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1

Studies on upward flame spread.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Experimental techniques have been used to investigate three upward flame spread phenomena of particular importance for fire safety applications. First, rates of upward flame spread… (more)

Gollner, Michael J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Studies on upward flame spread  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5.7 Flame Heights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4.1 Flame Heights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5Chapter 4 Upward Flame Spread of an Inclined Fuel Surface

Gollner, Michael J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Turbine blade tip with offset squealer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An industrial turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationary shroud. The rotating blade includes a root section, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall defining an outer periphery and a tip portion having a tip cap. An offset squealer is disposed on the tip cap. The offset squealer is positioned inward from the outer periphery of the rotating blade. The offset squealer increases the flow resistance and reduces the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

Bunker, Ronald Scott (Niskayuna, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Upward Electrical Discharges From Thunderstorm Tops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of storm top electrical discharges have been observed using several types of low-light imagers, film, and the human eye. Recently, a video recorded an unprecedented, bright blue upward discharge from a tropical thunderstorm top near ...

Walter A. Lyons; Thomas E. Nelson; Russell A. Armstrong; Victor P. Pasko; Mark A. Stanley

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Offset Printing, Production Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Printing Printing Our full service print shop provides prepress services, single and multicolor offset printing, and complete bindery. We print Reports Forms Brochures, leaflets and flyers Name tags and meal tickets Newsletters, etc Prepress Electronic files and paper copy prepared for printing. Complete Bindery Apply address labels or tabs to printed material. Machine fold documents and insert into envelopes for mailing. Laminate printed items up to 35" wide. Numbering and perforating. Trimming, drilling, padding and stitching. Special Printing Special reports, full color printing, continuous and carbon forms printed through the U.S. Government Printing Office. Additional Information Printing can be reached on X2953 The supervisor is Rick Backofen who can be reached on X6183

6

PWR Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Guidelines, Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is defined as a significant negative axial offset deviation from the predicted nuclear design value. AOA results from the incorporation of boron within corrosion product deposits on the upper spans of high-duty pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. The consequences of this process are an erosion of shutdown margin and loss of operational flexibility by control room operators, particularly during power transients.

2004-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

7

Activation of 200 MW refusegenerated CHP upward regulation effect...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

References EU Smart Grid Projects Map1 Overview Waste CHP plants can be used in the electricity market for upward regulation by bypassing the steam turbine. The technical...

8

Buoyancy effects on upward brine displacement caused by CO2 injection  

SciTech Connect

Upward displacement of brine from deep reservoirs driven by pressure increases resulting from CO{sub 2} injection for geologic carbon sequestration may occur through improperly sealed abandoned wells, through permeable faults, or through permeable channels between pinch-outs of shale formations. The concern about upward brine flow is that, upon intrusion into aquifers containing groundwater resources, the brine may degrade groundwater. Because both salinity and temperature increase with depth in sedimentary basins, upward displacement of brine involves lifting fluid that is saline but also warm into shallower regions that contain fresher, cooler water. We have carried out dynamic simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7 of upward displacement of warm, salty water into cooler, fresher aquifers in a highly idealized two-dimensional model consisting of a vertical conduit (representing a well or permeable fault) connecting a deep and a shallow reservoir. Our simulations show that for small pressure increases and/or high-salinity-gradient cases, brine is pushed up the conduit to a new static steady-state equilibrium. On the other hand, if the pressure rise is large enough that brine is pushed up the conduit and into the overlying upper aquifer, flow may be sustained if the dense brine is allowed to spread laterally. In this scenario, dense brine only contacts the lower-most region of the upper aquifer. In a hypothetical case in which strong cooling of the dense brine occurs in the upper reservoir, the brine becomes sufficiently dense that it flows back down into the deeper reservoir from where it came. The brine then heats again in the lower aquifer and moves back up the conduit to repeat the cycle. Parameter studies delineate steady-state (static) and oscillatory solutions and reveal the character and period of oscillatory solutions. Such oscillatory solutions are mostly a curiosity rather than an expected natural phenomenon because in nature the geothermal gradient prevents the cooling in the upper aquifer that occurs in the model. The expected effect of upward brine displacement is either establishment of a new hydrostatic equilibrium or sustained upward flux into the bottom-most region of the upper aquifer.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Rinaldi, A.

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Sandbag Carbon Offset Map | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sandbag Carbon Offset Map Sandbag Carbon Offset Map Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Sandbag Carbon Offset Map Agency/Company /Organization: Sandbag Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Biomass, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Hydrogen, Industry, Solar, Wind Topics: Market analysis Resource Type: Maps, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: sandbag.org.uk/carbondata/cers Sandbag Carbon Offset Map Screenshot References: Sandbag Carbon Offset Map[1] Thinking about climate change can be a depressing occupation. It's a massive issue and personal actions like switching off lights and unplugging televisions can feel like small contributions. Background "Thinking about climate change can be a depressing occupation. It's a

10

The Effect of Vertical Upward Flow on Thermal Plumes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Effect of Vertical Upward Flow on Thermal Plumes The Effect of Vertical Upward Flow on Thermal Plumes Speaker(s): Pierre S. Farrugia Date: November 18, 2010 - 12:05pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: David Lorenzetti Thermal plumes have been widely investigated in a variety of scenarios, including natural convection and stratified environments. The resulting theory may be used to predict ventilation flow rates in, for example, natural and displacement ventilation, and under-floor air distribution (UFAD) systems. However, there has been little effort in investigating how uniform upward flows affect the plume velocity, rate of growth, and thermal profile. Such situations can arise if, for example, the diffusers of a UFAD system are evenly distributed. In order to study such situations, analytical expressions for the velocity and temperature profiles of a plume

11

Gas/Star Offsets in Tidal Tails  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use numerical simulations to study the development of gas/star offsets in the tidal tails of merging galaxies. These offsets are shown to be a natural consequence of the radially extended HI spatial distribution in disk galaxies, coupled with internal dissipation in the gaseous component driven by the interaction. This mechanism explains the observed gas/star offsets in interacting galaxies without invoking interactions with a hot (unseen) gaseous component.

Mihos, C

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Gas/Star Offsets in Tidal Tails  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use numerical simulations to study the development of gas/star offsets in the tidal tails of merging galaxies. These offsets are shown to be a natural consequence of the radially extended HI spatial distribution in disk galaxies, coupled with internal dissipation in the gaseous component driven by the interaction. This mechanism explains the observed gas/star offsets in interacting galaxies without invoking interactions with a hot (unseen) gaseous component.

Chris Mihos

2000-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

13

Assessing the impacts of biodiversity offset policies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to the increasing loss of native vegetation and biodiversity, a growing number of countries have adopted ''offsetting'' policies that seek to balance local habitat destruction by restoring, enhancing and/or protecting similar but separate ... Keywords: Biodiversity offsets, Conservation planning, Global sensitivity analysis, Grassland, Habitat quality, Policy modelling, Uncertainty

Ascelin Gordon; William T. Langford; James A. Todd; Matt D. White; Daniel W. Mullerworth; Sarah A. Bekessy

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Activation of 200 MW refusegenerated CHP upward regulation effect (Smart  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Activation of 200 MW refusegenerated CHP upward regulation effect Activation of 200 MW refusegenerated CHP upward regulation effect Country Denmark Headquarters Location Sønderborg, Denmark Coordinates 54.913811°, 9.792178° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":54.913811,"lon":9.792178,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

15

CARBON OFFSETTING IN A TOURSIM CONTEXT: WHISTLER BC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CARBON OFFSETTING IN A TOURSIM CONTEXT: WHISTLER BC by Katie von Gaza Bachelor of Environmental: Carbon offsetting in a Tourism Context: Whistler, BC. Project No.: 471 Examining Committee: Chair 2.2 Carbon Offsetting

16

Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for Poor Rural Communities Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy:...

17

Template:CompanyCsvPostOffsetQuery | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

template. It should be called in the following format: CompanyCsvPostOffsetQuery |cat |offset |limit |searchlabel Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

18

Texas Tech University Upward Bound Programs WAIVER OF LIABILITY AND HOLD HARMLESS AGREEMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Texas Tech University Upward Bound Programs WAIVER OF LIABILITY AND HOLD HARMLESS AGREEMENT's participation in Texas Tech University Upward Bound Programs, I hereby RELEASE, WAIVE, DISCHARGE, and HOLD HARMLESS Tech University Upward Bound Programs, Texas Tech University, the Board of Regents, the State

Zhang, Yuanlin

19

Activation of 200 MW refusegenerated CHP upward regulation effect (Smart  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

effect (Smart effect (Smart Grid Project) (Thisted, Denmark) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Activation of 200 MW refusegenerated CHP upward regulation effect Country Denmark Headquarters Location Thisted, Denmark Coordinates 56.959167°, 8.703492° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":56.959167,"lon":8.703492,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

20

High quality offset printing: an evolutionary approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Print media are still very important for everyone's daily life. Current efforts are concerned with the application of the well-established offset-printing technology to other media, particularly cardboards, which require some substantial adaptations. ... Keywords: evolutionary algorithms, image processing, industrial application

Ralf Joost; Ralf Salomon

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Ion acoustic solitons in Earth's upward current region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation and evolution of ion acoustic solitons in Earth's auroral upward current region are studied using one- and two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations. The one-dimensional simulations are confined to processes that occur in the auroral cavity and include four plasma populations: hot electrons, H{sup +} and O{sup +} anti-earthward ion beams, and a hot H{sup +} background population. Ion acoustic solitons are found to form for auroral-cavity ion beams consistent with acceleration through double-layer (DL) potentials measured by FAST. A simplified one-dimensional model simulation is then presented in order to isolate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the ion acoustic soliton. Results of a two-dimensional simulation, which include both the ionosphere and the auroral cavity, separated by a low-altitude DL, are then presented in order to confirm that the soliton forms in a more realistic 2D geometry. The 2D simulation is initialized with a U-shaped potential structure that mimics the inferred shape of the low altitude transition region based on observations. In this simulation, a soliton localized perpendicular to the geomagnetic field is observed to form and reside next to the DL. Finally, the 2D simulation results are compared with FAST data and it is found that certain aspects of the data can be explained by assuming the presence of an ion acoustic soliton.

Main, D. S.; Scholz, C. [Department of Physics, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761 (United States); Newman, D. L. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Ergun, R. E. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Random Offset Curves and Surfaces with Controllable Noise (Extended Abstract)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

similar complex patterns often being able to be defined with the gradient noise functions. PORN is defined by replacing a static offset distance in a general offset with a gradient noise function. For example, PORN

Lee, In-Kwon

23

Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U  

SciTech Connect

NSTX plasma performance has been significantly enhanced by lithium conditioning [1]. To date, the lower divertor and passive plates have been conditioned by downward facing lithium evaporators (LITER) as appropriate for lower null plasmas. The higher power operation expected from NSTX-U requires double null plasma operation in order to distribute the heat flux between the upper and lower divertors making it desirable to coat the upper divertor region with Li as well. An upward aiming LITER (U-LITER) is presently under development and will be inserted into NSTX-U using a horizontal probe drive located in a 6" upper midplane port. In the retracted position the evaporator will be loaded with up to 300 mg of Li granules utilizing one of the calibrated NSTX Li powder droppers[2]. The evaporator will then be inserted into the vessel in a location within the shadow of the RF limiters and will remain in the vessel during the discharge. About 10 seconds before a discharge, it will be rapidly heated and the lithium completely evaporated onto the upper divertor, thus avoiding the complication of a shutter that prevents evaporation during the shot when the diagnostic shutters are open. The minimal time interval between the evaporation and the start of the discharge will avoid the passivation of the lithium by residual gases and enable the study of the conditioning effects of un-passivated Li surfaces [3]. Two methods are being investigated to accomplish the rapid (few second) heating of the lithium. A resistive method relies on passing a large current through a Li filled crucible. A second method requires using a 3 kW e-beam gun to heat the Li. In this paper the evaporator systems will be described and the pros and cons of each heating method will be discussed.

Roquemore, A. L.

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

24

Experimental Verification of the Root Cause Mechanism for Axial Offset Anomaly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology built a test facility designed to experimentally verify the root cause mechanism for axial offset anomaly (AOA) in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Tests consisted of depositing materials from the simulated PWR coolant on zircaloy-4 test elements, followed by rapid isolation from the boron-rich coolant to trap within the deposit layer any boron compounds having retrograde solubility. Although significant amounts of boron (up to 8 weight percent) were i...

2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

25

Nonlinear Evolution of an Upward Propagating Gravity Wave: Overturning, Convection, Transience and Turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical simulation of the nonlinear evolution of an upward propagating gravity wave shows that over-turning (the turning over of isopotential temperature surfaces) is the mechanism responsible for limiting the growth of the wave. Wave ...

R. L. Walterscheid; G. Schubert

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a heated tube : high vapor quality range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a uniformly heated tube has been studied for the case in which pure saturated liquid enters the tube and nearly saturated vapor is discharged. Since a previous study ...

