, is expected to increase substantially over the next ten to twenty years in response to clean air initiatives. There are a large number of agricultural and other land application uses of FGD products that have received previous research and development attention, but only in specific locations of the United States and under limited conditions of crops, climate and soil types. This report discusses current and potential futur...

2006-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products: Phase 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry currently generates about 25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products annually in the United States -- a quantity that is expected to increase as utilities apply new controls to comply with Clean Air Act Amendments. This report presents results of the third and final phase of a large-scale study of beneficial land-use applications for these by-products.

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

202

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New sulfur dioxide removal technologies produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products that contain sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. The scarcity of landfill disposal sites for such flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products has led to a long-term study on possible large-volume beneficial applications. To date, FGD by-products have been successfully used in agriculture, construction, and strip mine reclamation.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

203

Novel regenerable sorbent for mercury capture from flue gases of coal-fired power plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A natural chabazite-based silver nanocomposite (AgMC) was synthesized to capture mercury from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. Silver nanoparticles were engineered on zeolite through ion-exchange of sodium ions with silver ions, followed by thermal annealing. Mercury sorption test using AgMC was performed at various temperatures by exposing it to either pulse injection of mercury or continuous mercury flow. A complete capture of mercury by AgMC was achieved up to a capture temperature of 250{sup o}C. Nano silver particles were shown to be the main active component for mercury capture by amalgamation mechanism. Compared with activated carbon-based sorbents, the sorbent prepared in this study showed a much higher mercury capture capacity and upper temperature limit for mercury capture. More importantly, the mercury captured by the spent AgMC could be easily released for safe disposal and the sorbent regenerated by simple heating at 400{sup o}C. Mercury capture tests performed in real flue gas environment showed a much higher level of mercury capture by AgMC than by other potential mercury sorbents tested. In our mercury capture tests, the AgMC exposed to real flue gases showed an increased mercury capture efficiency than the fresh AgMC. 38 refs., 6 figs.

Yan Liu; David J.A. Kelly; Hongqun Yang; Christopher C.H. Lin; Steve M. Kuznicki; Zhenghe Xu [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, January 1994--March 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We are currently performing a series of pilot-scale tests designed to determine the effects that adsorbed water has on fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation of entrained fly ash particles in actual flue gas environments. We are investigating two key phenomena in our pilot-scale tests. The first is the ability of flue gas humidification to increase ash cohesivity through the creation of liquid bridges between particles collected in a fabric filter. Increasing cohesivity through the development of liquid bridges was demonstrated in our laboratory measurements of tensile strength and uncompacted bulk porosity, and in filtration studies performed for DOE/PETC under an earlier contract. With the range of coals that will be fired in Southern Research Institute`s Coal Combustion Facility (CCF), filtration tests should verify how different fly ashes react to water conditioning in actual flue gas environments. The CCF provides a valuable test location for our studies. The second phenomenon we plan to study is the electrostatic reentrainment of previously collected ash particles in an ESP. We have prepared a small ESP for use in our pilot-scale tests. Our laboratory studies have shown the effects that relative humidity can have on the forces that hold the collected ash on the grounded ESP plate.

Snyder, T.R.

1994-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

205

Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

Eric P. Robertson

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants, like SO2, NOx, HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however, the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First, using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture, and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan, the USA, Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland, third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany, Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators, 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world, nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

Chmielewski, Andrzej G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); University of technology, faculty of Process and Chemical Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Tyminski, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew; Pawelec, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Licki, Janusz [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk (Poland)

2003-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

207

Definition: Automatic Generation Control | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Automatic Generation Control Automatic Generation Control Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Automatic Generation Control Equipment that automatically adjusts generation in a Balancing Authority Area from a central location to maintain the Balancing Authority's interchange schedule plus Frequency Bias. AGC may also accommodate automatic inadvertent payback and time error correction.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Related Terms system, power, electricity generation, load, frequency bias, balancing authority, balancing authority area, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An inline LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Automatic_Generation_Control&oldid=502513"

208

Attacking Automatic Wireless Network Selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wireless 802.11 networking is becoming so prevalent that many users have become accustomed to having available wireless networks in their workplace, home, and many public places such as airports and coffee shops. Modern client operating systems implement automatic wireless network discovery and known network identification to facilitate wireless networking for the end-user. In order to implement known network discovery, client operating systems remember past wireless networks that have been joined and automatically look for these networks (referred to as Preferred or Trusted Networks) whenever the wireless network adapter is enabled. By examining these implementations in detail, we have discovered previously undisclosed vulnerabilities in the implementation of these algorithms under the two most prevalent client operating systems, Windows XP and MacOS X. With custom base station software, an attacker may cause clients within wireless radio range to associate to the attacker’s wireless network without user interaction or notification. This will occur even if the user has never connected to a wireless network before or they have an empty Preferred/Trusted Networks List. We describe these vulnerabilities as well as their implementation and impact. 1

Dino A. Dai Zovi; Shane A. Macaulay

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Caldyne Automatics Limited | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name Caldyne Automatics Limited Place West Bengal, India Zip 700 091 Sector Solar, Wind energy Product Kolkata-based power storage product manufacturer; also makes lighting...

210

A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

Pei, Y J; Dong, X; Feng, G Y; Fu, S; Gao, H; Hong, Y; Li, G; Li, Y X; Shang, L; Sheng, L S; Tian, Y C; Wang, X Q; Wang, Y; Wei, W; Zhang, Y W; Zhou, H J

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device  

SciTech Connect

A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald (Silver Spring, MD)

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

212

Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald (Silver Spring, MD)

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

213

Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

Guerty, Harold G. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

214

Automatic learning of subclasses of pattern languages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic classes are classes of languages for which a finite automaton can decide the membership problem for the languages in the class, in a uniform way, given an index for the language. For alphabet size of at least 4, every automatic class of erasing ...

John Case; Sanjay Jain; Trong Dao Le; Yuh Shin Ong; Pavel Semukhin; Frank Stephan

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Improving Automatic Interface Generation with Smart Templates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improving Automatic Interface Generation with Smart Templates Jeffrey Nichols, Brad A. Myers 1. Arrangements of media playback controls gener- ated automatically from the media-control Smart differently. Smart Templates is a technique that uses parameterized templates in the appliance model

Myers, Brad A.

216

Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils  

agricultural oils to stimulate endogenous microbes which accelerates the cleanup.  The oils tested include canola oil, grapeseed oil, coconut oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil, ...

217

Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris™ membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and

Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating...

219

OIl Speculation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investor Flows and the 2008 BoomBust in Oil Prices Kenneth J. Singleton 1 August 10, 2011 1 Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, kenneths@stanford.edu. This research...

220

Acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of the TAN method for measuring the acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil was evaluated. Suggestions for carrying out the analysis have been made. The TAN method by ASTM D664 or D3339 can be used for measuring the acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and their hydrotreating products. The main difference between the methods is that ASTM D664 is specified for higher TAN values than ASTM D3339. Special focus should be placed on the interpretation of the TAN curves because they differ significantly from those of mineral oils. The curve for bio-oils is so gentle that the automatic detection may not observe the end point properly and derivatization should be used. The acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils is mainly derived (60-70%) from volatile acids. Other groups of compounds in fast pyrolysis bio-oils that influence acidity include phenolics, fatty and resin acids, and hydroxy acids.

Oasmaa, Anja; Elliott, Douglas C.; Korhonen, Jaana

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

OpenEI Community - natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Increase Natural Gas Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency http://en.openei.org/community/group/increase-natural-gas-energy-efficiency Description: Increased natural gas energy efficiency = Reduced utility bills = Profit In 2011 the EIA reports that commercial buildings, industry and the power plants consumed approx. 17.5 Trillion cu.ft. of natural gas.How much of that energy was wasted, blown up chimneys across the country as HOT exhaust into the atmosphere? 40% ~ 60% ? At what temperature?read more natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat

222

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: Wisconsin Arlington Research Station Fields 295 and 27 (Alfalfa)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes field research in Wisconsin as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) Agricultural Network. The objective of this study, conducted during 2009-2010, was to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of FGDG as a soil amendment to improve alfalfa production. FGDG was compared to a commercially available gypsum product (C-GYP) widely sold in the U.S. Midwest and other areas. A study was established in two fields (Field 295 in 2009/2010 and Field 27 in 2010) at ...

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

223

Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems - Site 2 Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI are co-funding this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project is investigating catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installation...

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

224

Leaching Assessment of Fly Ash, Flue Gas Desulfurization Filter Cake, and Fixated Scrubber Solids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The by-products of coal combustion (for example, fly ash and flue gas desulfurization filter cake) are an important environmental concern due to potential leaching of trace constituents and the large volume of residues produced. About 40% of these by-products may be utilized as raw materials outside of the energy sector; the remaining 60% of the coal combustion products (CCPs) are disposed of as waste. At Plant 14090, the subject of this report, fly ash and scrubber sludge are blended with quicklime ...

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

225

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: North Dakota Sites 3, 4, and 5 (Canola)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a very pure form of gypsum that is a by-product from the combustion of coal for energy production. This report describes 2008-2009 work to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of FGDG at three sites near Langdon, North Dakota. This work was part of a national research network evaluating beneficial uses of FGDG in agriculture, in this case, fertilization of dryland canola by FGDG. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine the influence of FGD...

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

226

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: Ohio Sites 1 (Mixed Hay) and 2 (Corn)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this work conducted during 2008–2010 were to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of flue gas desulphurization gypsum (FGDG) in eastern Ohio and to assess the potential for environmental effects of the use of FGDG. Two field experiments were conducted at the eastern Ohio research site, one involving a mixed-grass hay field and the other a corn (Zea mays L.) field. FGDG and mined gypsum product were applied one time at rates of 0.2, 2.0, and 20 megagrams ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

227

Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical technology has been used successfully to solve many of the operational and emissions problems that result from burning coal. This paper describes the use of blended chemical flue gas conditioners to significantly reduce particulate emissions in coal-fired industrial boilers. In many cases, these chemical conditioning agents have increased the efficiency of electrostatic precipitators and mechanical collectors by more than fifty percent. The effectiveness of this technology has been demonstrated on units generating 50,000 to 200,000 lbs./hr. steam. Results achieved at various industrial plants under actual operating conditions are presented.

Miller, B.; Keon, E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Reactive carbon from life support wastes for incinerator flue gas cleanup-System Testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents the results from a joint research initiative between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National lab. The objective of the research is to produce activated carbon from life support wastes and to use the activated carbon to adsorb and chemically reduce the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} contained in incinerator flue gas. Inedible biomass waste from food production is the primary waste considered for conversion to activated carbon. Results to date show adsorption of both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in activated carbon made from biomass. Conversion of adsorbed NO{sub x} to nitrogen has also been observed.

Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Moran, Mark J.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Xu, X.H.; Shi, Yao; Chang, Shih-Ger

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

229

CERTS 2012 Program Review - Automatic Reliability Reports (ARR...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

prototype at MISO: Architecture, Grid Monitoring Visualization and Grid Reliability Tracking Grid Automatic Reliability Report (GARR) Page 1 Automatic Reliability Reports (ARR)...

230

Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings December 23, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Did you know...

231

Crude Oil Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Notes: Crude oil exports are restricted to: (1) crude oil derived from fields under the State waters of Alaska's Cook Inlet; (2) Alaskan North Slope crude oil; (3) ...

232

Heavy Oil Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Select Reports from Heavy Oil Projects Project Number Performer Title Heavy Oil Recovery US (NIPERBDM-0225) BDM-Oklahoma, Inc. Feasibility Study of Heavy Oil Recovery in the...

233

3. Crude Oil Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

3. Crude Oil Statistics The United States had 21,371 million barrels of crude oil proved reserves as of December 31, 2004. Crude oil proved reserves ...

234

5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5 World Oil Trends Chapter 1 WORLD OIL TRENDS INTRODUCTION In considering the outlook for California's petroleum supplies, it is important to give attention to expecta- tions of what the world oil market. Will world oil demand increase and, if so, by how much? How will world oil prices be affected

235

Automatic Electric Load Identification in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — A microgrid is the power system of choice for the electrification of rural areas in developing countries. It should be able to adapt to changing load situations without the need for specialists to change the configuration of the microgrid controller. This paper proposes a self-configuring microgrid management system that is able to adjust both generation and demand of the system, so that also in case of growing electricity demand the grid can still be operable by disconnecting unessential loads. A crucial task for the microgrid controller is to automatically identify the connected loads on the basis of their consumption behaviors. For this, a template-matching algorithm is proposed that is based on Dynamic Time Warping, which is primarily used in speech recognition. It has been found that for load profile analysis, simple signal features such as the number of rising edges or the aggregated energy consumption in a given time window is sufficient to describe the signal. In contrast to speech recognition, frequency domain analysis is not necessary.

