National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for offset upward pressure

  1. Experimental study of forced convection heat transfer during upward and downward flow of helium at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francisco Valentin; Narbeh Artoun; Masahiro Kawaji; Donald M. McEligot

    2015-08-01

    Fundamental high pressure/high temperature forced convection experiments have been conducted in support of the development of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. The experiments utilize a high temperature/high pressure gas flow test facility constructed for forced convection and natural circulation experiments. The test section has a single 16.8 mm ID flow channel in a 2.7 m long, 108 mm OD graphite column with four 2.3kW electric heater rods placed symmetrically around the flow channel. This experimental study presents the role of buoyancy forces in enhancing or reducing convection heat transfer for helium at high pressures up to 70 bar and high temperatures up to 873 degrees K. Wall temperatures have been compared among 10 cases covering the inlet Re numbers ranging from 500 to 3,000. Downward flows display higher and lower wall temperatures in the upstream and downstream regions, respectively, than the upward flow cases due to the influence of buoyancy forces. In the entrance region, convection heat transfer is reduced due to buoyancy leading to higher wall temperatures, while in the downstream region, buoyancyinduced mixing causes higher convection heat transfer and lower wall temperatures. However, their influences are reduced as the Reynolds number increases. This experimental study is of specific interest to VHTR design and validation of safety analysis codes.

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Root Cause Mechanism and Effectiveness of Mitigating Actions for Axial Offset Anomaly in Pressurized Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Said Abdel-Khalik

    2005-07-02

    Axial offset anomaly (AOA) in pressurized water reactors refers to the presence of a significantly larger measured negative axial offset deviation than predicted by core design calculations. The neutron flux depression in the upper half of high-power rods experiencing significant subcooled boiling is believed to be caused by the concentration of boron species within the crud layer formed on the cladding surface. Recent investigations of the root-cause mechanism for AOA [1,2] suggest that boron build-up on the fuel is caused by precipitation of lithium metaborate (LiBO2) within the crud in regions of subcooled boiling. Indirect evidence in support of this hypothesis was inferred from operating experience at Callaway, where lithium return and hide-out were, respectively, observed following power reductions and power increases when AOA was present. However, direct evidence of lithium metaborate precipitation within the crud has, heretofore, not been shown because of its retrograde solubility. To this end, this investigation has been undertaken in order to directly verify or refute the proposed root-cause mechanism of AOA, and examine the effectiveness of possible mitigating actions to limit its impact in high power PWR cores.

  3. Turbine blade tip with offset squealer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2001-01-01

    An industrial turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationary shroud. The rotating blade includes a root section, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall defining an outer periphery and a tip portion having a tip cap. An offset squealer is disposed on the tip cap. The offset squealer is positioned inward from the outer periphery of the rotating blade. The offset squealer increases the flow resistance and reduces the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  4. Effects of Increased Upward Flux of Saline Water Caused by CO2 Storage or Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, Lawrence; Xie, Shuang; Falta, Ronald W.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR

    2015-08-01

    Injection of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is being considered to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this process is expected to increase the pressure in these deep aquifers. One potential consequence of pressurization is an increase in the upward flux of saline water. Saline groundwater occurs naturally at shallow depths in many sedimentary basins, so an upward flux of solutes could degrade the quality of freshwater aquifers and threaten aquatic ecosystems. One problem could occur where saline water flowed upward along preferential paths, like faults or improperly abandoned wells. Diffuse upward flow through the natural stratigraphy could also occur in response to basin pressurization. This process would be slower, but diffuse upward flow could affect larger areas than flow through preferential paths, and this motivated us to evaluate this process. We analyzed idealized 2D and 3D geometries representing the essential details of a shallow, freshwater aquifer underlain by saline ground water in a sedimentary basin. The analysis was conducted in two stages, one that simulated the development of a freshwater aquifer by flushing out saline water, and another that simulated the effect of a pulse-like increase in the upward flux from the basin. The results showed that increasing the upward flux from a basin increased the salt concentration and mass loading of salt to streams, and decrease the depth to the fresh/salt transition. The magnitude of these effects varied widely, however, from a small, slow process that would be challenging to detect, to a large, rapid response that could be an environmental catastrophe. The magnitude of the increased flux, and the initial depth to the fresh/salt transition in groundwater controlled the severity of the response. We identified risk categories for salt concentration, mass loading, and freshwater aquifer thickness, and we used these categories to characterize the severity of the response. This showed that risks would likely be minor if the upward flux was smaller than a few tenths of the magnitude of recharge, according to the 2D analyses. The 3D analyses also show that upward flux could occur without a significant increase in the risk categories. The major contribution of this work is that it shows how a large increase in diffuse upward flux from a basin could cause significant problems, but a small increase in upward flux may occur without significantly affecting risks to the shallow freshwater flow system. This heightens the importance of understanding interactions between shallow and deep hydrologic systems when characterizing CO2 storage projects.

  5. Activation of 200 MW refusegenerated CHP upward regulation effect...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EU Smart Grid Projects Map1 Overview Waste CHP plants can be used in the electricity market for upward regulation by bypassing the steam turbine. The technical design for this...

  6. Pressure regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebeling, Jr., Robert W.; Weaver, Robert B.

    1979-01-01

    The pressure within a pressurized flow reactor operated under harsh environmental conditions is controlled by establishing and maintaining a fluidized bed of uniformly sized granular material of selected density by passing the gas from the reactor upwardly therethrough at a rate sufficient to fluidize the bed and varying the height of the bed by adding granular material thereto or removing granular material therefrom to adjust the backpressure on the flow reactor.

  7. Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    926 PPPL- 4926 Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U JULY, 2013 A.L. Roquemore, et. al. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report Disclaimers Full Legal Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

  8. Self-Aligning Mirror Mechanism for Transmission Line Offset Correction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Aligning Mirror Mechanism for Transmission Line Offset Correction The Self-Aligning Mirror Mechanism for Transmission Line Offset Correction is a self-aligning mechanism which...

  9. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript This document contains the transcript...

  10. International Carbon Reduction Offset Alliance ICROA | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Reduction Offset Alliance ICROA Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Carbon Reduction & Offset Alliance (ICROA) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product:...

  11. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lunsford, James S.

    1991-01-01

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  12. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript This document contains the transcript for the Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets webinar held on March 12, 2013. PDF icon financing_residential_energy_efficiency_carbon_offsets_transcript.pdf More Documents & Publications Questions Asked during the Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon

  13. Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Conference: Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U NSTX plasma performance has been significantly enhanced by lithium conditioning [1]. To date, the lower divertor and passive plates have been conditioned by downward facing lithium evaporators (LITER) as appropriate for lower null plasmas. The higher power operation expected from NSTX-U requires double null plasma operation in

  14. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets This webinar will provide information to help weatherization programs access carbon finance in a shorter timeframe and at a lower cost than before. Steve Erario, former Carbon Project Coordinator at MaineHousing, will describe how the agency developed and validated the process to quantify, verify, and sell residential offsets. Mr. Erario will outline lessons learned

  15. Experimental investigation on heat transfer and frictional characteristics of vertical upward rifled tube in supercritical CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xiaojing; Bi, Qincheng; Chen, Tingkuan; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2011-02-15

    Water wall design is a key issue for supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. On account of the good heat transfer performance, rifled tube is applied in the water wall design of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler in China. In order to investigate the heat transfer and frictional characteristics of the rifled tube with vertical upward flow, an in-depth experiment was conducted in the range of pressure from 12 to 30 MPa, mass flux from 230 to 1200 kg/(m{sup 2} s), and inner wall heat flux from 130 to 720 kW/m{sup 2}. The wall temperature distribution and pressure drop in the rifled tube were obtained in the experiment. The normal, enhanced and deteriorated heat transfer characteristics were also captured. In this paper, the effects of pressure, inner wall heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed, the heat transfer mechanism and the frictional resistance performance are discussed, and the corresponding empirical correlations are presented. The experimental results show that the rifled tube can effectively prevent the occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and keep the tube wall temperature in a permissible range under the operating condition of supercritical CFB boiler. (author)

  16. Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Researching Opportunities for Poor Rural Communities Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for Poor Rural...

  17. UPWARD MOVEMENT OF PLUTONIUM TO SURFACE SEDIMENTS DURING AN 11-YEAR FIELD STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.; Beals, D.; Cadieux, J.; Halverson, J.

    2010-01-25

    An 11-y lysimeter study was established to monitor the movement of Pu through vadose zone sediments. Sediment Pu concentrations as a function of depth indicated that some Pu moved upward from the buried source material. Subsequent numerical modeling suggested that the upward movement was largely the result of invading grasses taking up the Pu and translocating it upward. The objective of this study was to determine if the Pu of surface sediments originated from atmosphere fallout or from the buried lysimeter source material (weapons-grade Pu), providing additional evidence that plants were involved in the upward migration of Pu. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 242}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic fraction ratios of the lysimeter surface sediments, as determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS), were 0.063 and 0.00045, respectively; consistent with the signatures of the weapons-grade Pu. Our numerical simulations indicate that because plants create a large water flux, small concentrations over multiple years may result in a measurable accumulation of Pu on the ground surface. These results may have implications on the conceptual model for calculating risk associated with long-term stewardship and monitored natural attenuation management of Pu contaminated subsurface and surface sediments.

  18. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  19. Sources of biogenic methane to form marine gas hydrates: In situ production or upward migration?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W. III; Borowski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    Potential sources of biogenic methane in the Carolina Continental Rise -- Blake Ridge sediments have been examined. Two models were used to estimate the potential for biogenic methane production: (1) construction of sedimentary organic carbon budgets, and (2) depth extrapolation of modern microbial production rates. While closed-system estimates predict some gas hydrate formation, it is unlikely that >3% of the sediment volume could be filled by hydrate from methane produced in situ. Formation of greater amounts requires migration of methane from the underlying continental rise sediment prism. Methane may be recycled from below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone by gas hydrate decomposition, upward migration of the methane gas, and recrystallization of gas hydrate within the overlying stability zone. Methane bubbles may also form in the sediment column below the depth of gas hydrate stability because the methane saturation concentration of the pore fluids decreases with increasing depth. Upward migration of methane bubbles from these deeper sediments can add methane to the hydrate stability zone. From these models it appears that recycling and upward migration of methane is essential in forming significant gas hydrate concentrations. In addition, the depth distribution profiles of methane hydrate will differ if the majority of the methane has migrated upward rather than having been produced in situ.

  20. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    with last winter, putting upward pressure on heating oil prices and offsetting the impact of falling demand. Crude oil price forecasts are very uncertain. For example, in...

  1. PULSAR PAIR CASCADES IN MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH OFFSET POLAR CAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2011-12-20

    Neutron star magnetic fields may have polar caps (PCs) that are offset from the dipole axis, through field-line sweepback near the light cylinder or non-symmetric currents within the star. The effects of such offsets on electron-positron pair cascades are investigated, using simple models of dipole magnetic fields with small distortions that shift the PCs by different amounts or directions. Using a Monte Carlo pair cascade simulation, we explore the changes in the pair spectrum, multiplicity, and energy flux across the PC, as well as the trends in pair flux and pair energy flux with spin-down luminosity, L{sub sd}. We also give an estimate of the distribution of heating flux from returning positrons on the PC for different offsets. We find that even modest offsets can produce significant increases in pair multiplicity, especially for pulsars that are near or beyond the pair death lines for centered PCs, primarily because of higher accelerating fields. Pair spectra cover several decades in energy, with the spectral range of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) two orders of magnitude higher than for normal pulsars, and PC offsets allow significant extension of all spectra to lower pair energies. We find that the total PC pair luminosity L{sub pair} is proportional to L{sub sd}, with L{sub pair} {approx} 10{sup -3} L{sub sd} for normal pulsars and L{sub pair} {approx} 10{sup -2} L{sub sd} for MSPs. Remarkably, the total PC heating luminosity for even large offsets increases by less than a factor of two, even though the PC area increases by much larger factors, because most of the heating occurs near the magnetic axis.

  2. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

    1994-01-11

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

  3. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Tod H. (O'Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

  4. Anisotropic parameter estimation using velocity variation with offset analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herawati, I.; Saladin, M.; Pranowo, W.; Winardhie, S.; Priyono, A.

    2013-09-09

    Seismic anisotropy is defined as velocity dependent upon angle or offset. Knowledge about anisotropy effect on seismic data is important in amplitude analysis, stacking process and time to depth conversion. Due to this anisotropic effect, reflector can not be flattened using single velocity based on hyperbolic moveout equation. Therefore, after normal moveout correction, there will still be residual moveout that relates to velocity information. This research aims to obtain anisotropic parameters, ? and ?, using two proposed methods. The first method is called velocity variation with offset (VVO) which is based on simplification of weak anisotropy equation. In VVO method, velocity at each offset is calculated and plotted to obtain vertical velocity and parameter ?. The second method is inversion method using linear approach where vertical velocity, ?, and ? is estimated simultaneously. Both methods are tested on synthetic models using ray-tracing forward modelling. Results show that ? value can be estimated appropriately using both methods. Meanwhile, inversion based method give better estimation for obtaining ? value. This study shows that estimation on anisotropic parameters rely on the accuracy of normal moveout velocity, residual moveout and offset to angle transformation.

  5. Effect of ignition conditions on upward flame spread on a composite material in a corner configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlemiller, T.; Cleary, T.; Shields, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper focuses on the issue of fire growth on composite materials beyond the region immediately subjected to an ignition source. Suppression of this growth is one of the key issues in realizing the safe usage of composite structural materials. A vinyl ester/glass composite was tested in the form of a 90{degrees} comer configuration with an inert ceiling segment 2.44 m above the top of the fire source. The igniter was a propane burner, either 23 or 38 cm in width with power output varied from 30 to 150 Kw. Upward flame spread rate and heat release rate were measured mainly for a brominated vinyl ester resin but limited results were also obtained for a non-flame retarded vinyl ester and a similar composite coated with an intumescent paint. Rapid fire growth beyond the igniter region was seen for the largest igniter power case; the intumescent coating successfully prevented fire growth for this case.

  6. The detection of upwardly propagating waves channeling energy from the chromosphere to the low corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freij, N.; Nelson, C. J.; Mumford, S.; Erdlyi, R.; Scullion, E. M.; Wedemeyer, S.

    2014-08-10

    There have been ubiquitous observations of wave-like motions in the solar atmosphere for decades. Recent improvements to space- and ground-based observatories have allowed the focus to shift to smaller magnetic structures on the solar surface. In this paper, high-resolution ground-based data taken using the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope is combined with co-spatial and co-temporal data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite to analyze running penumbral waves (RPWs). RPWs have always been thought to be radial wave propagation that occurs within sunspots. Recent research has suggested that they are in fact upwardly propagating field-aligned waves (UPWs). Here, RPWs within a solar pore are observed for the first time and are interpreted as UPWs due to the lack of a penumbra that is required to support RPWs. These UPWs are also observed co-spatially and co-temporally within several SDO/AIA elemental lines that sample the transition region and low corona. The observed UPWs are traveling at a horizontal velocity of around 17 0.5 km s{sup 1} and a minimum vertical velocity of 42 21 km s{sup 1}. The estimated energy of the waves is around 150 W m{sup 2}, which is on the lower bound required to heat the quiet-Sun corona. This is a new, yet unconsidered source of wave energy within the solar chromosphere and low corona.

  7. Offset active galactic nuclei as tracers of galaxy mergers and supermassive black hole growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2014-07-10

    Offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are AGNs that are in ongoing galaxy mergers, which produce kinematic offsets in the AGNs relative to their host galaxies. Offset AGNs are also close relatives of dual AGNs. We conduct a systematic search for offset AGNs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by selecting AGN emission lines that exhibit statistically significant line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to systemic. From a parent sample of 18,314 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.21, we identify 351 offset AGN candidates with velocity offsets of 50 km s{sup 1} < |?v| < 410 km s{sup 1}. When we account for projection effects in the observed velocities, we estimate that 4%-8% of AGNs are offset AGNs. We designed our selection criteria to bypass velocity offsets produced by rotating gas disks, AGN outflows, and gravitational recoil of supermassive black holes, but follow-up observations are still required to confirm our candidates as offset AGNs. We find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset candidates increases with AGN bolometric luminosity, from 0.7% to 6% over the luminosity range 43 < log (L{sub bol}) [erg s{sup 1}] <46. If these candidates are shown to be bona fide offset AGNs, then this would be direct observational evidence that galaxy mergers preferentially trigger high-luminosity AGNs. Finally, we find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset AGN candidates increases from 1.9% at z = 0.1 to 32% at z = 0.7, in step with the growth in the galaxy merger fraction over the same redshift range.

  8. Experimental determination of valence band offset at PbTe/CdTe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Within experimental error the determined valence band offset is in agreement with theoretical prediction by inclusion of spin-orbit interaction. Authors: Si Jianxiao ; Jin Shuqiang ...

  9. Cradle and pressure grippers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muniak, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A gripper that is designed to incorporate the functions of gripping, supporting and pressure tongs into one device. The gripper has two opposing finger sections with interlocking fingers that incline and taper to form a wedge. The interlocking fingers are vertically off-set so that the opposing finger sections may close together allowing the inclined, tapered tips of the fingers to extend beyond the plane defined by the opposing finger section's engagement surface. The range of motion defined by the interlocking relationship of the finger sections allows the gripper to grab, lift and support objects of varying size and shape. The gripper has one stationary and one moveable finger section. Power is provided to the moveable finger section by an actuating device enabling the gripper to close around an object to be lifted. A lifting bail is attached to the gripper and is supported by a crane that provides vertical lift.

  10. Valuation of carbon capture and sequestration under Greenhouse gas regulations: CCS as an offsetting activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-08-15

    When carbon capture and sequestration is conducted by entities that are not regulated, it could be counted as an offset that is fungible in the market or sold to a voluntary market. This paper addresses the complications that arise in accounting for carbon capture and sequestration as an offset, and methodologies that exist for accounting for CCS in voluntary and compliance markets. (author)

  11. Experimental determination of valence band offset at PbTe/CdTe(111)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    heterojunction interface by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Experimental determination of valence band offset at PbTe/CdTe(111) heterojunction interface by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental determination of valence band offset at PbTe/CdTe(111) heterojunction interface by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Lattice-matched PbTe/CdTe(111) heterojunction interfaces were studied using x-ray photoelectron

  12. Upward shift of the vortex solid phase in high-temperature-superconducting wires through high density nanoparticle addition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miura, Masashi; Maiorov, Boris; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Kato, Takeharu; Sato, Michio; Takagi, Yuji; Izumi, Teruo; Civale, Leonardo

    2016-02-08

    Here, we show a simple and effective way to improve the vortex irreversibility line up to very high magnetic fields (60T) by increasing the density of second phase BaZrO3 nanoparticles. (Y0.77,Gd0.23)Ba2Cu3Oy films were grown on metal substrates with different concentration of BaZrO3 nanoparticles by the metal organic deposition method. We find that upon increase of the BaZrO3 concentration, the nanoparticle size remains constant but the twin-boundary density increases. Up to the highest nanoparticle concentration (n ~ 1.3 × 1022/m3), the irreversibility field (Hirr) continues to increase with no sign of saturation up to 60 T, although the vortices vastly outnumbermore » pinning centers. We find extremely high Hirr, namely Hirr = 30 T (H||45°) and 24 T (H||c) at 65 K and 58 T (H||45°) and 45 T (H||c) at 50K. The difference in pinning landscape shifts the vortex solid-liquid transition upwards, increasing the vortex region useful for power applications, while keeping the upper critical field, critical temperature and electronic mass anisotropy unchanged.« less

  13. Maryland's efforts to develop regulations creating an air emissions offset trading program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, D.M.; Zaw-Mon, M.

    1999-07-01

    Under the federal Clean Air Act's New Source Review program, many companies located in or planning to locate in areas that do not meet federal air quality standards or in the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (northern Virginia to Maine) must obtain emission reductions (called offsets) of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides that are greater than the new emissions that will be released. This offset requirement allows growth in industry while protecting air quality against deterioration. Despite the federal offset requirement, a formal banking and trading program is not mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Still, a mechanism is needed to ensure that emission reduction credits (ERCs) are available for sources to use to meet the offset requirement. Currently, Maryland does not have regulations covering the sale or transfer of ERCs from one facility to another. Maryland works with industry on a case-by-case basis to identify potential sources of ERCs and to assist in obtaining them. Then, the offset requirement and the ERCs used to meet the offsets are incorporated into individual permits using various permitting mechanisms. Desiring certainty and stability in the banking and trading process, Maryland's business community has pressed for regulations to formalize Maryland's procedures. Working over several years through a stakeholder process, Maryland has developed concepts for a trading program and a draft regulation. This paper describes Maryland's current case-by-case banking and trading procedure and traces efforts to develop a regulation to formalize the process. The paper discusses complex policy issues related to establishing a banking and trading program, describes the principal elements of Maryland's draft regulation, and summarizes elements of other states' emissions banking and trading programs.

  14. Pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  15. PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, H.H.

    1959-10-01

    A pressure or mechanical force transducer particularly adaptable to miniature telemetering systems is described. Basically the device consists of a transistor located within a magnetic field adapted to change in response to mechanical force. The conduction characteristics of the transistor in turn vary proportionally with changes in the magnetic flux across the transistor such that the output (either frequency of amplitude) of the transistor circuit is proportional to mechanical force or pressure.

  16. Methods and apparatus to produce stick-slip motion of logging tool attached to a wireline drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III; Momii, S.T.

    1998-02-10

    Methods and apparatus are described to produce stick-slip motion of a logging tool within a cased well attached to a wireline that is drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum. The stick-slip motion results in the periodic upward movement of the tool in the cased well described in terms of a dwell time during which time the tool is stationary, the move time during which time the tool moves, and the stroke that is upward distance that the tool translates during the ``slip`` portion of the stick-slip motion. This method of measurement is used to log the well at different vertical positions of the tool. Therefore, any typical ``station-to-station logging tool`` may be modified to be a ``continuous logging tool,`` where ``continuous`` means that the wireline drum continually rotates while the tool undergoes stick-slip motion downhole and measurements are performed during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary. The stick-slip methods of operation and the related apparatus are particularly described in terms of making measurements of formation resistivity from within a cased well during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary during the periodic stick-slip motion of the logging tool. 12 figs.

  17. Methods and apparatus to produce stick-slip motion of logging tool attached to a wireline drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are described to produce stick-slip motion of a logging tool within a cased well attached to a wireline that is drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum. The stick-slip motion results in the periodic upward movement of the tool in the cased well described in terms of a dwell time during which time the tool is stationary, the move time during which time the tool moves, and the stroke that is upward distance that the tool translates during the "slip" portion of the stick-slip motion. This method of measurement is used to log the well at different vertical positions of the tool. Therefore, any typical "station-to-station logging tool" may be modified to be a "continuous logging tool", where "continuous" means that the wireline drum continually rotates while the tool undergoes stick-slip motion downhole and measurements are performed during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary. The stick-slip methods of operation and the related apparatus are particularly described in terms of making measurements of formation resistivity from within a cased well during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary during the periodic stick-slip motion of the logging tool.

  18. Final work plan : supplemental upward vapor intrusion investigation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Hanover, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-12-15

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of the city of Hanover, Kansas, from 1950 until the early 1970s. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In February 1998, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride (below the maximum contaminant level [MCL] of 5.0 {micro}g/L) were detected in two private wells near the former grain storage facility at Hanover, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. In 2007, the CCC/USDA conducted near-surface soil sampling at 61 locations and also sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former Hanover facility to address the residents concerns regarding vapor intrusion. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. The results were submitted to the KDHE in October 2007 (Argonne 2007). On the basis of the results, the KDHE requested sub-slab sampling and/or indoor air sampling (KDHE 2007). This Work Plan describes, in detail, the proposed additional scope of work requested by the KDHE and has been developed as a supplement to the comprehensive site investigation work plan that is pending (Argonne 2008). Indoor air samples collected previously from four homes at Hanover were shown to contain the carbon tetrachloride at low concentrations (Table 2.1). It cannot be concluded from these previous data that the source of the detected carbon tetrachloride is vapor intrusion attributable to former grain storage operations of the CCC/USDA at Hanover. The technical objective of the vapor intrusion investigation described here is to assess the risk to human health due to the potential for upward migration of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform into four homes located on or adjacent to the former CCC/USDA facility. The technical objective will be accomplished by collecting sub-slab vapor samples. The preliminary data collected during the July 2007 investigation did not fully address the source of or migration pathway for the carbon tetrachloride detected in the four homes. The scope of work proposed here will generate additional data needed to help evaluate whether the source of the detected carbon tetrachloride is vapor intrusion attributable to activities of the CCC/USDA. The additional vapor sampling at Hanover will be performed, on behalf of the CCC/USDA, by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory and H&P Mobile Geochemistry of San Diego (http://www.handpmg.com). Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. The professional staff members of H&P Mobile Geochemistry are nationally leading experts in soil gas sampling and vapor intrusion investigations.