Laverty, W. F.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for Poor Rural Communities Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for Poor Rural Communities Agency/Company /Organization Overseas Development Institute Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Renewable Energy, Biomass, Forestry Topics Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.odi.org.uk/resource Country Uganda, India Eastern Africa, Southern Asia References Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for Poor Rural Communities[1] Summary "This report presents findings from a research study in Uganda and India looking at the opportunities that carbon offset projects offer for poor

28

Theoretical and empirical study of single-substance, upward two-phase flow in a constant-diameter adiabatic pipe  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A scheme is developed to describe the upward flow of a two-phase mixture of a single substance in a vertical adiabatic constant area pipe. The scheme is based on dividing the mixture into a homogeneous core surrounded by a liquid film. This core may be a mixture of bubbles in a contiguous liquid phase, or a mixture of droplets in a contiguous vapor phase. The core is turbulent, whereas the liquid film may be laminar or turbulent. The working fluid is Dichlorotetrafluoroethane CClF/sub 2/-CClF/sub 2/ known as refrigerant 114 (R-114); the two-phase mixture is generated from the single phase substance by the process of flashing. In this study, the effect of the Froude and Reynolds numbers on the liquid film characteristics is examined. An expression for an interfacial friction coefficient between the turbulent core and the liquid film is developed; it is similar to Darcy's friction coefficient for a single phase flow in a rough pipe. Results indicate that for the range of Reynolds and Froude numbers considered, the liquid film is likely to be turbulent rather than laminar. The study also shows that two-dimensional effects are important, and the flow is never fully developed either in the film or the core. In addition, the new approach for the turbulent film is capable of predicting a local net flow rate that may be upward, downward, stationary, or stalled. An actual steam-water geothermal well is simulated. A similarity theory is used to predict the steam-water mixture pressure and temperature starting with laboratory measurements on the flow of R-114. Results indicate that the theory can be used to predict the pressure gradient in the two-phase region based on laboratory measurements.

Laoulache, R.N.; Maeder, P.F.; DiPippo, R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Experimental investigation on heat transfer and frictional characteristics of vertical upward rifled tube in supercritical CFB boiler  

SciTech Connect

Water wall design is a key issue for supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. On account of the good heat transfer performance, rifled tube is applied in the water wall design of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler in China. In order to investigate the heat transfer and frictional characteristics of the rifled tube with vertical upward flow, an in-depth experiment was conducted in the range of pressure from 12 to 30 MPa, mass flux from 230 to 1200 kg/(m{sup 2} s), and inner wall heat flux from 130 to 720 kW/m{sup 2}. The wall temperature distribution and pressure drop in the rifled tube were obtained in the experiment. The normal, enhanced and deteriorated heat transfer characteristics were also captured. In this paper, the effects of pressure, inner wall heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed, the heat transfer mechanism and the frictional resistance performance are discussed, and the corresponding empirical correlations are presented. The experimental results show that the rifled tube can effectively prevent the occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and keep the tube wall temperature in a permissible range under the operating condition of supercritical CFB boiler. (author)

Yang, Dong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xiaojing; Bi, Qincheng; Chen, Tingkuan [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Zhou, Chenn Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN 46323 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Azimuthal Offset-Dependent Attributes (AVO And FVO) Applied To Fracture Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the amplitude versus offset (AVO) and the frequency versus offset (FVO) information, the diagnostic ability of P-wave seismic data in fracture detection is investigated. The offset-dependent attributes (AVO and FVO) ...

Shen, Feng

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

The Development of Gas/Star Offsets in Tidal Tails  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present models of interacting galaxies in order to study the development of spatial offsets between the gaseous and stellar components in tidal tails. Observationally, such offsets are observed to exist over large scales (e.g., NGC 3690; Hibbard et al. 2000), suggesting an interaction between the tidal gas and some (unseen) hot ISM. Instead, our models show these offsets are a natural consequence of the radially extended HI spatial distribution in disk galaxies, coupled with internal dissipation in the gaseous component driven by the interaction. This mechanism is most effective in systems involved in very prograde interactions, and explains the observed gas/star offsets in interacting galaxies without invoking interactions with a hot ISM, starburst ionization, or dust obscuration within the tails.

Chris Mihos

2000-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Development of Gas/Star Offsets in Tidal Tails  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present models of interacting galaxies in order to study the development of spatial offsets between the gaseous and stellar components in tidal tails. Observationally, such offsets are observed to exist over large scales (e.g., NGC 3690; Hibbard et al. 2000), suggesting an interaction between the tidal gas and some (unseen) hot ISM. Instead, our models show these offsets are a natural consequence of the radially extended HI spatial distribution in disk galaxies, coupled with internal dissipation in the gaseous component driven by the interaction. This mechanism is most effective in systems involved in very prograde interactions, and explains the observed gas/star offsets in interacting galaxies without invoking interactions with a hot ISM, starburst ionization, or dust obscuration within the tails.

Mihos, C

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The EPRI Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Policy Dialogue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2008, EPRI launched the EPRI Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Offset Policy Dialogue project. The goals of this project are to inform key constituencies involved in the development of U.S. climate mitigation strategies and policies about GHG emissions offset-related policies and design issues, and to provide a forum in which representatives of key sectors of the U.S. economy and communities involved in the ongoing development and debate on climate change policies can discuss these issues. This Technical...

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

34

UPWARD MOVEMENT OF PLUTONIUM TO SURFACE SEDIMENTS DURING AN 11-YEAR FIELD STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An 11-y lysimeter study was established to monitor the movement of Pu through vadose zone sediments. Sediment Pu concentrations as a function of depth indicated that some Pu moved upward from the buried source material. Subsequent numerical modeling suggested that the upward movement was largely the result of invading grasses taking up the Pu and translocating it upward. The objective of this study was to determine if the Pu of surface sediments originated from atmosphere fallout or from the buried lysimeter source material (weapons-grade Pu), providing additional evidence that plants were involved in the upward migration of Pu. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 242}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic fraction ratios of the lysimeter surface sediments, as determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS), were 0.063 and 0.00045, respectively; consistent with the signatures of the weapons-grade Pu. Our numerical simulations indicate that because plants create a large water flux, small concentrations over multiple years may result in a measurable accumulation of Pu on the ground surface. These results may have implications on the conceptual model for calculating risk associated with long-term stewardship and monitored natural attenuation management of Pu contaminated subsurface and surface sediments.

Kaplan, D.; Beals, D.; Cadieux, J.; Halverson, J.

2010-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

35

Sources of biogenic methane to form marine gas hydrates: In situ production or upward migration?  

SciTech Connect

Potential sources of biogenic methane in the Carolina Continental Rise -- Blake Ridge sediments have been examined. Two models were used to estimate the potential for biogenic methane production: (1) construction of sedimentary organic carbon budgets, and (2) depth extrapolation of modern microbial production rates. While closed-system estimates predict some gas hydrate formation, it is unlikely that >3% of the sediment volume could be filled by hydrate from methane produced in situ. Formation of greater amounts requires migration of methane from the underlying continental rise sediment prism. Methane may be recycled from below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone by gas hydrate decomposition, upward migration of the methane gas, and recrystallization of gas hydrate within the overlying stability zone. Methane bubbles may also form in the sediment column below the depth of gas hydrate stability because the methane saturation concentration of the pore fluids decreases with increasing depth. Upward migration of methane bubbles from these deeper sediments can add methane to the hydrate stability zone. From these models it appears that recycling and upward migration of methane is essential in forming significant gas hydrate concentrations. In addition, the depth distribution profiles of methane hydrate will differ if the majority of the methane has migrated upward rather than having been produced in situ.

Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W. III; Borowski, W.S.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

1963-06-00T23:59:59.000Z

37

Physical mechanism and numerical simulation of the inception of the lightning upward leader  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The upward leader is a key physical process of the leader progression model of lightning shielding. The inception mechanism and criterion of the upward leader need further understanding and clarification. Based on leader discharge theory, this paper proposes the critical electric field intensity of the stable upward leader (CEFISUL) and characterizes it by the valve electric field intensity on the conductor surface, E{sub L}, which is the basis of a new inception criterion for the upward leader. Through numerical simulation under various physical conditions, we verified that E{sub L} is mainly related to the conductor radius, and data fitting yields the mathematical expression of E{sub L}. We further establish a computational model for lightning shielding performance of the transmission lines based on the proposed CEFISUL criterion, which reproduces the shielding failure rate of typical UHV transmission lines. The model-based calculation results agree well with the statistical data from on-site operations, which show the effectiveness and validity of the CEFISUL criterion.

Li Qingmin [Beijing Key Lab of High Voltage and EMC, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China) and State Key Lab of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu Xinchang; Shi Wei; Zhang Li; Zou Liang; Lou Jie [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of UHV Technology and Gas Discharge, School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State California Program Type Building Energy Code Provider California Energy Commission [http://www.energy.ca.gov/2009-SOPR-1/documents/sb_1_bill_20060821_chapte... Senate Bill 1 of 2006], which established the statewide California Solar Initiative, also required the California Energy Commission (CEC) to implement regulations that require sellers of production homes to offer a solar energy system option to all prospective homebuyers. Besides offering solar as an option to prospective homebuyers, sellers of homes constructed on land for which an application for a tentative subdivision map has been

39

Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions of Over 300 Power Plants Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions of Over 300 Power Plants April 8, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis Dr. Art Rosenfeld Distinguished Scientist Emeritus at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory What does this project do? Builds energy savings. Promotes heat island mitigation and public health benefits. Encourages global cooling. I am delighted to learn that India, Mexico, and the United States have signed up to join the Cool Roofs Working Group, announced yesterday at the second Clean Energy Ministerial in Abu Dhabi. This working group was offered as part of the Clean Energy Ministerial, which is a high-level global forum to promote policies and programs that advance clean energy

40

Theoretical and empirical study of single-substance, upward two-phase flow in a constant-diameter adiabatic pipe  

SciTech Connect

A Scheme is developed to describe the upward flow of a two-phase mixture of a single substance in a vertical adiabatic constant area pipe. The scheme is based on dividing the mixture into a homogeneous core surrounded by a liquid film. This core may be a mixture of bubbles in a contiguous liquid phase, or a mixture of droplets in a contiguous vapor phase. Emphasis is placed upon the latter case since the range of experimental measurements of pressure, temperature, and void fraction collected in this study fall in the slug-churn''- annular'' flow regimes. The core is turbulent, whereas the liquid film may be laminar or turbulent. Turbulent stresses are modeled by using Prandtl's mixing-length theory. The working fluid is Dichlorotetrafluoroethane CCIF{sub 2}-CCIF{sub 2} known as refrigerant 114 (R-114); the two-phase mixture is generated from the single phase substance by the process of flashing. In this study, the effect of the Froude and Reynolds numbers on the liquid film characteristics is examined. The compressibility is accounted for through the acceleration pressure gradient of the core and not directly through the Mach number. An expression for an interfacial friction coefficient between the turbulent core and the liquid film is developed; it is similar to Darcy's friction coefficient for a single phase flow in a rough pipe. Finally, an actual steam-water geothermal well is simulated; it is based on actual field data from New Zealand. A similarity theory is used to predict the steam-water mixture pressure and temperature starting with laboratory measurements on the flow of R-114.

Laoulache, R.N.; Maeder, P.F.; DiPippo, R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop, held February 10-11 in Palo Alto, California. Twenty-two papers were presented on various aspects of AOA by utilities, EPRI Robust Fuel Program contractors, staff from EPRI and universities, international researchers, and equipment vendors.

2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

43

Proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report presents proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop, held February 10-11 in Palo Alto, California. Twenty-two papers were presented on various aspects of AOA by utilities, EPRI Robust Fuel Program contractors, staff from EPRI and universities, international researchers, and equipment vendors.

None

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Harmonics from SVC transformer saturation with direct current offset  

SciTech Connect

Circulation of direct current in transformer windings can cause significant transformer saturation and harmonic generation. This problem may be experienced by static var compensators with anti-parallel thyristor arrangement. This paper presents a technique to analyze the harmonic distortions caused by transformer saturation with direct current offset. The technique is used to investigate the harmonic generation from the transformer of a static var compensator to be installed in the B.C. Hydro system.

Xu, W.; Martinich, T.G.; Sawada, J.H.; Mansour, Y. (British Columbia Hydro, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada))

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

46

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

Baker, Tod H. (O' Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Case Studies of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects Implemented in the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes case studies of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offset project activities undertaken within the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) program. This paper is designed to communicate key lessons learned from the implementation of different types of GHG emissions offsets projects in the CDM to policy makers in the U.S. who may be interested in developing national, regional or state-based GHG offsets programs. This paper also is designed to provide important insights to entitie...