Self-configuring Microgrids; Friederich Kupzog; Tehseen Zia; Adeel Abbas Zaidi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Specialty Oils Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing provider for Specialty Oils. Samples tested include Walnut Oil, Pecan Oil, Pistachio Oil, Sesame Seed Oil, Flax Seed Oil, Neem Oil, Safflower Oil, Sunflower Oil. Specialty Oils Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Pro

237

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, October 1994--December 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is divided into four tasks. We developed our Management Plan in Task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focused on characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, was designed to examine effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine mechanisms by which these agents alter physical properties of ash. We began Tasks 2 and 3 with an extensive literature search and assembly of existing theories. We completed this phase of the project with publication of two special Topical Reports. During the next phase of the project we analyzed a variety of fly ashes and fine powders in the laboratory. Pilot-scale evaluations were then performed to verify the results we obtained in these laboratory analyses. Under Task 4 we will issue our Final Report that will summarize the results of our laboratory and pilot-scale work and will also include a Flue Gas Conditioning Model. In our literature reviews reported in Topical Reports 1 and 2, we emphasized the roles adsorbed water can have in controlling bulk properties of powders. The experiments we performed were primarily designed to define the extent to which water affects key properties of ashes, powders, and mixtures of sorbents and ashes. We have recently completed a series of pilot-scale tests designed to determine the effects that adsorbed water has on fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation of entrained fly ash particles in actual flue gas environments.

Snyder, T.R.

1995-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

238

Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Explaining the differential solubility of flue gas components in ionic liquids from first-principle calculations  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas is greatly responsible for acid rain formation and global warming. New generation ionic liquids (ILs) have potential in controlling the flue gas emissions, as they acquire high absorptivity for the component gases SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, etc. The association of the IL-gas interactions to the absorptivity of gas molecules in ILs is, however, poorly understood. In this paper, we present a molecular level description of the interactions of ILs with SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} and show its implications to the differential gas solubility. Our results indicate that the IL anion-gas interactions play a key role in deciding the gas solubility in ILs, particularly for polar gases such as SO{sub 2}. On the other hand, regular solution assumption applies to -2 solubility. In accordance with the previous theoretical and experimental findings, our results also imply that the IL anions dominate the interactions with gas molecules while the cations play a secondary role and the underlying fluid structures of the ILs remain unperturbed by the addition of gas molecules.

Prasad, B.R.; Senapati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Biotechnology

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Install an Automatic Blowdown Control System  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP steam tip sheet on installing automatic blowdown controls provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Automatic phonetic transcription by phonological derivation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic phonetic transcription tools usually perform phonetic transcriptions directly from orthographic representations. Although these approaches often achieve good results, theoretical studies suggest that including morphophonological knowledge allows ... Keywords: galician, grapheme-to-phoneme, phonetics, phonology, portuguese

Marcos Garcia; Isaac J. González

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Automatic verification of competitive stochastic systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present automatic verification techniques for the modelling and analysis of probabilistic systems that incorporate competitive behaviour. These systems are modelled as turn-based stochastic multi-player games, in which the players can either collaborate ...

Taolue Chen; Vojt?ch Forejt; Marta Kwiatkowska; David Parker; Aistis Simaitis

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Pronunciation learning for automatic speech recognition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In many ways, the lexicon remains the Achilles heel of modern automatic speech recognizers (ASRs). Unlike stochastic acoustic and language models that learn the values of their parameters from training data, the baseform ...

Badr, Ibrahim

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

A System to Mark Programs Automatically  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a system to automatically mark student programs. It is a real time examination system that provides an environment for the compilation and execution of software and then marks it according to criteria and solutions provided by the ...

Ken Ngo-Pham; John Bigham; Julian Rodaway; Laurissa Tokarchuk

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Temporal Sampling Requirements for Automatic Rain Gauges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic rain gauges are needed to obtain rainfall statistics from remote locations and platforms. Many of these platforms cannot be serviced regularly, thus requiring unattended operations for many months. At such locations there is often a ...

Jeffrey A. Nystuen

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Automatically learning qualia structures from the web  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Qualia Structures have many applications within computational linguistics, but currently there are no corresponding lexical resources such as WordNet or FrameNet. This paper presents an approach to automatically learn qualia structures for nominals from ...

Philipp Cimiano; Johanna Wenderoth

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

The FLOWS Automatic Weather Station Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes in detail the FLOWS (FAA-Lincoln Laboratory Operational Weather Studies) automatic weather station network which is being used in the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar program to assess the radar detectability of wind shear and ...

Marilyn M. Wolfson

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Automatic wrappers for large scale web extraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a generic framework to make wrapper induction algorithms tolerant to noise in the training data. This enables us to learn wrappers in a completely unsupervised manner from automatically and cheaply obtained noisy training data, e.g., using ...

Nilesh Dalvi; Ravi Kumar; Mohamed Soliman

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Real web community based automatic image annotation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic image annotation is a challenging problem in pattern recognition. Large annotation databases are difficult to build, and the existing models can only label small scale of image sets. In order to solve the problems with the annotation of large ...

Xiao Ke, Shaozi Li, Guolong Chen

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Automatic monitoring helps reduce lighting costs  

SciTech Connect

A Benton, Arkansas utility is using a dimmable ballast system to curb high-intensity-discharge (HID) lighting costs. The system also incorpoates a monitoring control system. This control automatically maintains minimum illumination levels.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Automatic Planning of Manipulator Transfer Movements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with the class of problems that involve finding where to place or how to move a solid object in the presence of obstacles. The solution to this class of problems is essential to the automatic planning ...

Lozano-Perez, Tomas

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Oil | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil Oil Oil Prices, 2000-2008 For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. |...

254

of oil yields from enhanced oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

oil yields from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO oil yields from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO 2 storage capacity in depleted oil reservoirs. The primary goal of the project is to demonstrate that remaining oil can be economically produced using CO 2 -EOR technology in untested areas of the United States. The Citronelle Field appears to be an ideal site for concurrent CO 2 storage and EOR because the field is composed of sandstone reservoirs

255

Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks  

SciTech Connect

UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary building units bound by DOBDC resulting in 1D hexagonal pores about 11 angstroms in diameter. Surface areas range from 800 to 1500 sq m/g for the different MOFs. Mg/DOBDC outperformed all MOF and zeolite materials evaluated to date, with about 25 wt% CO{sub 2} captured by this MOF at flue gas conditions ({approx}0.13 atm CO{sub 2} pressure, 311K). In simulated flue gas without oxygen, the zero-length (ZLC) system was very useful in quickly simulating the effect of long term exposure to impurities on the MOFs. Detailed adsorption studies on MOF pellets have shown that water does not inhibit CO{sub 2} adsorption for MOFs as much as it does for typical zeolites. Moreover, some MOFs retain a substantial CO{sub 2} capacity even with a modest water loading at room temperature. Molecular modeling was a key activity in three areas of our earlier DOE/NETL-sponsored MOF-based research on CC. First, the team was able to effectively simulate CO{sub 2} and other gas adsorption isotherms for more than 20 MOFs, and the knowledge obtained was used to help predict new MOF structures that should be effective for CO{sub 2} adsorption at low pressure. The team also showed that molecular modeling could be utilized to predict the hydrothermal stability of a given MOF. Finally, the team showed that low moisture level exposure actually enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of a particular MOF, HKUST-1.

David A Lesch

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

Germer, J.H.

1982-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

257

Automatic welding comes of age. [Offshore  

SciTech Connect

Automatic pipe welding systems today fall into three main categories: gas metal arc welding, gas-tungsten arc welding, and flash-butt welding. The first automatic welding devices used offshore were the CRC and H.C. Price systems. Both use gas metal arc welding with a consumable steel filler wire. The recently developed McDermott flash-butt welding system is described. (DLC)

Turner, D.L. Jr.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

EIA Oil price timeline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, ... Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions.

259

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.

Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray; Chang, Shih-Ger; Miller, Charles

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

260

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Vsd Oil Free Compressor, Vsd Oil Free Compressor Products, Vsd ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Vsd Oil Free Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Vsd Oil Free Compressor Products from Global Vsd Oil Free Compressor Suppliers and Vsd Oil ...

262

The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate (gypsum). Fuel ashes result from the burning of coal. Gypsum is a byproduct of the air purification system, called Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD). Abatement of these waste products is a growing concern, not only for the industry, but the environment as well. It is possible to produce a gypsum brick unit that can meet the engineering properties required by the Americans Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standards by using these by-products. This can be accomplished at a cost less than the least expensive common fired clay brick that is used in construction operations. The gypsum brick can be manufactured using established methods that are currently in operation.

Berryman, Charles Wayne

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Development of a sorbent-based technology for control of mercury in flue gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents results of research being, conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the capture of elemental mercury in simulated flue gases by using dry sorbents. Experimental results from investigation of various sorbents and chemical additives for mercury control are reported. Of the sorbents investigated thus far, an activited-carbon-based sorbent impregnated with about 15% (by weight) of sulfur compound provided the best results. The key parameters affecting mercury control efficiency in a fixed-bed reactor, such as reactor loading, reactor temperature, sorbent size distribution, etc., were also studied, and the results ire presented. In addition to activated-carbon-based sorbents, a non-carbon-based sorbent that uses an inactive substrate treated with active chemicals is being developed. Preliminary, experimental results for mercury removal by this newly developed sorbent are presented.

Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, Hann S.; Livengood, C.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Reclamation of abandoned surface coal mined land using flue gas desulfurization products  

SciTech Connect

Details are given of a field-scale research project where the Fleming site, in Ohio, of highly degraded and acid-forming abandoned surface coal-mined land, was reclaimed using a dry flue gas desulfurization product from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion burner at a General Motors plant Pontiac, MI, which burned eastern Ohio coal and used dolomitic limestone for desulfurization. Plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses, wheat and clover, in 1994 and soil and water samples were analysed in 1995 and in 2009. It was found that FGD-treated plots promoted good regenerative growth, similar to that in plots using more concentrated re-soil material. The FGD treatment also greatly improved overall water quality. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Chen, L.; Kost, D.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio State University, OH (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Hollow fiber adsorbents for CO{sub 2} removal from flue gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nation's pulverized coal infrastructure is aging, and implementation of current retrofit postcombustion capture methods is extremely expensive. This paper describes a technology based on hollow polymeric fibers with sorbent particles embedded in the porous fiber wall to enable postcombustion CO{sub 2} capture via a rapid temperature swing adsorption (RTSA) system. The system takes advantage of the hollow fiber morphology by passing cooling water through the bores during sorption to maximize sorption capacities and steam through the bores during desorption to desorb CO{sub 2} efficiently. The thin-walled hollow fibers offer the advantage of rapid heat and mass transport. To avoid mass transfer between the core and the fiber sheath, a dense lumen layer is used on the interior of the fiber wall. This system has advantages over competing technologies. Specifically, the fiber sorbent contactor minimizes flue gas pressure drop across the bed, while maximizing sorption efficiencies via rapid thermal cycles and low regenerative thermal requirements.

Lively, R.P.; Chance, R.R.; Kelley, B.T.; Deckman, H.W.; Drese, J.H.; Jones, C.W.; Koros, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

By-product disposal from MSW incinerator flue gas cleaning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waste incineration has been found to be an effective method of achieving significant volume reduction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) while at the same time allowing for energy recovery in the form of steam or electricity. Concern over potential air pollution from incinerators in the form of acid gases, heavy metals and dioxins has led to the application of Spray Dryer Absorption (SDA) flue gas cleaning systems to control these emissions. SDA has demonstrated high efficiencies in converting these air pollutants into a dry by-product for disposal. This has, in turn, led to concerns over potential secondary pollution from the disposal of these by-products. This paper presents a description of the SDA process and reviews disposal options for the SDA product. Product characteristics are given and results of leaching studies are presented. Comparisons between EPA's and TEP and TCLP procedures are presented. Results of dioxin measurements from the by-product are given.

Donnelly, J.R. (Joy Manufacturing Co., Los Angeles, CA (US)); Jons, E. (A/S Niro Atomizer, Copenhagen (DK))

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

OIl Speculation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investor Investor Flows and the 2008 Boom/Bust in Oil Prices Kenneth J. Singleton 1 August 10, 2011 1 Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, kenneths@stanford.edu. This research is the outgrowth of a survey paper I prepared for the Air Transport Association of America. I am grateful to Kristoffer Laursen for research assistance and to Kristoffer and Stefan Nagel for their comments. Abstract This paper explores the impact of investor flows and financial market conditions on returns in crude-oil futures markets. I begin by arguing that informational frictions and the associated speculative activity may induce prices to drift away from "fundamental" values and show increased volatility. This is followed by a discussion of the interplay between imperfect infor- mation about real economic activity, including supply, demand, and inventory accumulation, and speculative

269

Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

NONE

1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, April--June 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is divided into four tasks. The author developed a Management Plan in Task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine mechanisms by which these agents alter physical properties of ash. The author began Tasks 2 and 3 with an extensive literature search and assembly of existing theories. He completed this phase of the project with publication of two special Topical Reports. During the past several quarters he performed analyses of the samples in the database. Pilot-scale evaluations have begun and will continue through the next two quarters. The author will include the results of laboratory and pilot-scale work performed under Tasks 2 and 3 in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under Task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under Task 4. In the literature reviews reported in Topical Reports 1 and 2, the author emphasized the roles adsorbed water can have in controlling bulk properties of powders. The experiments performed were primarily designed to define the extent to which water affects key properties of ashes, powders, and mixtures of sorbents and ashes. The author is currently performing a series of pilot-scale tests designed to determine the effects that absorbed water has on fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation of entrained fly ash particles in actual flue gas environments.