  19. Pressure transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Gunchin, E.R.

    1987-02-13

    A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output. 7 figs.

  20. Pressure transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas T.; Roop, Conard J.; Schmidt, Kenneth J.; Gunchin, Elmer R.

    1989-01-01

    A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output.

  1. Using Measurements of Fill Factor at High Irradiance to Deduce Heterobarrier Band Offsets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, J. M.; Steiner, M. A.; Kanevce, A.

    2011-07-01

    Using a 2D device simulation tool, we examine the high irradiance behavior of a single junction, GaAs concentrator cell as a function of the doping in the back surface confinement layer. The confinement layer is designed to be a barrier for both holes and electrons in the base of the solar cell. For a p-type base we show that the FF of the cell at high concentrations is a strong function of both the magnitude of the valence band offset and the doping level in the barrier. In short, for a given valence band offset (VBO), there is a critical barrier doping, below which the FF drops rapidly with lower doping. This behavior is confirmed experimentally for a GaInP/GaAs double heterostructure solar cell where the critical doping concentration (at 500 suns) in the back surface confinement layer is ~1e18 cm-3 for a VBO of 300 meV.

  2. Nighttime Offset and Capping Experiment Results of the Isothermal Pyranometer at the 2001 Diffuse Shortwave IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Offset and Capping Experiment Results of the Isothermal Pyranometer at the 2001 Diffuse Shortwave IOP W. Q. Jeffries Yankee Environmental Systems Turners Falls, Massachusetts Introduction There is, as yet, no standard or reference for the measurement of the diffuse component of solar radiation. The 2001 Diffuse Shortwave intensive operational period (IOP) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site compared data from a number of currently available and prototype instruments mounted on trackers

  3. Relativistic self-focusing of ultra-high intensity X-ray laser beams in warm quantum plasma with upward density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2014-05-15

    The results of a numerical study of high-intensity X-ray laser beam interaction with warm quantum plasma (WQP) are presented. By means of an upward ramp density profile combined with quantum factors specially the Fermi velocity, we have demonstrated significant relativistic self-focusing (RSF) of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in the WQP where the Fermi temperature term in the dielectric function is important. For this purpose, we have considered the quantum hydrodynamics model that modifies refractive index of inhomogeneous WQPs with the inclusion of quantum correction through the quantum statistical and diffraction effects in the relativistic regime. Also, to better illustration of the physical difference between warm and cold quantum plasmas and their effect on the RSF, we have derived the envelope equation governing the spot size of X-ray laser beam in Q-plasmas. In addition to the upward ramp density profile, we have found that the quantum effects would be caused much higher oscillation and better focusing of X-ray laser beam in the WQP compared to that of cold quantum case. Our computational results reveal the importance of the use of electrons density profile and Fermi speed in enhancing self-focusing of laser beam.

  4. Heterojunction band offsets and dipole formation at BaTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaz, Snjezana; Zeng, Zhaoquan; Brillson, Leonard J.; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff, Columbus, Ohio 43210

    2013-11-14

    We used a complement of photoemission and cathodoluminescence techniques to measure formation of the BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) on SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) heterojunction band offset grown monolayer by monolayer by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) provided core level and valence band edge energies to monitor the valence band offset in-situ as the first few crystalline BTO monolayers formed on the STO substrate. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) measured Fermi level positions within the band gap, work functions, and ionization potentials of the growing BTO film. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy measured energies and densities of interface states at the buried heterojunction. Kraut-based XPS heterojunction band offsets provided evidence for STO/BTO heterojunction linearity, i.e., commutativity and transitivity. In contrast, UPS and XPS revealed a large dipole associated either with local charge transfer or strain-induced polarization within the BTO epilayer.

  5. Fracture mapping in geothermal fields with long-offset induction logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilt, M.; Takasugi, Shinji; Uchida, Toshihiro; Kasameyer, P.; Lee, Ki Ha; Lippmann, M.

    1997-01-01

    The mapping of producing fractures in a geothermal field is an important technical objective in field development. Locating, orientating, and assessing producing fractures can guide drilling programs and optimize the placement of production and injection wells. A long-offset multicomponent borehole induction resistivity tool capable of surviving the high temperatures encountered in geothermal wells has recently been developed and tested in a high temperature environment. Several characteristics of this device make it ideal for detecting producing fractures. Whereas commercial induction logging devices have strong source-receiver separations of 1 m, this device has multiple sensors with separation of 8 m, allowing for deeper penetrations and the ability to straddle fracture-induced washout zones in boreholes. The three-component measurements also make it possible to map the strike and inclination of nearby fractures and other three-dimensional structures. This in turn allows for accurate projection of these structures into the space between wells.

  6. Offset-free rail-to-rail derandomizing peak detect-and-hold circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Paul; Kandasamy, Anand

    2003-01-01

    A peak detect-and-hold circuit eliminates errors introduced by conventional amplifiers, such as common-mode rejection and input voltage offset. The circuit includes an amplifier, three switches, a transistor, and a capacitor. During a detect-and-hold phase, a hold voltage at a non-inverting in put terminal of the amplifier tracks an input voltage signal and when a peak is reached, the transistor is switched off, thereby storing a peak voltage in the capacitor. During a readout phase, the circuit functions as a unity gain buffer, in which the voltage stored in the capacitor is provided as an output voltage. The circuit is able to sense signals rail-to-rail and can readily be modified to sense positive, negative, or peak-to-peak voltages. Derandomization may be achieved by using a plurality of peak detect-and-hold circuits electrically connected in parallel.

  7. Radiative forcing and temperature response to changes in urban albedos and associated CO2 offsets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Akbari, Hashem; Mahanama, Sarith; Sednev, Igor; Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-02-12

    The two main forcings that can counteract to some extent the positive forcings from greenhouse gases from pre-industrial times to present-day are the aerosol and related aerosol-cloud forcings, and the radiative response to changes in surface albedo. Here, we quantify the change in radiative forcing and land surface temperature that may be obtained by increasing the albedos of roofs and pavements in urban areas in temperate and tropical regions of the globe by 0.1. Using the catchment land surface model (the land model coupled to the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model), we quantify the change in the total outgoing (outgoing shortwave+longwave) radiation and land surface temperature to a 0.1 increase in urban albedos for all global land areas. The global average increase in the total outgoing radiation was 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, and temperature decreased by {approx}0.008 K for an average 0.003 increase in surface albedo. These averages represent all global land areas where data were available from the land surface model used and are for the boreal summer (June-July-August). For the continental U.S. the total outgoing radiation increased by 2.3 Wm{sup -2}, and land surface temperature decreased by {approx}0.03 K for an average 0.01 increase in surface albedo. Based on these forcings, the expected emitted CO{sub 2} offset for a plausible 0.25 and 0.15 increase in albedos of roofs and pavements, respectively, for all global urban areas, was found to be {approx} 57 Gt CO{sub 2}. A more meaningful evaluation of the impacts of urban albedo increases on global climate and the expected CO{sub 2} offsets would require simulations which better characterizes urban surfaces and represents the full annual cycle.

  8. Growth and Band Offsets of Epitaxial Lanthanide Oxides on GaN and AlGaN.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Growth and Band Offsets of Epitaxial Lanthanide Oxides on GaN and AlGaN. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth and Band Offsets of Epitaxial Lanthanide Oxides on GaN and AlGaN. Abstract not provided. Authors: Ihlefeld, Jon ; Brumbach, Michael T. ; Allerman, Andrew A. ; Wheeler, David Roger ; Atcitty, Stanley Publication Date: 2015-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1244879 Report Number(s): SAND2015-0073C 558329 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource

  9. Offsets between the X-ray and the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich-effect peaks in merging galaxy clusters and their cosmological implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Congyao; Yu, Qingjuan; Lu, Youjun

    2014-12-01

    Observations reveal that the peaks of the X-ray map and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect map of some galaxy clusters are offset from each other. In this paper, we perform a set of hydrodynamical simulations of mergers of two galaxy clusters to investigate the spatial offset between the maxima of the X-ray and the SZ surface brightness of the merging clusters. We find that significantly large SZ-X-ray offsets (>100 kpc) can be produced during the major mergers of galaxy clusters (with mass > 1 10{sup 14} M {sub ?}). The significantly large offsets are mainly caused by a 'jump effect' that occurs between the primary and secondary pericentric passages of the two merging clusters, during which the X-ray peak may jump to the densest gas region located near the center of the small cluster, but the SZ peak remains near the center of the large one. Our simulations show that merging systems with higher masses and larger initial relative velocities may result in larger offset sizes and longer offset time durations; and only nearly head-on mergers are likely to produce significantly large offsets. We further investigate the statistical distribution of the SZ-X-ray offset sizes and find that (1) the number distribution of the offset sizes is bimodal with one peak located at low offsets ?0 and the other at large offsets ?350-450 h {sup 1} kpc, but the objects with intermediate offsets are scarce; and (2) the probabilities of the clusters in the mass range higher than 2 10{sup 14} h {sup 1} M {sub ?} that have offsets larger than 20, 50, 200, 300, and 500 h {sup 1} kpc are 34.0%, 11.1%, 8.0%, 6.5%, and 2.0%, respectively, at z = 0.7. The probability is sensitive to the underlying pairwise velocity distribution and the merger rate of clusters. We suggest that the SZ-X-ray offsets provide a probe to the cosmic velocity fields on the cluster scale and the cluster merger rate, and future observations on the SZ-X-ray offsets for a large number of clusters may put strong constraints on them. Our simulation results suggest that the SZ-X-ray offset in the Bullet Cluster, together with the mass ratio of the two merging clusters, requires a relative velocity larger than 3000 km s{sup 1} at an initial separation 5 Mpc. The cosmic velocity distribution at the high-velocity end is expected to be crucial in determining whether there exists an incompatibility between the existence of the Bullet Cluster and the prediction of a ?CDM model.

  10. NETL SOFC: Pressurized Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressurized Systems PRESSURIZED SYSTEMS (INDUSTRY TEAMS)-SOFCs demonstrate enhanced performance by increasing the cell pressure. Thus, power systems with pressurized SOFC technology have the potential to achieve efficiencies greater than 60 percent (HHV) with greater than 97 percent carbon capture, near-zero emissions, and low water usage. The Pressurized Systems key technology is developing a deeper understanding on the behavior of the state-of-the-art SOFC material set under pressurized

  11. AN INDIRECT SEARCH FOR WEAKLY INTERACTING MASSIVE PARTICLES IN THE SUN USING 3109.6 DAYS OF UPWARD-GOING MUONS IN SUPER-KAMIOKANDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, T.; Abe, K.; Hayato, Y.; Iida, T.; Kameda, J.; Koshio, Y.; Kouzuma, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeda, A.; Takenaga, Y.; Ueno, K.; Ueshima, K.; Yamada, S.; Collaboration: Super-Kamiokande Collaboration; and others

    2011-12-01

    We present the result of an indirect search for high energy neutrinos from Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) annihilation in the Sun using upward-going muon (upmu) events at Super-Kamiokande. Data sets from SKI-SKIII (3109.6 days) were used for the analysis. We looked for an excess of neutrino signal from the Sun as compared with the expected atmospheric neutrino background in three upmu categories: stopping, non-showering, and showering. No significant excess was observed. The 90% C.L. upper limits of upmu flux induced by WIMPs of 100 GeV c{sup -2} were 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for the soft and hard annihilation channels, respectively. These limits correspond to upper limits of 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -39} cm{sup -2} and 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -40} cm{sup -2} for spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross sections in the soft and hard annihilation channels, respectively.

  12. Furnace Pressure Controllers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet highlights the benefits of precise furnace pressure control in process heating systems.

  13. Pressure surge attenuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  14. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-07-15

    An apparatus is provided for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to said changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic illuminates a fluorescent composition causing it to fluoresce. The fluorescent composition is caused to fluoresce more relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure so that the intensity of fluorescent emissions collected by the same fiber optic used for illumination varies monotonically with pressure. 10 figs.

  15. PRESSURE SYSTEM CONTROL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esselman, W.H.; Kaplan, G.M.

    1961-06-20

    The control of pressure in pressurized liquid systems, especially a pressurized liquid reactor system, may be achieved by providing a bias circuit or loop across a closed loop having a flow restriction means in the form of an orifice, a storage tank, and a pump connected in series. The subject invention is advantageously utilized where control of a reactor can be achieved by response to the temperature and pressure of the primary cooling system.

  16. Growth and Band Offsets of Epitaxial Lanthanide Oxides on GaN and AlGaN

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sandia National Laboratories Exceptional service in the national interest SAND2015-0073C Growth and Band Offsets of Epitaxial Lanthanide Oxides on GaN and AlGaN 22 January 2015 Jon Ihlefeld, Michael Brumbach, Andrew A. Allerman, David R. Wheeler, and Stanley Atcitty This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Program managed by Dr. Imre Gyuk and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at Sandia National

  17. Band offsets of n-type electron-selective contacts on cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) for photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, Riley E. E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu; Lee, Yun Seog; Buonassisi, Tonio E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu; Young, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Teeter, Glenn; Park, Helen Hejin; Chua, Danny; Gordon, Roy G.

    2014-12-29

    The development of cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) photovoltaics (PVs) is limited by low device open-circuit voltages. A strong contributing factor to this underperformance is the conduction-band offset between Cu{sub 2}O and its n-type heterojunction partner or electron-selective contact. In the present work, a broad range of possible n-type materials is surveyed, including ZnO, ZnS, Zn(O,S), (Mg,Zn)O, TiO{sub 2}, CdS, and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Band offsets are determined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical bandgap measurements. A majority of these materials is identified as having a negative conduction-band offset with respect to Cu{sub 2}O; the detrimental impact of this on open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) is evaluated through 1-D device simulation. These results suggest that doping density of the n-type material is important as well, and that a poorly optimized heterojunction can easily mask changes in bulk minority carrier lifetime. Promising heterojunction candidates identified here include Zn(O,S) with [S]/[Zn] ratios >70%, and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which both demonstrate slightly positive conduction-band offsets and high V{sub OC} potential. This experimental protocol and modeling may be generalized to evaluate the efficiency potential of candidate heterojunction partners for other PV absorbers, and the materials identified herein may be promising for other absorbers with low electron affinities.

  18. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  19. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  20. Miniaturized pressurization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Swink, Don G. (Woodinville, WA)

    1991-01-01

    The invention uses a fluid stored at a low pressure and provides the fluid at a high pressure. The invention allows the low pressure fluid to flow to a fluid bore of a differential pump and from the pump to a fluid pressure regulator. After flowing through the regulator the fluid is converted to a gas which is directed to a gas bore of the differential pump. By controlling the flow of gas entering and being exhausted from the gas bore, the invention provides pressure to the fluid. By setting the regulator, the high pressure fluid can be set at predetermined values. Because the invention only needs a low pressure fluid, the inventive apparatus has a low mass, and therefore would be useful in rocket propulsion systems.

  1. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fining Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  2. Valence band offsets of two rare earth oxides on AlxGa1-xN (0≤x≤0...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    earth oxides on AlxGa1-xN (0x0.67) as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Valence band offsets of two rare earth oxides on ...

  3. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  4. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  5. Bag pressure monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Mark Roy; Miller, Alva Keith

    2000-01-01

    An inexpensive mechanical indicator for measuring low pressure in an inflating bag includes a pair of sides connected to each other at one edge and pivotally connected at spaced parallel locations on the bag. A spring biases the sides towards each other in opposition to tension in the inflating bag. The distance between the sides is indicative of the pressure in the bag. The device is accurate at pressures below 0.05 psi.

  6. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a movable surface which is coated with a light-responsive material, and which moves relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure. The same fiber optic collects a portion of the reflected or emitted light from the movable surface. Changes in pressure are determined by measuring changes in the amount of light collected.

  7. 6151 Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For design, fabrication, testing, repair, modification and inspection are based on the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section ...

  8. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  9. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  10. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  11. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-04-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a movable surface which is coated with a light-responsive material, and which moves relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure. The same fiber optic collects a portion of the reflected or emitted light from the movable surface. Changes in pressure are determined by measuring changes in the amount of light collected. 5 figs.

  12. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  13. Capacitance pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, William P.; Staple, Bevan D.; Smith, James H.

    2000-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

  14. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side.

  15. Pressure multiplying dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFord, Henry S.; Moss, Owen R.

    1986-01-01

    A pressure multiplying dispenser for delivering fluid, preferably as a spray to the atmosphere, from a source of fluid, preferably a spray bottle, is described. The dispenser includes in combination a hollow cylindrical member, a nozzle delivery tube within the cylindrical member and a hollow actuator piston slideable within the cylindrical member which acts to multiply the pressure of a squeeze applied to the spray bottle.

  16. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1989-01-24

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side. 5 figs.

  17. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... List of Figures Figure A1. Pressure relief valve activation characteristics ... Figure A5. Spring-loaded pressure relief valve device cross-section ......

  18. Electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface: Band offsets and oxygen dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KC, Santosh; Dong, Hong; Longo, Roberto C.; Xiong, Ka; Wang, Weichao; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2014-01-14

    Using ab-initio methods, atomic structures and electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are studied within the framework of density functional theory. We examine the InP/HfO{sub 2} model interface electronic structures under varying oxidation conditions. The effects of indium and phosphorous concentrations on interfacial bonding, defect states, band offsets, and the thermodynamic stability at the interface are also investigated. The origin of interfacial gap states in InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are proposed, mainly from the P-rich oxides, which is validated by our experimental work. This highlights the importance of surface passivation prior to high-κ deposition based on the in situ spectroscopic results of atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on InP.

  19. Simulating Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Shape-Memory Alloy Microstructure by Face-Offsetting Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellur Ramaswamy, Ravi S.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Fried, Eliot; Jiao Xiangmin

    2008-02-15

    Advances in the understanding of martensitic transformations (diffusionless, solid-solid phase transformations) have been instrumental to the recent discovery of new low hysteresis alloys. However, some key fundamental issues must be better understood to design still better alloys. Restricting attention to antiplane shear, we use finite element analysis to model the shape-memory alloy microstructure within the Abeyaratne-Knowles continuum thermomechanical framework and use an interface kinetic relation of the kind proposed by Rosakis and Tsai. Geometric singularities and topological changes associated with microstructural evolution pose significant numerical challenges. We address such challenges with a recently developed front-tracking scheme called the face-offsetting method (FOM) to explicitly model phase interfaces. Initial results demonstrate the effectiveness of FOM in resolving needle-like twinned microstructures.

  20. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  1. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Air Pressure Objective The objective of this ... Important Points to Understand Air has weight and exerts pressure on everything with which ...

  2. Constraints on the richness-mass relation and the optical-SZE positional offset distribution for SZE-selected clusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saro, A.

    2015-10-12

    In this study, we cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.8 in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness λ-mass relation with the following function 500> ∝ Bλln M500 + Cλln E(z) and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnessesmore » λ to constrain the parameters. We find Bλ=1.14+0.21–0.18 and Cλ=0.73+0.77–0.75. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is σlnM|λ = 0.18+0.08–0.05 at a characteristic richness λ = 70. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the matched sample, showing that the fraction of SPT-SZ-selected clusters with RM counterparts is consistent with expectations and that the fraction of RM-selected clusters with SPT-SZ counterparts is in mild tension with expectation. We model the optical-SZE cluster positional offset distribution with the sum of two Gaussians, showing that it is consistent with a dominant, centrally peaked population and a subdominant population characterized by larger offsets. We also cross-match the RM catalogue with SPT-SZ candidates below the official catalogue threshold significance ξ = 4.5, using the RM catalogue to provide optical confirmation and redshifts for 15 additional clusters with ξ ε [4, 4.5].« less

  3. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  4. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  5. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  6. HIGH PRESSURE GAS REGULATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramage, R.W.

    1962-05-01

    A gas regulator operating on the piston and feedback principle is described. The device is particularly suitable for the delicate regulation of high pressure, i.e., 10,000 psi and above, gas sources, as well as being perfectly adaptable for use on gas supplies as low as 50 psi. The piston is adjustably connected to a needle valve and the movement of the piston regulates the flow of gas from the needle valve. The gas output is obtained from the needle valve. Output pressure is sampled by a piston feedback means which, in turn, regulates the movement of the main piston. When the output is other than the desired value, the feedback system initiates movement of the main piston to allow the output pressure to be corrected or to remain constant. (AEC)

  7. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  8. Valence band offsets of two rare earth oxides on AlxGa1-xN (0≤x≤0.67)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Valence band offsets of two rare earth oxides on AlxGa1-xN (0≤x≤0.67) as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Valence band offsets of two rare earth oxides on AlxGa1-xN (0≤x≤0.67) as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. Abstract not provided. Authors: Brumbach, Michael T. ; Allerman, Andrew A. ; Wheeler, David Roger ; Atcitty, Stanley ; Ihlefeld, Jon Publication

  9. Wellbore pressure transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1979-01-01

    Subterranean earth formations containing energy values are subjected to hydraulic fracturing procedures to enhance the recovery of the energy values. These fractures are induced in the earth formation by pumping liquid into the wellbore penetrating the earth formation until the pressure of the liquid is sufficient to fracture the earth formation adjacent to the wellbore. The present invention is directed to a transducer which is positionable within the wellbore to generate a signal indicative of the fracture initiation useful for providing a timing signal to equipment for seismic mapping of the fracture as it occurs and for providing a measurement of the pressure at which the fracture is initiated.

  10. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.

    2013-09-23

    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR-2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H {sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

  11. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C.; Upton, Hubert A.

    1994-01-01

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

  12. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  13. Low pressure hydrocyclone separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanigan, D.A.; Stolhand, J.E.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of separating a dispersed phase liquid from a bulk phase liquid of a liquid-liquid mixture, the dispersed phase and bulk phase liquids having different densities. The method comprises the steps of: providing a supply of the liquid-liquid mixture at a first pressure; providing a pump means including means for minimizing degradation of the volumetric means size of droplets of the dispersed phase further including a pump size for maintaining the pump means at substantially near maximum flow rate capacity; pumping the liquid-liquid mixture with at least one pump means to a second pressure such that a differential between the first and second pressures is not substantially greater than a differential pressure at which the pump means begins to substantially degrade the volumetric mean size of droplets of the dispersed phase liquid passing therethrough, the pumping without substantial droplet degradation being achieved by operating the pump means at relatively near its maximum flow rate capacity to substantially reduce on a percentage basis the effect of fluid slippage within the pump means; directing the liquid-liquid mixture from the pump means to a hydrocyclone; and separating a substantial portion of the dispersed phase liquid from the liquid-liquid mixture in the hydrocyclone.

  14. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  15. Constraining sub-parsec binary supermassive black holes in quasars with multi-epoch spectroscopy. II. The population with kinematically offset broad Balmer emission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xin; Shen, Yue; Bian, Fuyan; Loeb, Abraham; Tremaine, Scott

    2014-07-10

    A small fraction of quasars have long been known to show bulk velocity offsets (of a few hundred to thousands of km s{sup 1}) in the broad Balmer lines with respect to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy. Models to explain these offsets usually invoke broad-line region gas kinematics/asymmetry around single black holes (BHs), orbital motion of massive (?sub-parsec (sub-pc)) binary black holes (BBHs), or recoil BHs, but single-epoch spectra are unable to distinguish between these scenarios. The line-of-sight (LOS) radial velocity (RV) shifts from long-term spectroscopic monitoring can be used to test the BBH hypothesis. We have selected a sample of 399 quasars with kinematically offset broad H? lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Seventh Data Release quasar catalog, and have conducted second-epoch optical spectroscopy for 50 of them. Combined with the existing SDSS spectra, the new observations enable us to constrain the LOS RV shifts of broad H? lines with a rest-frame baseline of a few years to nearly a decade. While previous work focused on objects with extreme velocity offset (>10{sup 3} km s{sup 1}), we explore the parameter space with smaller (a few hundred km s{sup 1}) yet significant offsets (99.7% confidence). Using cross-correlation analysis, we detect significant (99% confidence) radial accelerations in the broad H? lines in 24 of the 50 objects, of ?10-200 km s{sup 1} yr{sup 1} with a median measurement uncertainty of ?10 km s{sup 1} yr{sup 1}, implying a high fraction of variability of the broad-line velocity on multi-year timescales. We suggest that 9 of the 24 detections are sub-pc BBH candidates, which show consistent velocity shifts independently measured from a second broad line (either H? or Mg II) without significant changes in the broad-line profiles. Combining the results on the general quasar population studied in Paper I, we find a tentative anti-correlation between the velocity offset in the first-epoch spectrum and the average acceleration between two epochs, which could be explained by orbital phase modulation when the time separation between two epochs is a non-negligible fraction of the orbital period of the motion causing the line displacement. We discuss the implications of our results for the identification of sub-pc BBH candidates in offset-line quasars and for the constraints on their frequency and orbital parameters.