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

48

Psychophysiological Reactivity to Self and Model Images in an Upward Social Comparison Manipulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The current study examined affective reactivity to oneself in an upward socialcomparison manipulation using autonomic physiological responses. Study I was conducted to select images of thin and average size models used to elicit a social comparison process for Study II. For Study II, thirty-two female undergraduate students had their startle reflex and skin conductance responses recorded while viewing images of themselves presented adjacent to thin or average size models. Participants also viewed positive, negative, and neutral affect images to test our experimental manipulation of Peter Lang’s startle paradigm. Following the visual presentation, participants used the SAM scale to rate each image along the dimensions of valence, arousal, dominance, body satisfaction, and attractiveness. Analyses revealed that participants reacted to thin and average size models and self with similar levels of body image satisfaction, valence, and arousal, even though thin models were perceived as highly more attractive. Positive affect images were rated higher on valence and arousal among all the picture types. With regards to the psychophysiological data, there were differences in startle reactivity among the three model-to-self comparison images, with images of Thin-to-Self Comparison eliciting more of an inhibited startle response and Thin-to-Average Comparison images eliciting more of a potentiated startle response. In terms of arousal, positive affect images were perceived as more arousing among all the picture types. Contrary to what was expected, there were no significant differences in skin conductance responsiveness between the three model-to self comparison images. The results are discussed from a social-comparison perspective with regard to affective reactivity to body image. Future research directions are proposed.

Tamez, Jeannine

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production: Experience Validating a New GHG Offset Protocol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project report describes in part the second phase (years four through six, 2010–2012) of a two-phase, six-year long EPRI-sponsored research project entitled “Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions.” This project investigated an innovative approach to developing large-scale, cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that potentially can be implemented across broad geographic areas of the ...

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

50

Valuation of carbon capture and sequestration under Greenhouse gas regulations: CCS as an offsetting activity  

SciTech Connect

When carbon capture and sequestration is conducted by entities that are not regulated, it could be counted as an offset that is fungible in the market or sold to a voluntary market. This paper addresses the complications that arise in accounting for carbon capture and sequestration as an offset, and methodologies that exist for accounting for CCS in voluntary and compliance markets. (author)

Lokey, Elizabeth

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Performance analysis of space-time block codes in flat fading MIMO channels with offsets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the effect of imperfect carrier offset compensation on the performance of space-time block codes. The symbol error rate (SER) for orthogonal space-time block code (OSTBC) is derived here by taking into account the carrier offset and the resulting ...

Manav R. Bhatnagar; R. Vishwanath; Vaibhav Bhatnagar

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

A low-offset high-speed double-tail dual-rail dynamic latched comparator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new dynamic latched comparator which shows lower input-referred latch offset voltage and higher load drivability than the conventional dynamic latched comparators. With two additional inverters inserted between the input- and output-stage ... Keywords: clocked comparator, dynamic latched comparator, low-offset low-power high-speed, voltage sense amplifier (sa)

HeungJun Jeon; Yong-Bin Kim

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

The influence of bowl offset on air motion in a direct injection diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

The influence of bowl offset on motored mean flow and turbulence in a direct injection diesel engine has been examined with the aid of a multi-dimensional flow code. Results are presented for three piston geometries. The bowl geometry of each piston was the same, while the offset between the bowl and the cylinder axis was varied from 0.0 to 9.6% of the bore. The swirl ratio at intake valve closing was also varied from 2.60 to 4.27. It was found that the angular momentum of the air at TDC was decreased by less than 8% when the bowl was offset. Nevertheless, the mean (squish and swirl) flows were strongly affected by the offset. In addition, the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (predicted by the /delta/-e model) was modified. Moderate increases (10% or less) in mass averaged turbulence intensity at TDC with offset were observed.

McKinley, T.L.; Primus, R.J

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Small Town Using Wind Power to Offset Electricity Costs | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Town Using Wind Power to Offset Electricity Costs Town Using Wind Power to Offset Electricity Costs Small Town Using Wind Power to Offset Electricity Costs September 8, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis Kevin Craft Carmen, Oklahoma, is not your average small town. It was the first recipient of an Energy Efficiency and Conservation block grant - and the small town of 412 is using that Recovery Act funding to cut costs through wind energy. Through a $242,500 Recovery Act grant, town officials purchased four 5 kW and one 10 kW wind turbines. Officials are using wind energy to offset electricity costs for all town-owned buildings and save an estimated $24,000 a year. According to Therese Kephart, Carmen's town clerk and treasurer, the goal of the project is to produce enough electricity to run all town-owned buildings.

56

An improved model to determine the inception of positive upward leader-streamer system considering the leader propagation during dark period  

SciTech Connect

Stem-leader transition and front-streamer inception are two essential conditions for the inception of positive upward leader-streamer system (LSS). Previous models have not considered the initial-leader propagation during dark period and have not been verified systematically. In this paper, a series of positive upward discharge simulation experiments was designed and carried out. Characteristic parameters of the discharge process related to the inception of positive upward LSS, namely, the first-corona inception voltage, the first-corona charge, the dark period, and the LSS inception voltage, were obtained. By comparing these experiment results with simulation results calculated using previous models, it was found that it is improper to assume that the length of the initial leader is a fixed value. Finally, an improved inception model of positive upward LSS considering the leader propagation during dark period was developed and verified with experiment results.

Xie Shijun; He Junjia [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen Weijiang [State Grid Corporation of China, No. 86, West Chang'an Street, Beijing 100031 (China)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Aggregation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets: Benefits, Existing Methods, and Key Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is designed to develop and disseminate to members of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the public at large, and participants in the world's evolving carbon markets a set of lessons learned about the aggregation of individual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offset projects into larger, organized configurations that can yield large-scale GHG emissions offsets. Aggregation puts together geographically and/or temporally dispersed activities that reduce emissions in a similar manner to ...

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

A Comprehensive Overview of Project-Based Mechanisms to Offset Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI Technical Update provides senior managers and environmental staff of U.S. electric companies with a comprehensive understanding of the role that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets can play in their own company's future carbon emissions compliance strategy and how offsets offer a key contribution to meet global GHG emissions reduction targets faster and at comparatively low cost. So-called project-based mechanisms use the power of markets to supply cost-efficient GHG emission reductions to e...

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

59

$B_s \\to ?^+ ?^-$ and the upward-going muon flux from the WIMP annihilation in the sun or the earth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the upward-going muon flux due to the WIMP annihilations in the cores of the sun and the earth, including the upper bound on the branching ratio for $B_s \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ decay. We find that the constraint from $B_s \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ is very strong in most parameter space, and exclude the supergravity parameter space regions where the expected upward-going muon fluxes are within the expected reach of AMANDA II.

Seungwon Baek; Yeong Gyun Kim; P. Ko

2005-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

60

Geometric Offsets Across Spiral Arms in M51: Nature of Gas and Star Formation Tracers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report measurements of geometric offsets between gas spiral arms and associated star forming regions in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51. These offsets are a suggested measure of the star formation timescale after the compression of gas at spiral arm entry. A surprising discrepancy, by an order of magnitude, has been reported in recent offset measurements in nearby spiral galaxies. Measurements using CO and H-alpha emission find large and ordered offsets in M51. On the contrary, small or non-ordered offsets have been found using the HI 21cm and 24 micron emissions, possible evidence against gas flow through spiral arms, and thus against the conventional density-wave theory with a stationary spiral pattern. The goal of this paper is to understand the cause of this discrepancy. We investigate potential causes by repeating those previous measurements using equivalent data, methods, and parameters. We find offsets consistent with the previous measurements and conclude that the difference of gas tracers, i.e....

Louie, M; Egusa, F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

CO2 Offset Options: Comparative Assessment of Terrestial Sinks vs. Natural Gas Combined Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

W. South (south@energyresources.com; 202-785-8833) W. South (south@energyresources.com; 202-785-8833) Energy Resources International, Inc. 1015 18 th Street, N.W., Suite 650 Washington, DC 20036 CO 2 Offset Options: Comparative Assessment of Terrestial Sinks vs. Natural Gas Combined Cycle 1 Abstract This study compares the economic value of two CO 2 mitigation actions: terrestrial reforestation to sequester CO 2 emitted from coal-fired power generation versus natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power generation to avoid (minimize) CO 2 release. The same quantity of carbon offset was assumed for both actions. Tree stock growth, carbon absorption/release cycles, and replanting were considered to maintain the quantity of carbon offset via reforestation. The study identified important parameters with both CO 2 mitigation options that should be considered when examining alternative strategies.

62

Suburbs offset Low Carbon Footprint of major U.S. Cities | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Suburbs offset Low Carbon Footprint of major U.S. Cities Suburbs offset Low Carbon Footprint of major U.S. Cities Home > Blogs > Graham7781's blog Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2002) Super contributor 9 January, 2014 - 13:12 carbon cities CO2 emissions OpenEI suburbs US New research from the University of California-Berkeley shows that those who live in cities in the United States have significantly smaller per-capita carbon footprints than their suburban counterparts. The difference is such that suburban dwellers essentially offset the low carbon footprints of urban dwellers. Vehicle emissions accounted for the biggest contributor to carbon dioxide, accounted by longer commutes to work, school, and shopping. The data, balancing 37 factors such as weather, income, home size, shows that those dwelling in major cities have a carbon footprint about 50 percent below the

63

Temperature dependent band offsets in PbSe/PbEuSe quantum well heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The band offsets of PbSe/Pb{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}Se multi-quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy are determined as a function of temperature and europium content using temperature-modulated differential transmission spectroscopy. The confined quantum well states in the valence and conduction bands are analyzed using a k{center_dot}p model with envelope function approximation. From the fit of the experimental data, the normalized conduction band offset is determined as 0.45{+-}0.15 of the band gap difference, independently of Eu content up to 14% and temperature from 20 to 300 K.

Simma, M.; Bauer, G.; Springholz, G. [Institut fuer Halbleiter und Festkoerperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

64

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report covers the first two years of a three-year long project entitled "Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions." This EPRI-sponsored project is investigating an innovative approach to developing large-scale and potentially cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that could be implemented across broad geographic areas of the U.S. and internationally. The tools and information developed in this project will broaden the GHG emissions offset ...

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

65

A hybrid approach to outlier detection in the offset lithographic printing process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial neural networks are used to model the offset printing process aiming to develop tools for on-line ink feed control. Inherent in the modelling data are outliers owing to sensor faults, measurement errors and impurity of materials used. It is ... Keywords: Fuzzy expert, Leverages, Neural network, Outlier detection

C. Englund; A. Verikas

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT A high solidity, small scale, 2.5m diameter by 3m high Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT, performance 1. INTRODUCTION Small scale vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) show potential for urban rooftop turbines. Keywords: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, VAWT, airfoil, pitch, blade, mount, offset, high solidity

Tullis, Stephen

67

Joint Identification of Stepper Motor Parameters and of Initial Encoder Offset  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

procedure to identify at the same time the electrical parameters of a permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM an initilization procedure. Keywords: Permanent magnet stepper motor, synchronous motors, parameter identification, offset calibration, sliding modes. 1. INTRODUCTION Permanent Magnet Stepper Motors (PMSM's) are widely

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final project report describes a three-year long EPRI supplemental project entitled "Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions." This EPRI-sponsored project investigated an innovative approach to developing large-scale, cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that potentially can be implemented across broad geographic areas of the United States and internationally.

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

69

Using Measurements of Fill Factor at High Irradiance to Deduce Heterobarrier Band Offsets: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using a 2D device simulation tool, we examine the high irradiance behavior of a single junction, GaAs concentrator cell as a function of the doping in the back surface confinement layer. The confinement layer is designed to be a barrier for both holes and electrons in the base of the solar cell. For a p-type base we show that the FF of the cell at high concentrations is a strong function of both the magnitude of the valence band offset and the doping level in the barrier. In short, for a given valence band offset (VBO), there is a critical barrier doping, below which the FF drops rapidly with lower doping. This behavior is confirmed experimentally for a GaInP/GaAs double heterostructure solar cell where the critical doping concentration (at 500 suns) in the back surface confinement layer is ~1e18 cm-3 for a VBO of 300 meV.

Olson, J. M.; Steiner, M. A.; Kanevce, A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Deaerator pressure control system for a combined cycle steam generator power plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a combined cycle steam generation power plant, until steam extraction can be used to reheat the deaerator, the economizer and/or the pegging recirculation are controlled so as to track the pressure upwards of the autocirculation reheater from the low pressure evaporator with a certain lag in pressure, and to establish pressure in the deaerator on the decreasing trend of the autocirculation reheater at a slower rate and without lowering below a minimum pressure so as to prevent the occurrence of bubbling and cavitation effect.

Martens, A.; Myers, G. A.

1985-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

71

Using a Blackbody to Calculate Net Longwave Responsivity of Shortwave Solar Pyranometers to Correct for Their Thermal Offset Error during Outdoor Calibration Using the Component Sum Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermopile pyranometers’ thermal offset has been recognized since the pyranometer’s inception. This offset is often overlooked or ignored because its magnitude is small compared to the overall solar signal at higher irradiance. With the demand of ...