Snyder, T.R.

1994-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

272

Pilot-plant technical assessment of wet flue gas desulfurization using limestone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed on a countercurrent pilot-scale packed scrubber for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The flow rate of the treated flue gas was around 300 Nm{sup 3}/h, so the pilot-plant capacity is one of the largest with respect to other published studies on a pilot-plant wet FGD. The tests were carried out at an SO{sub 2} inlet concentration of 2000 ppm by changing the recycle slurry pH to around 4.8 and the L/G ratio to between 7.5 and 15. Three types of limestone were tested, obtaining desulfurization efficiencies from 59 to 99%. We show the importance of choosing an appropriate limestone in order to get a better performance from the FGD plant. Thus, it is important to know the reactivity (on a laboratory scale) and the sorbent utilization (on a pilot-plant scale) in order to identify if a limestone is reactive enough and to compare it with another type. In addition, by using the transfer-unit concept, a function has been obtained for the desulfurization efficiency, using the L/G ratio and the recycle slurry pH as independent variables. The Ca/S molar ratio is related to these and to the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. This function, together with a simplified function of the operation variable cost, allows us to determine the pair (L/G ratio and pH) to achieve the desired SO{sub 2} removal with the minimum operation cost. Finally, the variable operation costs between packed towers and spray scrubbers have been compared, using as a basis the pilot packed tower and the industrial spray column at the Compostilla Power Station's FGD plant (in Leon, Spain).

Ortiz, F.J.G.; Vidal, F.; Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Cortes, V.; Gimenez, A. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

Langner, G.H. Jr.

1991-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

275

Automatic Projector Calibration with Embedded Light Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Projection technology typically places several constraints on the geometric relationship between the projector and the projection surface to obtain an undistorted, properly sized image. In this paper we describe a simple, robust, fast, and low-cost method for automatic projector calibration that eliminates many of these constraints. We embed light sensors in the target surface, project Gray-coded binary patterns to discover the sensor locations, and then prewarp the image to accurately fit the physical features of the projection surface. This technique can be expanded to automatically stitch multiple projectors, calibrate onto nonplanar surfaces for object decoration, and provide a method for simple geometry acquisition.

Johnny C. Lee; Johnny C. Lee; Paul H. Dietz; Paul H. Dietz; Dan Maynes-Aminzade; Dan Maynes-aminzade; Scott E. Hudson; Scott E. Hudson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Automatic induction of verb classes using clustering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Shi, 2001) which consistently outperforms other previous methods in our studies. We also introduce a method to automatically de- tect the number of clusters for SPEC (Zelnik-Manor and Perona, 2004). In addition, we introduce HGFC (Yu et al., 2006) as a... and Shi, 2001) which consistently outperforms other previous methods in our studies. We also introduce a method to automatically de- tect the number of clusters for SPEC (Zelnik-Manor and Perona, 2004). In addition, we introduce HGFC (Yu et al., 2006) as a...

Sun, Lin

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

277

Oil price; oil demand shocks; oil supply shocks; dynamic effects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Using a newly developed measure of global real economic activity, a structural decomposition of the real price of crude oil in four components is proposed: oil supply shocks driven by political events in OPEC countries; other oil supply shocks; aggregate shocks to the demand for industrial commodities; and demand shocks that are specific to the crude oil market. The latter shock is designed to capture shifts in the price of oil driven by higher precautionary demand associated with fears about future oil supplies. The paper quantifies the magnitude and timing of these shocks, their dynamic effects on the real price of oil and their relative importance in determining the real price of oil during 1975-2005. The analysis sheds light on the origin of the observed fluctuations in oil prices, in particular during oil price shocks. For example, it helps gauge the relative importance of these shocks in the build-up of the real price of crude oil since the late 1990s. Distinguishing between the sources of higher oil prices is shown to be crucial in assessing the effect of higher oil prices on U.S. real GDP and CPI inflation, suggesting that policies aimed at dealing with higher oil prices must take careful account of the origins of higher oil prices. The paper also quantifies the extent to which the macroeconomic performance of the U.S. since the mid-1970s has been driven by the external economic shocks driving the real price of oil as opposed to domestic economic factors and policies. Key words: JEL:

Lutz Kilian

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Production of hydraulic oil from Baku crudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demand for low-pour oils for use in hydraulic systems is considerably greater than the possible production volume. The base stocks for hydraulic oils - AMG-10, MGE-10A, RM, and RMTs - are obtained by sulfuric acid treatment. In the interest of improving the ecological aspects of hydraulic oil production, sulfuric acid treatment is being replaced by hydroprocessing. The work described here was aimed at determining the feasibility of obtaining hydraulic oil of the RM type from lube distillate fractions of the mixed low-wax crudes processed in the Baku Azerneftyag Petroleum Refinery. This oil is intended for use in hydraulic systems of automatic control apparatus, mainly in flight vehicles operating in the North. Stringent requirements are imposed on its solid point and viscosity. solid point no higher than -60{degrees}C. viscosity w higher than 350 mm{sup 2}/sec at -40{degrees}C. The lube fractions used as starting materials had viscosities of 2.77 and 16.84 mm{sup 2}/sec at 50{degrees}C, with respective flash points of 85{degrees} and 168{degrees}C. As another starting material we used a gasoil cut with a viscosity of 4.4 mm{sup 2}/sec at 50{degrees}C and a flash point of 134{degrees}C.

Samedova, F.I.; Kasumova, A.M.; Alieva, V.M.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids, andWorld Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids, andProduction of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids, and Re?

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),Figure 3. Price of crude oil contract maturing December ofbarrels per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs U.S. Petroleum Use, 1970-2010 Nearly 40% of the oil we use is imported, costing us roughly 300 billion annually. Increased domestic oil production from...

282

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interpretations of China’s foreign oil strategy. Argumentsof aspects of China’s foreign oil activities, they do notits largest directly-run foreign oil project. Supplying 10

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Oil Spills and Wildlife  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil Spills and Wildlife Name: jess Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: what are some effects of oil spills on plants? Replies: The effects of oil spills over the last...

285

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the residual quantity of oil that never gets produced.order to purchase a quantity Q barrels of oil at a price P tD t Q t Q t+1 Quantity Figure 5. Monthly oil production for

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is an important oil source for China, yet unlike itsthe United States as a major oil source outside the volatileto be a critical source of oil, and one that is almost

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Automatic control in electric power systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The recent progress in the application of automatic controls to electric power systems is outlined. After a brief review of present trends in power system planning and operation, the role of computers and of modern control methods and techniques in optimal ...

G. Quazza

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Lightweight automatic face annotation in media pages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Labeling human faces in images contained in Web media stories enables enriching the user experience offered by media sites. We propose a lightweight framework for automatic image annotation that exploits named entities mentioned in the article to significantly ... Keywords: face recognition, machine learning, text analysis, web search

Dmitri Perelman; Edward Bortnikov; Ronny Lempel; Roman Sandler

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Automatic Layout Design for Power Module  

SciTech Connect

The layout of power modules is one of the key points in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, along with the design example, an automatic design processes by using a genetic algorithm are presented. Some practical considerations and implementations are introduced in the optimization of module layout design.

Ning, Puqi [ORNL; Wang, Fei [ORNL; Ngo, Khai [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Ontology-based automatic query refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effectiveness of user query plays a vital role in retrieving highly relevant documents in keyword-based search engine. Because of the lack of domain knowledge, users tend to post very short queries, which do not express their information need ... Keywords: automatic query refinement, document retrieval, information retrieval, keywords, ontology, query expansion, retrieval relevancy, search engines, semantic search, user queries

S. Sendhilkumar; G. S. Mahalakshmi; S. N. Rajasekar

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Automatic translation from Circus to Java  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circus is a combination of Z and CSP that supports the development of state-rich reactive systems based on refinement. In this paper we present JCircus, a tool that automatically translates Circus programs into Java, for the purpose of animation and ...

Angela Freitas; Ana Cavalcanti

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Bilingual Experiments on Automatic Recovery of Capitalization and Punctuation of Automatic Speech Transcripts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the tasks of recovering capitalization and punctuation marks from texts without that information, such as spoken transcripts, produced by automatic speech recognition systems. These two practical rich transcription tasks were performed ...

F. Batista; H. Moniz; I. Trancoso; N. Mamede

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Impact of supplemental firing of tire-derived fuel (TDF) on mercury species and mercury capture with the advanced hybrid filter in a western subbituminous coal flue gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pilot-scale experimental studies were carried out to evaluate the impacts of cofiring tire-derived fuel and a western subbituminous coal on mercury species in flue gas. Mercury samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of the Advanced Hybrid filter to determine mercury concentrations in the flue gas with and without TDF cofiring, respectively. Cofiring of TDF with a subbituminous coal had a significant effect on mercury speciation in the flue gas. With 100% coal firing, there was only 16.8% oxidized mercury in the flue gas compared to 47.7% when 5% TDF (mass basis) was fired and 84.8% when 10% TDF was cofired. The significantly enhanced mercury oxidation may be the result of additional homogeneous gas reactions between Hg{sup 0} and the reactive chlorine generated in the TDF-cofiring flue gas and the in situ improved reactivity of unburned carbon in ash by the reactive chlorine species. Although the cofiring of TDF demonstrated limited improvement on mercury-emission control with the Advanced Hybrid filter, it proved to be a very cost-effective mercury control approach for power plants equipped with wet or dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems because of the enhanced mercury oxidation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

China’s domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, China’s demand Oil

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait, inday. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.Arabia PRODUCTION QUOTA Iran PRODUCTION QUOTA Venezuela

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Semi-automatic composition of ontologies for ASKALON grid workflows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic workflow composition with the help of ontologies has been addressed by numerous researchers in the past. While ontologies are very useful for automatic and semiautomatic workflow composition, ontology creation itself remains a very important ...

Muhammad Junaid Malik; Thomas Fahringer; Radu Prodan

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Classification based automatic information extraction system from free text  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ever increasing on-line text information can be made available to automatic processing by information system. Several machine learning techniques have been applied in order to build automatic information that rivaling knowledge engineering approach. ...

Myat Myo Nwe Wai

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Using constraints to achieve stability in automatic graph layout algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic layout algorithms are commonly used when displaying graphs on the screen because they provide a “nice” drawing of the graph without user intervention. There are, however, a couple of disadvantages to automatic layout. Without user ...

Karl-Friedrich Böhringer; Frances Newbery Paulisch

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Automatic Document Orientation Detection and Categorization through Document Vectorization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Automatic Document Orientation Detection and Categorization through Document Vectorization Shijian, Kent Ridge, 117543 {lusj, tancl@comp.nus.edu.sg} ABSTRACT This paper presents an automatic orientation carry out orientation detection and cate- gorization through document vectorization, which encodes

Tan, Chew Lim

303

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions have begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the second reporting quarter for this project, design and development is continuing on an electrostatic tensiometer to measure cohesion of flyash layers. A dedicated test fixture to automate flyash electrical resistivity testing is also underway. Ancillary instrumentation to control gas humidification within these test fixtures is also under construction.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research program is to determine the feasibility of the alga Botryococcus braunii as a biocatalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. The research program involves the determination of the biocatalytic characteristics of free and immobilized cultures of Botryococcus braunii in bench-scale studies, and the feasibility study and economic analysis of the Botryococcus braunii culture systems for the conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. The objective of the third quarter of this research program was to determine the growth and hydrogen formation characteristics of free and immobilized cells of Botryococcus braunii in bench-scale photobioreactors. Raceway and inclined surface type bioreactors were used for free cell and immobilized cell studies respectively. The free cell studies with air and CO{sub 2} enriched air [10% (v/v) CO{sub 2} in air] in media with and without NaHCO{sub 3} were conducted.