  16. Constraints on the richness-mass relation and the optical-SZE positional offset distribution for SZE-selected clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saro, A.

    2015-10-12

    In this study, we cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.8 in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness λ-mass relation with the following function 500> ∝ Bλln M500 + Cλln E(z) and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnesses λ to constrain the parameters. We find Bλ=1.14+0.21–0.18 and Cλ=0.73+0.77–0.75. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is σlnM|λ = 0.18+0.08–0.05 at a characteristic richness λ = 70. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the matched sample, showing that the fraction of SPT-SZ-selected clusters with RM counterparts is consistent with expectations and that the fraction of RM-selected clusters with SPT-SZ counterparts is in mild tension with expectation. We model the optical-SZE cluster positional offset distribution with the sum of two Gaussians, showing that it is consistent with a dominant, centrally peaked population and a subdominant population characterized by larger offsets. We also cross-match the RM catalogue with SPT-SZ candidates below the official catalogue threshold significance ξ = 4.5, using the RM catalogue to provide optical confirmation and redshifts for 15 additional clusters with ξ ε [4, 4.5].

  17. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  18. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  19. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  20. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  1. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  2. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  3. Pressure activated diaphragm bonder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Leland B.; Malba, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    A device is available for bonding one component to another, particularly for bonding electronic components of integrated circuits, such as chips, to a substrate. The bonder device in one embodiment includes a bottom metal block having a machined opening wherein a substrate is located, a template having machined openings which match solder patterns on the substrate, a thin diaphragm placed over the template after the chips have been positioned in the openings therein, and a top metal block positioned over the diaphragm and secured to the bottom block, with the diaphragm retained therebetween. The top block includes a countersink portion which extends over at least the area of the template and an opening through which a high pressure inert gas is supplied to exert uniform pressure distribution over the diaphragm to keep the chips in place during soldering. A heating means is provided to melt the solder patterns on the substrate and thereby solder the chips thereto.

  4. Pressure activated diaphragm bonder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, L.B.; Malba, V.

    1997-05-27

    A device is available for bonding one component to another, particularly for bonding electronic components of integrated circuits, such as chips, to a substrate. The bonder device in one embodiment includes a bottom metal block having a machined opening wherein a substrate is located, a template having machined openings which match solder patterns on the substrate, a thin diaphragm placed over the template after the chips have been positioned in the openings therein, and a top metal block positioned over the diaphragm and secured to the bottom block, with the diaphragm retained therebetween. The top block includes a countersink portion which extends over at least the area of the template and an opening through which a high pressure inert gas is supplied to exert uniform pressure distribution over the diaphragm to keep the chips in place during soldering. A heating means is provided to melt the solder patterns on the substrate and thereby solder the chips thereto. 4 figs.

  5. Continuous pressure letdown system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Matthews, David R.; Langowski, Terry

    2010-06-08

    A continuous pressure letdown system connected to a hopper decreases a pressure of a 2-phase (gas and solid) dusty gas stream flowing through the system. The system includes a discharge line for receiving the dusty gas from the hopper, a valve, a cascade nozzle assembly positioned downstream of the discharge line, a purge ring, an inert gas supply connected to the purge ring, an inert gas throttle, and a filter. The valve connects the hopper to the discharge line and controls introduction of the dusty gas stream into the discharge line. The purge ring is connected between the discharge line and the cascade nozzle assembly. The inert gas throttle controls a flow rate of an inert gas into the cascade nozzle assembly. The filter is connected downstream of the cascade nozzle assembly.

  6. Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressurized Combustion and Gasification - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  7. DEFLECTION PRESSURE TESTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, C.M.

    1961-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining whether the jacket of a nuclear- fuel slug has a leak are described. The region of the jacket to be leak-tested is sealed off, and gas under pressure is applied thereto. If there is an imperfection, the gas will enter the jacket and bulge another region of the jacket. The bulge occurring is measured by a gage.

  8. High Pressure Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  9. High pressure storage vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  10. Tracing ram-pressure stripping with warm molecular hydrogen emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rieke, George H.

    2014-12-01

    We use the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study four infalling cluster galaxies with signatures of ongoing ram-pressure stripping. H{sub 2} emission is detected in all four, and two show extraplanar H{sub 2} emission. The emission usually has a warm (T ? 115-160 K) and a hot (T ? 400-600 K) component that is approximately two orders of magnitude less massive than the warm one. The warm component column densities are typically 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup 2} with masses of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} M {sub ?}. The warm H{sub 2} is anomalously bright compared with normal star-forming galaxies and therefore may be excited by ram-pressure. In the case of CGCG 97-073, the H{sub 2} is offset from the majority of star formation along the direction of the galaxy's motion in the cluster, suggesting that it is forming in the ram-pressure wake of the galaxy. Another galaxy, NGC 4522, exhibits a warm H{sub 2} tail approximately 4 kpc in length. These results support the hypothesis that H{sub 2} within these galaxies is shock-heated from the interaction with the intracluster medium. Stripping of dust is also a common feature of the galaxies. For NGC 4522, where the distribution of dust at 8 ?m is well resolved, knots and ripples demonstrate the turbulent nature of the stripping process. The H? and 24 ?m luminosities show that most of the galaxies have star-formation rates comparable to similar mass counterparts in the field. Finally, we suggest a possible evolutionary sequence primarily related to the strength of ram-pressure that a galaxy experiences to explain the varied results observed in our sample.

  11. Structure and method for controlling band offset and alignment at a crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2003-11-25

    A crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor structure and a process for constructing the structure involves a substrate of silicon, germanium or a silicon-germanium alloy and an epitaxial thin film overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the thin film consists of a first epitaxial stratum of single atomic plane layers of an alkaline earth oxide designated generally as (AO).sub.n and a second stratum of single unit cell layers of an oxide material designated as (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m so that the multilayer film arranged upon the substrate surface is designated (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m wherein n is an integer repeat of single atomic plane layers of the alkaline earth oxide AO and m is an integer repeat of single unit cell layers of the A'BO.sub.3 oxide material. Within the multilayer film, the values of n and m have been selected to provide the structure with a desired electrical structure at the substrate/thin film interface that can be optimized to control band offset and alignment.

  12. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  13. High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  14. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  15. Pressure Data Within BOP- XLS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  16. Pressure Data Within BOP- ODS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  17. Pressure polymerization of polyester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maurer, Charles J.; Shaw, Gordon; Smith, Vicky S.; Buelow, Steven J.; Tumas, William; Contreras, Veronica; Martinez, Ronald J.

    2000-08-29

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a polyester polymer or polyester copolymer under superatmospheric pressure conditions in a pipe or tubular reaction under turbannular flow conditions. Reaction material having a glycol equivalents to carboxylic acid equivalents mole ratio of from 1.0:1 to 1.2:1, together with a superatmospheric dense gaseous medium are fed co-currently to the reactor. Dicarboxylic acid and/or diol raw materials may be injected into any of the reaction zones in the process during operation to achieve the overall desired mole ratio balance. The process operates at temperatures of from about 220.degree. C. to about 320.degree. C., with turbannular flow achieved before the polymer product and gas exit the reactor process. The pressure in the reaction zones can be in the range from 15 psia to 2500 psia. A polymer product having a DP of a greater than 40, more preferably at least about 70, is achieved by the transfer of water from the reacting material polymer melt to the gaseous medium in the reactor.

  18. High pressure capillary connector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2005-08-09

    A high pressure connector capable of operating at pressures of 40,000 psi or higher is provided. This connector can be employed to position a first fluid-bearing conduit that has a proximal end and a distal end to a second fluid-bearing conduit thereby providing fluid communication between the first and second fluid-bearing conduits. The connector includes (a) an internal fitting assembly having a body cavity with (i) a lower segment that defines a lower segment aperture and (ii) an interiorly threaded upper segment, (b) a first member having a first member aperture that traverses its length wherein the first member aperture is configured to accommodate the first fluid-bearing conduit and wherein the first member is positioned in the lower segment of the internal fitting assembly, and (c) a second member having a second member aperture that traverses its length wherein the second member is positioned in the upper segment of the fitting assembly and wherein a lower surface of the second member is in contact with an upper surface of the first member to assert a compressive force onto the first member and wherein the first member aperture and the second member aperture are coaxial.

  19. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  20. Measurement of the valence band-offset in a PbSe/ZnO heterojunction by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Lin; Qiu Jijun; Weng Binbin; Yuan Zijian; Shi Zhisheng; Li Xiaomin; Gan Xiaoyan; Sellers, Ian R.

    2012-12-24

    A heterojunction of PbSe/ZnO has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to directly measure the valence-band offset (VBO) of the heterojunction. The VBO, {Delta}E{sub V}, was determined as 2.51 {+-} 0.05 eV using the Pb 4p{sup 3/2} and Zn 2p{sup 3/2} core levels as a reference. The conduction-band offset, {Delta}E{sub C}, was, therefore, determined to be 0.59 {+-} 0.05 eV based on the above {Delta}E{sub V} value. This analysis indicates that the PbSe/ZnO heterojunction forms a type I (Straddling Gap) heterostructure.

  1. Conduction band offset at GeO{sub 2}/Ge interface determined by internal photoemission and charge-corrected x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W. F.; Nishimula, T.; Nagashio, K.; Kita, K.; Toriumi, A.

    2013-03-11

    We report a consistent conduction band offset (CBO) at a GeO{sub 2}/Ge interface determined by internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) and charge-corrected X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). IPE results showed that the CBO value was larger than 1.5 eV irrespective of metal electrode and substrate type variance, while an accurate determination of valence band offset (VBO) by XPS requires a careful correction of differential charging phenomena. The VBO value was determined to be 3.60 {+-} 0.2 eV by XPS after charge correction, thus yielding a CBO (1.60 {+-} 0.2 eV) in excellent agreement with the IPE results. Such a large CBO (>1.5 eV) confirmed here is promising in terms of using GeO{sub 2} as a potential passivation layer for future Ge-based scaled CMOS devices.

  2. AN APPARATUS FOR MEASURING ANNULAR OFFSET BETWEEN A FIRST METAL TUBE AND A SECOND METAL TUBE SPATIALLY DISPOSED WITHIN THE FIRST TUBE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanner, J.C.

    1963-08-01

    An apparatus for measurirg the amount of offset from concentricity between a first metal tube mounted within a second metal tube comprises a first pair of like sensing coils mounted diametrically opposite each other adjacent to the interior of the first tube and a second pair of sensirg coils identical to the first pair of coils mounted diametrically opposite each other adjacent to tue interior surfuce of the first tube and spatinlly displaced 90 degrees from the first pair of sensing coils. An a-c signal at a frequency such that the resultant electromagnetic energy from the sensing coils passes through the first tube and is essentially totally attenuated by the second tube is alternately provided to each pair of coils. Differential measurement of the effective impedance of the sensing coils in each of the pairs gives the amount of offset. (AEC)

  3. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 C.

  4. Band offset determination of mixed As/Sb type-II staggered gap heterostructure for n-channel tunnel field effect transistor application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Jain, N.; Hudait, M. K.; Mohata, D. K.; Datta, S.; Lubyshev, D.; Fastenau, J. M.; Liu, A. K.

    2013-01-14

    The experimental study of the valence band offset ({Delta}E{sub v}) of a mixed As/Sb type-II staggered gap GaAs{sub 0.35}Sb{sub 0.65}/In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As heterostructure used as source/channel junction of n-channel tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) grown by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cross-sectional transmission electron micrograph shows high crystalline quality at the source/channel heterointerface. XPS results demonstrate a {Delta}E{sub v} of 0.39 {+-} 0.05 eV at the GaAs{sub 0.35}Sb{sub 0.65}/In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As heterointerface. The conduction band offset was calculated to be {approx}0.49 eV using the band gap values of source and channel materials and the measured valence band offset. An effective tunneling barrier height of 0.21 eV was extracted, suggesting a great promise for designing a metamorphic mixed As/Sb type-II staggered gap TFET device structure for low-power logic applications.

  5. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project summary: Drilling into large aperture open fractures (LAFs) typically yield production wells with high productivity and low pressure drawdown. Developing geophysical and geologic techniques for identifying and precisely mapping LAFsin 3-D will greatly reduce dry hole risk and the overall number of wells required for reaching a particular geothermal field power capacity.

  6. Theoretical collapse pressures for two pressurized torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P.; Rana, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    In order to determine the pressures at which real torispherical heads fail upon a single application of pressure, two heads were pressurized in recent Praxair tests, and displacements and strains were recorded at various locations. In this paper, theoretical results for the two test heads are presented in the form of curves of pressure versus crown deflections, using the available geometry and material parameters. From these curves, limit and collapse pressures are calculated, using procedures permitted by the ASME B and PV Code Section 8/Div.2. These pressures are shown to vary widely, depending on the method and model used to calculate them. The effect of no stress relief on the behavior of the Praxair test heads is also evaluated and found to be of no significance for neither the objectives of the tests nor the objectives of this paper. The results of this paper are submitted as an enhancement to the experimental results recorded during the Praxair tests.

  7. Collapse pressure of coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-09-01

    The collapse pressure is a measure of an external force required to collapse a tube in the absence of internal pressure. It is defined as the minimum pressure required to yield the tube in the absence of internal pressure. Coiled tubing is sometimes used in high-pressure wells. If the external pressure becomes too high, the coiled tubing will collapse. This could not only lead to serious well-control problems, but may result in extensive fishing operations. A reliable safety criterion of collapse pressure for the coiled tubing is needed by the coiled tubing operators. Theoretical models of collapse pressure are well developed for perfectly round coiled tubing but not for oval coiled tubing. Coiled tubing is initially manufactured with nearly perfect roundness, sometimes having a small ovality (typically {le} 0.5%). Perfectly round CT becomes oval owing to the plastic mechanical deformation of the coiled tubing as it spooled on and off the reel and over the gooseneck. As the cycling continues, the ovality usually increases. This ovality significantly decreases the collapse failure pressure as compared to perfectly round tubing. In this paper, an analytical model of collapse pressure for oval tubing under axial tension or compression is developed based on elastic instability theory and the von Mises criterion. The theoretical model shows satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  8. NETL SOFC: Atmospheric Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Systems ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS (INDUSTRY TEAMS)-This key technology focuses on the design, scaleup, and integration of the SOFC technology, ultimately resulting in atmospheric-pressure modules suitable to serve as the building blocks for distributed-generation, commercial, and utility-scale power systems. Activities include fabrication, testing, post-test analysis of cells; integrating cells into stacks; and the development and validation testing of progressively

  9. Advanced Pressure Boundary Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, Michael L; Shingledecker, John P

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the operating temperatures of fossil power plants is fundamental to improving thermal efficiencies and reducing undesirable emissions such as CO{sub 2}. One group of alloys with the potential to satisfy the conditions required of higher operating temperatures is the advanced ferritic steels such as ASTM Grade 91, 9Cr-2W, and 12Cr-2W. These are Cr-Mo steels containing 9-12 wt% Cr that have martensitic microstructures. Research aimed at increasing the operating temperature limits of the 9-12 wt% Cr steels and optimizing them for specific power plant applications has been actively pursued since the 1970's. As with all of the high strength martensitic steels, specifying upper temperature limits for tempering the alloys and heat treating weldments is a critical issue. To support this aspect of development, thermodynamic analysis was used to estimate how this critical temperature, the A{sub 1} in steel terminology, varies with alloy composition. The results from the thermodynamic analysis were presented to the Strength of Weldments subgroup of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code and are being considered in establishing maximum postweld heat treatment temperatures. Experiments are also being planned to verify predictions. This is part of a CRADA project being done with Alstom Power, Inc.

  10. Pressure testing of torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D.; Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P.

    1995-12-01

    Two vessels fabricated from SA516-70 steel with 6% knuckle radius torispherical heads were tested under internal pressure to failure. The D/t ratios of Vessel 1 and Vessel 2 were 238 and 185 respectively. The calculated maximum allowable working pressures of Vessel 1 and 2 heads using the ASME Section 8, Div. 1 rules and measured dimensions were 85 and 110 psi, respectively. Vessel 1 failed at a nozzle weld in the cylindrical shell at 700 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed at a theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse pressure of 241 and a calculated buckling pressure of 270 psi. Buckles were observed developing slowly after 600 psi pressure, and a total of 22 buckles were observed after the test, having the maximum amplitude of 0.15 inch. Vessel 2 failed at the edge of the longitudinal weld of the cylindrical shell at 1,080 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed up to the final pressure, which exceeded the theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse and calculated buckling pressures of 274 psi and 342 psi, respectively.

  11. Screenable Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) in recycled paper create a number of problems for the recycling process, including lost production and diminished product quality. Unlike conventional PSAs, a...

  12. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

    2013-05-15

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 510{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  13. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2002-01-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  14. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2005-11-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  15. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  16. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  17. Pressure sensor for sealed containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hodges, Franklin R.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic pressure sensor for sensing a pressure change inside a sealed container. The sensor includes a sealed deformable vessel having a first end attachable to an interior surface of the sealed container, and a second end. A magnet mounted to the vessel second end defining a distance away from the container surface provides an externally detectable magnetic field. A pressure change inside the sealed container causes deformation of the vessel changing the distance of the magnet away from the container surface, and thus the detectable intensity of the magnetic field.

  18. Pressure dispensable gelled alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monick, J.A.

    1982-12-28

    A pressurized fuel gel composition particularly suitable for igniting wood and charcoal consisting essentially of, by weight, 42-90% of at least one c1-c6 monohydric alcohol, 0.5-6% of water-soluble gelling agent, up to about 24% water and a correlated amount of propellant from 0.5% to 30% characterized by a gel structure which forms a shape retaining mass upon contact with wood or charcoal that is maintained during the burning of said composition. Also within the scope of the invention is an aerosol product comprising said pressurized composition enclosed within a pressure-tight container having valve means for expelling the composition.

  19. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  20. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  1. Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Geoffrey W.; Kramer, John

    2009-08-04

    Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

  2. Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Geoffrey W.; Kramer, John W.; Schmidt, Joseph A. R.

    2011-01-25

    Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

  3. Pressure compensated flow control valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minteer, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is an air flow control valve which is capable of maintaining a constant flow at the outlet despite changes in the inlet or outlet pressure. The device consists of a shell assembly with an inlet chamber and outlet chamber separated by a separation plate. The chambers are connected by an orifice. Also located within the inlet chamber is a port controller assembly. The port controller assembly consists of a differential pressure plate and port cap affixed thereon. The cap is able to slide in and out of the orifice separating the inlet and outlet chambers. When the pressure differential is sufficient, the differential pressure plate rises or falls to maintain a constant air flow. Movement of the port controller assembly does not require the use of seals, diaphragms, tight tolerances, bushings, bearings, hinges, guides, or lubricants.

  4. Cation mixing, band offsets and electric fields at LaAlO3/SrTiO3(001) heterojunctions with variable La:Al atom ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Liang; Droubay, Timothy C.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Sushko, P. V.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2011-08-01

    Interfacial intermixing and electronic structure were investigated at thin (35 unit cells.), epitaxial La1 ? xAl1 + xO3/SrTiO3(001) heterojunctions for x = 0 and 0.05. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals rather extensive cation intermixing for all films, independent of composition. The valence band offset for the nominally stoichiometric (x = 0) film is 0.16 0.10 eV, with the valence band maximum of SrTiO3 being deeper in binding energy than that of LaAlO3. Similar values are obtained for x = 0.05. There is no measurable band bending in either the LaAlO3 or the SrTiO3 near the interface. These results are at odds with first principles theoretical predictions based on perfect stoichiometry and an abrupt interface model. However, inclusion of intermixing in the compositional description of the interface results in successful prediction of the valence band offset and absence of band bending.

  5. Structural properties and band offset determination of p-channel mixed As/Sb type-II staggered gap tunnel field-effect transistor structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Jain, N.; Hudait, M. K.; Mohata, D. K.; Datta, S.; Lubyshev, D.; Fastenau, J. M.; Liu, A. K.

    2012-09-10

    The structural properties and band offset determination of p-channel staggered gap In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs{sub 0.35}Sb{sub 0.65} heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) were investigated. High resolution x-ray diffraction revealed that the active layers are strained with respect to 'virtual substrate.' Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry confirmed an abrupt junction profile at the In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs{sub 0.35}Sb{sub 0.65} heterointerface and minimal level of intermixing between As and Sb atoms. The valence band offset of 0.37 {+-} 0.05 eV was extracted from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A staggered band lineup was confirmed at the heterointerface with an effective tunneling barrier height of 0.13 eV. Thus, MBE-grown staggered gap In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs{sub 0.35}Sb{sub 0.65} TFET structures are a promising p-channel option to provide critical guidance for the future design of mixed As/Sb type-II based complementary logic and low power devices.

  6. Monitoring CO2 Storage at Cranfield, Mississippi with Time-Lapse Offset VSP Using Integration and Modeling to Reduce Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daley, Thomas M.; Hendrickson, Joel; Queen, John H.

    2014-12-31

    A time-lapse Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (OVSP) data set was acquired as part of a subsurface monitoring program for geologic sequestration of CO2. The storage site at Cranfield, near Natchez, Mississippi, is part of a detailed area study (DAS) site for geologic carbon sequestration operated by the U.S. Dept. of Energys Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The DAS site includes three boreholes, an injection well and two monitoring wells. The project team selected the DAS site to examine CO2 sequestration multiphase fluid flow and pressure at the interwell scale in a brine reservoir. The time-lapse (TL) OVSP was part of an integrated monitoring program that included well logs, crosswell seismic, electrical resistance tomography and 4D surface seismic. The goals of the OVSP were to detect the CO2 induced change in seismic response, give information about the spatial distribution of CO2 near the injection well and to help tie the high-resolution borehole monitoring to the 4D surface data. The VSP data were acquired in well CFU 31-F1, which is the ~3200 m deep CO2 injection well at the DAS site. A preinjection survey was recorded in late 2009 with injection beginning in December 2009, and a post injection survey was conducted in Nov 2010 following injection of about 250 kT of CO2. The sensor array for both surveys was a 50-level, 3-component, Sercel MaxiWave system with 15 m (49 ft) spacing between levels. The source for both surveys was an accelerated weight drop, with different source trucks used for the two surveys. Consistent time-lapse processing was applied to both data sets. Time-lapse processing generated difference corridor stacks to investigate CO2 induced reflection amplitude changes from each source point. Corridor stacks were used for amplitude analysis to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each shot point. Spatial variation in reflectivity (used to map the plume) was similar in magnitude to the corridor stacks but, due to relatively lower S/N, the results were less consistent and more sensitive to processing and therefore are not presented. We examined the overall time-lapse repeatability of the OVSP data using three methods, the NRMS and Predictability (Pred) measures of Kragh and Christie (2002) and the signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) method of Cantillo (2011). Because time-lapse noise was comparable to the observed change, multiple methods were used to analyze data reliability. The reflections from the top and base reservoir were identified on the corridor stacks by correlation with a synthetic response generated from the well logs. A consistent change in the corridor stack amplitudes from pre- to post-CO2 injection was found for both the top and base reservoir reflections on all ten shot locations analyzed. In addition to the well-log synthetic response, a finite-difference elastic wave propagation model was built based on rock/fluid properties obtained from well logs, with CO2 induced changes guided by time-lapse crosswell seismic tomography (Ajo-Franklin, et al., 2013) acquired at the DAS site. Time-lapse seismic tomography indicated that two reservoir zones were affected by the flood. The modeling established that interpretation of the VSP trough and peak event amplitudes as reflectivity from the top and bottom of reservoir is appropriate even with possible tuning effects. Importantly, this top/base change gives confidence in an interpretation that these changes arise from within the reservoir, not from bounding lithology. The modeled time-lapse change and the observed field data change from 10 shotpoints are in agreement for both magnitude and polarity of amplitude change for top and base of reservoir. Therefore, we conclude the stored CO2 has been successfully detected and, furthermore, the observed seismic reflection change can

  7. Monitoring CO2 Storage at Cranfield, Mississippi with Time-Lapse Offset VSP – Using Integration and Modeling to Reduce Uncertainty

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daley, Thomas M.; Hendrickson, Joel; Queen, John H.