I. Reda; J. Hickey; C. Long; D. Myers; T. Stoffel; S. Wilcox; J. J. Michalsky; E. G. Dutton; D. Nelson

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Methods and apparatus to produce stick-slip motion of logging tool attached to a wireline drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus are described to produce stick-slip motion of a logging tool within a cased well attached to a wireline that is drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum. The stick-slip motion results in the periodic upward movement of the tool in the cased well described in terms of a dwell time during which time the tool is stationary, the move time during which time the tool moves, and the stroke that is upward distance that the tool translates during the "slip" portion of the stick-slip motion. This method of measurement is used to log the well at different vertical positions of the tool. Therefore, any typical "station-to-station logging tool" may be modified to be a "continuous logging tool", where "continuous" means that the wireline drum continually rotates while the tool undergoes stick-slip motion downhole and measurements are performed during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary. The stick-slip methods of operation and the related apparatus are particularly described in terms of making measurements of formation resistivity from within a cased well during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary during the periodic stick-slip motion of the logging tool.

Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA); Momii, Steven Thomas (Seattle, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Methods and apparatus to produce stick-slip motion of logging tool attached to a wireline drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus are described to produce stick-slip motion of a logging tool within a cased well attached to a wireline that is drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum. The stick-slip motion results in the periodic upward movement of the tool in the cased well described in terms of a dwell time during which time the tool is stationary, the move time during which time the tool moves, and the stroke that is upward distance that the tool translates during the ``slip`` portion of the stick-slip motion. This method of measurement is used to log the well at different vertical positions of the tool. Therefore, any typical ``station-to-station logging tool`` may be modified to be a ``continuous logging tool,`` where ``continuous`` means that the wireline drum continually rotates while the tool undergoes stick-slip motion downhole and measurements are performed during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary. The stick-slip methods of operation and the related apparatus are particularly described in terms of making measurements of formation resistivity from within a cased well during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary during the periodic stick-slip motion of the logging tool. 12 figs.

Vail, W.B. III; Momii, S.T.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

74

Pressure Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Specifications for carbon and alloy steel pressure tubes (ASTM)...medium-strength carbon-molybdenum alloy

75

Dynamic Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The higher pressure range will cover the important application of gas turbine engine testing. Gas turbines are used for propulsion on aircraft and ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Key Institutional Design Considerations and Resources Required to Develop a Federal Greenhouse Gas Offsets Program in the United Sta tes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets have emerged as a critical element of evolving U.S. climate policy and a critical factor in determining the future price of CO2 emissions and the economic costs of proposed policies. This report evaluates the governmental institutional requirements and resources needed to develop a large-scale national domestic GHG emissions offset program. It also describes potential institutional barriers that might limit the ability of the evolving carbon market to generate signi...

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

77

Forced convective flow and heat transfer of upward cocurrent air-water slug flow in vertical plain and swirl tubes  

SciTech Connect

This experimental study comparatively examined the two-phase flow structures, pressured drops and heat transfer performances for the cocurrent air-water slug flows in the vertical tubes with and without the spiky twisted tape insert. The two-phase flow structures in the plain and swirl tubes were imaged using the computerized high frame-rate videography with the Taylor bubble velocity measured. Superficial liquid Reynolds number (Re{sub L}) and air-to-water mass flow ratio (AW), which were respectively in the ranges of 4000-10000 and 0.003-0.02 were selected as the controlling parameters to specify the flow condition and derive the heat transfer correlations. Tube-wise averaged void fraction and Taylor bubble velocity were well correlated by the modified drift flux models for both plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition. A set of selected data obtained from the plain and swirl tubes was comparatively examined to highlight the impacts of the spiky twisted tape on the air-water interfacial structure and the pressure drop and heat transfer performances. Empirical heat transfer correlations that permitted the evaluation of individual and interdependent Re{sub L} and AW impacts on heat transfer in the developed flow regions of the plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition were derived. (author)

Chang, Shyy Woei [Thermal Fluids Laboratory, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China); Yang, Tsun Lirng [Department of Marine Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

PRESSURE TRANSDUCER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure or mechanical force transducer particularly adaptable to miniature telemetering systems is described. Basically the device consists of a transistor located within a magnetic field adapted to change in response to mechanical force. The conduction characteristics of the transistor in turn vary proportionally with changes in the magnetic flux across the transistor such that the output (either frequency of amplitude) of the transistor circuit is proportional to mechanical force or pressure.

Sander, H.H.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

The cost of agriculturally based greenhouse gas offsets in the Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The broad objective of this thesis involves investigation of the role agriculture might play in a society wide greenhouse gas emissions reduction effort. Specifically, the breakeven price for carbon emission offsets is calculated for agriculturally based emission reducing practices. The practices investigated in the Texas High Plains involve reduced tillage use, reduced fallow use, reduced crop fertilization, cropland conversion to grassland, feedlot enteric fermentation management and digester based dairy manure handling. Costs of emission reductions were calculated at the producer level. The calculated offset prices are classified into four cost categories. They are: negative cost, low cost (less than $20 per ton of carbon saved), moderate cost ($20 through $100 per ton of carbon saved), and high cost (over $100 for tons of carbon saved). Negative cost implies that farmers could make money and reduce emissions by moving to alternative practices even without any carbon payments. Alternatives in the positive cost categories need compensation to induce farmers to switch to practices that sequester more carbon. All fallow dryland crop practices, dryland and irrigated cotton zero tillage, dryland and irrigated wheat zero tillage, irrigated corn zero tillage, cotton irrigated nitrogen use reduction under minimum tillage and dryland pasture for all systems, and anaerobic lagoon complete mix and plug flow systems fall in the negative cost category. Dryland and irrigated wheat under minimum tillage are found to be in the low cost category. Cotton dryland under minimum tillage and cotton irrigated with nitrogen use reduction under zero tillage fell into the moderate cost class. Both corn and cotton irrigated minimum tillage are found to be in the high cost category. This study only considers the producer foregone net income less fixed costs as the only cost incurred in switching to an alternative sequestering practice. More costs such as learning and risk should probably be included. This limitation along with other constraints such as use of short run budget data, lack of availability and reliability of local budgets, overlooking any market effects, and lack of treatment of costs incurred in selling carbon offsets to buyers are limitations and portend future work.

Chandrasena, Rajapakshage Inoka Ilmi

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Iterative receivers for OFDM systems with dispersive fading and frequency offset  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The presence of dispersive fading and inter-carrier interference (ICI) constitute the major impediment to reliable communications in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Recently iterative (``Turbo'') processing techniques, which have been successfully applied to many detection/decoding problems, have received considerable attention. In this thesis, we first aim on the design of iterative receiver for single antenna OFDM system with frequency offset and dispersive fading. Further work is then extended to space-time block coded (STBC) OFDM system. At last, the technique is applied to STBC-OFDM system through a newly built channel model, which is based on a physical description of the propagation environment. The performance of such systems are verified by computer simulations. The simulation results show that the iterative techniques work well in OFDM systems.

Liu, Hui

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Low-Drift Flow Sensor with Zero-Offset Thermopile-Based Power Feedback  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermal flow sensor has been realised consisting of freely-suspended silicon-rich silicon-nitride microchannels with an integrated Al/poly-Si++ thermopile in combination with up- and downstream Al heater resistors. The inherently zero offset of the thermopile is exploited in a feedback loop controlling the dissipated power in the heater resistors, eliminating inevitable influences of resistance drift and mismatch of the thin-film metal resistors. The control system cancels the flow-induced temperature difference across the thermopile by controlling a power difference between both heater resistors, thereby giving a measure for the flow rate. The flow sensor was characterised for power difference versus water flow rates up to 1.5 ul/min, being in good agreement with a thermal model of the sensor, and the correct low-drift operation of the temperature-balancing control system has been verified.

Dijkstra, M; De Boer, Meint; Berenschot, J W; Wiegerink, Remco; Elwenspoek, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Offset-free rail-to-rail derandomizing peak detect-and-hold circuit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A peak detect-and-hold circuit eliminates errors introduced by conventional amplifiers, such as common-mode rejection and input voltage offset. The circuit includes an amplifier, three switches, a transistor, and a capacitor. During a detect-and-hold phase, a hold voltage at a non-inverting in put terminal of the amplifier tracks an input voltage signal and when a peak is reached, the transistor is switched off, thereby storing a peak voltage in the capacitor. During a readout phase, the circuit functions as a unity gain buffer, in which the voltage stored in the capacitor is provided as an output voltage. The circuit is able to sense signals rail-to-rail and can readily be modified to sense positive, negative, or peak-to-peak voltages. Derandomization may be achieved by using a plurality of peak detect-and-hold circuits electrically connected in parallel.

DeGeronimo, Gianluigi (Nesconset, NY); O'Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY); Kandasamy, Anand (Coram, NY)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Band offsets in ZrO{sub 2}/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterojunction  

SciTech Connect

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to measure the energy discontinuity in the valence band ( White-Up-Pointing-Triangle E{sub V}) of amorphous InGaZnO{sub 4} (a-IGZO)/ZrO{sub 2} heterostructure deposited by DC and RF sputtering at room temperature, respectively. A value of White-Up-Pointing-Triangle E{sub V}= 0 eV was obtained by using the Ga and Zn 2p{sup 3} and In 3d{sup 3} energy levels as references. Given the experimental band gap of 3.1 eV and 5.8 eV for the a-IGZO and ZrO{sub 2}, respectively, this would indicate a conduction band offset of 2.7 eV in the system.

Yao Jianke [School of Computer and Information Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhang Shengdong [School of Computer and Information Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong Li [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

84

Band offsets in HfO{sub 2}/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterojunctions  

SciTech Connect

The valence band discontinuity ({Delta}E{sub V}) of sputter deposited HfO{sub 2}/InZnGaO{sub 4} (IGZO) heterostructures was obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The HfO{sub 2} exhibited a bandgap of 6.07 eV from absorption measurements. A value of {Delta}E{sub V} = 0.48 {+-} 0.025 eV was obtained by using the Ga 2p{sub 3/2}, Zn 2p{sub 3/2}, and In 3d{sub 5/2} energy levels as references. This implies a conduction band offset {Delta}E{sub C} of 2.39 eV in HfO{sub 2}/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterostructures and a nested interface band alignment.

Cho, Hyun [Department of Nanomechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Gyeongnam 627-706 (Korea, Republic of); Douglas, E. A.; Gila, B. P.; Craciun, V.; Lambers, E. S.; Pearton, S. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Ren Fan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

85

Intensity offset and correction of solid spectral library samples measured behind glass  

SciTech Connect

Accurate and calibrated diffuse reflectance spectra libraries of solids are becoming more important for hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing exploitation. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and in order to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass or quartz for the UV, visible or near-infrared spectral regions to prevent their unwanted dispersal into the instrument or laboratory environment. Using both experimental and theoretical methods we have found that for the case of fused quartz this leads to an intensity offset in the reflectance values. Although expected dispersive effects were observed for the fused quartz window in the UV, the measured hemispherical reflectance values are predominantly vertically shifted by the reflectance from the air-quartz and sample-quartz interfaces with intensity dependent offsets leading to measured values up to nearly ?6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ?3.8% too high for 10% reflecting materials, approximately correct (to within experimental error) for 40% to 60% diffuse reflecting surfaces, and ?2% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon surfaces. For the diffuse reflectance case, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the glass, with differences nearly 6% too high for reflectance values approaching 99%. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces as verified by theory, modeling and experiment. Empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300 nm to 2300 nm range.

Bernacki, Bruce E.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.

2013-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

86

The combined effects on fluid flow during compression of piston bowl shape and offset, and swirl ratio  

SciTech Connect

Computational results are presented of air flow during the compression stroke of three engines with differently shaped piston bowls. The three dimensional computer code uses orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems to body fit the engine shapes. A parametric variation of bowl offset position and swirl ratio is performed to assess their effects on the mean flow and the turbulence parameters. The bowl shape and swirl ratio are found to be most influential. Bowl offset is less important except when combined with swirl in which case significant effects are made on the mean flow and to a lesser extent on the turbulence.

Watkins, A.P.; Dessipris, S.; Khaleghi, H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration Offset Programs: Strengths, Difficulties, and Suggestions for Their Potential Use in AB 32's Cap and Trade Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

offset credits for installing “a biogas control system thatemissions by installing biogas control systems (BCS), whichin exchange for installing biogas control systems (BCS), a

Bernadett, Lauren

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Transient Thermal, Hydraulic, and Mechanical Analysis of a Counter Flow Offset Strip Fin Intermediate Heat Exchanger using an Effective Porous Media Approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work presents a comprehensive thermal hydraulic analysis of a compact heat exchanger using offset strip fins. The thermal hydraulics analysis in this work is… (more)

Urquiza, Eugenio

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Evaluating the Potential to Develop New Greenhouse Gas Emission Offsets on Electricity Transmission System Rights-of-Way  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a final deliverable for a research project conceived and supported by EPRI. This project explored the potential technical feasibility of developing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets by implementing enhanced Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) to enhance management of biomass vegetation growing on high-voltage electricity ...