Akin, C.; Pradhan, S. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, progress was made in obtaining an industry partner for a long-term demonstration and in technology transfer activities. Engineering and equipment procurement activities related to the long-term demonstration were also completed.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Crude Oil Affects Gasoline Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil Affects Gasoline Prices. WTI Crude Oil Price. Retail Gasoline Price. Source: Energy Information Administration

308

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization Background The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is leading an effort to find novel approaches to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial sources. The Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to encourage development of processes that

309

Evaluation of the Origin of Dissolved Organic Carbon and the Treatability of Mercury in Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regulations for reducing the dissolved mercury (Hg) concentrations in wastewater discharged by electric generating power plants are becoming more stringent via federal regulatory limits proposed by the EPA and regulatory limits set by select states. Data obtained in a previous EPRI study conducted in 2009 suggested a potential negative impact of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iodide concentrations present in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater on mercury treatability (EPRI report 1019867). ...

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

310

Corrosion in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems: Technical Root Cause Analysis of Internal Corrosion on Wet FGD Alloy Absorbers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been or are being installed on most large coal-fired electric generating units in response to new regulatory emission requirements. Aggressive corrosion has been noted in some of these systems, presumably from the low pH, high chloride environments created in the FGD process. There exists a plethora of material systems (metallic, organic, plastics, coating, and so forth) available to construct these systems, but, because of cost, fabricabi...

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

311

Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

313

Decarb/Desal: Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas with Simultaneous Fresh Water Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If fossil fuels continue to be a major part of the world's energy supply, effective means must be developed to deal with the carbon emissions. Geologic sequestration of supercritical CO{sub 2} is expected to play a major role in mitigating this problem. Separating carbon dioxide from other gases is the most costly aspect of schemes for geologic sequestration. That cost is driven by the complexity and energy intensity of current chemical-stripping methods for separating carbon dioxide. Our experience in water treatment technology indicated that an entirely new approach could be developed, taking advantage of water's propensity to separate gases that ionize in water (like CO{sub 2}) from those that do not (like N{sub 2}). Even though water-based systems might not have the extreme selectivity of chemicals like substituted amines used in industrial systems today, they have the potential to tolerate NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates while also producing clean drinking water as a valuable byproduct. Lower capital cost, broader range of applicability, environmental friendliness, and revenue from a second product stream give this approach the potential to significantly expand the worldwide application of carbon separation for geologic sequestration. Here we report results for separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas by two methods that simultaneously separate carbon dioxide and fresh water: ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water, and thermal distillation. The ion pumping method dramatically increases dissolved carbonate ion in solution and hence the overlying vapor pressure of CO{sub 2} gas, allowing its removal as a pure gas. We have used two common water treatment methods to drive the ion pumping approach, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis to produce pure CO{sub 2}. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas, because the slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is impervious to trace acid gases that destroy existing solvents, and no pre-separation is necessary. Thermal distillation uses boiling water to steam strip solid sorbents - the steam is recovered as fresh water. We anticipate that our method will compete favorably with current chemical stripping systems used for CO{sub 2} separation at power plants, which incur a 35% energy penalty. Thus we expect to offer a dramatically improved solution for removing carbon from hydrocarbon combustion. Our method can be demonstrated on small sources, which will enable us to conduct the demonstrations required to build confidence in the method. If successful, we will be in a position to advance a follow-on proposal for a demonstration at the 10-MW scale.

Aines, R; Bourcier, W

2009-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

314

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance  

SciTech Connect

A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Automatic tagging by exploring tag information capability and correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic tagging can automatically label images and videos with semantic tags to significantly facilitate multimedia search and organization. However, most of existing tagging algorithms often don't differentiate between tags used to describe visual ... Keywords: automatic tagging, information capability, set correlation

Xiaoming Zhang; Zi Huang; Heng Tao Shen; Yang Yang; Zhoujun Li

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Technology for automatic generation of application programs: a pragmatic view  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article pragmatically reviews and appraises significant technology and efforts directed toward enhancing application program development and productivity and the challenging automatic generation of application programs. The topics covered are: decision ... Keywords: COBOL generators, automated information system development, automatic program generation, automatic programming, customizers, database generation, problem statement languages, software automation, special purpose languages

Alfonso F. Cardenas

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

CO2 separation from flue gas using hollow fiber membrane contactors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

World 21,246 25,508 26,922 30,670 Source: Energy Information AdministrationInternational Energy Outlook 2004 with High Oil Price Case CO 2 Emission in China Year Total Coal...

319

Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous experiments - injecting pure CO2 into carbonate cores - showed that the process is a win-win technology, sequestrating CO2 while recovering a significant amount of hitherto unrecoverable natural gas that could help defray the cost of CO2 sequestration. In this thesis, I report my findings on the effect of flue gas ??impurities?? on the displacement of natural gas during CO2 sequestration, and results on unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests to carbonate samples. In displacement experiments, corefloods were conducted at 1,500 psig and 70??C, in which flue gas was injected into an Austin chalk core containing initially methane. Two types of flue gases were injected: dehydrated flue gas with 13.574 mole% CO2 (Gas A), and treated flue gas (N2, O2 and water removed) with 99.433 mole% CO2 (Gas B). The main results of this study are as follows. First, the dispersion coefficient increases with concentration of ??impurities??. Gas A exhibits the largest dispersion coefficients, 0.18-0.25 cm2/min, compared to 0.13-0.15 cm2/min for Gas B, and 0.15 cm2/min for pure CO2. Second, recovery of methane at breakthrough is relatively high, ranging from 86% OGIP for pure CO2, 74-90% OGIP for Gas B, and 79-81% for Gas A. Lastly, injection of Gas A would sequester the least amount of CO2 as it contains about 80 mole% nitrogen. From the view point of sequestration, Gas A would be least desirable while Gas B appears to be the most desirable as separation cost would probably be cheaper than that for pure CO2 with similar gas recovery. For UCS tests, corefloods were conducted at 1,700 psig and 65??C in such a way that the cell throughput of CO2 simulates near-wellbore throughput. This was achieved through increasing the injection rate and time of injection. Corefloods were followed by porosity measurement and UCS tests. Main results are presented as follows. First, the UCS of the rock was reduced by approximately 30% of its original value as a result of the dissolution process. Second, porosity profiles of rock samples increased up to 2.5% after corefloods. UCS test results indicate that CO2 injection will cause weakening of near-wellbore formation rock.

Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler  

SciTech Connect

Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature proved to be effective in the oxidation of both NOx and elemental mercury, and (3) higher residence time, lower temperature, and higher molar ratio of O{sub 3}/NOx contributed to the highest elemental mercury and NOx reductions.

Khalid Omar

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Recycle/reuse of boiler chemical cleaning wastes in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler chemical cleaning wastes (BCCW) are generated by the periodic waterside cleaning of utility boilers to remove metallic deposits from boiler tube surfaces. Depending on boiler metallurgy, BCCW generally contain high concentrations of iron and copper or both, as well as other heavy metals such as chromium, lead, nickel, and zinc. BCCW treatment and disposal methods include precipitation, coponding in an ash pond, evaporation in the fireside of an operating boiler (for organic solvents), and contracted off-site disposal. Depending on the type of BCCW chemical treatment methods achieve varying degrees of success. BCCW which contain organic chelating agents can be especially difficult to treat to national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) limits (1 mg/L for both iron and copper) with conventional lime precipitation.Research is being done to evaluate different BCCW treatment and disposal methods. One waste management option under consideration is reuse of BCCW in utility wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. To investigate this option, a series of laboratory tests were performed in which five different types of BCCW were added to the reaction tank of EPRI's bench-scale wet limestone FGD system. This paper presents the results and conclusions from this study.

Stohs, M.; Owens, D.R. (Radian Corp. (US)); Micheletti, W. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

CO.sub.2 separation from low-temperature flue gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two methods are provide for the separation of carbon dioxide from the flue gases. The first method utilizes a phase-separating moiety dissolved in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The second method utilizes a phase-separating moiety as a suspended solid in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The first method takes advantage of the surface-independent nature of the CO.sub.2 absorption reactions in a homogeneous aqueous system. The second method also provides permanent sequestration of the carbon dioxide. Both methods incorporate the kinetic rate enhancements of amine-based scrubbing while eliminating the need to heat the entire amine solution (80% water) in order to regenerate and release CO.sub.2. Both methods also take advantage of the low-regeneration temperatures of CO.sub.2-bearing mineral systems such as Na.sub.2CO.sub.3/NaHCO.sub.3 and K.sub.2CO.sub.3/KHCO.sub.3.

Dilmore, Robert (Irwin, PA); Allen, Douglas (Salem, MA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Hedges, Sheila (Bethel Park, PA)

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

324

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, January 1992--March 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

325

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, September 1991--December 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is divided into four tasks. Task 1 is the Development of a Management Plan. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. The results of the work performed under Tasks 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under Task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under Task 4. This quarterly report covers four months in order to synchronize the reporting periods for this project with US Government quarters. Work performed on the project during the past quarter consisted almost entirely of the review of literature pertaining to the objectives of Tasks 2 and 3. The primary results of that review are discussed at length in Topical Reports 1 and 2, submitted January 9, 1992. As a consequence of the work described in the topical reports, several of the project`s Measures of Success that were described in the first quarterly report have been achieved. This quarterly report will discuss these achievements.

Snyder, T.R.

1992-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

326

Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

2011-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

327

Orio: Automatic Performance Tuning | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Orio: Automatic Performance Tuning Orio: Automatic Performance Tuning High-level depiction of the structure and the optimization process of the Orio framework High-level depiction of the structure and the optimization process of the Orio framework Orio is an annotation-based empirical tuning system aimed at improving both performance and productivity by enabling software developers to insert annotations in the form of structured comments into their source code. Given the annotated code as input, Orio generates many tuned versions of the same operation and empirically evaluates the versions to select the best-performing one for a specified code fragment. People Involved Azamat Mametjanov Other Contributors Boyana Norris (University of Oregon) Albert Hartono (Ohio State) P. Sadayappan (Ohio State)

328

Automatic History Matching of Geothermal Field Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed inverse modeling capabilities for the multiphase multicomponent numerical simulator TOUGH2 to facilitate automatic history matching and parameter estimation based on data obtained during exploitation of geothermal fields. The ITOUGH2 code allows one to estimate TOUGH2 input parameters based on any type of observation for which a corresponding TOUGH2 output can be calculated. Furthermore, a detailed residual and error analysis is performed, and the uncertainty of model predictions can be evaluated. This paper focuses on the solution of the inverse problem, i.e. the determination of model-related parameters by automatically calibrating a conceptual model of the geothermal system against data obtained during field operation. We first describe the modeling approach used to simulate fluid and heat flow in fractured-porous media. The inverse problem is then formulated, followed by a brief discussion of the optimization algorithm. A sample problem is given to demonstrate the application of the method to geothermal reservoir data.

Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Automatic history matching of geothermal field performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed inverse modeling capabilities for the multiphase multicomponent numerical simulator TOUGH2 to facilitate automatic history matching, and parameter estimation based on data obtained during exploitation of Geothermal fields. The ITOUGH2 code allows one to estimate TOUGH2 input parameters based on any type of observation for which a corresponding TOUGH2 output can be calculated. Furthermore, a detailed residual and error analysis is performed, and the uncertainty of model predictions can be evaluated. This paper focuses on the solution of the inverse; problem, i.e. the determination of model-related parameters by automatically calibrating a conceptual model of the Geothermal system against data obtained during field operation. We first describe the modeling, approach used to simulate fluid and heat flow in fractured-porous media. The inverse problem is then formulated, followed by a brief discussion of the optimization algorithm. A sample problem is given to demonstrate the application of the method to Geothermal reservoir data.

Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K>

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Natural Statistical Models for Automatic Speech Recognition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of state-of-the-art speech recognition systems is still far worse than that of humans. This is partly caused by the use of poor statistical models. In a general statistical pattern classification task, the probabilistic models should represent the statistical structure unique to and distinguishing those objects to be classified. In many cases, however, model families are selected without verification of their ability to represent vital discriminative properties. For example, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are frequently used in automatic speech recognition systems even though they possess conditional independence properties that might cause inaccuracies when modeling and classifying speech signals. In this work, a new method for automatic speech recognition is developed where the natural statistical properties of speech are used to determine the probabilistic model. Starting from an HMM, new models are created by adding dependencies only if they are not already well captured by the HMM, and only if they increase the

Jeffrey Adam Bilmes

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Eco Oil 4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

332

Subject is oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The article reviews the current financial, legislative and regulatory problems of oil shale development. 2 refs.

Due, M.J.C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Automatic detection of sweep-meshable volumes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of and software for automatically determining whether a mesh can be generated by sweeping for a representation of a geometric solid comprising: classifying surface mesh schemes for surfaces of the representation locally using surface vertex types; grouping mappable and submappable surfaces of the representation into chains; computing volume edge types for the representation; recursively traversing surfaces of the representation and grouping the surfaces into source, target, and linking surface lists; and checking traversal direction when traversing onto linking surfaces.