    2014-12-31

    A time-lapse Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (OVSP) data set was acquired as part of a subsurface monitoring program for geologic sequestration of CO2. The storage site at Cranfield, near Natchez, Mississippi, is part of a detailed area study (DAS) site for geologic carbon sequestration operated by the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The DAS site includes three boreholes, an injection well and two monitoring wells. The project team selected the DAS site to examine CO2 sequestration multiphase fluid flow and pressure at the interwell scale in a brine reservoir. The time-lapse (TL) OVSP was partmore » of an integrated monitoring program that included well logs, crosswell seismic, electrical resistance tomography and 4D surface seismic. The goals of the OVSP were to detect the CO2 induced change in seismic response, give information about the spatial distribution of CO2 near the injection well and to help tie the high-resolution borehole monitoring to the 4D surface data. The VSP data were acquired in well CFU 31-F1, which is the ~3200 m deep CO2 injection well at the DAS site. A preinjection survey was recorded in late 2009 with injection beginning in December 2009, and a post injection survey was conducted in Nov 2010 following injection of about 250 kT of CO2. The sensor array for both surveys was a 50-level, 3-component, Sercel MaxiWave system with 15 m (49 ft) spacing between levels. The source for both surveys was an accelerated weight drop, with different source trucks used for the two surveys. Consistent time-lapse processing was applied to both data sets. Time-lapse processing generated difference corridor stacks to investigate CO2 induced reflection amplitude changes from each source point. Corridor stacks were used for amplitude analysis to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each shot point. Spatial variation in reflectivity (used to ‘map’ the plume) was similar in magnitude to the corridor stacks but, due to relatively lower S/N, the results were less consistent and more sensitive to processing and therefore are not presented. We examined the overall time-lapse repeatability of the OVSP data using three methods, the NRMS and Predictability (Pred) measures of Kragh and Christie (2002) and the signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) method of Cantillo (2011). Because time-lapse noise was comparable to the observed change, multiple methods were used to analyze data reliability. The reflections from the top and base reservoir were identified on the corridor stacks by correlation with a synthetic response generated from the well logs. A consistent change in the corridor stack amplitudes from pre- to post-CO2 injection was found for both the top and base reservoir reflections on all ten shot locations analyzed. In addition to the well-log synthetic response, a finite-difference elastic wave propagation model was built based on rock/fluid properties obtained from well logs, with CO2 induced changes guided by time-lapse crosswell seismic tomography (Ajo-Franklin, et al., 2013) acquired at the DAS site. Time-lapse seismic tomography indicated that two reservoir zones were affected by the flood. The modeling established that interpretation of the VSP trough and peak event amplitudes as reflectivity from the top and bottom of reservoir is appropriate even with possible tuning effects. Importantly, this top/base change gives confidence in an interpretation that these changes arise from within the reservoir, not from bounding lithology. The modeled time-lapse change and the observed field data change from 10 shotpoints are in agreement for both magnitude and polarity of amplitude change for top and base of reservoir. Therefore, we conclude the stored CO2 has been successfully detected and, furthermore, the observed seismic reflection change can be applied to Cranfield’s 4D surface seismic for spatially delineating the CO2/brine interface.« less

  8. Stabilizing System Pressure | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stabilizing System Pressure Stabilizing System Pressure This tip sheet summarizes three methods used to stabilize compressed air system pressure: adequate primary and secondary storage, Pressure/Flow Controllers (P/FCs), and dedicated compressors. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #8 PDF icon Stabilizing System Pressure (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Compressed Air Storage Strategies Compressed Air System Control Strategies Analyzing Your Compressed Air

  9. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1962-04-24

    A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

  10. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R.; Gordon, Norman R.; DeFord, Henry S.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  11. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  12. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  13. Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning caches Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning ...

  14. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  15. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  16. Pressurized-fluid-operated engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holleyman, J.E.

    1990-01-30

    This patent describes a pressurized-fluid-operated reciprocating engine for providing output power by use of a pressurized gas that expands within the engine without combustion. It comprises: an engine block having a plurality of cylinders within which respective pistons are reciprocatable to provide a rotary power output; gas inlet means connected with the engine block for introducing a pressurized gas into the respective cylinders in a predetermined, timed relationship to provide a smooth power output from the engine; gas outlet means connected with the engine block for conveying exhaust gas from the respective cylinders after the gas expanded to move the pistons within the cylinders; and recirculation means extending between the inlet means and the outlet means for recirculation a predetermined quantity of exhaust gas. The recirculation means including ejector means for drawing exhaust gas into the recirculation means.

  17. The Pingding segment of the Altyn Tagh Fault (91 °E): Holocene slip-rate determination from cosmogenic radionuclide dating of offset fluvial terraces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meriaux, A. -S.; Van der Woerd, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Lasserre, C.; Xu, X.

    2012-09-25

    Morphochronologic slip-rates on the Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF) along the southern front of the Pingding Shan at ~90.5°E are determined by cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) dating of seven offset terraces at two sites. The terraces are defined based upon morphology, elevation and dating, together with fieldwork and high-resolution satellite analysis. The majority of the CRN model ages fall within narrow ranges (<2 ka) on the four main terraces (T1, T2, T3 and T3′), and allow a detailed terrace chronology. Bounds on the terrace ages and offsets of 5 independent terraces yield consistent slip-rate estimates. The long-term slip-rate of 13.9 ± 1.1more » mm/yr is defined at the 95% confidence level, as the joint rate probability distribution of the rate derived from each independent terrace. It falls within the bounds of all the rates defined on the central Altyn Tagh Fault between the Cherchen He (86.4°E) and Akato Tagh (~88°E) sites. This rate is ~10 mm/yr less than the upper rate determined near Tura at ~87°E, in keeping with the inference of an eastward decreasing rate due to progressive loss of slip to thrusts branching off the fault southwards but it is greater than the 9 ± 4 mm/yr rate determined at ~90°E by GPS surveys and other geodetic short-term rates defined elsewhere along the ATF. Furthermore, whether such disparate rates will ultimately be reconciled by a better understanding of fault mechanics, resolved transient deformations during the seismic cycle or by more accurate measurements made with either approach remains an important issue.« less

  18. The Pingding segment of the Altyn Tagh Fault (91 °E): Holocene slip-rate determination from cosmogenic radionuclide dating of offset fluvial terraces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meriaux, A. -S.; Van der Woerd, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Lasserre, C.; Xu, X.

    2012-09-25

    Morphochronologic slip-rates on the Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF) along the southern front of the Pingding Shan at ~90.5°E are determined by cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) dating of seven offset terraces at two sites. The terraces are defined based upon morphology, elevation and dating, together with fieldwork and high-resolution satellite analysis. The majority of the CRN model ages fall within narrow ranges (<2 ka) on the four main terraces (T1, T2, T3 and T3′), and allow a detailed terrace chronology. Bounds on the terrace ages and offsets of 5 independent terraces yield consistent slip-rate estimates. The long-term slip-rate of 13.9 ± 1.1 mm/yr is defined at the 95% confidence level, as the joint rate probability distribution of the rate derived from each independent terrace. It falls within the bounds of all the rates defined on the central Altyn Tagh Fault between the Cherchen He (86.4°E) and Akato Tagh (~88°E) sites. This rate is ~10 mm/yr less than the upper rate determined near Tura at ~87°E, in keeping with the inference of an eastward decreasing rate due to progressive loss of slip to thrusts branching off the fault southwards but it is greater than the 9 ± 4 mm/yr rate determined at ~90°E by GPS surveys and other geodetic short-term rates defined elsewhere along the ATF. Furthermore, whether such disparate rates will ultimately be reconciled by a better understanding of fault mechanics, resolved transient deformations during the seismic cycle or by more accurate measurements made with either approach remains an important issue.

  19. Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1988-01-01

    A two piston Stirling engine wherein the pistons are coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means, the pistons include pad means to minimize friction between the pistons and the cylinders during reciprocation of the pistons, means for pressurizing the engine crankcase, and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

  20. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  1. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with BackpressureTurbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and ...

  2. Method of producing a high pressure gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing a high pressure gas is disclosed and which includes providing a container; supplying the container with a liquid such as water; increasing the pressure of the liquid within the container; supplying a reactant composition such as a chemical hydride to the liquid under pressure in the container and which chemically reacts with the liquid to produce a resulting high pressure gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of greater than about 100 pounds per square inch of pressure; and drawing the resulting high pressure gas from the container.

  3. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  4. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  5. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  6. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  7. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  8. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE DATA SHEET FORM PS-5 Pressure System Number...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DEVICE DATA Device Type Safety Relief Valve Rupture Disk Other (specify) ... test passed: YES NO Pop test (valve only) pressure: Test pressure within 5% or ...

  9. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet outlines optimal conditions for flashing high-pressure condensate to regenerate low-pressure steam in steam systems.

  10. Pressure Data: BOP Summary 28 May 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a schematic of the BOP stack with the static pressure data recoded on the 28th of May and shows pressures before and after the attempted top kill and junk shots.

  11. High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  12. Self-pressurizing Stirling engine (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self-pressurizing Stirling engine Title: Self-pressurizing Stirling engine A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling ...

  13. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  14. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  15. Non-plugging pressure tap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, Joseph P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A pressure tap having utility in an environment of a solid-gas phase process flow includes a tubular coupling part having attached over a passage therethrough at an end opening thereof exposed to the flow a grating of spaced bars, and affixed internally across a passage therethrough so as to cover over an opening therein a screen which maintains contained within the passage between it and the grating a matrix of smooth spheres. The grating bars are so oriented by the disposition of the aforesaid end opening with respect to the flow such that accumulations of solids therebetween tending to bridge the opening are removed therefrom by the flow.

  16. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, James K. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  17. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  18. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  19. Stochastic Inversion of InSAR Data to Assess the Probability of Pressure Penetration into the Lower Caprock at In Salah

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ramirez, Abelardo; Foxall, William

    2014-05-28

    Stochastic inversions of InSAR data were carried out to assess the probability that pressure perturbations resulting from CO2 injection into well KB-502 at In Salah penetrated into the lower caprock seal above the reservoir. Inversions of synthetic data were employed to evaluate the factors that affect the vertical resolution of overpressure distributions, and to assess the impact of various sources of uncertainty in prior constraints on inverse solutions. These include alternative pressure-driven deformation modes within reservoir and caprock, the geometry of a sub-vertical fracture zone in the caprock identified in previous studies, and imperfect estimates of the rock mechanical properties.more » Inversions of field data indicate that there is a high probability that a pressure perturbation during the first phase of injection extended upwards along the fracture zone ~ 150 m above the reservoir, and less than 50% probability that it reached the Hot Shale unit at 1500 m depth. Within the uncertainty bounds considered, it was concluded that it is very unlikely that the pressure perturbation approached within 150 m of the top of the lower caprock at the Hercynian Unconformity. The results are consistent with previous deterministic inversion and forward modeling studies.« less

  20. Stochastic Inversion of InSAR Data to Assess the Probability of Pressure Penetration into the Lower Caprock at In Salah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, Abelardo; Foxall, William

    2014-05-28

    Stochastic inversions of InSAR data were carried out to assess the probability that pressure perturbations resulting from CO2 injection into well KB-502 at In Salah penetrated into the lower caprock seal above the reservoir. Inversions of synthetic data were employed to evaluate the factors that affect the vertical resolution of overpressure distributions, and to assess the impact of various sources of uncertainty in prior constraints on inverse solutions. These include alternative pressure-driven deformation modes within reservoir and caprock, the geometry of a sub-vertical fracture zone in the caprock identified in previous studies, and imperfect estimates of the rock mechanical properties. Inversions of field data indicate that there is a high probability that a pressure perturbation during the first phase of injection extended upwards along the fracture zone ~ 150 m above the reservoir, and less than 50% probability that it reached the Hot Shale unit at 1500 m depth. Within the uncertainty bounds considered, it was concluded that it is very unlikely that the pressure perturbation approached within 150 m of the top of the lower caprock at the Hercynian Unconformity. The results are consistent with previous deterministic inversion and forward modeling studies.

  1. DETONATION PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS ON PETN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, L G; Lee, E L

    2006-06-23

    PETN is widely recognized as an example of nearly ideal detonation performance. The chemical composition is such that little or no carbon is produced in the detonation products. The reaction zone width is less than currently detectable. (<1 ns) Observations on PETN have thus become a baseline for EOS model predictions. It has therefore become important to characterize the detonation parameters as accurately as possible in order to provide the most exacting comparisons of EOS predictions with experimental results. We undertook a painstaking review of the detonation pressure measurements reported in an earlier work that was presented at the Fifth Detonation Symposium and found that corrections were required in determining the shock velocity in the PMMA witness material. We also refined the impedance calculation to account for the difference between the usual ''acoustic'' method and the more accurate Riemann integral. Our review indicates that the CJ pressures previously reported for full density PETN require an average lowering of about 6 percent. The lower densities require progressively smaller corrections. We present analysis of the records, supporting hydrodynamic simulations, the Riemann integral results, and EOS parameter values derived from the revised results.

  2. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosier, Bruce P. [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  3. Low frequency pressure modulation of indium antimonide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallock, Gary A.; Meier, Mark A.

    2012-07-15

    A lumped parameter resonator capable of generating megapascal pressures at low frequency (kilohertz) is described. Accelerometers are used to determine the applied pressure, and are calibrated with a piezoelectric sample. A laser diagnostic was also developed to measure the pressure in semiconductor samples through the band gap pressure dependence. In addition, the laser diagnostic has been used to measure the attenuation coefficient {alpha} of commercially available indium antimonide (InSb) wafers. The resonator and laser diagnostic have been used with InSb samples to verify the pressure response.

  4. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

    2009-07-22

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir pressure can indeed be used to drive the reverse osmosis process. Our initial conclusions from the work to date are encouraging: (1) The concept of aquifer-pressured RO to provide fresh water associated with carbon dioxide storage appears feasible. (2) Concentrated brines such as those found in Wyoming are amenable to RO treatment. We have looked at sodium chloride brines from the Nugget Formation in Sublette County. 20-25% removal with conventional methods is realistic; higher removal appears achievable with NF. The less concentrated sulfate-rich brines from the Tensleep Formation in Sublette County would support >80% removal with conventional RO. (3) Brines from other proposed sequestration sites can now be analyzed readily. An osmotic pressure curve appropriate to these brines can be used to evaluate cost and equipment specifications. (4) We have examined a range of subsurface brine compositions that is potentially pertinent to carbon sequestration and noted the principal compositional trends pertinent to evaluating the feasibility of freshwater extraction. We have proposed a general categorization for the feasibility of the process based on total dissolved solids (TDS). (5) Withdrawing pressurized brine can have a very beneficial effect on reservoir pressure and total available storage capacity. Brine must be extracted from a deeper location in the aquifer than the point of CO{sub 2} injection to prevent CO{sub 2} from migrating to the brine extraction well.

  5. High-pressure studies of melamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pravica, Michael; Kim, Eunja; Tkachev, Sergey; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming

    2010-04-05

    We performed the first high-pressure study of melamine using X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) up to -17 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at ambient temperature. We utilized the 16 ID-D undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source for the X-ray source. The observed diminishment of the 1s {yields} {pi}* peak as well as other changes in the XRS spectra with pressure suggest the possibility of intra- and inter-molecular bonding changes due to two phase changes in the investigated pressure range or hybridization changes of atomic orbitals in the material with pressure. We also performed a complementary X-ray powder diffraction study of neat melamine up to 24 GPa observing at least two phase transitions with pressure. Pressure cycling indicated that the phase transitions were reversible. Density-functional theory calculations performed on the system at ambient and low pressure show a high level of agreement with the experiments.

  6. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2006-08-29

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  7. System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

  8. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2007-09-04

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  9. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  10. Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, J.A.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a Stirling cycle engine comprising an engine housing which includes compression and expansion cylinders and a crankcase area; a compression piston and an expansion piston positioned in respective cylinders in the housing and coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means. The crankshaft being positioned in the crankcase area which is defined by the pistons and the housing. The pistons includes pad means between the pistons and their respective cylinders to minimize the friction therebetween during reciprocal movement thereof; the crankcase being pressurized to inhibit the passing of working gas past the pistons; and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

  11. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  12. Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehberger, Kevin M.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device.

  13. Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses This tip sheet outlines alternative strategies for low-pressure end uses as a ...

  14. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  15. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

    1994-04-26

    A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

  16. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, Thomas C.; Morgan, John P.; Marchant, Norman J.; Bolton, Steven M.

    1994-01-01

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

  17. Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehberger, K.M.

    1994-01-04

    An apparatus is described for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device. 2 figures.

  18. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.

    1998-08-25

    A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

  19. Low-pressure injection molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangels, J.A. (Ceradyne Inc., Costa Mesa, CA (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Ceramic injection molding experienced a revival in the 1970s and 1980s with the application of ceramics for gas turbine components. Concurrently, techniques were being developed for the injection molding of powdered metal compositions into complex shaped articles. The impetus for the development of injection molding as a ceramic fabrication process lay in the potential to produce complex-shaped components to near-net shape. In the ceramic injection molding process, ceramic powders are processed to obtain the desired particle size, distribution and morphology and blended to obtain a homogeneous distribution. These powders are then mixed with the organic binders, generally in a heated, highshear mixer at temperatures above the melting point of the organic binders. The injection molding mix is pelletized, cooled and fed into an injection molding machine. The molding mix is reheated to a fluid state and injected under high pressure (7--70 MPa) into a die cavity. The molded part is removed from the tooling after the molding mix has solidified in the die. The organic binders are then removed from the component at temperatures up to 400 C, generally by some combination of wicking and thermal decomposition. Finally, the component is sintered to obtain its final ceramic properties, using conventional ceramic processes.

  20. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred; Myers, Blake; Magnotta, Frank

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

  1. High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many types of compressed hydrogen tanks have been certified worldwide and demonstrated in several prototype fuel cell vehicles. The following information discusses high-pressure hydrogen tank...

  2. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues This brief details industrial steam ... A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control

  3. Pulse Pressure Forming of Lightweight Materials, Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forming of Lightweight Materials, Development of High Strength Superplastic Al Sheet, Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels Pulse Pressure Forming of...

  4. Digiquartz pressure transducer calibration test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentzen, F.L.

    1980-12-01

    The safeguarding of strategic nuclear material in chemical fuel reprocessing plants requires the accurate determination of liquid level, which is translated to pressure through bubbler probes. To measure the pressure with sufficient accuracy requires transducers better than standard process units. The Paroscientific Inc. Digiquartz transducer meets the requirement when calibrated. Calibration was accomplished with an automatic data acquisition system using a Hewlett Packard 9825A computer and associated precision laboratory equipment and a Ruska DDR 6000 pressure calibrator. Data were taken from 0 to 15 psid over the range of 15 to 60/sup 0/C for 14 pressure transducers.

  5. Pressure dependence of Hexanitrostilbene Raman/ electronic absorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hexanitrostilbene Raman electronic absorption spectra to validate DFT EOS. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure dependence of Hexanitrostilbene Raman electronic ...

  6. Predicting Pressure-Dependent Combustion Chemical Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Predicting Pressure-Dependent Combustion Chemical Reactions - Sandia Energy Energy Search ... ARPA-E Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences ...

  7. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  8. STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VALVE RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENTS 2004 TO 2014 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE RELIABILITY ...

  9. Pressure dependence of Hexanitrostilbene Raman/ electronic absorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    its thermal stability and low vapor pressure, Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) is often used in high- temperature or vacuum applications as a detonator explosive or in mild detonating fuse. ...

  10. STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENTS 2004 TO 2014 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE ...

  11. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

  12. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  13. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  14. Balanced pressure techniques applied to geothermal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dareing, D.W.

    1981-08-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate balanced pressure drilling techniques for use in combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling. Drilling techniques evaluated are: aerated drilling mud, parasite tubing, concentric drill pipe, jet sub, and low density fluids. Based on the present state of the art of balanced pressure drilling techniques, drilling with aerated water has the best overall balance of performance, risk, availability, and cost. Aerated water with a 19:1 free air/water ratio reduce maximum pressure unbalance between wellbore and formation pressures from 1000 psi to 50 psi. This pressure unbalance is within acceptable operating limits; however, air pockets could form and cause pressure surges in the mud system due to high percent of air. Low density fluids used with parasite tubing has the greatest potential for combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling, when performance only is considered. The top portion of the hole would be aerated through the parasite tube at a 10:1 free air/mud ratio and the low density mud could be designed so that its pressure gradient exactly matches the formation pore pressure gradient. The main problem with this system at present is the high cost of ceramic beads needed to produce low density muds.

  15. Induced topological pressure for topological dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Zhitao; Chen, Ercai

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, inspired by the article [J. Jaerisch et al., Stochastics Dyn. 14, 1350016, pp. 1-30 (2014)], we introduce the induced topological pressure for a topological dynamical system. In particular, we prove a variational principle for the induced topological pressure.

  16. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  17. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  18. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE DATA SHEET FORM PS-5 Pressure System Number: Date:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELIEF DEVICE DATA SHEET FORM PS-5 Pressure System Number: Date: Pressure System Name: Pressure Vessel Number (if Applicable): Device installed directly on vessel?: __Yes __No Code: System Fluid: Code Year: Fluid State: Fluid Category: RELIEF DEVICE DATA Device Type ___Safety Relief Valve ____Rupture Disk ___Other (specify) Certification Type: ___ASME ___CE/PED ___Other (specify) Manufacturer Rated Flow Capacity: Part Number Converted Flow Capacity: Serial Number Set Pressure Inspection/Test

  19. Extreme pressure fluid sample transfer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halverson, Justin E.; Bowman, Wilfred W.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer pump for samples of fluids at very low or very high pressures comprising a cylinder having a piston sealed with an O-ring, the piston defining forward and back chambers, an inlet and exit port and valve arrangement for the fluid to enter and leave the forward chamber, and a port and valve arrangement in the back chamber for adjusting the pressure across the piston so that the pressure differential across the piston is essentially zero and approximately equal to the pressure of the fluid so that the O-ring seals against leakage of the fluid and the piston can be easily moved, regardless of the pressure of the fluid. The piston may be actuated by a means external to the cylinder with a piston rod extending through a hole in the cylinder sealed with a bellows attached to the piston head and the interior of the back chamber.

  20. Rapid pressure cycle effects on flexible pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.T.; Upchurch, J.L.; McMahan, J.M. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    The use of subsea satellite wells tied back to a central manifold unit is a field development concept currently being used by operating companies for staged production of either commingled oil or gas. Remote platform operated control systems that couple the satellite wells and manifold require that safe operating pressure cycle parameters be established for all subsea components. Because of start-up and shut-in procedures, extreme pressure variations in the form of rapid pressurization and depressurization must be considered. This paper describes the test procedures, equipment and results specific to the evaluation of high pressure non-bonded flexible pipe used for subsea production jumpers between satellite wells and manifold system. Recommendation of safe rates of pressurization and depressurization are included.

  1. Ceramic pressure housing with metal endcaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, J.P. Jr.; DeRoos, B.G.; Hackman, D.J.

    1995-06-27

    A housing is disclosed for the containment of instrumentation in a high pressure fluid environment that consists of a metallic endcap and ceramic cylinder bonded together. The improvement comprises a structure which results in the improved sealing of said housing as the fluid pressure increases. The cylindrical ceramic tube and endcap are dimensioned such that mechanical failure does not occur when exposed to the desired external operating pressures which includes up to 36,000 feet of water. The housing is designed to withstand the external operating pressures without being subject to mechanical failure or excessive deformation which results in the loss of pressure housing integrity via cracking or deformation of the ceramic tube, deformation of the endcap, or from failure of the bonding agent. 9 figs.

  2. Variable pressure ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, Michelle V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for differentiating organic compounds based on their electron affinity. An electron capture detector cell (ECD) is operated at pressures ranging from atmospheric to less than 1 torr. Through variation of the pressure within the ECD cell, the organic compounds are induced to either capture or emit electrons. Differentiation of isomeric compounds can be obtianed when, at a given pressure, one isomer is in the emission mode and the other is in the capture mode. Output of the ECD is recorded by chromatogram. The invention also includes a method for obtaining the zero-crossing pressure of a compound, defined as the pressure at which the competing emission and capture reactions are balanced and which may be correlated to the electron affinity of a compound.