2013-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

90

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update covers the first year of a three-year-long EPRI research project entitled Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production. The report provides a project overview and explains the preliminary results yielded from the first year of on-farm research.

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

91

Analysis of reservoir heterogeneities due to shallowing-upward cycles in carbonate rocks of the Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone of Northeastern Alaska. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project is to develop an integrated database to characterize reservoir heterogeneities resulting from numerous small-scale shallowing-upward cycles (parasequences) comprising the carboniferous Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone. The Wahoo Limestone is the upper formation of an extensive carbonate platform sequence of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group which is widely exposed in the Brooks Range and is a widespread hydrocarbon reservoir unit in the subsurface of the North Slope of Alaska. A principal goal is to determine lateral and vertical variations in the complex mosaic of carbonate facies comprising the Wahoo Limestone. This report presents the preliminary results of research accomplished by a team of specialists in carbonate petrology, biostratigraphy, and diagenesis during the 1990--1991 fiscal year.It includes a summary of regional geological framework studies, a discussion conodont analyses, an overview of diagenetic studies, a brief description of progress in computerized database development, and appendices containing some of the new data on petrographic analyses, conodont analyses, and locality and sample information. Our correlation scheme, which uses cyclic stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and cement stratigraphy, will allow interpretation of the depositional history and paleogeographic evolution of the region. We have developed predictive facies models and will make paleogeographic maps to illustrate different stages in the history of the Wahoo carbonate ramp. Our detailed analyses of the Wahoo Limestone will provide a basis for interpreting correlative rocks in the adjacent subsurface of the coastal plain of ANWR, a potential hydrocarbon lease-sale area. In a broader sense, our work will provide an excellent generic example of carbonate shallowing-upward cycles which typify carbonate sediments.

Watts, K.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Analysis of reservoir heterogeneities due to shallowing-upward cycles in carbonate rocks of the Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone of Northeastern Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project is to develop an integrated database to characterize reservoir heterogeneities resulting from numerous small-scale shallowing-upward cycles (parasequences) comprising the carboniferous Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone. The Wahoo Limestone is the upper formation of an extensive carbonate platform sequence of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group which is widely exposed in the Brooks Range and is a widespread hydrocarbon reservoir unit in the subsurface of the North Slope of Alaska. A principal goal is to determine lateral and vertical variations in the complex mosaic of carbonate facies comprising the Wahoo Limestone. This report presents the preliminary results of research accomplished by a team of specialists in carbonate petrology, biostratigraphy, and diagenesis during the 1990--1991 fiscal year.It includes a summary of regional geological framework studies, a discussion conodont analyses, an overview of diagenetic studies, a brief description of progress in computerized database development, and appendices containing some of the new data on petrographic analyses, conodont analyses, and locality and sample information. Our correlation scheme, which uses cyclic stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and cement stratigraphy, will allow interpretation of the depositional history and paleogeographic evolution of the region. We have developed predictive facies models and will make paleogeographic maps to illustrate different stages in the history of the Wahoo carbonate ramp. Our detailed analyses of the Wahoo Limestone will provide a basis for interpreting correlative rocks in the adjacent subsurface of the coastal plain of ANWR, a potential hydrocarbon lease-sale area. In a broader sense, our work will provide an excellent generic example of carbonate shallowing-upward cycles which typify carbonate sediments.

Watts, K.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Reverse-order source/drain formation with double offset spacer (RODOS) for CMOS low-power, high-speed and low-noise amplifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RODOS (Reverse-Order source/drain formation with Double Offset Spacer) was proposed for low-power, high-speed and low-noise amplifiers. Relying on simulation data, we confirmed the high feasibility of the RODOS process. It showed improved performance ... Keywords: RODOS, amplifier, high-speed, low-noise, low-power, offset spacer, reverse-order

Woo Young Choi; Jong Duk Lee; Byung-Gook Park

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Designing a Large-Scale Federal Greenhouse Gas Offsets Program in the United States: Policy Choices and Lessons Learned from the Cle an Development Mechanism and Other Offsets Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If the United States decides to take broader action in the future to mitigate climate change, policy discussions may once again focus on development of a greenhouse gas (GHG) cap-and-trade program combined with development of a large-scale GHG emissions offsets program. The compliance flexibility offered by these programs, and the economic incentives they create to identify and implement low-cost compliance options, have the potential to reduce significantly the costs to achieve significant emissions lim...

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

95

Studies on upward flame spread  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and A. Alkidas. Combustion of wood in methanol flames.of wet and dry wood by radiation. Combustion and Flame, 11(

Gollner, Michael J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Determination of Band Offsets between the High-k Dielectric LaAlO3 Film and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determination of Band Offsets Determination of Band Offsets between the High-k Dielectric LaAlO3 Film and the In0.53Ga0.47As Substrate Scaling of conventional silicon based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors requires thinner and thinner SiO2 films. However, the figure 1 Figure 1: Intel 45 nm SRAM chip and IntelrCoreTM2 family processor. Hafnium-based high-k dielectric materials are used in the fabrication of those chips. increase of leakage current through thinner SiO2 films puts a fundamental limit on the existing MOS technology. High dielectric constant (high-k) materials are natural substitutes for SiO2 as insulators because they can maintain sufficient thickness to achieve desired capacitance. In fact, hafnium based high-k dielectric materials are already used by Intel in the

97

Incorporating Offset Projects into Corporate Greenhouse Gas Strategies: Risk Management Under Conditions of Policy and Market Uncert ainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides information for electric sector companies considering the development of project-based strategies to offset or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as insights to help them assess what kinds of projects and strategies are appropriate to their own situations. Effective project-based strategies link investments in specific activities with the emissions reductions they generate, resulting in the creation of mitigation credits with economic value in the emerging GHG marketplace...

2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

98

"Blue Sky" Approaches to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An Initial Assessment of Potential New Types of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an initial assessment of potential new approaches to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that might be capable of generating large-scale GHG emissions offsets at relatively low cost compared to other GHG mitigation options. The nine potential blue sky approaches assessed in this report include biochar, destruction of ozone depleting substances, control of natural fugitive methane seeps from coal seams, control of fugitive natural gas emissions associated with hydraulic fracturing...

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

99

Transient Thermal, Hydraulic, and Mechanical Analysis of a Counter Flow Offset Strip Fin Intermediate Heat Exchanger using an Effective Porous Media Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effect on offset fin heat exchanger performance: predictiveA. L. London. Compact Heat Exchangers. 3 rd ed. , New York,Model for Transient Heat Exchanger Response. ” Int. J. Heat

Urquiza, Eugenio

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Transient Thermal, Hydraulic, and Mechanical Analysis of a Counter Flow Offset Strip Fin Intermediate Heat Exchanger using an Effective Porous Media Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. and A. L. London. Compact Heat Exchangers. 3 rd ed. , NewOffset Strip Fin Compact Heat Exchanger. ” ExperimentalKays, W. M. , “Compact Heat Exchangers,” AGARD Lecture Ser.

Urquiza, Eugenio

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Sampling Considerations for Monitoring Corrosion Products in the Reactor Coolant System in Pressurized Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemistry sampling of the reactor coolant system (RCS) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) can provide significant information regarding the health of the primary system. Timely detection of increased corrosion product concentrations will aid in evaluating any risks associated with the onset of an axial offset anomaly, increased shutdown releases, increased out-of-core dose rates, or increased personnel doses. This report provides recommendations for improved RCS sampling.

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

102

Evaluation of Fuel Clad Corrosion Product Deposits and Circulating Corrosion Products in Pressurized Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many pressurized water reactors (PWRs) have experienced negative consequences resulting from build-up of corrosion product deposits (crud) on fuel cladding. The negative consequences include unplanned shifts in core power (axial offset anomaly, or AOA), fuel cladding failure, anomalous shutdown chemistry, and elevated ex-core radiation fields. These problems have grown more common as PWRs have moved toward higher 235U enrichments and higher duty cores needed for extended cycle operation. This report expl...

2004-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

103

Band offsets for mismatched interfaces: The special case of ZnO on CdTe (001)  

SciTech Connect

High-quality planar interfaces between ZnO and CdTe would be useful in optoelectronic applications, but appear difficult to achieve given the rather different crystal structures (CdTe is zinc blende with cubic lattice constant a = 6.482 Å, ZnO is hexagonal wurtzite with a = 3.253 Å and c = 5.213 Å.) However, ZnO has been reported to occur in some epitaxially stabilized films in the zinc blende structure with an fcc primitive lattice constant close to the hexagonal a value. Observing that this value equals half of the CdTe cubic lattice constant to within 1%, we propose that (001)-oriented cubic ZnO films could be grown epitaxially on a CdTe (001) surface in an R45° ?2??2 configuration. Many terminations and alignments (in-plane fractional translations) are possible, and we describe density-functional total-energy electronic-structure calculations on several configurations to identify the most likely form of the interface, and to predict valence-band offsets between CdTe and ZnO in each case. Growth of ZnO on Te-terminated CdTe (001) is predicted to produce small or even negative (CdTe below ZnO) valence band offsets, resulting in a Type I band alignment. Growth on Cd-terminated CdTe is predicted to produce large positive offsets for a type II alignment as needed, for example, in solar cells. We also describe recent experiments that corroborate some of these predictions.

Jaffe, John E.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy; Varga, Tamas

2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

104

pressure_measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... piston gauges, ball gages, pressure transducers, pressure gauges, non-mercurial barometers, and manometers in both gas and oil media using ...

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

105

Gas pressure reduction circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note describes passive pressure reduction devices for use with sensitive instruments. Two gas circuits are developed which not only provide a pressure reduction under flow demand

D. W. Guillaume; D. DeVries

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

107

Interpretation of long-offset transient electromagnetic data fromMount Merapi, Indonesia, using a three-dimensional optimizationapproach  

SciTech Connect

In the years 1998, 2000, and 2001, long-offset transientelectromagnetic (LOTEM) surveys were carried out at the active volcanoMerapi in Central Java. The measurements investigated the conductivitystructure of the volcanic edifice. Our area of interest, which is belowthe summit and the upper flanks, was investigated using horizontal andvertical magnetic field time derivative data from seventransmitter-receiver setups. Because of topography and athree-dimensional (3-D) underground structure, a 3-D interpretation isused. The method optimizes few parameters of a 3-D model by a stableleast squares joint inversion of the data, providing sufficientresolution capability. Reasonable data fits are achieved with anonhorizontally layered model featuring a very conductive basement belowdepths of 1.5 km. While hydrothermal alteration is also considered, wetentatively explain the high conductivities by aqueous solutions withrelatively high salt contents. A large magma body or a small superficialreservoir below Merapi's central volcanic complex, as discussed by otherauthors, cannot be resolved by the LOTEM data.

Commer, Michael; Helwig, Stefan L.; Hordt, Andreas; Tezkan, Bulent

2004-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

108

Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Executive Summary.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, legal, and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of all known geothermal sites. This data base would enhance the making of credible forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. The four states, working under a cooperative agreement, identified a total of 1265 potential geothermal sites. The 1265 sites were screened to eliminate those with little or no chance of providing either electrical generation and/or electrical offset. Two hundred and forty-five of the original 1265 sites were determined to warrant further study. On the basis of a developability index, 78 high temperature sites and 120 direct utilization sites were identified as having ''good'' or ''average'' potential for development and should be studied in detail. On the basis of cost, at least 29 of the high temperature sites appear to be technically capable of supporting a minimum total of at least 1000 MW of electrical generation which could be competitive with the busbar cost of conventional thermal generating technologies. Sixty direct utilization sites have a minimum total energy potential of 900+ MW and can be expected to provide substantial amounts of electrical offset at or below present conventional energy prices. Five direct utilization sites and eight high temperature sites were identified with both high development and economic potential. An additional 27 sites were shown to have superior economic characteristics, but development problems. 14 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

Bloomquist, R. Gordon

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Enhancement in Surface Atmospheric Pressure Variability Associated with a Major Geomagnetic Storm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observational studies indicate that there is a close association between geomagnetic storm and meteorological parameters. Geomagnetic field lines follow closely the isobars of surface pressure . A Physical mechanism linking upper atmospheric geomagnetic storm disturbances with tropospheric weather has been proposed by the author and her group where it is postulated that vertical mixing by turbulent eddy fluctuations results in the net transport upward of positive charges originating from lower levels accompanied simultaneously by downward flow of negative charges from higher levels. The present study reports enhancement of high frequency (geomagnetic storm (Ap index = 246) on 13 march 1989.

A. M. Selvam; S. Fadnavis; S. U. Athale; M. I. R. Tinmaker

1998-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

110

PRESSURE WELDING--BIBLIOGRAPHY  

SciTech Connect

A bibliography containing 117 references from the years 1944 to 1961 on pressure welding is presented. (N.W.R.)