Tautges; Timothy J. (Madison, WI), White; David R. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

334

Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

Abbatiello, Leonard A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Neal, Richard E. (Heiskell, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Automatic Sequences and Zip-Specifications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider infinite sequences of symbols, also known as streams, and the decidability question for equality of streams defined in a restricted format. This restricted format consists of prefixing a symbol at the head of a stream, of the stream function `zip', and recursion variables. Here `zip' interleaves the elements of two streams in alternating order, starting with the first stream. For example, the Thue-Morse sequence is obtained by the `zip-specification' {M = 0 : X, X = 1 : zip(X,Y), Y = 0 : zip(Y,X)}. Our analysis of such systems employs both term rewriting and coalgebraic techniques. We establish decidability for these zip-specifications, employing bisimilarity of observation graphs based on a suitably chosen cobasis. The importance of zip-specifications resides in their intimate connection with automatic sequences. We establish a new and simple characterization of automatic sequences. Thus we obtain for the binary zip that a stream is 2-automatic iff its observation graph using the cobasis (hd,even...

Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Klop, Jan Willem; Moss, Lawrence S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Oil | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil Oil Oil Oil Prices, 2000-2008 For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. Oil is used for heating and transportation -- most notably, as fuel for gas-powered vehicles. America's dependence on foreign oil has declined in recent years, but oil prices have increased. The Energy Department supports research and policy options to increase our domestic supply of oil while ensuring environmentally sustainable supplies domestically and abroad, and is investing in research, technology and

337

Oil Dependencies and Peak Oil's Effects on Oil Consumption.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? During the year of 2007, the world has experienced historically high oil prices both in nominal and in real terms, which has reopened discussions… (more)

Tekin, Josef

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Outlook Briefing for the State Heating Oil and Propane Program Conference Asheville, NC Mike Burdette Petroleum Division, Energy ...

339

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table of Contents. Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook. Short-Term World Oil Price Forecast . Price Movements Related to Supply/Demand Balance

340

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook Briefing for the State Heating Oil and Propane Program Conference Wilmington, DE by Douglas MacIntyre

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Products from Global Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Suppliers ...

342

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Products from Global Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Suppliers ...

343

Oil-Well Fire Fighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Oil Well Fire Fighting. NIST fire Research NIST Fire Research 2 Oil Well Fire Fighting RoboCrane Model Oil Well Fire Fighting Working Model.

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

344

AN ENGINE OIL LIFE ALGORITHM.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An oil-life algorithm to calculate the remaining percentage of oil life is presented as a means to determine the right time to change the oil… (more)

Bommareddi, Anveshan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and residual fuel oils. Distillate fuel oil, the lighter product, is also used for heating of homes and commercial buildings. Residual oil is a much denser, heavier product...

346

CO{sub 2} Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nationâ??s energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO{sub 2}, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO{sub 2} from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO{sub 2} purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO{sub 2}-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft{sup 2}) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO{sub 2}, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: ï?· Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} permeance greater than 300 gas permeation units (GPU) targeted; ï?· Development of next-generation polycarbonate hollow-fiber membranes and membrane modules with higher CO{sub 2} permeance than current commercial polycarbonate membranes; ï?· Development and fabrication of membrane hollow fibers and modules from candidate polymers; ï?· Development of a CO{sub 2} capture membrane process design and integration strategy suitable for end-of-pipe, retrofit installation; and ï?· Techno-economic evaluation of the "best" integrated CO{sub 2} capture membrane process design package In this report, the results of the project research and development efforts are discussed and include the post-combustion capture properties of the two membrane material platforms and the hollow-fiber membrane modules developed from them and the multi-stage process design and analysis developed for 90% CO{sub 2} capture with 95% captured CO{sub 2} purity.

Lora Toy; Atish Kataria; Raghubir Gupta

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

ISSN 1537-744X; doi:10.1100/2011/756264 Measurement of Mercury in Flue Gas Based on an Aluminum Matrix Sorbent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The measurement of total mercury in flue gas based on an economical aluminum matrix sorbent was developed in this paper. A sorbent trap consisted of three tubes was employed to capture Hg from flue gas. Hg trapped on sorbent was transferred into solution by acid leaching and then detected by CVAAS. Hg adsorbed on sorbent was recovered completely by leaching process. The 87.7 % recovery of Hg in flue gas by tube 1 and tube 2 was obtained on the equipment of coal combustion and sampling in lab. In order to evaluate the ability to recover and accurately quantify Hg 0 on the sorbent media, the analytical bias test on tube 3 spiked with Hg 0 was also performed and got the average recovery of 97.1%. Mercury measurements based on this method were conducted for three coal-fired power plants in China. The mercury in coal is distributed into bottom ash, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash, wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) reactant, and flue gas, and the relative distribution varied depending on factors such as the coal type and the operation conditions of plants. The mercury mass balances of three plants were also calculated which were 91.6%, 77.1%, and 118%, respectively. The reliability of this method was verified by the Ontario Hydro (OH) method either in lab or in field.

Juan Wang; Wei Xu; Xiaohao Wang; Wenhua Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Use of a gravity type oil separator for tanker operations  

SciTech Connect

The need to control the oil content in ballast and tank-cleaning discharges to meet increasingly stringent seawater pollution standards has led to the development of a gravity-type separator capable of handling up to 300 tons/hr of oily ballast water. When properly handled, these separators enable the tanker operator to clean tanks and process oily ballast with an oil content of up to 100% without fear of contamination of the seas. This continuous and automatic operation is unaffected by normal movements. The recovered oil is available for burning as fuel aboard ship, load-on-top or disposal ashore. Separators of this type have been in use on three 70,000 dwt ships, for periods of 1 to 3 yr. On typical voyages, a ship of this size can recover enough slop oil to provide one day or more of bunkers, if the ship is equipped to burn the recovered oil. The ship's crew is trained to carry out analysis of the oil to determine if the oil can be burned onboard immediately following separation or must be treated to drop out salt and/or water prior to burning. Several typical ballast voyages using the separator are discussed. The overboard discharge of water from the separator is analyzed to assure compliance with current pollution regulations.

Lockwood, W.H.; Norris, R.O.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Combined homo- and heterogeneous model for mercury speciation in pulverized fuel combustion flue gases  

SciTech Connect

A new model is developed to predict Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup +}, Hg{sup 2+}, and Hg{sub p} in the post-combustion zone upstream of a particulate control device (PCD) in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The model incorporates reactions of mercury with chlorinating agents (HCl) and other gaseous species and simultaneous adsorption of oxidized mercury (HgCl{sub 2}) on fly ash particles in the cooling of flue gases. The homogeneous kinetic model from the literature has been revised to understand the effect of the NO + OH + M {longleftrightarrow} HONO + M reaction on mercury oxidation. Because it is a pressure-dependent reaction, the choice of proper reaction rates was very critical. It was found that mercury oxidation reduces from 100 to 0% while going from high- to low-pressure limit rates with 100 ppmv NO. The heterogeneous model describes selective in-duct Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption of mercury chloride on ash particles. The heterogeneous model has been built using Fortran and linked to Chemkin 4.0. The final predictions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were compared to mercury speciation from power plant data. Information collection request (ICR) data were used for this comparison. The model results follow very similar trends compared to those of the plant data; however, quantitative deviation was considerable. These deviations are due to the errors in the measurement of mercury upstream of PCD, lack of adsorption kinetic data, accurate homogeneous reaction mechanisms, and certain modeling assumptions. The model definitely follows a new approach for the prediction of mercury speciation, and further refinement will improve the model significantly. 43 refs., 1 figs., 6 tabs.

Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Hartmut Spliethoff [Delft University Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Section Energy Technology, Department of Process and Energy

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Confounding effects of aqueous-phase impinger chemistry on apparent oxidation of mercury in flue gases  

SciTech Connect

Gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and chlorine are a possible pathway to producing oxidized mercury species such as mercuric chloride in combustion systems. This study examines the effect of the chemistry of a commonly used sample conditioning system on apparent and actual levels of mercury oxidation in a methane-fired, 0.3 kW, quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, Cl{sub 2}, NOx, SO{sub 2}) and quench rate were varied. The sample conditioning system included two impingers in parallel: one containing an aqueous solution of KCl to trap HgCl{sub 2}, and one containing an aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} to reduce HgCl{sub 2} to elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}). Gas-phase concentrations of Cl{sub 2} as low as 1.5 ppmv were sufficient to oxidize a significant fraction of the elemental mercury in the KCl impinger via the hypochlorite ion. Furthermore, these low, but interfering levels of Cl{sub 2} appeared to persist in flue gases from several doped rapidly mixed flames with varied post flame temperature quench rates. The addition of 0.5 wt% sodium thiosulfate to the KCl solution completely prevented the oxidation from occurring in the impinger. The addition of thiosulfate did not inhibit the KCl impinger's ability to capture HgCl{sub 2}. The effectiveness of the thiosulfate was unchanged by NO or SO{sub 2}. These results bring into question laboratory scale experimental data on mercury oxidation where wet chemistry was used to partition metallic and oxidized mercury without the presence of sufficient levels of SO{sub 2}. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Brydger Cauch; Geoffrey D. Silcox; Joann S. Lighty; Jost O.L. Wendt; Andrew Fry; Constance L. Senior [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process has many advantages over the wet FGD process for moving sulfur dioxide emissions from pulverized coal-fired power plants. Semidry FGD with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The sorbent was made from lumps of lime and coal fly ash. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH){sub 2} content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH){sub 2} particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Suwei Zhao; Changhe Chen; Haiying Qi [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

356

Janus: Automatic Ontology Builder from XSD Files  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The construction of a reference ontology for a large domain still remains an hard human task. The process is sometimes assisted by software tools that facilitate the information extraction from a textual corpus. Despite of the great use of XML Schema files on the internet and especially in the B2B domain, tools that offer a complete semantic analysis of XML schemas are really rare. In this paper we introduce Janus, a tool for automatically building a reference knowledge base starting from XML Schema files. Janus also provides different useful views to simplify B2B application integration.

Bedini, Ivan; Gardarin, Georges

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Automatic Detection of Omissions in Translations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADOMIT is an algorithm for Automatic Detection of OMissions in Translations. The algorithm relies solely on geometric analysis of bitext maps and uses no linguistic informatlon. This property allows it to deal equally well with omissions that do not correspond to linguistic units, such as might resuit fi'om word-processing mishaps. ADOMIT has proven itself by discovering many errors in a handconstructed gold standard for evaluating bitext mapping algorithms. Quantitative evaluation on simulated omissions showed that, even with today's poor bitext mapping technology, ADOMIT is a valuable quality control tool for translators and translation bureaus.

I. Dan Melamed

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article introduces a predictive capability for mercury (Hg) retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given Hg speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections show that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO{sub 2} absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO{sub 2} capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O{sub 2} levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO{sub 2} capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl{sub 2}, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO{sub 3} levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg{sub 0} but only for inlet O{sub 2} levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Stephen Niksa; Naoki Fujiwara [Niksa Energy Associates, Belmont, CA (US)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) in flue gas from coal combustion. The project was conducted from July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. It was conducted with cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, "Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System." Private secto...

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Oil and Gas Supply Module  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Industrial Uses of Vegetable Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Uses of Vegetable Oils offers new insights into these important (and growing) products of vegetable oils, while also covering developments in biodegradable grease, vegetable oils-based polyols, and the synthesis of surfactants from vegetable oil

362

The Legacy of Oil Spills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a 1979 exploratory oil well blew out and leaked oil foraddicted to oil directly causes spills as well as globalmagnitudes of past oil spills. They are well aware of the

Trevors, J. T.; Saier, M. H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Anaconda Smelter site, (Operable Unit 11 - Flue Dust), Deer Lodge County, Anaconda, MT. (Second remedial action), September 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 6,000-acre Anaconda Smelter site is a former copper and ore processing facility in Deer Lodge County, Montana. Land use in the area is predominantly residential. The site is bounded on the north and east, respectively, by the Warm Springs Creek and Mill Creek, both of which are potential sources of drinking water. From 1884 until 1980 when activities ceased, the site was used for ore processing and smelting operations. In 1988, EPA conducted an investigation to determine the nature and extent of the flue dust contamination. A 1988 ROD addressed the Mill Creek Operable Unit (OU15) and documented the relocation of residents from the community surrounding the smelter site as the selected remedial action. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the Flue Dust Operable Unit (OU11). The primary contaminants of concern affecting this site from the flue dust materials are metals including arsenic, cadmium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

Not Available

1991-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

364

Oil and Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil and Plants Name: Matt Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: If you could please tell me exactly what motor oil (unused) does to plants, and the effects. Does it...

365

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

21, 2008. Ying, Wang. “ China, Venezuela firms to co-developApril 21, “China and Venezuela sign oil agreements. ” Chinaaccessed April 21, “Venezuela and China sign oil deal. ” BBC

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Palm oil pundit speaks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dorab E. Mistry, director of Godrej International Ltd. in Mumbai, India, spoke about palm oil on March 15, 2010, during the 2010 Annual Convention of the National Institute of Oilseed Products in Palm Springs, California, USA. Palm oil pundit speaks ...