  3. Flowmeter for pressure-driven chromatography systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.

    2003-01-01

    A flowmeter for accurately measuring the flowrate of fluids in high pressure chromatography systems. The flowmeter is a porous bed of a material, the porous bed having a porosity in the range of about 0.1 to 0.6 and a pore size in the range of about 50 nm to 1 .mu.m, disposed between a high pressure pumping means and a chromatography column. The flowmeter is provided with pressure measuring means at both the inlet and outlet of the porous bed for measuring the pressure drop through the porous bed. This flowmeter system provides not only the ability to measure accurately flowrates in the range of .mu.L/min to nL/min but also to provide a signal that can be used for a servo loop or feedback control system for high pressure pumping systems.

  4. Flowmeter for pressure-driven chromatography systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.

    2002-01-01

    A flowmeter for accurately measuring the flowrate of fluids in high pressure chromatography systems. The flowmeter is a porous bed of a material, the porous bed having a porosity in the range of about 0.1 to 0.6 and a pore size in the range of about 50 nm to 1 .mu.m, disposed between a high pressure pumping means and a chromatography column. The flowmeter is provided with pressure measuring means at both the inlet and outlet of the porous bed for measuring the pressure drop through the porous bed. This flowmeter system provides not only the ability to measure accurately flowrates in the range of .mu.L/min to nL/min but also to provide a signal that can be used for a servo loop or feedback control system for high pressure pumping systems.

  5. EDC-37 Deflagration Rates at Elevated Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maienschein, J L; Koerner, J G

    2008-01-31

    We report deflagration rates on EDC-37 at high pressures. Experiments are conducted using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory High Pressure Strand Burner (HPSB) apparatus. The HPSB contains a deflagrating sample in a small volume, high pressure chamber. The sample consists of nine, 6.35 mm diameter, 6.35 mm length cylinders stacked on end, with burn wires placed between cylinders. Sample deflagration is limited to the cross-sectional surface of the cylinder by coating the cylindrical surface of the tower with Halthane 88-2 epoxy. Sample deflagration is initiated on one end of the tower by a B/KNO{sub 3} and HNS igniter train. Simultaneous temporal pressure history and burn front time of arrival measurements yield the laminar deflagration rate for a range of pressures and provide insight into deflagration uniformity. These measurements are one indicator of overall thermal explosion violence. Specific details of the experiment and the apparatus can be found in the literature.

  6. Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forster, George A.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

  7. Ceramic pressure housing with metal endcaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Hackman, Donald J. (Columbus, OH)

    1995-01-01

    A housing for the containment of instrumentation in a high pressure fluid environment that consists of a metallic endcap and ceramic cylinder bonded together. The improvement comprises a structure which results in the improved sealing of said housing as the fluid pressure increases. The cylindrical ceramic tube and endcap are dimensioned such that mechanical failure does not occur when exposed to the desired external operating pressures which includes up to 36,000 feet of water. The housing is designed to withstand the external operating pressures without being subject to mechanical failure or excessive deformation which results in the loss of pressure housing integrity via cracking or deformation of the ceramic tube, deformation of the endcap, or from failure of the bonding agent.

  8. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

  9. Electrochemical cell having improved pressure vent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dean, Kevin (Pontiac, MI); Holland, Arthur (Troy, MI); Fillmore, Donn (Waterford, MI)

    1993-01-01

    The electrochemical cell of the instant invention includes a case having a gas outlet, one or more positive electrodes positioned within the case, one or more negative electrodes positioned within the case electrode separators positioned between the positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte positioned within the case, and a pressure vent for releasing internal pressure occurring in the case to the surrounding atmosphere. The pressure vent is affixed to the case covering the gas outlet, the pressure vent includes a vent housing having a hollow interior area in gaseous communication with the surrounding atmosphere and the interior of the case via the gas outlet, a pressure release piston positioned within the hollow interior area, the pressure release piston sized to surround the gas outlet and having a seal groove configured to encapsulate all but one surface of a seal mounted within the seal groove, leaving the non-encapsulated surface of the seal exposed, and a compression spring positioned to urge the pressure release piston to compress the seal in the seal groove and block the gas outlet in the case.

  10. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  11. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  12. Initiation Pressure Thresholds from Three Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2007-02-28

    Pressure thresholds are minimum pressures needed to start explosive initiation that ends in detonation. We obtain pressure thresholds from three sources. Run-to-detonation times are the poorest source but the fitting of a function gives rough results. Flyer-induced initiation gives the best results because the initial conditions are the best known. However, very thick flyers are needed to give the lowest, asymptotic pressure thresholds used in modern models and this kind of data is rarely available. Gap test data is in much larger supply but the various test sizes and materials are confusing. We find that explosive pressures are almost the same if the distance in the gap test spacers are in units of donor explosive radius. Calculated half-width time pulses in the spacers may be used to create a pressure-time curve similar to that of the flyers. The very-large Eglin gap tests give asymptotic thresholds comparable to extrapolated flyer results. The three sources are assembled into a much-expanded set of near-asymptotic pressure thresholds. These thresholds vary greatly with density: for TATB/LX-17/PBX 9502, we find values of 4.9 and 8.7 GPa at 1.80 and 1.90 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively.

  13. Pressure Safety Program Implementation at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, Mark; Etheridge, Tom; Oland, C. Barry

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. In February 2006, DOE promulgated worker safety and health regulations to govern contractor activities at DOE sites. These regulations, which are provided in 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program, establish requirements for worker safety and health program that reduce or prevent occupational injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing DOE contractors and their workers with safe and healthful workplaces at DOE sites. The regulations state that contractors must achieve compliance no later than May 25, 2007. According to 10 CFR 851, Subpart C, Specific Program Requirements, contractors must have a structured approach to their worker safety and health programs that at a minimum includes provisions for pressure safety. In implementing the structured approach for pressure safety, contractors must establish safety policies and procedures to ensure that pressure systems are designed, fabricated, tested, inspected, maintained, repaired, and operated by trained, qualified personnel in accordance with applicable sound engineering principles. In addition, contractors must ensure that all pressure vessels, boilers, air receivers, and supporting piping systems conform to (1) applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (2004) Sections I through XII, including applicable code cases; (2) applicable ASME B31 piping codes; and (3) the strictest applicable state and local codes. When national consensus codes are not applicable because of pressure range, vessel geometry, use of special materials, etc., contractors must implement measures to provide equivalent protection and ensure a level of safety greater than or equal to the level of protection afforded by the ASME or applicable state or local codes. This report documents the work performed to address legacy pressure vessel deficiencies and comply with pressure safety requirements in 10 CFR 851. It also describes actions taken to develop and implement ORNL’s Pressure Safety Program.

  14. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V.

    2015-03-24

    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including transitions from magnetic to nonmagnetic phases in a broad pressure-temperature range; using X-ray methods including the newly developed RIXS high-pressure technique to explore pressure-tuned electronic excitations in strongly correlated 3d-materials; and advancing transport and magnetic techniques for measurements on small samples at very high pressures in a wide temperature range, with the application of focused ion beam technology and photolithography tailored to the design of microcircuits down to a nanoscale size, thus expanding the horizon in the search for novel physical phenomena at ultrahigh pressures. Apply new optical magnetic sensing techniques with NV- centers in diamond to detect superconductivity and magnetic transitions with unprecedented spatial resolution.

  15. Eddy current technique for predicting burst pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, Mark C.; Kupperman, David S.; Morman, James A.; Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    2003-01-01

    A signal processing technique which correlates eddy current inspection data from a tube having a critical tubing defect with a range of predicted burst pressures for the tube is provided. The method can directly correlate the raw eddy current inspection data representing the critical tubing defect with the range of burst pressures using a regression technique, preferably an artificial neural network. Alternatively, the technique deconvolves the raw eddy current inspection data into a set of undistorted signals, each of which represents a separate defect of the tube. The undistorted defect signal which represents the critical tubing defect is related to a range of burst pressures utilizing a regression technique.

  16. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  17. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Don W.

    1995-01-01

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  18. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, Lewis A.

    2001-01-01

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  19. Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

  20. Pressurization of whole element canister during staging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, F.F.

    1998-01-27

    An analytical model was developed to estimate the buildup of gas pressure for a single outer element in a hot cell test container for a post cold vacuum drying staging/storage test. This model considers various sources of gas generation and gas consumption as a function of time. In a canister containing spent nuclear fuel, hydrogen is generated from the reactions of uranium with free water or hydrated water, hydride decomposition, and radiolysis. The canister pressurization model predicts a stable pressure and a peak temperature during staging, with an assumption that a fuel element contains 40 gm of corrosion products and a decay heat of 2.07 or 1.06 Watts. Calculations were also performed on constant temperature tests for fuel elements containing varied amounts of sludge tested at 150, 125, 105, and 85 C. The pressurization model will be used to evaluate test results obtained from post-drying testing on whole fuel elements.

  1. Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    membrane testing cell is ported by a permeate multiport valve for sampling or venting. ... pressures and flow rates on each side of the planar membrane throughout a sampling cycle. ...

  2. High pressure chemistry of substituted acetylenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chellappa, Raja; Dattelbaum, Dana; Sheffield, Stephen; Robbins, David

    2011-01-25

    High pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments were performed on substituted polyacetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C{triple_bond}CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-Si{triple_bond}CH] to investigate pressure-induced chemical reactions. The starting samples were the low temperature crystalline phases which persisted metastably at room temperature and polymerized beyond 11 GPa and 26 GPa for TBA and ETMS respectively. These reaction onset pressures are considerably higher than what we observed in the shockwave studies (6.1 GPa for TBA and 6.6 GPa for ETMS). Interestingly, in the case of ETMS, it was observed with fluid ETMS as starting sample, reacts to form a semi-crystalline polymer (crystalline domains corresponding to the low-T phase) at pressures less than {approx}2 GPa. Further characterization using vibrational spectroscopy is in progress.

  3. Equations determine coiled tubing collapse pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avakov, V.; Taliaferro, W.

    1995-07-24

    A set of equations has been developed for calculating pipe collapse pressure for oval tubing such as coiled tubing. When coiled tubing is placed onto a reel, the tubing is forced into an oval shape and never again returns to perfect roundness because the coiling process exceeds the plasticity limits of the tubing. Straightening the tubing for the trip into the well does not restore roundness. The consequence of this physical property is that all coiled tubing collapse pressure calculations should be made considering oval tubing, not round tubing. Tubing collapse can occur when formation pressure against the coiled tubing exceeds the collapse resistance inherent in the coiled tubing. As coiled tubing becomes more oval in shape, it becomes more oval in shape, it becomes more susceptible to collapse from outside pressure.

  4. Pressure induced swelling in microporous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Thomas; Hriljac, Joseph A.; Lee, Yongjae

    2006-07-11

    A method for capturing specified materials which includes contacting a microporous material with a hydrostatic fluid having at least one specified material carried therein, under pressure which structurally distorts the lattice sufficiently to permit entry of the at least one specified material. The microporous material is capable of undergoing a temporary structural distortion which alters resting lattice dimensions under increased ambient pressure and at least partially returning to rest lattice dimensions when returned to ambient pressure. The pressure of the fluid is then reduced to permit return to at least partial resting lattice dimension while the at least one specified material is therein. By this method, at least one specified material is captured in the microporous material to form a modified microporous material.

  5. CRAD, Pressurized Systems and Cryogens Assessment Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assure personnel health and safety through regularly scheduled inspections and maintenance on pressure vessels and equipment, compressed gases and gas cylinders, vacuum equipment and systems, hydraulics, and cryogenic materials and systems.

  6. Furnace Pressure Controllers; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This negative pressure causes ambient air to leak into the furnace. Figure 1 shows rates of air infiltration resulting from furnace draft. This air has to be heated to the flue gas ...

  7. Self-pressurizing Stirling engine (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self-pressurizing Stirling engine Title: Self-pressurizing Stirling engine A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically

  8. PURE NIOBIUM AS A PRESSURE VESSEL MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T. J.; Carter, H. F.; Foley, M. H.; Klebaner, A. L.; Nicol, T. H.; Page, T. M.; Theilacker, J. C.; Wands, R. H.; Wong-Squires, M. L.; Wu, G.

    2010-04-09

    Physics laboratories around the world are developing niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for use in particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are typically cooled to low temperatures by direct contact with a liquid helium bath, resulting in at least part of the helium container being made from pure niobium. In the U.S., the Code of Federal Regulations allows national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel rules or use of alternative rules which provide a level of safety greater than or equal to that afforded by ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up also being treated as a material for pressure vessels. This report summarizes what we have learned about the use of niobium as a pressure vessel material, with a focus on issues for compliance with pressure vessel codes. We present results of a literature search for mechanical properties and tests results, as well as a review of ASME pressure vessel code requirements and issues.

  9. Activation of 200 MW refusegenerated CHP upward regulation effect...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    regulation effect Country Denmark Headquarters Location Thisted, Denmark Coordinates 56.959167, 8.703492 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","typ...

  10. Category:Pressure Temperature Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Pressure Temperature Log page? For detailed information on Pressure Temperature Log, click here. Category:Pressure Temperature Log Add.png Add a...

  11. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam This tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides ...

  12. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies of phase transitions and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prilliman, Gerald Stephen

    2003-09-01

    The behavior of nanocrystals under extreme pressure was investigated using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. A major part of this investigation was the testing of a prototype synchrotron endstation on a bend magnet beamline at the Advanced Light Source for high pressure work using a diamond anvil cell. The experiments conducted and documented here helped to determine issues of efficiency and accuracy that had to be resolved before the construction of a dedicated ''super-bend'' beamline and endstation. The major conclusions were the need for a cryo-cooled monochromator and a fully remote-controllable pressurization system which would decrease the time to change pressure and greatly reduce the error created by the re-placement of the diamond anvil cell after each pressure change. Two very different types of nanocrystal systems were studied, colloidal iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and thin film TiN/BN. Iron oxide nanocrystals were found to have a transition from the {gamma} to the {alpha} structure at a pressure strongly dependent on the size of the nanocrystals, ranging from 26 GPa for 7.2 nm nanocrystals to 37 GPa for 3.6 nm nanocrystals. All nanocrystals were found to remain in the {alpha} structure even after release of pressure. The transition pressure was also found, for a constant size (5.7 nm) to be strongly dependent on the degree of aggregation of the nanocrystals, increasing from 30 GPa for completely dissolved nanocrystals to 45 GPa for strongly aggregated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction pattern of the pressure induced {alpha} phase demonstrated a decrease in intensity for certain select peaks. Together, these observations were used to make a complete picture of the phase transition in nanocrystalline systems. The size dependence of the transition was interpreted as resulting from the extremely high surface energy of the {alpha} phase which would increase the thermodynamic offset and thereby increase the kinetic barrier to transition that must be overridden with pressure. The anomalous intensities in the x-ray diffraction patterns were interpreted as being the result of stacking faults, indicating that the mechanism of transition proceeds by the sliding of {gamma}(111) planes to form {alpha}(001) planes. The increasing transition pressure for more aggregated samples may be due to a positive activation volume, retarding the transition for nanocrystals with less excess (organic) volume available to them. The lack of a reverse transition upon decompression makes this interpretation more difficult because of the lack of an observable hysteresis, and it is therefore difficult to ascertain kinetic effects for certain. In the case TiN/BN nanocomposite systems, it was found that the bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) of the TiN nanoparticles was not correlated to the observed hardness or Young's modulus of the macroscopic thin film. This indicates that the origin of the observed super-hard nature of these materials is not due to any change in the Ti-N interatomic potential. Rather, the enhanced hardness must be due to nano-structural effects. It was also found that during pressurization the TiN nanoparticles developed a great deal of strain. This strain can be related to defects induced in individual nanoparticles which generates strain in adjacent particles due to the highly coupled nature of the system.

  13. High-pressure structural study of MgCl2 up to 1 Mbar: Extensive pressure

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    stability of the B-MgCl2 layered structure. (Conference) | SciTech Connect High-pressure structural study of MgCl2 up to 1 Mbar: Extensive pressure stability of the B-MgCl2 layered structure. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure structural study of MgCl2 up to 1 Mbar: Extensive pressure stability of the B-MgCl2 layered structure. Authors: Stavrou, E ; Zaug, J M ; Bastea, S ; Yansun, Y ; Kalkan, B ; Konopkova, Z ; Kunz, M Publication Date: 2016-03-01 OSTI Identifier:

  14. Fracture analysis of axially cracked pressure tube of pressurized heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, S.; Bhasin, V.; Mahajan, S.C.

    1997-04-01

    Three Dimensional (313) finite element elastic plastic fracture analysis was done for through wall axially cracked thin pressure tubes of 220 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. The analysis was done for Zr-2 and Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes operating at 300{degrees}C and subjected to 9.5 Mpa internal pressure. Critical crack length was determined based on tearing instability concept. The analysis included the effect of crack face pressure due to the leaking fluid from tube. This effect was found to be significant for pressure tubes. The available formulae for calculating J (for axially cracked tubes) do not take into account the effect of crack face pressure. 3D finite element analysis also gives insight into variation of J across the thickness of pressure tube. It was observed that J is highest at the mid-surface of tube. The results have been presented in the form of across the thickness average J value and a peak factor on J. Peak factor on J is ratio of J at mid surface to average J value. Crack opening area for different cracked lengths was calculated from finite element results. The fracture assessment of pressure tubes was also done using Central Electricity Generating Board R-6 method. Ductile tearing was considered.

  15. Levitation pressure and friction losses in superconducting bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    2001-01-01

    A superconducting bearing having at least one permanent magnet magnetized with a vertical polarization. The lower or stator portion of the bearing includes an array of high-temperature superconducting elements which are comprised of a plurality of annular rings. An annular ring is located below each permanent magnet and an annular ring is offset horizontally from at least one of the permanent magnets. The rings are composed of individual high-temperature superconducting elements located circumferentially along the ring. By constructing the horizontally-offset high-temperature superconducting ring so that the c-axis is oriented in a radial direction, a higher levitation force can be achieved. Such an orientation will also provide substantially lower rotational drag losses in the bearing.

  16. Apparatus and method for pressure testing closure disks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merten, C.W. Jr.

    1992-01-21

    A method and device are described for testing the burst pressure of closure disks which provides high pressure to both sides of a disk and rapidly releases pressure from one side thereof causing a high rate of change of pressure. A hollow notched plug allows the rapid release of pressure upon rupturing. A tensile load is transmitted by a piston in combination with fluid pressure to the hollow notched plug. 5 figs.

  17. Apparatus and method for pressure testing closure disks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merten, Jr., Charles W.

    1992-01-21

    A method and device for testing the burst pressure of closure disks which provides high pressure to both sides of a disk and rapidly releases pressure from one side thereof causing a high rate of change of pressure. A hollow notched plug allows the rapid release of pressure upon rupturing. A tensile load is transmitted by a piston in combination with fluid pressure to the hollow notched plug.

  18. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

  19. Pressure Relief Devices for Compressed Hydrogen Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Relief Devices for Compressed Hydrogen Vehicle Fuel Containers Pressure Relief Devices for Compressed Hydrogen Vehicle Fuel Containers These slides were presented at the...

  20. Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Overseeing...

  1. Assessment of Homogeneous Thorium/Uranium Fuel for Pressurized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fuel for Pressurized Water Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Homogeneous ThoriumUranium Fuel for Pressurized Water Reactors The homogeneous ...

  2. Partial Defect Testing of Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Partial Defect Testing of Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Assemblies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Partial Defect Testing of Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel ...

  3. The most incompressible metal osmium at static pressures above...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The most incompressible metal osmium at static pressures above 750 gigapascals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The most incompressible metal osmium at static pressures ...

  4. Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure Authors: Lobanov, Sergey S. ; Zhu, Qiang ; ...

  5. Microsoft Word - Errata for the Pressure and Vacuum Systems Safety...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperature: Design pressure (MAWP): Test method: Hydrostatic Pneumatic Relief Valve Setting: Test fluid: Applicable code: Required test pressure: Test temperature: Test ...

  6. Deformation of Single Crystal Molybdenum at High Pressure (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    characterization and analysis to determine if deformation mechanisms are altered by pressure. Experiments under hydrostatic pressure provide insight into the nature of materials ...

  7. Prediction of new high pressure structural sequence in thorium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prediction of new high pressure structural sequence in thorium carbide: A first principles study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Prediction of new high pressure ...

  8. An Innovative Pressure Sensor Glow Plug Offers Improved Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Innovative Pressure Sensor Glow Plug Offers Improved Diesel Engine Closed-loop Control An Innovative Pressure Sensor Glow Plug Offers Improved Diesel Engine Closed-loop Control ...

  9. Conical Nanopores Fabricated via a Pressured-Biased Chemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conical Nanopores Fabricated via a Pressured-Biased Chemical Etch. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conical Nanopores Fabricated via a Pressured-Biased Chemical Etch. ...

  10. A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines (UM - lead, MIT, UCB) A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines ...

  11. Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructu...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure Fractal dimensions of particle aggregates and ...

  12. Sandia Energy - Water Not So "Squishy" Under Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Not So "Squishy" Under Pressure Home Water Security Office of Science News News & Events Modeling Modeling & Analysis Water Not So "Squishy" Under Pressure Previous Next Water Not...

  13. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by ... Title: A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained ...

  14. Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors Title: Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors Authors: Guo, Jing ; Chen, Xiao-Jia ...

  15. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, ...

  16. Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum Agenda for the International Hydrogen Fuel ...

  17. High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of recovering dissolved methane from geopressured-geothermal brines at high pressures. ... The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production ...

  18. Effect of pressure on elastic, mechanical and electronic properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of pressure on elastic, mechanical and electronic properties of WSesub 2: A first-principles study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of pressure on ...

  19. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators When specifying a new boiler, consider a high-pressure boiler with a backpressure steam ...

  20. High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic ...

  1. Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in beta-LiAlSiOsubscript 4 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Amorphization ...

  2. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 ...

  3. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials We used high-pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the evolution of vibrational frequencies of the phase change ...

  4. Effect of Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and Internal Structure Effect of Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and Internal Structure Presentation given at the ...

  5. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  6. Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dacus, Michael W. (Gilbert, AR); Cole, Jack H. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1982-01-01

    The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

  7. Method for noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An ultrasonic-based method for continuous, noninvasive intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement and monitoring is described. The stress level in the skull bone is affected by pressure. This also changes the interfacial conditions between the dura matter and the skull bone. Standing waves may be set up in the skull bone and the layers in contact with the bone. At specific frequencies, there are resonance peaks in the response of the skull which can be readily detected by sweeping the excitation frequency on an excitation transducer in contact with a subject's head, while monitoring the standing wave characteristics from the signal received on a second, receiving transducer similarly in contact with the subject's head. At a chosen frequency, the phase difference between the excitation signal and the received signal can be determined. This difference can be related to the intracranial pressure and changes therein.

  8. Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dacus, M.W.; Cole, J.H.

    1980-04-23

    The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

  9. High pressure electrical insulated feed thru connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oeschger, Joseph E.; Berkeland, James E.

    1979-11-13

    A feed-thru type hermetic electrical connector including at least one connector pin feeding through an insulator block within the metallic body of the connector shell. A compression stop arrangement coaxially disposed about the insulator body is brazed to the shell, and the shoulder on the insulator block bears against this top in a compression mode, the high pressure or internal connector being at the opposite end of the shell. Seals between the pin and an internal bore at the high pressure end of the insulator block and between the insulator block and the metallic shell at the high pressure end are hermetically brazed in place, the first of these also functioning to transfer the axial compressive load without permitting appreciable shear action between the pin and insulator block.

  10. Pressurized heat treatment of glass ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, D.P.

    1984-04-19

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  11. High pressure injection of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glensvig, M.; Sorenson, S.C.; Abata, D.

    1996-12-31

    Partially oxygenated hydrocarbons produced from natural gas have been shown to be viable alternate fuels for the diesel engine, showing favorable combustion characteristics similar to that of diesel fuel but without exhaust particulates and with significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions and lower engine noise. Further, engine studies have demonstrated that such compounds, like dimethyl ether (DME), can be injected at much lower pressures than conventional diesel fuel with better overall performance. This experimental study compares the injection of DME to that of conventional diesel fuel. Both fuels were injected into a quiescent high pressure chamber containing Nitrogen at pressures up to 25 atmospheres at room temperature with a pintle nozzle and jerk pump. Comparisons were obtained with high speed photography using a Hycam camera. Results indicate that there are significant differences in spray geometry and penetration which are not predictable with analytical models currently used for diesel fuels.