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Pressure capacity of MSS SP-75 fittings. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to provide guidance for evaluation of as-received fittings. That guidance is given in the form of equations to estimate the burst strength of fittings. In addition, because pipelines are designed on the basis of the yield stress or pressure, concepts are presented that allow the estimation of the yield pressure of fittings. The fitting types that are considered herein are elbows, tees, caps, and reducers that are covered in Manufacturers Standardization Society Standard Practice 75 (MSS SP-75), Specification for High Test Wrought Butt Welding Fittings, 1993 Edition. The estimation of the burst pressure of fittings is relatively straightforward as a number of burst tests have been conducted on fittings. These experimental results have been used to develop the burst test relationships that are presented. The determination of the yield pressure for a fitting is difficult as yield pressure has not been defined. Typically, yield stress is defined by a given total strain level or an offset strain in a tensile test. In these specimens, the stress through the wall thickness is uniform, which makes the yield criterion easy to apply. When yielding is uniform through the thickness, it is commonly called local membrane yielding. In a fitting, the stress state in the fitting involves uniform stress through the wall thickness or membrane stress and also bending stresses. As a fitting is pressurized, the local stress state is the sum of a membrane stress and a local bending stress. The definition of yield pressure could be defined by the sum of the membrane stress and local bending stress reaching a given strain level. This would result in extremely thick fittings as bending stresses usually exceed the membrane stresses by several orders of magnitude. It is highly likely that because of this complication in defining a yield pressure for a fitting that fittings are required to match the burst strength of the attached pipe.

Rodabaugh, E.C.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Partial CO2 Column-Averaged Dry-Air Mixing Ratio from Measurements by Coherent 2-?m Differential Absorption and Wind Lidar with Laser Frequency Offset Locking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coherent 2-?m differential absorption and wind lidar (Co2DiaWiL) with a 2-?m single-frequency Q-switched laser with laser frequency offset locking was used for long-range CO2 measurement. The frequency stabilization of the single-frequency ? on ...

Shoken Ishii; Kohei Mizutani; Philippe Baron; Hironori Iwai; Ryoko Oda; Toshikazu Itabe; Hirotake Fukuoka; Takayoshi Ishikawa; Mizuki Koyama; Tomoaki Tanaka; Isamu Morino; Osamu Uchino; Atsushi Sato; Kazuhiro Asai

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Pressure reducing regulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

114

Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Executive Summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1983, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted for an evaluation and ranking of all geothermal resource sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington which have a potential for electrical generation and/or electrical offset through direct utilization of the resource. The objective of this program was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, legal, and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of all known geothermal sites. This data base would enhance the making of credible forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. The four states, working together under a cooperative agreement, identified a total of 1,265 potential geothermal sites. The 1,265 sites were screened to eliminate those with little or no chance of providing either electrical generation and/or electrical offset. Two hundred and forty-five of the original 1,265 sites were determined to warrant further study. The Four-State team proceeded to develop a methodology which would rank the sites based upon an estimate of development potential and cost. Development potential was estimated through the use of weighted variables selected to approximate the attributes which a geothermal firm might consider in its selection of a site for exploration and possible development. Resource; engineering; and legal, institutional, and environmental factors were considered. Cost estimates for electrical generation and direct utilization sites were made using the computer programs CENTPLANT, WELLHEAD, and HEATPLAN. Finally, the sites were ranked utilizing a technique which allowed for the integration of development and cost information. On the basis of the developability index, 78 high temperature sites and 120 direct utilization sites were identified as having ''good'' or ''average'' potential for development and should be studied in detail. On the basis of cost, at least 29 of the high temperature sites appear to be technically capable of supporting a minimum total of at least 1,000 MW of electrical generation which could be competitive with the busbar cost of conventional thermal generating technologies. Sixty direct utilization sites have a minimum total energy potential of 900+ MW and can be expected to provide substantial amounts of electrical offset at or below present conventional energy prices. The combined development and economic rankings can be used to assist in determining sites with superior characteristics of both types. Five direct utilization sites and eight high temperature sites were identified with both high development and economic potential. An additional 27 sites were shown to have superior economic characteristics, but development problems. The procedure seems validated by the fact that two of the highest ranking direct utilization sites are ones that have already been developed--Boise, Idaho and Klamath Falls, Oregon. Most of the higher ranking high temperature sites have received serious examination in the past as likely power production candidates.

Bloomquist, R.G.; Black, G.L.; Parker, D.S.; Sifford, A.; Simpson, S.J.; Street, L.V.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

LATERAL OFFSET OF THE CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM THE X-FLARE OF 2006 DECEMBER 13 AND ITS TWO PRECURSOR ERUPTIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two GOES sub-C-class precursor eruptions occurred within {approx}10 hr prior to and from the same active region as the 2006 December 13 X4.3-class flare. Each eruption generated a coronal mass ejection (CME) with center laterally far offset ({approx}> 45 Degree-Sign ) from the co-produced bright flare. Explaining such CME-to-flare lateral offsets in terms of the standard model for solar eruptions has been controversial. Using Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data, and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) data, we find or infer the following. (1) The first precursor was a 'magnetic-arch-blowout' event, where an initial standard-model eruption of the active region's core field blew out a lobe on one side of the active region's field. (2) The second precursor began similarly, but the core-field eruption stalled in the side-lobe field, with the side-lobe field erupting {approx}1 hr later to make the CME either by finally being blown out or by destabilizing and undergoing a standard-model eruption. (3) The third eruption, the X-flare event, blew out side lobes on both sides of the active region and clearly displayed characteristics of the standard model. (4) The two precursors were offset due in part to the CME originating from a side-lobe coronal arcade that was offset from the active region's core. The main eruption (and to some extent probably the precursor eruptions) was offset primarily because it pushed against the field of the large sunspot as it escaped outward. (5) All three CMEs were plausibly produced by a suitable version of the standard model.

Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L. [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Harra, Louise K., E-mail: alphonse.sterling@nasa.gov, E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.gov, E-mail: lkh@mssl.ucl.ac.uk [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

116

EBU Technical Information I21-1996 Offset in back focal distance for television cameras with CCD sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction The introduction of CCD cameras some years ago brought with it a change in camera design in the sense that the sensors are cemented to the beam-splitter surface. This means that, unlike the situation in tubetype cameras, it is not possible to adjust the back focal distance in CCD cameras. To accommodate this situation, lenses will have to be manufactured to very tight tolerances, taking account of the properties of the glass material used in the beam-splitter block. However, during the development of CCD cameras, at least two different glass materials are in use for the manufacture of beamsplitters. In order to achieve interchangeability of lenses between cameras using different prism designs, the manufacturers have reached agreement concerning the positions of the red and blue image planes relative to the green image place. Two de facto standards have emerged, one for the 2/3-inch format, the other for the 1/2inch format. 2. Offset characteristics

Ebu Committee First

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

Isaksson, J.

1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

119

CC Pressure Test  

SciTech Connect

The inner vessel heads including bypass and beam tubes had just been welded into place and dye penetrant checked. The vacuum heads were not on at this time but the vacuum shell was on covering the piping penetrating into the inner vessel. Signal boxes with all feed through boards, the instrumentation box, and high voltage boxes were all installed with their pump outs capped. All 1/4-inch instrumentation lines were terminated at their respective shutoff valves. All vacuum piping used for pumping down the inner vessel was isolated using o-ring sealed blind flanges. PV215A (VAT Series 12), the 4-inch VRC gate valve isolating the cyropump, and the rupture disk had to be removed and replaced with blind flanges before pressurizing due to their pressure limitations. Stresses in plates used as blind flanges were checked using Code calcualtions. Before the CC test, vacuum style blanks and clamps were hydrostatically pressure tested to 150% of the maximum test pressure, 60 psig. The Code inspector and Research Division Safety had all given their approval to the test pressure and procedure prior to filling the vessel with argon. The test was a major success. Based on the lack of any distinguishable pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages, the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 3 hrs.). A major leak in the instrumentation tubing was discovered at half of the maximum test pressure and was quickly isolated by crimping and capping with a compression fitting. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The 44 psig relief valve located just outside the cleanroom had to be capped until the pressure in the vessel indicated 38 psi. This was to allow higher supply pressures and hence, higher flows through the pressurizing line. Also, in order to get pressure readings at the cryostat without exposing any personnel to the potentially dangerous stored energy near the maximum test pressure, a camera was installed at the top of the vessel to view the indicator mounted there. The monitor was viewed at the ante room adjacent to the cleanroom. The holding pressure of 32 psig (4/5 of the maximum test pressure) was only maintained for about 20 minutes instead of the half hour recommendation in the procedure. We felt that this was sufficient time to Snoop test and perform the pressure drop test. After the test was completed, the inspector for CBI Na-Con and the Research Divison Safety Officer signed all of required documentation.

Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1990-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

120

Hydrostatic Pressure Retainment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??There is a great deal of attention being concentrated on reducing the weight of pressure vessels and fuel/oxidizer tanks (tankage) by 10% to 20%. Most… (more)

Setlock, Robert J., Jr.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Miniaturized pressurization system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to pressurization systems and liquid rocket propulsion systems, and particularly to those used to attitude control or maneuvering of small space vehicles or airborne vehicles where the requirement for thrust is intermittent rather than continuous, and must be available rapidly upon demand. This invention also relates to increasing performance of such propulsion systems, by way of eliminating inert mass from the propulsion system. The invention uses a fluid stored at a low pressure and provides the fluid at a high pressure. The invention allows the low pressure fluid to flow to a fluid bore of a differential pump and from the pump to a fluid pressure regulator. After flowing through the regulator the fluid is converted to a gas which is directed to a gas bore of the differential pump. By controlling the flow of gas entering and being exhausted from the gas bore, the invention provides pressure to the fluid. By setting the regulator, the high pressure fluid can be set at predetermined values. Because the invention only needs a low pressure fluid, the inventive apparatus has a low mass, and therefore would be useful in rocket propulsion systems.

Whitehead, J.C.; Swink, D.G.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

Michael A. Romano

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Injection-locking of two frequency-doubled lasers with 3.2 GHz offset for driving Raman transitions with low photon scattering in $^{43}$Ca$^+$  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the injection locking of two infrared (794 nm) laser diodes which are each part of a frequency doubled laser system. An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) in the injection path gives an offset of 1.6 GHz between the lasers for driving Raman transitions between states in the hyperfine split (by 3.2 GHz) ground level of $^{43}$Ca$^+$. The offset can be disabled for use in $^{40}$Ca$^+$. We measure the relative linewidth of the frequency-doubled beams to be 42 mHz in an optical heterodyne measurement. The use of both injection locking and frequency doubling combines spectral purity with high optical power. Our scheme is applicable for providing Raman beams across other ion species and neutral atoms where coherent optical manipulation is required.

Linke, N M; Lucas, D M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Measurement of the valence band-offset in a PbSe/ZnO heterojunction by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

A heterojunction of PbSe/ZnO has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to directly measure the valence-band offset (VBO) of the heterojunction. The VBO, {Delta}E{sub V}, was determined as 2.51 {+-} 0.05 eV using the Pb 4p{sup 3/2} and Zn 2p{sup 3/2} core levels as a reference. The conduction-band offset, {Delta}E{sub C}, was, therefore, determined to be 0.59 {+-} 0.05 eV based on the above {Delta}E{sub V} value. This analysis indicates that the PbSe/ZnO heterojunction forms a type I (Straddling Gap) heterostructure.

Li Lin; Qiu Jijun; Weng Binbin; Yuan Zijian; Shi Zhisheng [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Li Xiaomin; Gan Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Sellers, Ian R. [Deparment of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

125

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

126

Giraffe blood pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thing that happens to you when you raise or lower your head. The arteries serving your heart (carotids) constrict when you lower your head, and that lowers the blood pressure...

127

Capacitance pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Critical CRBR core pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conditions are detailed under which gas pressure will cause or initiate failure in the structural containment of the fuel core. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant is the prototype structure. Two general classes of problems have been studied, representing two entirely distinct configurations of containment failure. The first model determines the minimum pressure to lift a portion or the entire core from its containment. The second model estimates the critical pressure above which the fuel rods interior to the hexagonal fuel can warp, leading to blockage of the gas passages. Such blockage might cause further buildup of the gas pressure to a level causing the failure of the fuel rod containment in the hexagonal fuel container.

Ju, F.D.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Pressure multiplying dispenser  

SciTech Connect

A pressure multiplying dispenser for delivering fluid, preferably as a spray to the atmosphere, from a source of fluid, preferably a spray bottle, is described. The dispenser includes in combination a hollow cylindrical member, a nozzle delivery tube within the cylindrical member and a hollow actuator piston slideable within the cylindrical member which acts to multiply the pressure of a squeeze applied to the spray bottle.

DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA); Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

ECN Pressure Test  

SciTech Connect

This note describes: the rationale for the test pressure of the inner ECN cryostat vessel, the equipment to be used in this test, the test procedure, the status of the vessel prior to the test, the actual test results, and a schematic diagram of the testing set up and the pressure testing permit. The test, performed in the evening of July 17, 1991, was a major success. Based on a neglible pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages (1/4 psi), the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 1.5 hrs.). No pressure increases were observed on the indicators looking at the beam tube bellows volumes. There was no indication of bubbles form the soap test on the welds and most of the fittings that were checked. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The UO filter was removed after the vessel had bled down to about 18 psig in order to speed up that aspect of the test. The rationale was that the higher velocity gas had already passed through at the higher pressures and there was no visible traces of the black uo particles. The rate of 4 psi/10 minutes seemed incredibly slow and often that time was reduced to just over half that rate. The testing personnel was allowed to stay in the pit throughout the duration of the test; this was a slight relaxation of the rules.

Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1991-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

131

New Way To Realize Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ever since then, civilization has used the toxic liquid metal to measure pressure. ... The pressure and temperature of a gas are directly related to its ...

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

132

Passive blast pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

133

PRESSURE SENSING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This device is primarily useful as a switch which is selectively operable to actuate in response to either absolute or differential predetermined pressures. The device generally comprises a pressure-tight housing divided by a movable impermeable diaphragm into two chambers, a reference pressure chamber and a bulb chamber containing the switching means and otherwise filled with an incompressible non-conducting fluid. The switch means comprises a normally collapsed bulb having an electrically conductive outer surface and a vent tube leading to the housing exterior. The normally collapsed bulb is disposed such that upon its inflation, respensive to air inflow from the vent, two contacts fixed within the bulb chamber are adapted to be electrically shorted by the conducting outer surface of the bulb.

Pope, K.E.

1959-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Einstein's Gravity Under Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mysterious `dark energy' needed to explain the current observations, poses a serious confrontation between fundamental physics and cosmology. The present crisis may be an outcome of the (so far untested) prediction of the general theory of relativity that the pressure of the matter source also gravitates. In this view, a theoretical analysis reveals some surprising inconsistencies and paradoxes faced by the energy-stress tensor (in the presence of pressure) which is used to model the matter content of the universe, including dark energy.

Ram Gopal Vishwakarma

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

137

Wellbore pressure transducer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Subterranean earth formations containing energy values are subjected to hydraulic fracturing procedures to enhance the recovery of the energy values. These fractures are induced in the earth formation by pumping liquid into the wellbore penetrating the earth formation until the pressure of the liquid is sufficient to fracture the earth formation adjacent to the wellbore. The present invention is directed to a transducer which is positionable within the wellbore to generate a signal indicative of the fracture initiation useful for providing a timing signal to equipment for seismic mapping of the fracture as it occurs and for providing a measurement of the pressure at which the fracture is initiated.

Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Upward Flame Spread on Composite Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Since these materials are the result of a hand lay-up process, there could also be local variations in the amount of resin present in a given ply layer. ...

1996-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

139

Text reuse with ACL: (upward) trends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With rapidly increasing community, a plethora of conferences related to Natural Language Processing and easy access to their proceedings make it essential to check the integrity and novelty of the new submissions. This study aims to investigate the trends ...

Parth Gupta; Paolo Rosso

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH UPWARD BOUND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

percent of their caseload from the time limit. Elimination of existing state waivers: Under pre-1996 AFDC does not include food stamps, medicaid and other support services.) Total AFDC/TANF recipients by state

Sorin, Eric J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

SALTSTONE OSMOTIC PRESSURE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR- 2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H{sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

Nichols, R.

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

142

SALTSTONE OSMOTIC PRESSURE  

SciTech Connect

Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR- 2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H{sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

Nichols, R.

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

143

Reactor pressure vessel nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

144

Pressure swing adsorption process  

SciTech Connect

An adiabatic pressure swing adsorption process is described for the separation of gas mixtures by adsorbing at least one gas component in each of at least 8 phase staggered operated adsorbent beds, which can continue to be operated without any stoppage of installation even if one adsorbent bed is removed from operation due to a defective valve. 6 claims.

De Meyer, H.; Doclo, R.; Seynaeve, J.

1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

145

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper will address the following. 1. Factors that determine the feasibility of reducing the plant steam operating pressure. 2. The operating advantages and disadvantages associated with the decreased steam pressure. 3. The economics of steam pressure reduction. Appropriate visual aids will be utilized as part of the discussion.

Sylva, D. M.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Band offsets of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} oxides deposited by atomic layer deposition technique on hydrogenated diamond  

SciTech Connect

High-k oxide insulators (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}) have been deposited on a single crystalline hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) epilayer by an atomic layer deposition technique at temperature as low as 120 Degree-Sign C. Interfacial electronic band structures are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on core-level binding energies and valence band maximum values, valence band offsets are found to be 2.9 {+-} 0.2 and 2.6 {+-} 0.2 eV for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions, respectively. Band gaps of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} have been determined to be 7.2 {+-} 0.2 and 5.4 {+-} 0.2 eV by measuring O 1s energy loss spectra, respectively. Both the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions are concluded to be type-II staggered band configurations with conduction band offsets of 1.2 {+-} 0.2 and 2.7 {+-} 0.2 eV, respectively.

Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Koide, Y. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Nanofabrication Platform, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Center of Materials Research for Low Carbon Emission, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

147

Pressure suppression system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

150

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

152

High pressure storage vessel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

153

pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description This raw data reflects readings from instruments mounted on or near a 82 meter meteorological tower located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), approximately 5 miles south of Boulder, CO (specifically: 39.9107 N, 105.2348 W, datum WGS84). The base elevation at the site is 1,855 meters AMSL. Source NREL Date Released Unknown Date Updated March 10th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords DOE humidity irrandiance NREL NWTC pressure temperature turbulence wind wind direction wind speed Data text/plain icon Raw data (8/24/2001 - 3/10/2011) (txt, 681 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon Field IDs for above .txt file (xls, 69.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Scientists and Technicians are notified real-time via email of instruments outside the above min/max or delta comparisons (http://www.nrel.gov/midc/nwtc_m2/) Data have not been reviewed for accuracy or completeness; disclaimer available (http://www.nrel.gov/disclaimer.html).

154

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

SciTech Connect

Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop Multipliers for SUVA R-134a Flowing in a Rectangular Duct  

SciTech Connect

The adiabatic two-phase frictional multipliers for SUVA, R-134a flowing in a rectangular duct (with D{sub H} = 4.8 mm) have been measured for 3 nominal system pressures (0.9 MPa, 1.38 MPa and 2.41 MPa) and 3 nominal mass fluxes (510, 1020 and 2040 kg/m{sup 2}/s). The data is compared with several classical correlations to assess their predictive capabilities. The Lockhart-Martinelli model gives reasonable results at the lowest pressure and mass flux, near the operating range of most refrigeration systems, but gives increasingly poor comparisons as the pressure and mass flux is increased. The Chisholm B-coefficient model is found to best predict the data over the entire range of test conditions; however, there is significant disagreement at the highest pressure tested (with the model over predicting the data upwards of 100% for some cases). The data shows an increased tendency toward homogeneous flow as the pressure and flow rate are increased, and in fact the homogeneous model best predicts the bulk of the data at the highest pressure tested.

P Vassallo; K Keller

2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

156

Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Managed Pressure Drilling now at the pinnacle of the 'Oil Well Drilling' evolution tree, has itself been coined in 2003. It is an umbrella term for a few new drilling techniques and some preexisting drilling techniques, all of them aiming to solve several drilling problems, including non-productive time and/or drilling flat time issues. These techniques, now sub-classifications of Managed Pressure Drilling, are referred to as 'Variations' and 'Methods' of Managed Pressure Drilling. Although using Managed Pressure Drilling for drilling wells has several benefits, not all wells that seem a potential candidate for Managed Pressure Drilling, need Managed Pressure Drilling. The drilling industry has numerous simulators and software models to perform drilling hydraulics calculations and simulations. Most of them are designed for conventional well hydraulics, while some can perform Underbalanced Drilling calculations, and a select few can perform Managed Pressure Drilling calculations. Most of the few available Managed Pressure Drilling models are modified Underbalanced Drilling versions that fit Managed Pressure Drilling needs. However, none of them focus on Managed Pressure Drilling and its candidate selection alone. An 'Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection Model and software' that can act as a preliminary screen to determine the utility of Managed Pressure Drilling for potential candidate wells are developed as a part of this research dissertation. The model and a flow diagram identify the key steps in candidate selection. The software performs the basic hydraulic calculations and provides useful results in the form of tables, plots and graphs that would help in making better engineering decisions. An additional Managed Pressure Drilling worldwide wells database with basic information on a few Managed Pressure Drilling projects has also been compiled that can act as a basic guide on the Managed Pressure Drilling variation and project frequencies and aid in Managed Pressure Drilling candidate selection.

Nauduri, Anantha S.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Pressure Data Within BOP- ODS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

158

Pressure Data Within BOP- XLS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

159

Low pressure turbine installation  

SciTech Connect

Low-pressure turbine installation is described comprising a casing, at least two groups of turbine stages mounted in said casing, each turbine stage having blades so arranged that a flow of steam passes through the respective turbine stages in contraflow manner, partition means in said casing for separating the opposed final stages of said turbine stages from each other, and steam exhausting means opened in the side walls of said casing in a direction substantially perpendicular to the axis of said turbine, said steam exhausting means being connected to condensers.

Iizuka, N.; Hisano, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Otawara, Y.

1976-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

Fiber-optic pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure wave sensor utilizing fiber optic interferometry techniques to determine pressure in a bar. Light from a fiber optic coil around the bar is mixed with light from a reference optical fiber to produce interference fringes as a function of time. These fringes over time are related to the pressure versus time existing in the bar. 2 figs.

Dingus, R.S.

1989-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Combustor oscillation pressure stabilizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In accordance with the objective of the present invention, the active control of unsteady combustion induced oscillations in a combustion chamber fired by a suitable fuel and oxidizer mixture, such as a hydrocarbon fuel and air mixture, is provided by restructuring and moving the position of the main flame front and thereby increasing the transport time and displacing the pressure wave further away from the in-phase relationship with the periodic heat release. The restructuring and repositioning of the main flame are achieved by utilizing a pilot flame which is pulsed at a predetermined frequency corresponding to less than about one-half the frequency of the combustion oscillation frequency with the duration of each pulse being sufficient to produce adequate secondary thermal energy to restructure the main flame and thereby decouple the heat release from the acoustic coupling so as to lead to a reduction in the dynamic pressure amplitude. The pulsating pilot flame produces a relatively small and intermittently existing flame front in the combustion zone that is separate from the oscillating main flame front but which provides the thermal energy necessary to effectively reposition the location of the oscillating main flame front out of the region in the combustion zone where the acoustic coupling can occur with the main flame and thereby effectively altering the oscillation-causing phase relationship with the heat of combustion.

Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.T.J.; Robey, E.; Cully, S.R.; Addis, R.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

Experimental determination of band offsets at the SnS/CdS and SnS/InS{sub x}O{sub y} heterojunctions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The semidirect x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique was used to measure the band alignments at the interface of heterostructures based on SnS. The layers were deposited by electrochemical deposition (ECD), chemical bath deposition (CBD), or photochemical deposition (PCD). The following four kinds of heterojunctions were characterized. (1) ECD-SnS/PCD-CdS. (2) CBD-SnS/PCD-CdS. (3) ECD-SnS/ECD-InS{sub x}O{sub y}. (4) CBD-SnS/ECD-InS{sub x}O{sub y}. The valence band offsets {Delta}E{sub V} of those four heterojunctions are determined to be 1.34, 1.59, 0.77, and 0.74{+-}0.3 eV, respectively.

Abdel Haleem, A. M.; Ichimura, M. [Department of Engineering Physics, Electronics and Mechanics, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Crosswell Seismic Amplitude-Versus-Offset for Detailed Imaging of Facies and Fluid Distribution within Carbonate Oil Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crosswell seismic surveys were conducted at two fields in northern Michigan. One of these, Springdale, included two monitor wells that are located external to the reef, and the other, Coldspring, employed two production wells within the reef. The Springdale wells extended to much greater depths than the reef, and imaging was conducted from above and from beneath the reef. The resulting seismic images provide the best views of pinnacle Niagaran reefs obtained to date. The tops of the reservoirs can be clearly distinguished, and their lateral extent or dipping edges can be observed along the profile. Reflecting events internal to the reef are evident; some of them are fairly continuous across the reef and others are discontinuous. Inversion of the seismic data indicates which events represent zones of higher porosity and which are lower porosity or even anhydrite plugged. The full stacked image includes angles that are beyond critical for many of the interfaces, and some reflections are visible only for a small range of angles, presumably near their critical angle. Stacking these angles in provides an opportunity for these events to be seen on the stacked image, where otherwise they would have been unrecognized. For inversion, however, the complexity associated with phase changes beyond critical can lead to poor results, and elastic inversion of partial angle stacks may be best conducted with restrictions to angles less than critical. Strong apparent attenuation of signals occurs when seismic ray paths pass through the upper part of the Springdale reservoir; this may be due to intrinsic attenuation and/or scattering of events due to the locally strongly varying gas saturation and extremely low fluid pressures. Signal-to-noise limitations become evident far from the source well in the Coldspring study, probably because the raw data were strongly affected by tube-wave noise generated by flow through the perforation of the receiver well. The seismic images obtained, and interpretations of them, as assisted by Amplitude-versus-Angle studies and accompanying inversion, provide additional insight into the internal geometry of these two reefs and provide data that should be useful for reservoir management.