367

Oil and Gas Exploration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

Tingley, Joseph V.

368

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

well below unity accounts for the broad trends we see in the share of oil purchases in totalWells. ” Middle panel: percent of U.S. total crude oil

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Applications of automatic differentiation in CFD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives for the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution. These derivatives are expensive to obtain by divided differences from perturbed solutions, and may be unreliable, particularly for noisy functions. In this paper, automatic differentiation has been investigated as a means of extending iterative CFD codes with sensitivity derivatives. In particular, the ADIFOR automatic differentiator has been applied to the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D coupled with the WTCO wing grid generator. Results of a sequence of efforts in which TLNS3D has been successfully augmented to compute a variety of sensitivities are presented. It is shown that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using ADIFOR, although significant advances are necessary for the efficiency of ADIFOR-generated derivative code to become truly competitive with hand-differentiated code.

Carle, A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Green, L.L.; Newman, P.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Bischof, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

DSOPilot project Automatic receipt of short circuiting indicators...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Project Name DSOPilot project Automatic receipt of short circuiting indicators Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"...

371

Building Energy Models Can Be Automatically Adjusted To Fit Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EETD Safety Program Development Contact Us Department Contacts Media Contacts Building Energy Models Can Be Automatically Adjusted To Fit Data Speaker(s): Douglas Black Nathan...

372

Oil Peak or Panic?  

SciTech Connect

In this balanced consideration of the peak-oil controversy, Gorelick comes down on the side of the optimists.

Greene, David L [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

SRC Residual fuel oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Gourmet and Health-Promoting Specialty OilsChapter 11 Camellia Oil and Tea Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gourmet and Health-Promoting Specialty Oils Chapter 11 Camellia Oil and Tea Oil Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 11 Camellia Oil and T

375

Using Oils As Pesticides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petroleum and plant-derived spray oils show increasing potential for use as part of Integrated Pest Management systems for control of soft-bodied pests on fruit trees, shade trees, woody ornamentals and household plants. Sources of oils, preparing oils for use, application and precautions are discussed.

Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott; Metz, Bradley

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

376

Biochemical upgrading of oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

377

Biochemical upgrading of oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

378

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a “negative” storage cost for oil in the form of a bene?tin levels. oil for more than your costs, that is, if P t+1 QSaudi oil, and M S the Saudi’s marginal cost of production.

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Exploiting heavy oil reserves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the behaviour of oil and gas prices and the fruits of future exploration. The rate of technological progress. How optimistic are you that the North Sea remains a viable source of oil and gas? A) Our new researchNorth Sea investment potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Beneath the waves in 3D Aberdeen

Levi, Ran

380

Longer-term Characterization of Mercury Partitioning and Re-emissions in a Full-scale Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Site 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents and discusses results from an EPRI project focused on understanding and enhancing how mercury is captured by a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system and how it partitions among the FGD liquor, fine solids, and bulk FGD solid byproduct. A second objective was to close a mercury balance around the host unit by determining what portion of the coal mercury exits the stack with the scrubbed flue gas and how much ends up in the fly ash, byproduct gypsum, and FGD wastewater. During t...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Flue Gas Cleanup at Temperatures about 1400 C for a Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant: State and Perspectives in the Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion (PPCC) Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The PPCC technology, a combined cycle, requires comprehensive cleaning of the flue gases because coal contains a large variety of minerals and other substances. This would lead to fast destruction of the gas turbine blades due to erosion and corrosion. The present specifications of the turbine manufacturers for the required flue gas quality are at a maximum particulate content of 5 mg/m3 s.t.p., diameter of Kraftwerke GmbH, SaarEnergie GmbH, Siemens AG, and Steag AG.

Foerster, M.E.C.; Oeking, K.; Hannes, K.

2002-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

382

Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2 concentration resulted in incremental loss in IAS performance and revealed progressive degrees of “staining” upon testing. Adsorption of SO2 by the IAS necessitates upstream removal of SO2 prior to CO2 capture.

Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Utah Heavy Oil Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

384

Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal-Organic Frameworks?A Fixed Bed Study  

SciTech Connect

It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

385

Oil shale commercialization study  

SciTech Connect

Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

Warner, M.M.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Automatic Commissioning of Multiple VAV Terminals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A site survey on a modern operating commercial building screened 261 ineffective VAV (Variable Air Volume) boxes (20.9% of the total boxes in the building) and summarized ten typical faults for VAV air-conditioning system(s) resulting in energy waste, performance degradation or totally out of control. A strategy is developed to automatically check the health condition of VAV terminals and diagnose the faults. Hybrid approach is employed to establish a commissioning and re-commissioning tool of VAV air-conditioning system. Performance indices with expert rules based on system physical characteristics are adopted to detect and diagnose the nine of the ten faults. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) method is developed to detect and diagnose the VAV box flow sensor bias (Fault 10) and to reconstruct the faulty sensors. A multiple VAV fault FDD strategy for a VAV entire system is developed, which is validated in simulation and filed tests.

Qin, J.; Wang, S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

AUTOMATIC CALIBRATING SYSTEM FOR PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic system for calibrating a number of pressure transducers is described. The disclosed embodiment of the invention uses a mercurial manometer to measure the air pressure applied to the transducer. A servo system follows the top of the mercury column as the pressure is changed and operates an analog- to-digital converter This converter furnishes electrical pulses, each representing an increment of pressure change, to a reversible counterThe transducer furnishes a signal at each calibration point, causing an electric typewriter and a card-punch machine to record the pressure at the instant as indicated by the counter. Another counter keeps track of the calibration points so that a number identifying each point is recorded with the corresponding pressure. A special relay control system controls the pressure trend and programs the sequential calibration of several transducers.

Amonette, E.L.; Rodgers, G.W.

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Automatic tuning for linearly tunable filter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new tuning scheme for linearly tunable high-Q filters is proposed. The tuning method is based on using the phase information for both frequency and Q factor tuning. There is no need to find out the relationship between a filter's passband magnitude and Q. A gm-C biquadratic filter is designed to demonstrate the proposed tuning circuitry. The project includes a phase locked loop (PLL) based frequency tuning loop, reference clock generator, and differential difference amplifier (DDA) for dealing with frequency and Q factor tuning loop and linearly tunable second order gm-C bandpass filter. Simulation results for a 10 MHz prototype filter using AMI 0.5?m process is presented. The chip testing results show that the automatic frequency tuning error is 2.5% for the 10 MHz case.

Huang, Sung-Ling

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Automatic Interpretation of Human Head Movements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a complete face tracking system that interprets human head movements in real time. The system combines motion analysis with reliable and efficient object recognition strategies. It classifies head movements as "yes" (nodding head), "no" (shaking head) or "nothing" (still head). The system's skill allows contactless man-machine interaction, thus giving access to a number of new applications. 1 Introduction As industrialization proceeds, the importance of interactions between man and machine increases rapidly. Information flow from machine to man has become comfortable and direct in recent years due to tremendous progresses in computer graphics. Information flow from man to machine, on the other hand, is still on a low level. It is restricted to moving mice, pressing buttons, and typing character sequences on a keyboard. Automatic interpretation of gestures and facial expressions could reduce this imbalance and is therefore of central interrest for current and futu...

Bichsel Pentland; M. Bichsel; A. P. Pentland

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

An automatic analysis of Norwegian compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction The University of Oslo is currently developing an automatic morphosyntactic tagger for Norwegian. 2 A very important module is one which can analyse compounds. Compounding is extremely productive in Norwegian, and it is futile to ever hope for a lexicon (dictionary) that will contain all or even most of the compounds that occr in actual texts. Since the tagger we are developing is based on the possibility of recognising words by the help of a lexicon, it is of great importance to have a module that recognises new compounds. According to Munthe (1972), 10.4 per cent of all words in running text are compounds. Any text sample will contain a greatnumber of compounds. This statistics is true even for small samples. I took an arbitrary 440-word article from the newspaper Aftenposten from September this year, Full penhet om passunion (Full openness on passport union), and I quickly counted 47 compounds. Many of them a

Janne Bondi Johannessen; Helge Hauglin

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Automatic registration of serial mammary gland sections  

SciTech Connect

We present two new methods for automatic registration of microscope images of consecutive tissue sections. They represent two possibilities for the first step in the 3-D reconstruction of histological structures from serially sectioned tissue blocks. The goal is to accurately align the sections in order to place every relevant shape contained in each image in front of its corresponding shape in the following section before detecting the structures of interest and rendering them in 3D. This is accomplished by finding the best rigid body transformation (translation and rotation) of the image being registered by maximizing a matching function based on the image content correlation. The first method makes use of the entire image information, whereas the second one uses only the information located at specific sites, as determined by the segmentation of the most relevant tissue structures. To reduce computing time, we use a multiresolution pyramidal approach that reaches the best registration transformation in increasing resolution steps. In each step, a subsampled version of the images is used. Both methods rely on a binary image which is a thresholded version of the Sobel gradients of the image (first method) or a set of boundaries manually or automatically obtained that define important histological structures of the sections. Then distance-transform of the binary image is computed. A proximity function is then calculated between the distance image of the image being registered and that of the reference image. The transformation providing a maximum of the proximity function is then used as the starting point of the following step. This is iterated until the registration error lies below a minimum value.

Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

392

Towards automatic security management: a model-based approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a security management approach that integrates system monitoring, intrusion detection, and automatic control in order to detect, classify and protect against security attacks automatically. The model-based controller computes the ... Keywords: DoS attack, detection, optimization, protection

Qian Chen; Sherif Abdelwahed; Weston Monceaux

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

An automatic image based modeling system by patch growing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present an automatic and efficient image based modeling system which can create objects' 3D models directly from images captured from different viewpoints. The system firstly uses structure from motion to generate camera parameters ... Keywords: automatic, image based modeling, patch, quasi dense, system

Bo Shu; Ting Li; Xianjie Qiu; Zhaoqi Wang

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Automatic Image Orientation Determination with Natural Image Statistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Automatic Image Orientation Determination with Natural Image Statistics Siwei Lyu Dept. of Computer a new method for automatically determining image orientations. This method is based on a set of natural image statistics collected from a multi- scale multi-orientation image decomposition (e.g., wavelets

Lyu, Siwei

395

MCS researchers coedit proceedings on automatic differentiation | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MCS researchers coedit proceedings on automatic differentiation MCS researchers coedit proceedings on automatic differentiation July 22, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint The fundamental goal behind differentiating numerical computations is to be able to generate - ideally automatically - efficient derivative code for models implemented as computer programs. Achieving this goal in practice has proved challenging, especially for numerical models on parallel architectures. To track the progress in addressing the challenges, and to present the state of the art in automatic differentiation (AD), every four years the scientific community holds a conference focusing on AD applications in science and engineering, its theory, and the development of compiler-based tools and web-based differentiation services. The Sixth International Conference on Automatic Differentiation (AD2012) held in Fort Collins,

396

Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Read the Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013. Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013 Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013 ...

397

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook 8/13/01 Click here to start Table of Contents Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook Short-Term World Oil Price Forecast Price Movements Related to Supply/Demand Balance OPEC Production Likely To Remain Low U.S. Reflects World Market Crude Oil Outlook Conclusions Distillate Prices Increase With Crude Oil Distillate Stocks on the East Coast Were Very Low Entering Last Winter Distillate Demand Strong Last Winter More Supply Possible This Fall than Forecast Distillate Fuel Oil Imports Could Be Available - For A Price Distillate Supply/Demand Balance Reflected in Spreads Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low Winter Crude Oil and Distillate Price Outlook Heating Oil Outlook Conclusion Propane Prices Follow Crude Oil

398

Modeling and simulation of CO2 removal from power plant flue gas by PG solution in a hollow fiber membrane contactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The absorption of carbon dioxide from nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixture was investigated in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module using potassium glycinate (PG) aqueous solution. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the ... Keywords: Absorption, Flue gas, Membrane contactor, Modeling, Potassium glycinate, Power plant

S. Eslami; S. M. Mousavi; S. Danesh; H. Banazadeh

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Greener Solvent Selection and Solvent Recycling for CO2 Capture Economically removing CO2 from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants would alleviate concerns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the flue gases of coal-fired power plants would alleviate concerns about their contribution to global of candidate solvents and solvent blends is very large, a purely experimental search is impossible. In recent and solvent blends and a new and efficient multiobjective optimization (MOP) framework under uncertainty[4

Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

400

Experimental Study on the Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas Using Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactors with Aqueous Solution of Potassium Glycinate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental study on CO2 removal from flue gas using polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactors were conducted. Aqueous solutions of potassium glycinate were used as absorption solution to absorb CO2 in the experiments. Under moderate operating ... Keywords: Gas absorption, Carbon dioxide, Potassium glycinate, Hollow fiber membrane contactor, Membrane absorption

Weifeng Zhang; Qiuhua Wang; Mengxiang Fang; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Crude Oil Analysis Database  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

Shay, Johanna Y.