  12. How temperature and pressure affect clear brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, J.T.

    1984-04-01

    The correct application of the expansivity and compressibility of brine fluids under the influence of temperature and pressure is needed to calculate the actual hydrostatic pressure in a well. Well operations can benefit by reducing unintentional overbalance, lessening fluid losses, and lowering recommended fluid densities, hence reducing fluid costs. Since the early 1970s, the effects of temperature and pressure on the density of clear brine fluids have been questioned. As early as 1973, studies were started to define density loss with increased temperature in zinc bromide brines. This article describes a continuing study, begun in 1978, which has characterized the expansivity and compressibility of single salt brine solutions, such as are used in workover and completion fluids.

  13. High pressure and high temperature apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voronov, Oleg A.

    2005-09-13

    A design for high pressure/high temperature apparatus and reaction cell to achieve .about.30 GPa pressure in .about.1 cm volume and .about.100 GPa pressure in .about.1 mm volumes and 20-5000.degree. C. temperatures in a static regime. The device includes profiled anvils (28) action on a reaction cell (14, 16) containing the material (26) to be processed. The reaction cell includes a heater (18) surrounded by insulating layers and screens. Surrounding the anvils are cylindrical inserts and supporting rings (30-48) whose hardness increases towards the reaction cell. These volumes may be increased considerably if applications require it, making use of presses that have larger loading force capability, larger frames and using larger anvils.

  14. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  15. Variable pressure power cycle and control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1984-11-27

    A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

  16. High pressure water jet mining machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  17. High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Matthew K.; Ridley, Christopher J.; Bocian, Artur; Kamenev, Konstantin V.; Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Azuma, Masaki; Attfield, J. Paul

    2014-04-15

    Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO{sub 3} have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

  18. Efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, R.K.; Walker, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article will present the steps necessary to perform a comprehensive analysis of complex pressure relief systems. The goal is not to discuss detailed calculations for proper valve sizing and selection, but rather to analyze and verify existing system configurations. Sizing and selection have been covered in detail by the American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 520, API RP 521, various AIChE Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) publications, and other sources. In their work with industry, the authors have noticed a tendency for some engineers to proceed with detailed calculations without first preparing an overall strategy and implementation plan to make sure that the calculations yield the desired results. They have seen detailed pressure relief system analyses costing hundreds of thousands of dollars which, for any number of reasons, are incorrect. The old adage GIGO (garbage in/garbage out) certainly applies to pressure relief system analysis. They will address the thought processes and actions necessary to correctly and efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems.

  19. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Babayan, Steve E.; Hicks, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  20. Compensated vibrating optical fiber pressure measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.; Goff, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A microbending optical fiber is attached under tension to a diaphragm to se a differential pressure applied across the diaphragm which it causes it to deflect. The fiber is attached to the diaphragm so that one portion of the fiber, attached to a central portion of the diaphragm, undergoes a change in tension; proportional to the differential pressure applied to the diaphragm while a second portion attached at the periphery of the diaphragm remains at a reference tension. Both portions of the fiber are caused to vibrate at their natural frequencies. Light transmitted through the fiber is attenuated by both portions of the tensioned sections of the fiber by an amount which increases with the curvature of fiber bending so that the light signal is modulated by both portions of the fiber at separate frequencies. The modulated light signal is transduced into a electrical signal. The separate modulation signals are detected to generate separate signals having frequencies corresponding to the reference and measuring vibrating sections of the continuous fiber, respectively. A signal proportional to the difference between these signals is generated which is indicative of the measured pressure differential across the diaphragm. The reference portion of the fiber is used to compensate the pressure signal for zero and span changes resulting from ambient temperature and humidity effects upon the fiber and the transducer fixture.

  1. Optical pressure/density measuring means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-05-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for rapidly and accurately determining the pressure of a fluid medium in either a static or dynamic state. The pressure is determined by making a measurement of the velocity of a light beam that is directed through the fluid medium along a pathway that enables an integrated pressure measurement to be made along the pathway, rather than making such a measurement only at a single point in the medium. A HeNe laser is configured to emit a beam of two frequencies separated by about 2 MHz. One of these beam frequencies is directed through the fluid medium and is reflected back through the medium to a non-linear diode detector. The other beam frequency is passed directly to a diode detector without traversing said medium. The diode detector is operated to determine the frequency shift or beat frequency between the two beam frequencies. Any variation in the frequency of said reflected beam that is caused by a change in its velocity as it is passed through the fluid medium causes a change in the beat frequency. This beat frequency change is then converted to an output signal value corresponding to the pressure of the medium. The measurement instrument apparatus is remotely positioned relative to the medium being measured, thus the apparatus is immune from electro-magnetic interference and can operate in conditions of high radiation, corrosion and extraordinarily high temperature. 4 figs.

  2. Pressure wave charged repetitively pulsed gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarny, Vijay A.

    1982-01-01

    A repetitively pulsed gas laser in which a system of mechanical shutters bracketing the laser cavity manipulate pressure waves resulting from residual energy in the cavity gas following a lasing event so as to draw fresh gas into the cavity and effectively pump spent gas in a dynamic closed loop.

  3. Reactor pressure vessel with forged nozzles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Desai, Dilip R. (Fremont, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Inlet nozzles for a gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) are forged with a cylindrical reactor pressure vessel (RPV) section to which a support skirt for the RPV is attached. The forging provides enhanced RPV integrity around the nozzle and substantial reduction of in-service inspection costs by eliminating GDCS nozzle-to-RPV welds.

  4. Equation determines pressure drop in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1995-12-04

    A single equation can determine the pressure drop in wells with laminar, transitional, and turbulent incompressible fluid flow in coiled tubing or other steel tubulars. The single equation is useful, especially in computer-aided design and operations. The equation is derived and illustrated by an example.

  5. Optical pressure/density measuring means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1995-05-09

    An apparatus and method for rapidly and accurately determining the pressure of a fluid medium in either a static or dynamic state. The pressure is determined by making a measurement of the velocity of a light beam that is directed through the fluid medium along a pathway that enables an integrated pressure measurement to be made along the pathway, rather than making such a measurement only at a single point in the medium. A HeNe laser is configured to emit a beam of two frequencies separated by about 2 MHz. One of these beam frequencies is directed through the fluid medium and is reflected back through the medium to a non-linear diode detector. The other beam frequency is passed directly to a diode detector without traversing said medium. The diode detector is operated to determine the frequency shift or beat frequency between the two beam frequencies. Any variation in the frequency of said reflected beam that is caused by a change in its velocity as it is passed through the fluid medium causes a change in the beat frequency. This beat frequency change is then converted to an output signal value corresponding to the pressure of the medium. The measurement instrument apparatus is remotely positioned relative to the medium being measured, thus the apparatus is immune from electro-magnetic interference and can operate in conditions of high radiation, corrosion and extraordinarily high temperature.

  6. Exotic stable cesium polynitrides at high pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Feng; Han, Yunxia; Liu, Hanyu; Yao, Yansun

    2015-11-19

    New polynitrides containing metastable forms of nitrogen are actively investigated as potential high energy-density materials. Using a structure search method based on the CALYPSO methodology, we investigated the stable stoichiometries and structures of cesium polynitrides at high pressures. Along with the CsN3, we identified five new stoichiometric compounds (Cs3N, Cs2N, CsN, CsN2, and CsN5) with interesting structures that may be experimentally synthesizable at modest pressures (i.e., less than 50 GPa). Nitrogen species in the predicted structures have various structural forms ranging from single atom (N) to highly endothermic molecules (N2, N3 , N4, N5, N6) and chains (N∞). Polymeric chainsmore » of nitrogen were found in the high-pressure C2/c phase of CsN2. This structure contains a substantially high content of single N-N bonds that exceeds the previously known nitrogen chains in pure forms, and also exhibit metastability at ambient conditions. We also identified a very interesting CsN crystal that contains novel N44- anion. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, this is the first time a charged N4 species being reported. Results of the present study suggest that it is possible to obtain energetic polynitrogens in main-group nitrides under high pressure.« less

  7. Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott

    2011-10-01

    Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.

  8. Collection, transmission of low-pressure Sichuan gas detailed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runcang, C.

    1983-09-28

    As a result of fairly long-term exploitation, the gas fields in the Sichuan Basin which were opened quite early now have reduced output and lower wellhead pressures. The wellhead pressure in some gas wells is now lower than the pressure of the collection and transmission pipelines. The technologies for collecting and transmitting low-pressure gas in gas fields are discussed.

  9. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  10. Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric; Riot, Vincent; Coffee, Keith; Woods, Bruce; Tobias, Herbert; Birch, Jim; Weisgraber, Todd

    2008-04-22

    A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

  11. Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum Agenda for the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum held Sept. 27-29, 2010, in Beijing, China PDF icon Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum More Documents & Publications International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings Workshop Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and

  12. Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning caches

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning caches Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning caches Mechanisms are provided for controlling version pressure on a speculative versioning cache. Raw version pressure data is collected based on one or more threads accessing cache lines of the speculative versioning cache. One or more statistical measures of version pressure are

  13. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    when it is not economically feasible to return the high-pressure condensate to the boiler. ... The average temperature of the boiler makeup water is 70F. From the table above, when ...

  14. Pressure Change Measurement Leak Testing Errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, Jeff M; Walker, William C

    2014-01-01

    A pressure change test is a common leak testing method used in construction and Non-Destructive Examination (NDE). The test is known as being a fast, simple, and easy to apply evaluation method. While this method may be fairly quick to conduct and require simple instrumentation, the engineering behind this type of test is more complex than is apparent on the surface. This paper intends to discuss some of the more common errors made during the application of a pressure change test and give the test engineer insight into how to correctly compensate for these factors. The principals discussed here apply to ideal gases such as air or other monoatomic or diatomic gasses; however these same principals can be applied to polyatomic gasses or liquid flow rate with altered formula specific to those types of tests using the same methodology.

  15. VACUUM SEALING MEANS FOR LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-12

    S>A vacuum seal is designed in which the surface tension of a thin layer of liquid metal of low vapor pressure cooperates with adjacent surfaces to preclude passages of gases across pressure differentials as low as 10/sup -8/ mm Hg. Mating contiguous surfaces composed of copper, brass, stainless steel, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, glass, quartz, and/or synthetic mica are disposed to provide a maximum tolerance, D, expressed by 2 gamma /P/sub 1/, where gamma is the coefflcient of the surface tension of the metal sealant selected in dynes/cm/sub 2/. Means for heating the surfaces remotely is provided where temperatures drop below about 250 deg C. A sealant consisting of an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, among other combinations tabulated, is disposed therebetween after treating the surfaces to improve wettability, as by ultrasonic vibrations, the surfaces and sealants being selected according to the anticipated experimental conditions of use. (AEC)

  16. Coupling device for pressurized fluid connections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van Boxtel, R.P.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Quick-coupling device for high pressure connections, comprising a cylindrical adapter member, closed at an outer end thereof, the opposite end being attachable to a pressure fitting, and an aperture therein spaced from the closed end of the adapter member. The device also comprises a coupler body having a first passageway therein for slidably receiving the outer end of the adapter, a central portion of said passageway being in communication with the adapter aperture, a pair of seal members disposed on opposite sides of the central portion of the passageway to provide a seal between the coupler body and the adapter member, and a second passageway in said coupler body in communication with said central portion.

  17. Cavity closure arrangement for high pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amtmann, Hans H.

    1981-01-01

    A closure arrangement for a pressure vessel such as the pressure vessel of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor wherein a liner is disposed within a cavity penetration in the reactor vessel and defines an access opening therein. A closure is adapted for sealing relation with an annular mounting flange formed on the penetration liner and has a plurality of radially movable locking blocks thereon having outer serrations adapted for releasable interlocking engagement with serrations formed internally of the upper end of the penetration liner so as to effect high strength closure hold-down. In one embodiment, ramping surfaces are formed on the locking block serrations to bias the closure into sealed relation with the mounting flange when the locking blocks are actuated to locking positions.

  18. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

    2013-11-01

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  19. PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR CORE WITH PLUTONIUM BURNUP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Puechl, K.H.

    1963-09-24

    A pressurized water reactor is described having a core containing Pu/sup 240/ in which the effective microscopic neutronabsorption cross section of Pu/sup 240/ in unconverted condition decreases as the time of operation of the reactor increases, in order to compensate for loss of reactivity resulting from fission product buildup during reactor operation. This means serves to improve the efficiency of the reactor operation by reducing power losses resulting from control rods and burnable poisons. (AEC)

  20. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-05-18

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  1. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2003-07-22

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  2. Pressure dependence of Hexanitrostilbene Raman/ electronic absorption

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectra to validate DFT EOS. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Hexanitrostilbene Raman/ electronic absorption spectra to validate DFT EOS. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure dependence of Hexanitrostilbene Raman/ electronic absorption spectra to validate DFT EOS. Abstract not provided. Authors: Farrow, Darcie ; Alam, Mary Kathleen ; Martin, Laura E. ; Fan, Hongyou ; Kay, Jeffrey J ; Wixom, Ryan R. Publication Date: 2015-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1244976 Report Number(s):

  3. Dynamic analysis of pressure infiltration processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, D.K.; Gatica, J.E.; Tewari, S.N.

    1995-12-01

    Unidirectional pressure infiltration of porous preforms by molten metal/alloys is investigated in this study. The dynamics of the process is analyzed via the numerical solution of a mathematical model. Comparison against classical asymptotic analyses shows that, for realistic samples, end effects may become important and render asymptotic results unreliable. A comparison with experiments proves the model to be an efficient predictive tool in the analysis of infiltration processes for different preform/melt systems.

  4. Vapor pressures of the polychlorinated naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Wania, F.

    1999-05-01

    The vapor pressures of the supercooled liquid P{sub L} for 17 polychlorinated naphthalene congeners were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The method was calibrated with vapor pressure data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which had been measured by other techniques. These data were employed to predict temperature-dependent vapor pressures for all polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) from a regression with published retention time indices. Enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub VAP}H and activity coefficients in 1-octanol were calculated for the PCNs and compared with those for polychlorinated biphenyls. Data analysis suggests that the dependence of P{sub L} and {Delta}{sub VAP}H on molecular size, as well as the partitioning behavior into 1-octanol of the PCNs, is very similar to that of coplanar PCBs, i.e., those congeners with no or only one chlorine substitution in the ortho positions. The affinity of these chemicals to 1-octanol increases with the degree of chlorination.

  5. Liquid jet breakup regimes at supercritical pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oefelein, Joseph C.; Dahms, Rainer Norbert Uwe

    2015-07-23

    Previously, a theory has been presented that explains how discrete vapor–liquid interfaces become diminished at certain high-pressure conditions in a manner that leads to well known qualitative trends observed from imaging in a variety of experiments. Rather than surface tension forces, transport processes can dominate over relevant ranges of conditions. In this paper, this framework is now generalized to treat a wide range of fuel-oxidizer combinations in a manner consistent with theories of capillary flows and extended corresponding states theory. Different flow conditions and species-specific molecular properties are shown to produce distinct variations of interfacial structures and local free molecular paths. These variations are shown to occur over the operating ranges in a variety of propulsion and power systems. Despite these variations, the generalized analysis reveals that the envelope of flow conditions at which the transition from classical sprays to diffusion-dominated mixing occurs exhibits a characteristic shape for all liquid–gas combinations. As a result, for alkane-oxidizer mixtures, it explains that these conditions shift to higher pressure flow conditions with increasing carbon number and demonstrates that, instead of widely assumed classical spray atomization, diffusion-dominated mixing may occur under relevant high-pressure conditions in many modern devices.

  6. Liquid jet breakup regimes at supercritical pressures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oefelein, Joseph C.; Dahms, Rainer Norbert Uwe

    2015-07-23

    Previously, a theory has been presented that explains how discrete vapor–liquid interfaces become diminished at certain high-pressure conditions in a manner that leads to well known qualitative trends observed from imaging in a variety of experiments. Rather than surface tension forces, transport processes can dominate over relevant ranges of conditions. In this paper, this framework is now generalized to treat a wide range of fuel-oxidizer combinations in a manner consistent with theories of capillary flows and extended corresponding states theory. Different flow conditions and species-specific molecular properties are shown to produce distinct variations of interfacial structures and local free molecularmore » paths. These variations are shown to occur over the operating ranges in a variety of propulsion and power systems. Despite these variations, the generalized analysis reveals that the envelope of flow conditions at which the transition from classical sprays to diffusion-dominated mixing occurs exhibits a characteristic shape for all liquid–gas combinations. As a result, for alkane-oxidizer mixtures, it explains that these conditions shift to higher pressure flow conditions with increasing carbon number and demonstrates that, instead of widely assumed classical spray atomization, diffusion-dominated mixing may occur under relevant high-pressure conditions in many modern devices.« less

  7. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

  8. RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-21

    Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A 1.3 GHz RF test cell capable of operating both at high pressure and in vacuum with replaceable electrodes was designed, built, and power tested in preparation for testing the frequency and geometry effects of RF breakdown at Argonne National Lab. At the time of this report this cavity is still waiting for the 1.3 GHz klystron to be available at the Wakefield Test Facility. (3) Under a contract with Los Alamos National Lab, an 805 MHz RF test cavity, known as the All-Seasons Cavity (ASC), was designed and built by Muons, Inc. to operate either at high pressure or under vacuum. The LANL project to use the (ASC) was cancelled and the testing of the cavity has been continued under the grant reported on here using the Fermilab Mucool Test Area (MTA). The ASC is a true pillbox cavity that has performed under vacuum in high external magnetic field better than any other and has demonstrated that the high required accelerating gradients for many muon cooling beam line designs are possible. (4) Under ongoing support from the Muon Acceleration Program, microscopic surface analysis and computer simulations have been used to develop models of RF breakdown that apply to both pressurized and vacuum cavities. The understanding of RF breakdown will lead to better designs of RF cavities for many applications. An increase in the operating accelerating gradient, improved reliability and shorter conditioning times can generate very significant cost savings in many accelerator projects.

  9. Pressure behavior of laterally composite reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchuk, F.J.; Habashy, T.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents a new general method for solving the pressure diffusion equation in laterally composite reservoirs, where rock and fluid properties may change laterally as a function of y in the x-y plane. Composite systems can be encountered as a result of many different types of depositional and tectonic processes. For example, meandering point bar reservoirs or reservoirs with edgewater encroachment are examples of such systems. The new solution method presented is based on the reflection-transmission concept of electromagnetics to solve fluid-flow problems in 3D nonhomogeneous reservoirs, where heterogeneity is in only one (y) direction. A general Green`s function for a point source in 3D laterally composite systems is developed by using the reflection-transmission method. The solutions in the Laplace transform domain are then developed from the Green`s function for the pressure behavior of specific composite reservoirs. The solution method can also be applied to many different types of wells, such as vertical, fractured, and horizontal in composite reservoirs. The pressure behavior of a few well-known laterally composite systems are investigated. It is shown that a network of partially communicating faults and fractures in porous medium can be modeled as composite systems. It is also shown that the existing solutions for a partially communicating fault are not valid when the fault permeability is substantially larger than the formation permeability. The derivative plots are presented for selected faulted, fractured, channel, and composite reservoirs as diagnostic tools for well-test interpretation. It is also shown that if the composite system`s permeability varies moderately in the x or y direction, it exhibits a homogeneous system behavior. However, it does not yield the system`s average permeability. Furthermore, the composite systems with distributed low-permeability zones behave as if the system has many two no-flow boundaries.

  10. National Ignition Facility (NIF): Under Pressure: Ramp-Compression Smashes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab National Ignition Facility (NIF): Under Pressure: Ramp-Compression Smashes Record American Fusion News Category: National Ignition Facility Link: National Ignition Facility (NIF): Under Pressure: Ramp-Compression Smashes Record

  11. Method for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leone, Sal Albert; Book, Matthew David; Banares, Christopher R.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

  12. System for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leone, Sal Albert; Book, Matthew David; Banares, Christopher R.

    2002-01-01

    A system and method are provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

  13. Pressure-Induced Structural Transformations of ZnO Nanowires...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Structural Transformations of ZnO Nanowires Probed by X-ray Diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Structural ...

  14. Effect of Chemical Pressure on the Charge Density Wave Transition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Chemical Pressure on the Charge Density Wave Transition in Rare-Earth Tritellurides RTe3 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Chemical Pressure on the ...

  15. High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Authors: Fei, Yingwei ; Wang, ...

  16. International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Tsinghua University in Beijing co-hosted the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure ...

  17. High-Pressure Multi-Mbar Conductivity Experiments on Hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Pressure Multi-Mbar Conductivity Experiments on Hydrogen: The Quest for Solid Metallic Hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Pressure Multi-Mbar ...

  18. AB INITIO PHASE STABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND PRESSURES IN THE V-Cr SYSTEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AB INITIO PHASE STABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES IN THE V-Cr SYSTEM Authors: Landa, A ...

  19. AB INITIO PHASE STABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND PRESSURES IN THE V-Cr SYSTEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AB INITIO PHASE STABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES IN THE V-Cr SYSTEM You are ...

  20. The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite The pressure evolution of bassanite (CaSOsub 4 centerdot 12 Hsub 2O) was ...

  1. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Guenther, Ph.D.

    2003-01-28

    SRI has completed the NBFZ test program, made modification to the experimental furnace for the HPBO test. The NBFZ datasets provide the information NEA needs to simulate the combustion and fuel-N conversion with detailed chemical reaction mechanisms. BU has determined a linear swell of 1.55 corresponding to a volumetric increase of a factor of 3.7 and a decrease in char density by the same factor. These results are highly significant, and indicate significantly faster burnout at elevated pressure due to the low char density and large diameter.

  2. Downhole component with a pressure equalization passageway

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Reynolds, Jay T.; Breihan, James W.; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-08-22

    The present invention includes a downhole component adapted for transmitting downhole data. The downhole component includes a threaded end on a downhole component. The threaded end furthermore includes an interior region, and exterior region, and a mating surface wherein a cavity is formed. A data transmission element is disposed in the cavity and displaces a volume of the cavity. At least one passageway is formed in the threaded region between interior and exterior regions. The passageway is in fluid communication with both the interior and exterior regions and thereby relieves pressure build up of thread lubricant upon tool joint make up.

  3. Combustor oscillating pressure stabilization and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.T.J.; Robey, E.H.; Cully, S.R.; Addis, R.E.

    1998-08-11

    High dynamic pressure oscillations in hydrocarbon-fueled combustors typically occur when the transport time of the fuel to the flame front is at some fraction of the acoustic period. These oscillations are reduced to acceptably lower levels by restructuring or repositioning the flame front in the combustor to increase the transport time. A pilot flame front located upstream of the oscillating flame and pulsed at a selected frequency and duration effectively restructures and repositions the oscillating flame in the combustor to alter the oscillation-causing transport time. 7 figs.

  4. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G.; Sakaji, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  5. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  6. Combustor oscillating pressure stabilization and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gemmen, Randall S.; Richards, George A.; Yip, Mui-Tong Joseph; Robey, Edward H.; Cully, Scott R.; Addis, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    High dynamic pressure oscillations in hydrocarbon-fueled combustors typically occur when the transport time of the fuel to the flame front is at some fraction of the acoustic period. These oscillations are reduced to acceptably lower levels by restructuring or repositioning the flame front in the combustor to increase the transport time. A pilot flame front located upstream of the oscillating flame and pulsed at a selected frequency and duration effectively restructures and repositions the oscillating flame in the combustor to alter the oscillation-causing transport time.

  7. Heat release analysis of engine pressure data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatowski, J.A.; Balles, E.N.; Chun, K.M.; Nelson, F.E.; Ekchian, J.A.; Heywood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    In analyzing the processes inside the cylinder of an internal combustion engine, the principal diagnostic at the experimenter's disposal is a measured time history of the cylinder pressure. This paper develops, tests, and applies a heat release analysis procedure that maintains simplicity while including the effects of heat transfer, crevice flows and fuel injection. The heat release model uses a one zone description of the cylinder contents with thermodynamic properties represented by a linear approximation. Applications of the analysis to a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine, a special square cross-section visualization spark-ignition engine, and a direct-injection stratified charge engine are presented.

  8. Fuel dissipater for pressurized fuel cell generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basel, Richard A.; King, John E.

    2003-11-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a pressurized fuel cell generator (10) when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated during transient operation, such as a shutdown; where, two electrically resistive elements (two of 28, 53, 54, 55) at least one of which is connected in parallel, in association with contactors (26, 57, 58, 59), a multi-point settable sensor relay (23) and a circuit breaker (24), are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals (21, 22) at two or more contact points, in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel inventory in the generator.