402

Crude Oil Watch - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil Watch April 19, 2000 Energy Information Administration Office of Oil & Gas A large stockbuild in crude oil inventories contributed to blunt crude oil inputs ...

403

Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Shale oil: process choices  

SciTech Connect

The four broad categories of shale-oil processing are discussed. All of these processes share the basic function of retorting oil-shale rock at high temperature so that the kerogen material in the rocks is thermally decomposed to shale oil and gaseous products. The technologies and the organizations working on their development are: solids-to-solids heating, The Oil Shale Co. (TOSCO) and Lurgi-Rhur; gas-to-solids heating with internal gas combustion, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Development Engineering Inc. and Union Oil of California; gas-to-solid heating with external heat generation, Development Engineering, Union Oil, Petrobas, and Institute of Gas Technology; and in-situ retorting, Occidental Petroleum Corp. The TOSCO II process is considered proven and on the verge of commercialization. (BLM)

1974-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

405

World Oil: Market or Mayhem?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The world oil market is regarded by many as a puzzle. Why are oil prices so volatile? What is OPEC and what does OPEC do? Where are oil prices headed in the long run? Is “peak oil” a genuine concern? Why did oil prices ...

Smith, James L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Process of treating oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A process of destructively distilling oil shale is described consisting in subjecting the oil shale containing aluminum to the action of heat and pressure to destructively distill it and separate the light oil constituents. Chlorine gas is simultaneously passed through the hot oil shale countercurrent to the direction of movement of the oil shale.

Egloff, G.

1927-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

407

2 World Oil Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

www.eia.gov Crude oil prices react to a variety of geopolitical and economic events price per barrel (real 2010 dollars, quarterly average) 140 120 imported refiner acquisition cost of crude oil WTI crude oil price Global financial collapse 100 80 60 U.S. spare capacity exhausted Iran-Iraq War Saudis abandon swing producer role Asian financial crisis 9-11 attacks Low spare capacity

Adam Sieminski Administrator; Adam Sieminski; Adam Sieminski

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Improved oil refinery operations and cheaper crude oil to help...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Improved oil refinery operations and cheaper crude oil to help reduce gasoline prices U.S. gasoline prices are expected to fall as more oil refineries come back on line and crude...

409

Crude Oil Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil exports are ...

410

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

disruptions, and the peak in U.S. oil production account foroil increased 81.1% (logarithmically) between January 1979 and the peak

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Oil from rock  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses first the Green River Formation oil shale projects in the western United States from which conservative estimates have suggested an output of 400,000 to 600,000 bbl/day of crude shale oil by 1990. The western reserves recoverable with present technology are said to exceed 600 billion (10/sup 9/) bbl. Three major considerations could limit the large-scale development of shale oil: availability of water, environmental factors, and socio-economic considerations. Water is used to obtain and process the crude shale oil, and additional water is needed to cool the spent shale and to establish new vegetation on top of it. Nitrogenous compounds and arsenic in crude shale oil are among potential pollutants. Spent shale contains salts that are potentially leachable, as well as organic pyrolytic products. Retorting oil shales may release more CO/sub 2/ through decomposition of carbonate minerals that will subsequently be generated by burning the oil produced. Topographic effects of oil shale mining may raise socio-economic problems. Next the article discusses the conversion of coal to liquid by pyrolysis or hydrogenation, including the Gulf solvent refined coal (SRC) and the Exxon (EDS) liquefaction processes. Also described in the South African SASOL process for producing synthetic fuel from coal. A parallel account is included on the estimated complete cycle of United States and of worldwide crude oil production, forecasting depletion within less than a century. 11 refs.

Walters, S.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Global Oil Geopolitics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Iran-Iraq War . Iranian revolution . Arab Oil Embargo . Asian financial crisis . capacity exhausted . Global financial collapse . 9-11 attacks . OPEC cuts targets 1.7 ...

413

Crude Oil Prices  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

414

Oil and Gas (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

415

Crude Oil Prices  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

416

Crude Oil Prices  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

417

Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2001 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

418

Residual Fuel Oil Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil exports are ...

419

Oil spill response resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollution has become one of the main problems being faced by humanity. Preventing pollution from occurring might be the best idea but is not possible in this fast developing world. So the next best thing to do would be to respond to the pollution source in an effective manner. Oil spills are fast becoming pollution sources that are causing the maximum damage to the environment. This is owing to the compounds that are released and the way oil spreads in both water and land. Preventing the oil spill would be the best option. But once the oil has been spilled, the next best thing to do is to respond to the spill effectively. As a result, time becomes an important factor while responding to an oil spill. Appropriate response to contain and cleanup the spill is required to minimize its potential damage to the ecosystem. Since time and money play a very important role in spill response, it would be a great idea if decisions can be made in such a way that a quick response can be planned. The first part of this study deals with the formation of an 'Oil Spill Resources Handbook', which has information on all the important Oil Spill Contractors. The second and the main part of the study, deals with creating a database in Microsoft Access of the Oil Spill Contractors. The third portion of the study deals with planning an oil spill response using a systems approach.

Muthukrishnan, Shankar

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industry analysts and academics agree that China’s domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robert Ebel, China’s Energy

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Crude Oil Price Forecast  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

We believe crude oil prices will strengthen somewhat, but prices will rise much more slowly than they fell, and they are expected to remain lower in ...

422

Oil And The Macroeconomy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This paper examines the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact ofoil price on Industrial production, real effective exchange rate, long… (more)

Al-Ameri, Leyth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

California Crude Oil Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... of different quality crudes vary over time based on the value the market places on such quality attributes. A heavy crude oil has more heavy, ...

424

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

C. Jean Bustard

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers ProMIS/Project No.: DE-NT0005648  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Edward Levy Edward Levy Principal Investigator Director, Lehigh University Energy Research Center RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas usinG condensinG Heat excHanGeRs PRomis/PRoject no.: de-nt0005648 Background As the United States' population grows and demand for electricity and water increases, power plants located in some parts of the country will find it increasingly difficult to obtain the large quantities of water needed to maintain operations. Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. Many coal-fired power plants operate with stack temperatures in the 300 °F range to minimize fouling and corrosion problems due to sulfuric acid condensation and to

426

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Extending Metadata Definitions by Automatically Extracting and Organizing Glossary Definitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

proportion in some crude oils and made commercially from petroleum by the catalytic reforming of naphthenes in small proportion in some crude oils and made commercially from petroleum by the catalytic reforming

Hovy, Eduard

428

Automatic Exploration of Datacenter performance Regimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontally scalable Internet services present an opportunity to use automatic resource allocation strategies for system management in the datacenter. In most of the previous work, a controller employs a performance model of the system to make decisions about the optimal allocation of resources. However, these models are usually trained offline or on a small-scale deployment and will not accurately capture the performance of the controlled application. To achieve accurate control of the web application, the models need to be trained directly on the production system and adapted to changes in workload and performance of the application. In this paper we propose to train the performance model using an exploration policy that quickly collects data from different performance regimes of the application. The goal of our approach for managing the exploration process is to strike a balance between not violating the performance SLAs and the need to collect sufficient data to train an accurate performance model, which requires pushing the system close to its capacity. We show that by using our exploration policy, we can train a performance model of a Web 2.0 application in less than an hour and then immediately use the model in a resource allocation controller.

Peter Bodík; Rean Griffith; Charles Sutton; O Fox; Michael I. Jordan; David A. Patterson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Automatic target recognition apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic target recognition apparatus (10) is provided, having a video camera/digitizer (12) for producing a digitized image signal (20) representing an image containing therein objects which objects are to be recognized if they meet predefined criteria. The digitized image signal (20) is processed within a video analysis subroutine (22) residing in a computer (14) in a plurality of parallel analysis chains such that the objects are presumed to be lighter in shading than the background in the image in three of the chains and further such that the objects are presumed to be darker than the background in the other three chains. In two of the chains the objects are defined by surface texture analysis using texture filter operations. In another two of the chains the objects are defined by background subtraction operations. In yet another two of the chains the objects are defined by edge enhancement processes. In each of the analysis chains a calculation operation independently determines an error factor relating to the probability that the objects are of the type which should be recognized, and a probability calculation operation combines the results of the analysis chains.

Baumgart, Chris W. (Santa Fe, NM); Ciarcia, Christopher A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Automatic tool path generation for finish machining  

SciTech Connect

A system for automatic tool path generation was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for finish machining operations. The system consists of a commercially available 5-axis milling machine controlled by Sandia developed software. This system was used to remove overspray on cast turbine blades. A laser-based, structured-light sensor, mounted on a tool holder, is used to collect 3D data points around the surface of the turbine blade. Using the digitized model of the blade, a tool path is generated which will drive a 0.375 inch diameter CBN grinding pin around the tip of the blade. A fuzzified digital filter was developed to properly eliminate false sensor readings caused by burrs, holes and overspray. The digital filter was found to successfully generate the correct tool path for a blade with intentionally scanned holes and defects. The fuzzified filter improved the computation efficiency by a factor of 25. For application to general parts, an adaptive scanning algorithm was developed and presented with simulation results. A right pyramid and an ellipsoid were scanned successfully with the adaptive algorithm.

Kwok, Kwan S.; Loucks, C.S.; Driessen, B.J.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators  

SciTech Connect

The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2-deg deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2/sup 0/ deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Fouling reduction characteristics of a no-distributor-fluidized-bed heat exchanger for flue gas heat recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In conventional flue gas heat recovery systems, the fouling by fly ashes and the related problems such as corrosion and cleaning are known to be major drawbacks. To overcome these problems, a single-riser no-distributor-fluidized-bed heat exchanger is devised and studied. Fouling and cleaning tests are performed for a uniquely designed fluidized bed-type heat exchanger to demonstrate the effect of particles on the fouling reduction and heat transfer enhancement. The tested heat exchanger model (1 m high and 54 mm internal diameter) is a gas-to-water type and composed of a main vertical tube and four auxiliary tubes through which particles circulate and transfer heat. Through the present study, the fouling on the heat transfer surface could successfully be simulated by controlling air-to-fuel ratios rather than introducing particles through an external feeder, which produced soft deposit layers with 1 to 1.5 mm thickness on the inside pipe wall. Flue gas temperature at the inlet of heat exchanger was maintained at 450{sup o}C at the gas volume rate of 0.738 to 0.768 CMM (0.0123 to 0.0128 m{sup 3}/sec). From the analyses of the measured data, heat transfer performances of the heat exchanger before and after fouling and with and without particles were evaluated. Results showed that soft deposits were easily removed by introducing glass bead particles, and also heat transfer performance increased two times by the particle circulation. In addition, it was found that this type of heat exchanger had high potential to recover heat of waste gases from furnaces, boilers, and incinerators effectively and to reduce fouling related problems.

Jun, Y.D.; Lee, K.B.; Islam, S.Z.; Ko, S.B. [Kongju National University, Kong Ju (Republic of Korea). Dept. for Mechanical Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Determination of Aluminum Rolling Oil and Machinery Oil Residues ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Determination of Aluminum Rolling Oil and Machinery Oil Residues on Aluminum Sheet and Foil by Using Elemental Analysis and Fourier  ...

435

Relaxation studies on oil, pressboard and oil impregnated pressboard.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, a laboratory relaxation study with FDS and RVM was carried out for a period of 3 years with the fabricated oil (OIL),… (more)

Cao, Hongyan.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Why solar oil shale retorting produces more oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar oil shale retorting process may produce higher oil yield than conventional processing. High oil yield is obtained for three reasons: oil carbonization inside of the shale is reduced, oil cracking outside of the shale is reduced, and oil oxidation is essentially eliminated. Unique capabilities of focused solar energy produce these advantages. An increase in yield will reduce the cost of mining and shale transportation per barrel of oil produced. These cost reductions may justify the increased processing costs that will probably be associated with solar oil shale retorting.

Aiman, W.R.

1981-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

437

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects: Shale Oil Upgrading Utilizing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Companies providing oil samples of at least five (5) gallons include Chevron, Oil Shale Exploration Company (OSEC), and Red Leaf Resources, Inc. Background Work performed...

438

NETL: Oil and Natural Gas: Enhanced Oil Recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

that have unconventional characteristics (e.g., oil in fractured shales, kerogen in oil shale, bitumen in tar sands) constitute an enormous potential domestic supply of energy....

439

Automatic Building of Structured Geological Models Sylvain Brandel1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

geological models used for oil and gas exploration. We present a prototype of a "geological pilot" which Modeling for oil and gas exploration Hydrocarbon reservoir models are a major tool currently used involved in oil and gas exploration have acquired a huge amount of seismic data, which are neither

Brandel, Sylvain

440

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 of 18 Notes: Using the Northeast as an appropriate regional focus for heating oil, the typical oil-heated household consumes about 680 gallons of oil during the winter, assuming...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Distillate and Crude Oil Price  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

fuel and residential heating oil prices on the East Coast is being driven by higher crude oil prices than last year and higher spreads. Crude oil is projected to average almost...

442

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Events  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Oil and Natural Gas Supply > Events Oil and Natural Gas Supply Events The following is a listing of events of interest to the oil and natural gas community....

443

The Legacy of Oil Spills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

010-0527-5 The Legacy of Oil Spills J. T. Trevors & M. H.workers were killed, and oil has been gushing out everday. It is now June, and oil continues to spew forth into

Trevors, J. T.; Saier, M. H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Handbook of Australasian Edible Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book highlights various aspects of Australasian edible oils. Handbook of Australasian Edible Oils Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Soft Bound Books Oils and Fats Specialist

445

Automatic generation of random self-checking test cases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique of automatically generating random software test cases is described. The nature of such test cases ensures that they will execute to completion, and their execution is predicted at the time of generation. Wherever possible the test cases ...

D. L. Bird; C. U. Munoz

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Automatic Clouds Observation Improved by an Artificial Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper refers to a project aimed at building a device able to generate fully automatic meteorological weather reports (METAR) during the night at Swiss airports. Such reports include the description of sky conditions, namely, the heights and ...

Frédéric Aviolat; Thierry Cornu; Daniel Cattani

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Testing a Procedure for Automatic Classification of Hydrometeor Types  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Examples of automatic interpretation of polarimetric measurements made with an algorithm that classifies precipitation, from an Oklahoma squall line and a Florida airmass storm are presented. Developed in this paper are sensitivity tests of this ...

Dus?an S. Zrni?; Alexander Ryzhkov; Jerry Straka; Yidi Liu; J. Vivekanandan

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Automatic Cloud Tracking Applied to GOES and METEOSAT Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improvements to the SRI automatic cloud-tracking system are described that enable it to operate on multilayer clouds associated with severe storms. The improved method has been tested using rapid-scan observations of Hurricane Eloise obtained by ...

Roy M. Endlich; Daniel E. Wolf

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Disable Automatic Login, Cyber Security, Information Technology Division,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disable Automatic Login Disable Automatic Login Automatic Login MUST be disabled... Follow the steps below to verify that auto login is disabled. Verify Security Settings Select Personal Section: Click Make sure the following required boxes are checked. - Require password to wake this computer from sleep or screen saver - Disable automatic login If so, close panel. If not, continue... Note: Mac users should have the panel locked at all times. Click the lock image to lock the panel if its open to prevent further changes. To unlock the above panel, click the lock image to bring up the login box. Insert your username & password, click . You should now be able to make changes to the panel.

450

Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package Agency/Company /Organization: International Atomic Energy Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency Topics: Pathways analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/CMS-16.pdf Cost: Free References: WASP[1] "The WASP-IV code permits finding the optimal expansion plan for a power generating system over a period of up to thirty years, within constraints given by the planner." References ↑ "WASP" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Wien_Automatic_System_Planning_(WASP)_Package&oldid=403685

451

Automatic Lighting Shutoff for Tenant Spaces - Code Notes | Building Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Automatic Lighting Shutoff for Tenant Spaces - Code Notes Automatic Lighting Shutoff for Tenant Spaces - Code Notes Automatic shutoff capability for all interior building lighting (with exceptions) is required by ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 (as well as previous versions back to 1999) and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (including versions back to 2003) for buildings over 5,000ft2. Publication Date: Thursday, March 10, 2011 cn_automatic_lighting_shutoff_for_tenant_spaces.pdf Document Details Document Number: PNNL-SA-66719 Prepared by: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program Focus: Compliance Building Type: Commercial Code Referenced: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 2009 IECC Document type: Code Notes Target Audience: Architect/Designer Builder Code Official

452

Automatic Monitoring of the Amount of Deposited Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic device for measurement of the amount (weight) of deposited precipitation developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, is described. Examples of measurements of various types of ...

J. Fišák; J. Chum; J. Vojta; K. Bart??ková

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Adaptive control of hydraulic shift actuation in an automatic transmission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A low-order dynamic model of a clutch for hydraulic control in an automatic transmission is developed by separating dynamics of the shift into four regions based on clutch piston position. The first three regions of the ...

Thornton, Sarah Marie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Automatic differentiation for optimum design, applied to sonic boom reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a methodology for adjoint-based optimum design that combines hand-coding with Automatic Differentiation in the reverse mode, therefore managing to keep the memory cost acceptable. This methodology also involves improvements to the reverse ...

Laurent Hascoët; Mariano Vázquez; Alain Dervieux

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Automatic calibration of modulated fractional-N frequency synthesizers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The focus of this research has been the development of a low power, radio frequency transmitter architecture. Specifically, a technique for in service automatic calibration of a modulated phase locked loop (PLL) frequency ...

McMahill, Dan

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Reasoning about metamodeling with formal specifications and automatic proofs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metamodeling is foundational to many modeling frameworks, and so it is important to formalize and reason about it. Ideally, correctness proofs and test-case generation on the metamodeling framework should be automatic. However, it has yet to be shown ...

Ethan K. Jackson; Tihamér Levendovszky; Daniel Balasubramanian

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Automatically Generating Wikipedia Articles: A Structure-Aware Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate an approach for creating a comprehensive textual overview of a subject composed of information drawn from the Internet. We use the high-level structure of human-authored texts to automatically ...

Sauper, Christina Joan

458

Automatic generation of random self-checking test cases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique of automatically generating random software test cases is described. The nature of such test cases ensures that they will execute to completion, and their execution is predicted at the time of generation. Wherever possible the test cases ...

D. L. Bird; C. U. Munoz

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Sleep musicalization: automatic music composition from sleep measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce data musicalization as a novel approach to aid analysis and understanding of sleep measurement data. Data musicalization is the process of automatically composing novel music, with given data used to guide the process. We present Sleep Musicalization, ...

Aurora Tulilaulu; Joonas Paalasmaa; Mikko Waris; Hannu Toivonen

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Automatic Detection of Cloud Cover over the Baltic Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple detection method was proposed to increase the efficiency of automatic classification of a satellite image cell (clear/cloudy). A method is described on the basis of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, with a focus ...

Adam Kr??el; Marcin Paszkuta

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oil automatic flue" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Re-examining automatic keyphrase extraction approaches in scientific articles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We tackle two major issues in automatic keyphrase extraction using scientific articles: candidate selection and feature engineering. To develop an efficient candidate selection method, we analyze the nature and variation of keyphrases and ...

Su Nam Kim; Min-Yen Kan

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Relative Performance of Automatic Rain Gauges under Different Rainfall Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six different types of automatic rain gauges, including tipping bucket, weighing, capacitance, optical, disdrometer, and acoustical sensors, were deployed for 17 months (September 1993–January 1995) at the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and ...

Jeffrey A. Nystuen

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

A novel approach to automatic gazetteer generation using Wikipedia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gazetteers or entity dictionaries are important knowledge resources for solving a wide range of NLP problems, such as entity extraction. We introduce a novel method to automatically generate gazetteers from seed lists using an external knowledge resource, ...

Ziqi Zhang; José Iria

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Automatic Tornado Prediction with an Improved Mesocyclone-Detection Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new and improved algorithm for automatic mesocyclone detection is presented and tested on 23 mesocyclonic storms. A small false-alarm rate (4%) and high probability of detection (83%) are achieved for mesocyclone classification. A unique ...

Paul R. Desrochers; Ralph J. Donaldson Jr.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

ASAP: automatic semantics-aware analysis of network payloads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic inspection of network payloads is a prerequisite for effective analysis of network communication. Security research has largely focused on network analysis using protocol specifications, for example for intrusion detection, fuzz testing and ...

Tammo Krueger; Nicole Krämer; Konrad Rieck

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Industrial Uses of Vegetable OilsChapter 3 Vegetable Oil-Based Engine Oils: Are They Practical?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Uses of Vegetable Oils Chapter 3 Vegetable Oil-Based Engine Oils: Are They Practical? Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 3 Vegetable Oil-Based Engine Oils: Are They Practi

467

Oil price analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport has been in the whole history of mankind the basic and determining mover of the human society shape. It determined not only the position of towns, but also their inner design and it was also last but not least the basic element of the economic ... Keywords: GDP, deposit, fuels, history, market equilibrium, oil, oil reserves, price

Zdenek Riha; Viktorie Jirova; Marek Honcu

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Edible Oils Package  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contains four (4) titles regarding frying and edible oils. Edible Oils Package Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Value Packages 1766A8D5F05863694E128DE1C47D07C3 This Value Package includes: ...

469

Menhaden Fish Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Physical Characteristics of Oils, Fats, and Waxes Menhaden Oil Specific Gravity (SG) 15.5/15.5°C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.912– 0.930 25/25°C Other SG Refractive Index (RI) 25°C 40°C Other RI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (65) 1

470

Refining of shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The refining of shale oil is reviewed to assess the current state-of-the-art, especially as to the avaiability of technology suitable for operation on a commercial scale. Oil shale retorting processes as they affect the quality of the crude shale oil for refining, exploratory research on the character and refining of shale oil, and other published refining background leading to the present status are discussed. The initial refining of shale oil requires the removal of a large concentration of nitrogen, an added step not required for typical petroleum crude oils, and recently published estimates show that the total cost of refining will be high. Specific technoloy is reported by industry to be technically proven and available for commercial-scale refining. Although the refining will be more costly than that of petroleum, the viability of a shale oil industry will also be affected greatly by the technology and costs of producing the crude shale oil, environmental costs, and future price and tax treatment, and these are outside the scope of this study of refining.

Lanning, W.C.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Peak oil: diverging discursive pipelines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Peak oil is the claimed moment in time when global oil production reaches its maximum rate and henceforth forever declines. It is highly controversial as… (more)

Doctor, Jeff

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Oil and Natural Gas - Search  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Search NETL Oil and Natural Gas Document Information Oil & Natural Gas Document Repository Results will be shown in two categories. "Document Database Results" provides...

473

Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

474

Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

476

Automatic test generation using genetically-engineered distinguishing sequences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fault-oriented sequential circuit test generator is described in which various types of distinguishing sequences are derived, both statically and dynamically, to aid the test generation process. A two-phase algorithm is used during test generation. ... Keywords: DIGATE, automatic test generation, automatic testing, distinguishing sequence, fault diagnosis, fault effects, flip-flops, genetic algorithm, genetic algorithms, logic testing, sequences, sequential circuit, sequential circuits, two-phase algorithm

M. S. Hsiao; E. M. Rudnick; J. H. Patel

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Control circuit for automatic battery chargers  

SciTech Connect

An improved battery charger apparatus having a control circuit providing different charging periods which are automatically correlated with the type of battery connected to the charge for charging the connected battery to a preselected full charge state. The apparatus has a charging circuit for charging the battery, a sensing circuit for sensing the state of the battery during charging thereof by the charging circuit and a circuit for determining first and second predetermined reference voltage/current states. The apparatus causes the charging of the battery at a preselected initial charging level for an initial time period and establishes a first finish time period. The apparatus further determines a first time at which the state of the battery reaches the first predetermined referenced voltage/current state during the initial time period, and causes the charging circuit to continue to charge the battery at a preselected first charging level after the determination of the first time for a first finish time period. The apparatus further establishes a second finish time period and determines a second time at which the state of the battery reaches the second predetermined referenced voltage/current state during the first finish time period. The apparatus terminates charging of the battery if the state of the battery does not reach the second predetermined referenced voltage/current state during the first finish time period, and causes the charging circuit to continue to charge the battery at a preselected second charging level after the determination of the second time for a second finish time period.

Lambert, F.J.; Bosack, D.J.; Johansen, D.K.

1984-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

478

oil | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

oil oil Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 134, and contains only the reference case. The data is broken down into Crude oil, dry natural gas. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO EIA end-of-year reserves gas oil Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Oil and Gas End-of-Year Reserves and Annual Reserve Additions- Reference Case (xls, 58.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset

479

Heavy crude oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The oil crisis of the past decade has focused most of the attention and effort of researchers on crude oil resources, which are accepted as unrecoverable using known technology. World reserves are estimated to be 600-1000 billion metric tons, and with present technology 160 billion tons of this total can be recovered. This book is devoted to the discussion of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques, their mechanism and applicability to heavy oil reservoirs. The book also discusses some field results. The use of numerical simulators has become important, in addition to laboratory research, in analysing the applicability of oil recovery processes, and for this reason the last section of the book is devoted to simulators used in EOR research.

Okandan, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

Keiser, James R [ORNL; Bestor, Michael A [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z