  9. Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas G. A. Wurden, Z. Wang, C. Ticos Los Alamos National Laboratory L Al NM 87545 USA Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA C. J. v. Wurden Los Alamos High School L Al NM 87544 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Presented at the PPPL Colloquium Sept. 17, 2008 U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA LA-UR-08-06284 Outline of this talk *A discussion of ball lightning reports in nature *How can ball plasmas be made in the

  10. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, T.W.; Hamill, P.E. Jr.; Ozgu, M.R.; Padfield, R.C.; Rego, D.N.; Brita, G.P.

    1990-07-24

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal is characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate. 1 fig.

  11. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Thomas W.; Hamill, Jr., Paul E.; Ozgu, Mustafa R.; Padfield, Ralph C.; Rego, Donovan N.; Brita, Guido P.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continous flow of molten metal characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate.

  12. Study of catalysis of coal gasification at elevated pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EXPERIMENTS; CARBON; CATALYSTS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; HYDROGEN; MEDIUM PRESSURE; METHANE; NICKEL; PRODUCTION; STEAM; VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE; ALKANES; CRYOGENIC FLUIDS; ...

  13. Steam Technical Brief: Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  14. Pressure dependence on the reaction propagation rate of PETN at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, M.F.

    1993-04-01

    The reaction propagation rate (RPR) of the sensitive high explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) was measured in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) over the pressure range of 2--20 GPa. The experimental technique used is the same as that previously reported. The RPR data shows that it burns one to two orders of magnitude faster in the DAC than 1,3,5,-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and nitromethane (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}) respectively. The PETN RPR curve did not show sample pressure-dependent behavior like that of nitromethane, but instead varied abruptly like the RPR curve of TATB. In order to interpret these changes, static-pressure DAC mid-IR FTIR spectra were taken of micro-pellets of PETN embedded in KBr. The relationship between changes in the spectra, the RPR curve, and published single crystal PETN wedge test data are discussed.

  15. Pressure and Temperature effects on the High Pressure Phase Transformation in Zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escobedo-Diaz, Juan P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Brown, Donald W.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Rigg, Paulo A.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Addessio, Francis L.; Lookman, Turab

    2012-06-20

    At high pressure zirconium is known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP) alpha phase ({alpha}) to the simple hexagonal omega phase ({omega}). Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega phase is retained upon release. However, the hysteresis in this transformation is not well represented by equilibrium phase diagrams. For this reason, the influence of peak shock pressure and temperature on the retention of omega phase in Zr is explored in this study. In situ VISAR measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to quantify the volume fraction of retained omega phase, morphology of the shocked alpha and omega phases, and qualitatively understand the kinetics of this transformation. This understanding of the role of peak shock stress will be utilized to address physics to be encoded in our present macro-scale models.

  16. Prosthesis Socket Pressure Tools v. 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-28

    Renders, saves, and analyzes pressure from several sensors in a prosthesis? socket. The program receives pressure data from 64 manometers and parses the pressure for each individual sensor. The program can then display those pressures as number in a table. The program also interpolates pressures between manometers to create a larger set of data. This larger set of data is displayed as a simple contour plot. That same contour plot can also be placed on a three-dimensional surface in the shape of a prosthesis.This program allows for easy identification of high pressure areas in a prosthesis to reduce the user?s discomfort. The program parses the sensor pressures into a human-readable numeric format. The data may also be used to actively adjust bladders within the prosthesis to spread out pressure in real time, according to changing demands placed on the prosthesis. Interpolation of the pressures to create a larger data set makes it even easier for a human to identify particular areas of the prosthesis that are under high pressure. After identifying pressure points, a prosthetician can then redesign the prosthesis and/or command the bladders in the prosthesis to attempt to maintain constant pressures.

  17. Single module pressurized fuel cell turbine generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, Raymond A.; Veyo, Stephen E.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.

    2001-01-01

    A pressurized fuel cell system (10), operates within a common pressure vessel (12) where the system contains fuel cells (22), a turbine (26) and a generator (98) where preferably, associated oxidant inlet valve (52), fuel inlet valve (56) and fuel cell exhaust valve (42) are outside the pressure vessel.

  18. Prosthesis Socket Pressure Tools v. 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-04-28

    Renders, saves, and analyzes pressure from several sensors in a prosthesis™ socket. The program receives pressure data from 64 manometers and parses the pressure for each individual sensor. The program can then display those pressures as number in a table. The program also interpolates pressures between manometers to create a larger set of data. This larger set of data is displayed as a simple contour plot. That same contour plot can also be placed onmore » a three-dimensional surface in the shape of a prosthesis.This program allows for easy identification of high pressure areas in a prosthesis to reduce the user™s discomfort. The program parses the sensor pressures into a human-readable numeric format. The data may also be used to actively adjust bladders within the prosthesis to spread out pressure in real time, according to changing demands placed on the prosthesis. Interpolation of the pressures to create a larger data set makes it even easier for a human to identify particular areas of the prosthesis that are under high pressure. After identifying pressure points, a prosthetician can then redesign the prosthesis and/or command the bladders in the prosthesis to attempt to maintain constant pressures.« less

  19. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruhe, Thomas C.; Rao, Pilaka P.

    1994-01-01

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  20. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sepelak, George R.

    1978-01-01

    A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

  1. Differential pressure sensing system for airfoils usable in turbine engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Stampahar, Maria E.

    2005-09-13

    A detection system for identifying airfoils having a cooling systems with orifices that are plugged with contaminants or with showerheads having a portion burned off. The detection system measures pressures at different locations and calculates or measures a differential pressure. The differential pressure may be compared with a known benchmark value to determine whether the differential pressure has changed. Changes in the differential pressure may indicate that one or more of the orifices in a cooling system of an airfoil are plugged or that portions of, or all of, a showerhead has burned off.

  2. Thermo-hydraulic Simulation of Pressurizer in Transient Cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardeshir, A.T.; Nematollahi, M.; Sepanloo, K.; Daneshvari, F.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a simulation of the pressure adjustment in the primary loop of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). A mathematical model is developed for the thermo-hydraulic behavior of pressurizer in transient cases (surge in or out) on the basis of concept of conservation of mass and energy in two phases. No restrictive assumptions have been made. A comparison with RELAP5/Mod3.2 data indicates good overall agreement. The model can be used as a good design verification tool for pressurizer vessels and associated pressure control devices. (authors)

  3. Lightweight cryogenic-compatible pressure vessels for vehicular fuel storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aceves, Salvador; Berry, Gene; Weisberg, Andrew H.

    2004-03-23

    A lightweight, cryogenic-compatible pressure vessel for flexibly storing cryogenic liquid fuels or compressed gas fuels at cryogenic or ambient temperatures. The pressure vessel has an inner pressure container enclosing a fuel storage volume, an outer container surrounding the inner pressure container to form an evacuated space therebetween, and a thermal insulator surrounding the inner pressure container in the evacuated space to inhibit heat transfer. Additionally, vacuum loss from fuel permeation is substantially inhibited in the evacuated space by, for example, lining the container liner with a layer of fuel-impermeable material, capturing the permeated fuel in the evacuated space, or purging the permeated fuel from the evacuated space.

  4. Method and apparatus for controlling supercharge pressure for a turbocharger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abo, T.; Veno, T.

    1987-06-16

    A method for controlling supercharge pressure of a turbocharger, is described which comprises the steps of: seeking a basic control amount, BASE, from a look-up table in accordance with an intake air flow rate Qa; determining if an actual supercharge pressure P2 detected is greater than a first predetermined value of supercharge pressure; calculating the deviation P between the first predetermined supercharge pressure and the actual supercharge pressure P2, and also calculating a proportional value portion (PROP=K1 x P) where K1 is a first constant; determining if the actual supercharge pressure P2 is greater than a second predetermined value of supercharge pressure; calculating an integral value portion INT=(K2 x P + INT') when the actual supercharge pressure P2 is greater than the second predetermined value where K2 is a second constant and INT' is a value of INT resulting from a prior calculation, and setting INT to be zero when the actual supercharge pressure P2 is not greater than the second predetermined pressure; calculating a duty value OUT which is a sum of BASE, PROP and INT; and actuating an electromagnetic valve for controlling the supercharge pressure in accordance with the duty value OUT.

  5. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, Matthew; Yin, Shengjun; Stevens, Gary; Sommerville, Daniel; Palm, Nathan; Heinecke, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP) Conferences. This work is also relevant to the ongoing efforts of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section XI, Working Group on Operating Plant Criteria (WGOPC) efforts to incorporate nozzle fracture mechanics solutions into a revision to ASME B&PV Code, Section XI, Nonmandatory Appendix G.

  6. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  7. Stress and Fracture Mechanics Analyses of Boiling Water Reactor and Pressurized Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Shengjun; Bass, Bennett Richard; Stevens, Gary; Kirk, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes stress analysis and fracture mechanics work performed to assess boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) nozzles located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Various RPV nozzle geometries were investigated: 1. BWR recirculation outlet nozzle; 2. BWR core spray nozzle3 3. PWR inlet nozzle; ; 4. PWR outlet nozzle; and 5. BWR partial penetration instrument nozzle. The above nozzle designs were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-license (EOL) to require evaluation as part of establishing the allowed limits on heatup, cooldown, and hydrotest (leak test) conditions. These nozzles analyzed represent one each of the nozzle types potentially requiring evaluation. The purpose of the analyses performed on these nozzle designs was as follows: To model and understand differences in pressure and thermal stress results using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) versus a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for all nozzle types. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated; To verify the accuracy of a selected linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solution for stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for both thermal and pressure loading for all nozzle types; To assess the significance of attached piping loads on the stresses in the nozzle corner region; and To assess the significance of applying pressure on the crack face with respect to the stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack.

  8. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J.; Spletzer, Barry L.

    2006-12-12

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  9. FLUID PRESSURE AND CAM OPERATED VACUUM VALVE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, T.H.

    1963-11-26

    An ultra-high vacuum valve that is bakable, reusable, and capable of being quickly opened and closed is described. A translationally movable valve gate having an annular ridge is adapted to contact an annular soft metal gasket disposed at the valve seat such that the soft metal gasket extends beyond the annular ridge on all sides. The valve gate is closed, by first laterally aligning the valve gate with the valve seat and then bringing the valve gate and valve seat into seating contact by the translational movement of a ramp-like wedging means that engages similar ramp-like stractures at the base of the valve gate to force the valve gate into essentially pressureless contact with the annular soft metal gasket. This gasket is then pressurized from beneath by a fluid thereby effecting a vacuura tight seal between the gasket and the ridge. (AEC)

  10. Ambient-pressure silica aerogel films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, S.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C.J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hurd, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Very highly porous (aerogel) silica films with refractive index in the range 1.006--1.05 (equivalent porosity 98.5--88%) were prepared by an ambient-pressure process. It was shown earlier using in situ ellipsometric imaging that the high porosity of these films was mainly attributable to the dilation or `springback` of the film during the final stage of drying. This finding was irrefutably reconfirmed by visually observing a `springback` of >500% using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Ellipsometry and ESEM also established the near cent per cent reversibility of aerogel film deformation during solvent intake and drying. Film thickness profile measurements (near the drying line) for the aerogel, xerogel and pure solvent cases are presented from imaging ellipsometry. The thickness of these films (crack-free) were controlled in the range 0.1-3.5 {mu}m independent of refractive index.

  11. Pressure-equalizing PV assembly and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-10-26

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  12. Pressure equalizing photovoltaic assembly and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-05-27

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the peripheral edge of the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  13. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, M. Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S.; Bull, C. L.; Klotz, S.

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  14. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    2015-07-14

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.

  15. Numerical simulations of the bending of narrow-angle-tail radio jets by ram pressure or pressure gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soker, N.; Sarazin, C.L.; O'Dea, C.P.

    1988-04-01

    Three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations are used to study the bending of radio jets. The simulations are compared with observations of jets in narrow-angle-tail radio sources. Two mechanisms for the observed bending are considered: direct bending of quasi-continuous jets by ram pressure from intergalactic gas and bending by pressure gradients in the interstellar gas of the host galaxy, the pressure gradients themselves being the result of ram pressure by intergalactic gas. It is shown that the pressure gradients are much less effective in bending jets, implying that the jets have roughly 30 times lower momentum fluxes if they are bent by this mechanism. Ram-pressure bending produces jets with kidney-shaped cross sections; when observed from the side, these jets appear to have diffuse extensions on the downstream side. On the other hand, pressure-gradient bending causes the jets to be densest near their upstream side. 31 references.

  16. Modeling flow in a pressure-sensitive, heterogeneous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, Donald W.; Minkoff, Susan E.

    2009-06-01

    Using an asymptotic methodology, including an expansion in inverse powers of {radical}{omega}, where {omega} is the frequency, we derive a solution for flow in a medium with pressure dependent properties. The solution is valid for a heterogeneous medium with smoothly varying properties. That is, the scale length of the heterogeneity must be significantly larger then the scale length over which the pressure increases from it initial value to its peak value. The resulting asymptotic expression is similar in form to the solution for pressure in a medium in which the flow properties are not functions of pressure. Both the expression for pseudo-phase, which is related to the 'travel time' of the transient pressure disturbance, and the expression for pressure amplitude contain modifications due to the pressure dependence of the medium. We apply the method to synthetic and observed pressure variations in a deforming medium. In the synthetic test we model one-dimensional propagation in a pressure-dependent medium. Comparisons with both an analytic self-similar solution and the results of a numerical simulation indicate general agreement. Furthermore, we are able to match pressure variations observed during a pulse test at the Coaraze Laboratory site in France.

  17. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  18. High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

    2012-09-01

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

  19. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the drums will still open provided the pressure is high enough. Investigation teams should look for displaced drum lids when searching for drums that have pressurized and failed. The mechanical modeling study for this program is summarized in the following memo. Following a brief introduction, there is a summary of a brief literature review of previous pressure testing of drums, an explanation of the model, presentation of the key results, some discussion, and concluding with a summary and key points.

  20. Sandbag Carbon Offset Map | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization: Sandbag Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Biomass, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Hydrogen, Industry, Solar, Wind Topics: Market analysis...

  1. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (WAP) funding * Existing need for low-income weatherization funding was greater than ... job creation, and local economic growth o Attract non-carbon financing from ...

  2. Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Senate Bill 1 of 2006, which established the statewide California Solar Initiative, also required the California Energy Commission (CEC) to implement regulations that require sellers of production...

  3. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  4. Upflow bioreactor with septum and pressure release mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Conly L.; Hansen, Carl S.; Pack, Kevin; Milligan, John; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Tolman, C. Wayne; Tolman, Kenneth W.

    2010-04-20

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes means for releasing pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In one configuration, the septum includes a releasable portion having an open position and a closed position. The releasable portion is configured to move to the open position in response to pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In the open position fluid communication between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is increased. Alternatively the lower chamber can include a pressure release line that is selectively actuated by pressure buildup. The pressure release mechanism can prevent the bioreactor from plugging and/or prevent catastrophic damage to the bioreactor caused by high pressures.

  5. Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

    1981-10-01

    A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

  6. Measurement of the differential pressure of liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, H.J.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to an improved means for measuring the differential pressure between any two points in a process liquid metal coolant loop, wherein the flow of liquid metal in a pipe is opposed by a permanent magnet liquid metal pump until there is almost zero flow shown by a magnetic type flowmeter. The pressure producing the liquid metal flow is inferred from the rate of rotation of the permanent magnet pump. In an alternate embodiment, a differential pressure transducer is coupled to a process pipeline by means of high-temperature bellows or diaphragm seals, and a permanent magnet liquid metal pump in the high-pressure transmission line to the pressure transducer can be utilized either for calibration of the transducer or for determining the process differential pressure as a function of the magnet pump speed. (auth)

  7. METHOD FOR PUMPING GASES AT LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-01

    A method is given for pumping overpressure "pulses" or "bursts" of gases without a significant rise in base pressure within a "gettering-type" vacuum pump having surfaces within the pumping cavity coated with or comprising clean gettering metal, e.g., Mo or Ta. The cavity is first pumped down by any convenient means to an equilibrium base pressure in the range desired, generally below 10/sup -6/ mm Hg. At this pressure, the metal immediately adsorbs overpressures or "bursts" of gases striking same with thermal motion without raising the base pressure significantiy. Desorption takes place at an equilibrium rate which, of course, is dependent upon the equilibrium pressure, and such desorbed gases are continuously removed by diffuaion pump or other pumping, whereby said overpressures or "bursts" of gases are removed without a rise in the equilibrium pressure and/or back diffusion of the gaseous pulse from the pumping cavity. (AEC)

  8. Structural behaviour of niobium oxynitride under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Bharat Bhooshan Poswal, H. K. Pandey, K. K. Sharma, Surinder M.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Ohashi, Y.; Kikkawa, S.

    2014-04-24

    High pressure investigation of niobium oxynitrides (NbN{sub 0.98}O{sub 0.02}) employing synchrotron based angle dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments was carried out in very fine pressure steps using membrane driven diamond anvil cell. Ambient cubic phase was found to be stable up to ∼18 GPa. At further high pressure cubic phase showed rhombohedral distortion.

  9. Assessment of Homogeneous Thorium/Uranium Fuel for Pressurized Water

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactors (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Assessment of Homogeneous Thorium/Uranium Fuel for Pressurized Water Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Homogeneous Thorium/Uranium Fuel for Pressurized Water Reactors The homogeneous ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} fuel cycle option for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) of current technology is investigated. The fuel cycle assessment was carried out by calculating the main performance parameters: natural uranium and separative

  10. Charge Fluctuations and the Valence Transition in Yb under Pressure

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Charge Fluctuations and the Valence Transition in Yb under Pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Charge Fluctuations and the Valence Transition in Yb under Pressure We present a dynamical mean field theory study of the valence transition (f{sup 14} {yields} f{sup 13}) in elemental, metallic Yb under pressure. Our calculations reproduce the observed valence transition as reflected in the volume dependence of the 4f occupation. The transition

  11. Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system The disclosure relates to a membrane testing system for individual evaluation of a plurality of planar membranes subjected to a feed gas on one side and a sweep gas on a second side. The membrane testing system provides a pressurized flow of a feed and sweep gas to each membrane testing

  12. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wells | Department of Energy High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells PDF icon fabian_ctd_ zonal_isolation_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells

  13. pressure-swing-absorption-njit | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Project No.: DE-FE0001323 New Jersey Institute of Technology is developing an advanced pressure swing absorption-based (PSAB) device via laboratory-based experiments. The device will be used to accomplish a cyclic process to process low temperature post-shift-reactor synthesis gas resulting from the gasification process into purified hydrogen at high pressure for use by the

  14. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Guenther; Bill Rogers

    2001-09-15

    The HPCCK project was initiated with a kickoff meeting held on June 12, 2001 in Morgantown, WV, which was attended by all project participants. SRI's existing g-RCFR reactor was reconfigured to a SRT-RCFR geometry (Task 1.1). This new design is suitable for performing the NBFZ experiments of Task 1.2. It was decided that the SRT-RCFR apparatus could be modified and used for the HPBO experiments. The purchase, assembly, and testing of required instrumentation and hardware is nearly complete (Task 1.1 and 1.2). Initial samples of PBR coal have been shipped from FWC to SRI (Task 1.1). The ECT device for coal flow measurements used at FWC will not be used in the SRI apparatus and a screw type feeder has been suggested instead (Task 5.1). NEA has completed a upgrade of an existing Fluent simulator for SRI's RCFR to a version that is suitable for interpreting results from tests in the NBFZ configuration (Task 1.3) this upgrade includes finite-rate submodels for devolatilization, secondary volatiles pyrolysis, volatiles combustion, and char oxidation. Plans for an enhanced version of CBK have been discussed and development of this enhanced version has begun (Task 2.5). A developmental framework for implementing pressure and oxygen effects on ash formation in an ash formation model (Task 3.3) has begun.

  15. Electronic Transitions in f-electron Metals at High Pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Electronic Transitions in f-electron Metals at High Pressures: Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic Transitions in f-electron Metals at High ...

  16. International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum- Presentations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These presentations were given at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum held September 27–29, 2010 in Beijing, China.

  17. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    This document corresponds to Appendix D: Modeling Integrated Summary Report of the Technical Assessment Team Report. PDF icon Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure More ...

  18. Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  19. Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, ...

  20. Impact of Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion System of a HD Single Cylinder Engine Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research ...

  1. Extreme pressure causes osmium to change state of matter | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    group of researchers have demonstrated that ultra-high pressures cause core electrons to interplay, which results in experimentally observed anomalies in the compression...

  2. Pressure-induced ferroelectric to paraelectric transition in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203, China Publication Date: 2016-02-16 OSTI Identifier: 1238078 GrantContract Number: ...

  3. Improved Growth of High-Temperature Superconductors with HF Pressure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing Summary A new method of growing high-temperature superconductors controls hydrogen fluoride gas pressure and creates larger, more uniform crystal structures in...

  4. Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Pressure Sensor for Footwear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Wheeler, Jason W.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Givler, Richard C.

    2008-09-23

    Footwear comprises a sole and a plurality of sealed cavities contained within the sole. The sealed cavities can be incorporated as deformable containers within an elastic medium, comprising the sole. A plurality of micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) pressure sensors are respectively contained within the sealed cavity plurality, and can be adapted to measure static and dynamic pressure within each of the sealed cavities. The pressure measurements can provide information relating to the contact pressure distribution between the sole of the footwear and the wearer's environment.

  5. Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Stephen P.; Gross, Robert E.

    2013-03-26

    Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

  6. Ultrasound Measurements of Cerium under High Pressure in a Large...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultrasound Measurements of Cerium under High Pressure in a Large Volume Press Combined ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrasound Measurements of Cerium under High ...

  7. Pressure Temperature Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Fort Bliss...

  8. Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  9. Pressure Temperature Log At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Flint...

  10. Pressure Temperature Log At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Glass...

  11. Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling of High Pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling of High Pressure LX-17 Detonation Reaction Product States Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Double Shock Experiments ...

  12. Researchers put pressure on hydrogen | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    put pressure on hydrogen | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

  13. Synthesis of YBCO Superconductors Using Low-Pressure Processing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Synthesis of YBCO Superconductors Using Low-Pressure Processing Brookhaven National Laboratory...

  14. Coexistence pressure for a martensitic transformation from theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for a martensitic transformation from theory and experiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcp transition of iron under pressure Citation Details In-Document Search This content will...

  15. MHK ISDB/Sensors/HWS Barometric Pressure Sensor | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by ONSET Data Logger. Spec Sheet: http:www.onsetcomp.comfilesmanualpdfs6122-D-MAN-S-BPA.pdf Description The Barometric Pressure Sensor provides average barometric...

  16. Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: Change in stoichiometry (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: Change ... Publication Date: 2016-05-12 OSTI Identifier: 1253790 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  17. Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide ... Publication Date: 2014-07-21 OSTI Identifier: 1123936 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  18. Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    losses from pressure oscillation can increase low-temperature combustion engine efficiency. ... Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines The Next ICE Age

  19. Spin crossover in ferropericlase at high pressure: a seismically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Spin crossover in ferropericlase at high pressure: a seismically silenttransparent transition? Authors: Antonangeli, D ; Siebert, J ; Aracne, C ; Farber, D ; Bosak, A ; ...

  20. Spin Crossover in Ferropericlase at High Pressure: A Seismically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Spin Crossover in Ferropericlase at High Pressure: A Seismically Hidden Transition? Authors: Antonangeli, D ; Siebert, J ; Aracne, C ; Farber, D ; Bosak, A ; Hoesch, M ; ...

  1. Ultralow viscosity of carbonate melts at high pressures (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Ultralow viscosity of carbonate melts at high pressures Authors: Kono, Yoshio ; Kenney-Benson, Curtis ; Hummer, Daniel ; Ohfuji, Hiroaki ; Park, Changyong ; Shen, Guoyin ; ...

  2. Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for H2 Vehicles Rapidly Refueled by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for H 2 Vehicles Rapidly Refueled by LH 2 pump to 700 bar ... (cryogenic) vessels * Refueling with LH 2 Pump * Test Vessel Cycling Facility * System ...

  3. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Vented Pressure Sensor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  4. Effect of pressure on elastic, mechanical and electronic properties of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WSe{sub 2}: A first-principles study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effect of pressure on elastic, mechanical and electronic properties of WSe{sub 2}: A first-principles study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of pressure on elastic, mechanical and electronic properties of WSe{sub 2}: A first-principles study Highlights: * B, E and v increase as pressure increases, except for a sudden decrease at 40 GPa. * WSe{sub 2} under pressure has larger shear modulus and higher

  5. Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Change (GRAPHIC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Groundwater Resources Assessment under...

  6. High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum paraelectric BaFe12O19 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties of ferrimagnetic quantum ...

  7. Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geometry using fluid pressure response to solid earth tidal strain Abstract The nature of solid earth tidal strain and surface load deformation due to the influence of...

  8. High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. For deep injection into...

  9. Pressure Temperature Log At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  10. Pressure Temperature Log At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alum Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  11. Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP)...

  12. Pressure Temperature Log At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  13. Pressure Temperature Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  14. Threaded insert for compact cryogenic-capable pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Ross, Timothy O.; Switzer, Vernon A.; Aceves, Salvador M.; Killingsworth, Nicholas J.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias

    2015-06-16

    An insert for a cryogenic capable pressure vessel for storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure. The insert provides the interface between a tank and internal and external components of the tank system. The insert can be used with tanks with any or all combinations of cryogenic, high pressure, and highly diffusive fluids. The insert can be threaded into the neck of a tank with an inner liner. The threads withstand the majority of the stress when the fluid inside the tank that is under pressure.

  15. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  16. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues These slides were presented at the ...

  17. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATIN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN ...

  18. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Smart Barometric Pressure Sensor | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sensor 2810 HWS Barometric Pressure Sensor ... further results Also made by Onset Computer Corporation HOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring SystemHOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring...

  19. The Reactivity of Energetic Materials Under High Pressure and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Reactivity of Energetic Materials Under High Pressure and ... Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Advances in Quantum Chemistry, vol. 69, no. ...

  20. Quasicrystals at extreme conditions: The role of pressure in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Quasicrystals at extreme conditions: The role of pressure in stabilizing ... Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  1. Pressure Temperature Log At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP)...

  2. Digital pressure transducer for use at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karplus, Henry H. B.

    1981-01-01

    A digital pressure sensor for measuring fluid pressures at relatively high temperatures includes an electrically conducting fiber coupled to the fluid by a force disc that causes tension in the fiber to be a function of fluid pressure. The tension causes changes in the mechanical resonant frequency of the fiber, which is caused to vibrate in a magnetic field to produce an electrical signal from a positive-feedback amplifier at the resonant frequency. A count of this frequency provides a measure of the fluid pressure.

  3. Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues Workshop Notes from ""Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels: ...

  4. Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: Change in stoichiometry (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: Change in stoichiometry Authors: Goncharov, Alexander F. ; Lobanov, Sergey S. ; Kruglov, Ivan ; Zhao, Xiao-Miao ; Chen, Xiao-Jia ; Oganov, ...

  5. MHK ISDB/Instruments/Barometric Pressure Sensor | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MHK ISDBInstrumentsBarometric Pressure Sensor < MHK ISDB Jump to: navigation, search MHK Instrumentation & Sensor Database Menu Home Search Add Instrument Add Sensor Add Company...

  6. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly ...

  7. Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a vertical plane, closed recirculating, variable-speed, variable-pressure, open jet test section, closed jet test section, and semi-rectangular test section. Towing...

  8. Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures The infrared reflectance of iron was studied using high-pressure synchrotron radiation methods up to 50 GPa at room temperature in a diamond anvil cell of 1000-8000 cm{sup -1} (1.25-10 {mu}m). The magnitude of the reflectivity shows a weak pressure

  9. High Pressure Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search High Pressure Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact...

  10. Stress analysis and evaluation of a rectangular pressure vessel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States)) 42 ENGINEERING; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; PRESSURE VESSELS; STRESS ANALYSIS; RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE;...

  11. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow microfluidic channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels Authors: Christov, Ivan ...

  12. Digital pressure transducer for use at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karplus, H.H.B.

    A digital pressure sensor for measuring fluid pressures at relatively high temperatures includes an electrically conducting fiber coupled to the fluid by a force disc that causes tension in the fiber to be a function of fluid pressure. The tension causes changes in the mechanical resonant frequency of the fiber, which is caused to vibrate in a magnetic field to produce an electrical signal from a positive-feedback amplifier at the resonant frequency. A count of this frequency provides a measure of the fluid pressure.

  13. Non-reclosing pressure relief device for vacuum systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swansiger, W.A.

    1994-02-08

    A non-reclosing overpressure protection device such as a rupture disc provides a non-reclosing opening upon forcible contact with a knife blade. A bellows, having an inlet capable of being sealably connected to a source of pressure (the vacuum system) and an outlet containing the rupture disc, transmits the pressure in the system to the disc. The bellows maintains the disc away from the knife when the pressure is below an overpressure amount, and carries the disc to a position when the pressure is above an overpressure amount where the disc is ruptured by the knife. 6 figures.

  14. Coexistence pressure for a martensitic transformation from theory and experiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcp transition of iron under pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2015-05-12

    We revisit results from decades of pressure experiments on the bcc ↔ hcp transformations in iron, which are sensitive to non-hydrostatic conditions and sample size. We emphasize the role of martensitic stress in the observed pressure hysteresis and address the large spread in values for onset pressures of the nucleating phase. From electronic-structure calculations, we find a bcc ↔ hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa. Accounting for non-hydrostatic martensitic stress and a stress-dependent transition barrier, we suggest a pressure inequality for better comparison to experiment and observed hysteresis. We construct the equation of state for bcc and hcp phasesmore » under hydrostatic pressure, and compare to experiments and previous calculations.« less

  15. Coexistence pressure for a martensitic transformation from theory and experiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcp transition of iron under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2015-05-12

    We revisit results from decades of pressure experiments on the bcc ? hcp transformations in iron, which are sensitive to non-hydrostatic conditions and sample size. We emphasize the role of martensitic stress in the observed pressure hysteresis and address the large spread in values for onset pressures of the nucleating phase. From electronic-structure calculations, we find a bcc ? hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa. Accounting for non-hydrostatic martensitic stress and a stress-dependent transition barrier, we suggest a pressure inequality for better comparison to experiment and observed hysteresis. We construct the equation of state for bcc and hcp phases under hydrostatic pressure, and compare to experiments and previous calculations.

  16. Pressure gradient passivation of carbonaceous material normally susceptible to spontaneous combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Sands, William D.; Schroeder, Karl; Summers, Cathy A.; Utz, Bruce R.

    2002-01-29

    This invention is a process for the passivation or deactivation with respect to oxygen of a carbonaceous material by the exposure of the carbonaceous material to an oxygenated gas in which the oxygenated gas pressure is increased from a first pressure to a second pressure and then the pressure is changed to a third pressure. Preferably a cyclic process which comprises exposing the carbonaceous material to the gas at low pressure and increasing the pressure to a second higher pressure and then returning the pressure to a lower pressure is used. The cycle is repeated at least twice wherein the higher pressure may be increased after a selected number of cycles.

  17. Pressure gradient passivation of carbonaceous material normally susceptible to spontaneous combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Sands, William D.; Schroeder, Karl; Summers, Cathy A.; Utz, Bruce R.

    2000-11-14

    This invention is a process for the passivation or deactivation with resp to oxygen of a carbonaceous material by the exposure of the carbonaceous material to an oxygenated gas in which the oxygenated gas pressure is increased from a first pressure to a second pressure and then the pressure is changed to a third pressure. Preferably a cyclic process which comprises exposing the carbonaceous material to the gas at low pressure and increasing the pressure to a second higher pressure and then returning the pressure to a lower pressure is used. The cycle is repeated at least twice wherein the higher pressure may be increased after a selected number of cycles.

  18. Interfacial tension in high-pressure carbon dioxide mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, B.S.; Wilkinson, G.T.

    1995-12-01

    High-pressure interfacial- and surface-tension phenomena govern the migration and recovery of oil and gas from hydrocarbon reservoirs. The phenomena are of particular relevance to phase separation and mass transfer in light hydrocarbon fractionation plants and in propane deasphalting in lubricating oil refining. Interfacial tensions of carbon dioxide-water-alcohol mixtures were measured at temperatures in the range 5--71 C and pressures 0.1--18.6 MPa, using the capillary rise method. The alcohols were methanol (0.136 mf), ethanol (to 0.523 mf), and isopropyl alcohol (to 0.226 mf). Interfacial tension (IFT) decreased linearly with both temperature and pressure din the low-pressure range (gaseous CO{sub 2}) but was largely independent of pressure at high pressure (liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2}). There was a zone in the vicinity of the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}-as much as 20 C below and 10 C above the carbon dioxide critical temperature--where IFT became small. This is attributed to the formation of a second CO{sub 2}-rich phase. The isotherms exhibited a crossover pressure near 3 MPa for all systems examined.

  19. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.M.

    1996-06-18

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Super-atmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gasification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor. 2 figs.

  20. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  1. Sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polsky, Yarom

    2011-08-30

    A pneumatic device control apparatus and method comprising a ported valve slidably fitted over a feed tube of the pneumatic device, and using a compliant biasing device to constrain motion of the valve to provide asymmetric timing for extended pressurization of a power chamber and reduced pressurization of a return chamber of the pneumatic device. The pneumatic device can be a pneumatic hammer drill.

  2. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani M. (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Superatmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gassification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor.

  3. Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.

    2012-07-01

    700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

  4. Subsea intensifier supplies high pressure to downhole safety valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    A subsea high-pressure hydraulic intensifier (HPI) is now available as an alternative method of operating downhole surface-controlled subsea safety valves (SCSSVs). By generating high hydraulic pressures on the seafloor, the system eliminates need for transmitting high pressure via hose from surface. The new intensifier can generate up to 15,000 psi (1,035 bar) from the 3,000-psi (210-bar) low pressure actuator supply already within the umbilical. It uses low pressure hydraulic fluid acting on a large-area piston to push a second piston, one-fifth the cross sectional area, acting in a second hydraulic circuit. To reduce pulsation, the unit is double acting, with one piston drawing in fluid while the other discharges it. This paper reviews the design, performance, and construction of this equipment.

  5. Pressure dependence of donor excitation spectra in AlSb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, L.; McCluskey, M.D.; Haller, E.E.

    2002-01-16

    We have investigated the behavior of ground to bound excited-state electronic transitions of Se and Te donors in AlSb as a function of hydrostatic pressure. Using broadband far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, we observe qualitatively different behaviors of the electronic transition energies of the two donors. While the pressure derivative of the Te transition energy is small and constant, as might be expected for a shallow donor, the pressure derivatives of the Se transition energies are quadratic and large at low pressures, indicating that Se is actually a deep donor. In addition, at pressures between 30 and 50 kbar, we observe evidence of an anti-crossing between one of the selenium electronic transitions and a two-phonon mode.

  6. System for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-01-01

    An improved method and system for measuring a multi-phase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multi-phase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The system for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes taking into account a pressure drop experienced by the gas phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase.

  7. Dynamic model predicts well bore surge and swab pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bing, Z.; Kaiji, Z.

    1996-12-30

    A dynamic well control model predicts surge and swab pressures more accurately than a steady-state model, thereby providing better estimates of pressure fluctuations when pipe is tripped. Pressure fluctuations from tripping pipe into a well can contribute to lost circulation, kicks,and well control problems. This dynamic method of predicting surge and swab pressures was verified in a full-scale test well in the Zhong Yuan oil field in China. Both the dynamic model and steady state model were verified through the test data. The test data showed the dynamic model can correctly predict downhole pressures from running or pulling pipe in a well; steady state models may result in relatively large prediction errors, especially in deeper wells.

  8. Apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Wilde, Tyson; Barlow, Jonathan S.

    2010-04-13

    A method of responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a bore hole comprises detecting the anomalous change in downhole pressure, sending a signal along the segmented electromagnetic transmission path, receiving the signal, and performing a automated response. The anomalous change in downhole pressure is detected at a first location along a segmented electromagnetic transmission path, and the segmented electromagnetic transmission path is integrated into the tool string. The signal is received by at least one receiver in communication with the segmented electromagnetic transmission path. The automated response is performed along the tool string. Disclosed is an apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a downhole tool string, comprising a segmented electromagnetic transmission path connecting one or more receivers and at least one pressure sensor.

  9. Fuel cell system shutdown with anode pressure control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Doan, Tien M.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A venting methodology and pressure sensing and vent valving arrangement for monitoring anode bypass valve operating during the normal shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in vehicle propulsion systems. During a normal shutdown routine, the pressure differential between the anode inlet and anode outlet is monitored in real time in a period corresponding to the normal closing speed of the anode bypass valve and the pressure differential at the end of the closing cycle of the anode bypass valve is compared to the pressure differential at the beginning of the closing cycle. If the difference in pressure differential at the beginning and end of the anode bypass closing cycle indicates that the anode bypass valve has not properly closed, a system controller switches from a normal shutdown mode to a rapid shutdown mode in which the anode inlet is instantaneously vented by rapid vents.

  10. Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, J.A.

    1990-09-25

    This patent describes a mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine. It comprises: at least one high pressure tank; at least one low pressure tank; the high pressure tank and the low pressure tank each including a check valve to prevent backflow of gas from one tank to the other during operation; at least one inlet regulator for each the low pressure tank adapted to open when the engine has a maximum pressure level lower than that of the next higher pressure tank; at least one outlet regulator for each the high pressure tank adapted to open when next lower pressure tank has a minimum pressure level higher than that of the engine; a maximum pressure supply line including a first valve connecting the engine to the high pressure tank and to the inlet regulator; and a minimum pressure supply line.

  11. Pressure Systems Stored-Energy Threshold Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsen, Samuel S.

    2009-08-25

    Federal Regulation 10 CFR 851, which became effective February 2007, brought to light potential weaknesses regarding the Pressure Safety Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The definition of a pressure system in 10 CFR 851 does not contain a limit based upon pressure or any other criteria. Therefore, the need for a method to determine an appropriate risk-based hazard level for pressure safety was identified. The Laboratory has historically used a stored energy of 1000 lbf-ft to define a pressure hazard; however, an analytical basis for this value had not been documented. This document establishes the technical basis by evaluating the use of stored energy as an appropriate criterion to establish a pressure hazard, exploring a suitable risk threshold for pressure hazards, and reviewing the methods used to determine stored energy. The literature review and technical analysis concludes the use of stored energy as a method for determining a potential risk, the 1000 lbf-ft threshold, and the methods used by PNNL to calculate stored energy are all appropriate. Recommendations for further program improvements are also discussed

  12. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  13. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, Kristie Jo

    2008-12-31

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  14. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani; Koskinen, Jari

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  15. Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The purpose of the Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to provide space where high pressure hydrogen components can be safely tested. High pressure hydrogen storage is an integral part of energy storage technology for use in fuel cell and in other distributed energy scenarios designed to effectively utilize the variability inherent with renewable energy sources. The high pressure storage laboratory is co-located with energy storage activities such as ultra-capacitors, super conducting magnetic flywheel and mechanical energy storage systems laboratories for an integrated approach to system development and demonstration. Hazards associated with hydrogen storage at pressures up to 10,000 psi include oxygen displacement, combustion, explosion, and pressurization of room air due to fast release and physical hazards associated with burst failure modes. A critical understanding of component failure modes is essential in developing reliable, robust designs that will minimize failure risk beyond the end of service life. Development of test protocol for accelerated life testing to accurately scale to real world operating conditions is essential for developing regulations, codes and standards required for safe operation. NREL works closely with industry partners in providing support of advanced hydrogen technologies. Innovative approaches to product design will accelerate commercialization into new markets. NREL works with all phases of the product design life cycle from early prototype development to final certification testing. High pressure tests are performed on hydrogen components, primarily for the validation of developing new codes and standards for high pressure hydrogen applications. The following types of tests can be performed: Performance, Component and system level efficiency, Strength of materials and hydrogen compatibility, Safety demonstration, Model validation, and Life cycle reliability.

  16. Microsoft Word - Errata for the Pressure and Vacuum Systems Safety Supplement 3-15

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PRESSURE VESSEL REGISTRATION FORM PS-4 Pressure System Number: Date: Pressure System Name: Pressure Vessel Number: P&ID Number: Pressure Vessel Description: MAWP/Design Pressure: Design Temperature: Operating Pressure: Operating Temperature: Code: Code Year: System Fluid: Fluid Category: Fluid State: VESSEL DATA ASME Stamp Type ___U Stamp ____UM Stamp ___Other (specify) Vessel Type: __Air Tank __Water Tank __Non-Flam Gas Tank __Flam Gas Tank __Other (specify) Vessel Manufacturer National

  17. THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN DISTANT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: TURBULENT PRESSURE, FRAGMENTATION, AND CLOUD SCALING RELATIONS IN A DENSE GAS DISK AT z = 2.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Papadopoulos, P. P.; Cox, P.; Krips, M.; Neri, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Thomson, A. P.; Richard, J.; Ebeling, H.

    2011-11-20

    We have used the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the Expanded Very Large Array to obtain a high-resolution map of the CO(6-5) and CO(1-0) emission in the lensed, star-forming galaxy SMM J2135-0102 at z = 2.32. The kinematics of the gas are well described by a model of a rotationally supported disk with an inclination-corrected rotation speed, v{sub rot} = 320 {+-} 25 km s{sup -1}, a ratio of rotational-to-dispersion support of v/{sigma} = 3.5 {+-} 0.2, and a dynamical mass of (6.0 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} within a radius of 2.5 kpc. The disk has a Toomre parameter, Q = 0.50 {+-} 0.15, suggesting that the gas will rapidly fragment into massive clumps on scales of L{sub J} {approx} 400 pc. We identify star-forming regions on these scales and show that they are {approx}10 Multiplication-Sign denser than those in quiescent environments in local galaxies, and significantly offset from the local molecular cloud scaling relations (Larson's relations). The large offset compared to local molecular cloud line-width-size scaling relations implies that supersonic turbulence should remain dominant on scales {approx}100 Multiplication-Sign smaller than in the kinematically quiescent interstellar medium (ISM) of the Milky Way, while the molecular gas in SMM J2135 is expected to be {approx}50 Multiplication-Sign denser than that in the Milky Way on all scales. This is most likely due to the high external hydrostatic pressure we measure for the ISM, P{sub tot}/k{sub B} {approx} (2 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K cm{sup -3}. In such highly turbulent ISM, the subsonic regions of gravitational collapse (and star formation) will be characterized by much higher critical densities, n{sub crit} > = 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3}, a factor {approx}>1000 Multiplication-Sign more than the quiescent ISM of the Milky Way.

  18. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  19. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  20. Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted a number of pumping and flow-through tests at the Hot Dry rock (HDR) test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. These tests consisted of injecting fresh water at controlled rates up to 12 BPM (32 {ell}/s) and surface pressures up to

  1. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Haugen, Gilbert R.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure in a class of crystalline materials having anisotropic thermal coefficients and having a coefficient of linear compression along the crystalline c-axis substantially the same as those perpendicular thereto. Temperature is determined by monitoring the fluorescence half life of a probe of such crystalline material, e.g., ruby. Pressure is determined by monitoring at least one other fluorescent property of the probe that depends on pressure and/or temperature, e.g., absolute fluorescent intensity or frequency shifts of fluorescent emission lines.

  2. Structural Behaviour of Uranium Sulfide under High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shareef, F.; Singh, S.; Gour, A.; Bhardwaj, P.; Sarwan, M.; Dubey, R. [High Pressure Research Lab, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026 (India); Singh, R. K. [ITM University, Gurgaon, Haryana-122017 (India)

    2011-07-15

    The study of pressure induced structural phase transition of uranium sulphide, which crystallizes in rock salt (B1) structure, has been performed using the well described three body interaction model (TBIPM). Our present TBIP model consists of long range coulombic interaction, three body interactions, Hafemeister and Flygare type short-range overlap repulsion extended upto the second neighbor ions and the van der Waals interaction. The present results are in good agreement with the available experimental data on the phase transition pressure (Pt = 80.2 GPa). So it can be considered as an adequate and suitable model to perform high pressure studies.

  3. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

    1999-01-05

    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

  4. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Nan; Goretta, Kenneth C.; Dorris, Stephen E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO.sub.2 atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO.sub.2 atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer.

  5. High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

    1991-01-01

    A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis

    2009-02-24

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  7. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.

    1977-05-24

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

  8. Pressure suppression containment system for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Nesbitt, Loyd B.

    1997-01-01

    A system for suppressing the pressure inside the containment of a BWR following a postulated accident. A piping subsystem is provided which features a main process pipe that communicates the wetwell airspace to a connection point downstream of the guard charcoal bed in an offgas system and upstream of the main bank of delay charcoal beds which give extensive holdup to offgases. The main process pipe is fitted with both inboard and outboard containment isolation valves. Also incorporated in the main process pipe is a low-differential-pressure rupture disk which prevents any gas outflow in this piping whatsoever until or unless rupture occurs by virtue of pressure inside this main process pipe on the wetwell airspace side of the disk exceeding the design opening (rupture) pressure differential. The charcoal holds up the radioactive species in the noncondensable gas from the wetwell plenum by adsorption, allowing time for radioactive decay before the gas is vented to the environs.

  9. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lassila, David H.; Bonner, Brian P.

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  10. Pressure suppression containment system for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Nesbitt, L.B.

    1997-01-21

    A system is disclosed for suppressing the pressure inside the containment of a BWR following a postulated accident. A piping subsystem is provided which features a main process pipe that communicates the wetwell airspace to a connection point downstream of the guard charcoal bed in an offgas system and upstream of the main bank of delay charcoal beds which give extensive holdup to offgases. The main process pipe is fitted with both inboard and outboard containment isolation valves. Also incorporated in the main process pipe is a low-differential-pressure rupture disk which prevents any gas outflow in this piping whatsoever until or unless rupture occurs by virtue of pressure inside this main process pipe on the wetwell airspace side of the disk exceeding the design opening (rupture) pressure differential. The charcoal holds up the radioactive species in the noncondensable gas from the wetwell plenum by adsorption, allowing time for radioactive decay before the gas is vented to the environs. 3 figs.

  11. Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry Friday, December 14, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL, Bldg. 137, room 322...

  12. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. Putting the Squeeze on Biology: Biomolecules Under Pressure

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sol Gruner

    2010-01-08

    Modest pressures encountered in the biosphere (i.e., below a few kbar) have extraordinary effects on biomembranes and proteins. These include pressure denaturation of proteins, dramatic changes in protein-protein association, substrate binding, membrane ion transport, DNA transcription, virus infectivity, and enzyme kinetics. Yet all of the biomaterials involved are highly incompressible. The challenge to the physicist is to understand the structural coupling between these effects and pressure to elucidate the relevant mechanisms. X-ray diffraction studies of membranes and proteins under pressure will be described. It is seen that it is not so much the magnitude of the changes, but rather the differential compressibilities of different parts of the structure that are responsible for effects.

  14. Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fractal dimensions of particle aggregates and the fringe lengths and fringe tortuosity within the primary soot particles has been assessed as functions of load, rail pressure, and biodiesel content.

  15. OSS 19.4 Pressure Safety 3/27/95

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this surveillance is to evaluate the contractor's implementation of programs to ensure the integrity of pressure vessels and minimize risks from failure of vessels to the public...

  16. XAS and XMCD spectroscopies to study matter at high pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    XAS and XMCD spectroscopies to study matter at high pressure: Probing the correlation between structure and magnetism in the 3d metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  17. Pressure Dependent Decomposition Kinetics of the Energetic Material...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kinetics of the Energetic Material HMX up to 3.6 GPa The effect of pressure on the thermal decomposition rate of the energetic material HMX was studied. HMX was...

  18. Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2008, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas Dr. Glen Wurden Los Alamos National Laboratory Presentation: PDF icon Free...

  19. 3He Neutron Detector Pressure Effect and Comparison to Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-01-14

    Reported here are the results of measurements performed to determine the efficiency of 3He filled proportional counters as a function of gas pressure in the SAIC system. Motivation for these measurements was largely to validate the current model of the SAIC system. Those predictions indicated that the neutron detection efficiency plotted as a function of pressure has a simple, logarithmic shape. As for absolute performance, the model results indicated the 3He pressure in the current SAIC system could not be reduced appreciably while meeting the current required level of detection sensitivity. Thus, saving 3He by reducing its pressure was predicted not to be a viable option in the current SAIC system.

  20. Method of constructing improved pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1988-11-15

    A method of making optrodes is provided by which a pressure-sensitive volume is incorporated in the optrode by bubble transfer and/or gas entrapment in the manufacturing step sequence. 10 figs.