Wayne Pennington; Mohamed Ibrahim; Roger Turpening; Sean Trisch; Josh Richardson; Carol Asiala; Walid Mabrouk

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

164

Packer weighted and pressure differential method and apparatus for big hole drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A packer and pressure differential drilling tool and method of controlled pressure balanced drilling in Big Hole well bores and shafts, characterized by a large diameter packer slideably engaged with the well bore over a drill bit and through which a dual drill pipe operates and isolates drilling fluid from a hydrostatic head of fluid standing in the well bore surrounding the dual drill pipe, the packer functioning as a non-rotatable ram slideable down the well bore and supporting said hydrostatic head and applying the weight thereof to the drill bit through anti-friction bearings, cuttings being flushed through the dual drill pipe by means of aerated drilling fluid or by an upwardly disposed jet pump, or both, so as to establish a reduced and/or underbalanced condition at the bit-to-bore bottom interface and operating the drill bit at an increased rate of penetration while maintaining a higher pressure condition in the well bore above the packer, the packer being weight set or hydraulic set, and the jet pump being centered in the dual drill pipe or disposed in the annulus of the dual drill pipe.

Hooper, D. W.

1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

165

REACTOR CONTROL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

1962-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

166

CDIAC Atmospheric Pressure Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Pressure Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; through 1990 Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of sea-level pressure Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; some through most recent month

167

Computer Based Training: Pressure Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ETTM Pressure Measurement is a computer based training module that allows users to access training when desired and review it at their own pace. It provides graphics and limited interactive features to enhance learning. The purpose of this training module is to provide an understanding of the engineering principles associated with pressure measurement through the review of: Definitions and laws, Operation of some typical plant pressure instruments and, Installation and correction considerations that will...

2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

168

A Deep-Sea Differential Pressure Gauge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pressure gauge configured to respond to the difference between the ocean pressure and the pressure within a confined volume of compressible oil is found to be especially useful for detecting pressure fluctuations in the frequency range from a ...

Charles Cox; Thomas Deaton; Spahr Webb

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge of flammability limits is essential in the prevention of fire and explosion. There are two limits of flammability, upper flammability limit (UFL) and lower flammability limit (LFL), which define the flammable region of a combustible gas/vapor. This research focuses on the flammability limits of hydrogen and its binary mixtures with light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, n-butane, and ethylene) at sub-atmospheric pressures. The flammability limits of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, and binary mixtures of hydrogen and each hydrocarbon were determined experimentally at room temperature (20ºC) and initial pressures ranging from 1.0 atm to 0.1 atm. The experiments were conducted in a closed cylindrical stainless steel vessel with upward flame propagation. It was found that the flammable region of hydrogen initially widens when the pressure decreases from 1.0 atm to 0.3 atm, then narrows with the further decrease of pressure. In contrast, the flammable regions of the hydrocarbons narrow when the pressure decreases. For hydrogen and the hydrocarbons, pressure has a much greater impact on the UFLs than on the LFLs. For binary mixtures of hydrogen and the hydrocarbons, the flammable regions of all mixtures widen when the fraction of hydrogen in the mixture increases. When the pressure decreases, the flammable regions of all mixtures narrow. The applications of Le Chatelier’s rule and the Calculated Adiabatic Flame Temperature (CAFT) model to the flammability limits of the mixtures were verified. It was found that Le Chatelier’s rule could predict the flammability limits much better than the CAFT model. The adiabatic flame temperatures (AFTs), an important parameter in the risk assessment of fire and explosion, of hydrogen and the hydrocarbons were also calculated. The influence of sub-atmospheric pressures on the AFTs was investigated. A linear relationship between the AFT and the corresponding flammability limit is derived. Furthermore, the consequence of fire relating to hydrogen and the hydrocarbons is discussed based on the AFTs of the chemicals.

Le, Thuy Minh Hai

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

High Pressure Studies of Superconductivity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Superconductivity has been studied extensively since it was first discovered over 100 years ago. High pressure studies, in particular, have been vital in furthering our… (more)

Hillier, Narelle Jayne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

CONTAM Libraries - Appendix B: CONTAM Wind Pressure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Appendix B: CONTAM Wind Pressure Profile Library. The table below contains information on the wind pressure profiles ...

172

High pressure heterogeneous catalysis in a low pressure UHV environment  

SciTech Connect

The major thrust of our research is to carry out for the first time a heterogeneous catalytic reaction that normally is observed only at high pressures (>1 atm) of reactant gas at low pressures (<10{sup {minus}4} Torr) in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The reaction we have chosen is the steam reforming of methane on a Ni(111) crystal.

Ceyer, S.T.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

NETL: Pressure Swing Absorption Device  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Project No.: DE-FE0001323 New Jersey Institute of Technology is developing an advanced pressure swing absorption-based (PSAB) device via laboratory-based experiments. The device will be used to accomplish a cyclic process to process low temperature post-shift-reactor synthesis gas resulting from the gasification process into purified hydrogen at high pressure for use by the combustion turbine of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. The overall goal of the proposed work is to develop an advanced PSAB device and cyclic process for use in a coal-fired IGCC plant to produce purified hydrogen at high pressure and a highly purified CO2 stream suitable for use or sequestration.

176

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

February 8 February 8 th , 2005 Mark J. Warner, P.E. Principal Engineer Quantum Technologies, Inc. Irvine, CA Low Cost, High Efficiency, Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. 70 MPa Composite Tanks Vent Line Ports Defueling Port (optional) Fill Port Filter Check Valve Vehicle Interface Bracket with Stone Shield In Tank Regulator with Solenoid Lock-off Pressure Relief Device Manual Valve Compressed Hydrogen Storage System In-Tank Regulator Pressure Sensor (not visible here) Pressure Relief Device (thermal) In Tank Gas Temperature Sensor Carbon Composite Shell (structural) Impact Resistant Outer Shell (damage resistant) Gas Outlet Solenoid Foam Dome (impact protection)

177

Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

atmospheric pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords atmospheric pressure climate NASA SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 46 MiB)

179

Results from the DCH-1 (Direct Containment Heating) experiment. [Pressurized melt ejection and direct containment heating  

SciTech Connect

The DCH-1 (Direct Containment Heating) test was the first experiment performed in the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility. The test involved 20 kg of molten core debris simulant ejected into a 1:10 scale model of the Zion reactor cavity. The melt was produced by a metallothermic reaction of iron oxide and aluminum powders to yield molten iron and alumina. The cavity model was placed so that the emerging debris propagated directly upwards along the vertical centerline of the chamber. Results from the experiment showed that the molten material was ejected from the caviity as a cloud of particles and aerosol. The dispersed debris caused a rapid pressurization of the 103-m/sup 3/ chamber atmosphere. Peak pressure from the six transducers ranged from 0.09 to 0.13 MPa (13.4 to 19.4 psig) above the initial value in the chamber. Posttest debris collection yielded 11.6 kg of material outside the cavity, of which approximately 1.6 kg was attributed to the uptake of oxygen by the iron particles. Mechanical sieving of the recovered debris showed a lognormal size distribution with a mass mean size of 0.55 mm. Aerosol measurements indicated a subsantial portion (2 to 16%) of the ejected mass was in the size range less than 10 m aerodynamic equivalent diameter.

Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.; Ross, J.E.; Oliver, M.S.; Lucero, D.A.; Kerley, T.E.; Arellano, F.E.; Gomez, R.D.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Self pressuring HTP feed systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen peroxide tanks can be pressurized with decomposed HTP (high test hydrogen peroxide) originating in the tank itself. In rocketry, this offers the advantage of eliminating bulky and heavy inert gas storage. Several prototype self-pressurizing HTP systems have recently been designed and tested. Both a differential piston tank and a small gas-driven pump have been tried to obtain the pressure boost needed for flow through a gas generator and back to the tank. Results include terrestrial maneuvering tests of a prototype microsatellite, including warm gas attitude control jets.

Whitehead, J.

1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

182

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and...

184

Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

Coates, Geoffrey W. (Lansing, NY); Kramer, John W. (Mt. Pleasant, MI); Schmidt, Joseph A. R. (Sylvania, OH)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

185

Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

Coates, Geoffrey W. (Ithaca, NY); Kramer, John (Ithaca, NY)

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

186

Studying Materials Under Extreme Pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Studying Materials Under Extreme Pressure Studying Materials Under Extreme Pressure Coupling undulator radiation from Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamlines 3-ID and 13-ID to nuclear resonant inelastic scattering techniques, researchers have determined the phonon density of states for iron under pressures up to 153 gigapascals, equivalent to those found at the Earth's core. Image of the Earth's core. Although indirect measurements and theory have, since the early 1950s, produced an informed picture of the structure and composition of the materials that make up the core of the Earth, direct proof and the answers to some intriguing questions remain unanswered. Previously, ultrahigh-pressure experiments using nuclear resonant inelastic scattering have been difficult to carry out due the tiny samples required.

187

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Seafloor Pressure Measurements of Nonlinear Internal Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly resolved pressure measurements on the seafloor over New Jersey’s continental shelf reveal the pressure signature of nonlinear internal waves of depression as negative pressure perturbations. The sign of the perturbation is determined by ...

J. N. Moum; J. D. Nash

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Cryogenic Pressure Vessels: Progress and Plans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February 15, 2011, p. 1 Cryogenic Pressure Vessels: Progress and Plans Salvador Aceves, Gene Berry, Francisco Espinosa, Ibo Matthews, Guillaume...

191

86 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS, PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 3, NO. 1, JANUARY 2013 Performance of Online and Offset Micro Pin-Fin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heating due to the ionic conduction of working fluid. The plot shows that the peak thermodynamic as working fluids is water's high la- tent heat capacity (for heat transfer applications) and its com experimental results of the performance of the pump, including pressure capacity, flow rate and thermodynamic

Kandlikar, Satish

192

High pressure liquid level monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Melting of Ice under Pressure  

SciTech Connect

The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

194

SNAP: the Spallation Neutrons and Pressure Diffractometer at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spallation Neutrons and Pressure Diffractometer at SNS Spallation Neutrons and Pressure Diffractometer. Spallation Neutrons and Pressure Diffractometer. The SNAP Diffractometer...

195

Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two piston Stirling engine wherein the pistons are coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means, the pistons include pad means to minimize friction between the pistons and the cylinders during reciprocation of the pistons, means for pressurizing the engine crankcase, and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

Corey, John A. (Melrose, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Pressure vessel and piping codes  

SciTech Connect

Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code contains simplified design formulas for placing bounds on the plastic deformations in nuclear power plant piping systems. For Class 1 piping a simple equation is given in terms of primary load stress indices (B/sub 1/ and B/sub 2/) and nominal pressure and bending stresses. The B/sub 1/ and B/sub 2/ stress indices reflect the capacities of various piping products to carry load without gross plastic deformation. In this paper, the significance of the indices, nominal stresses, and limits given in the Code for Class 1 piping and corresponding requirements for Class 2 and Class 3 piping are discussed. Motivation behind recent (1978-1981) changes in the indices and in the associated stress limits is presented.

Moore, S.E.; Rodabaugh, E.C.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Ambient pressure fuel cell system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Recent developments in pressure coring  

SciTech Connect

The current rapid growth in the number of enhanced oil and gas recovery projects has created a strong demand for reservoir data such as true residual oil saturations. The companies providing pressure coring services have moved to fill this need. Two recent developments have emerged with the potential of significantly improving the present performance of pressure coring. Coring bits utilizing synthetic diamond cutters have demonstrated coring rates of one-foot per minute while improving core recovery. It is also apparent that cores of a near-unconsolidated nature are more easily recovered. In addition, a special low invasion fluid that is placed in the core retriever has demonstrated reduced core washing by the drilling mud and a decrease in the complexity of preparing cores for analysis. This paper describes the design, laboratory, and field testing efforts that led to these coring improvements. Also, experience in utilizing these developments while recovering over 100 cores is discussed.

McFall, A. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

Markey, J.K.

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

203

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

Weir, S

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

204

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir pressure can indeed be used to drive the reverse osmosis process. Our initial conclusions from the work to date are encouraging: (1) The concept of aquifer-pressured RO to provide fresh water associated with carbon dioxide storage appears feasible. (2) Concentrated brines such as those found in Wyoming are amenable to RO treatment. We have looked at sodium chloride brines from the Nugget Formation in Sublette County. 20-25% removal with conventional methods is realistic; higher removal appears achievable with NF. The less concentrated sulfate-rich brines from the Tensleep Formation in Sublette County would support >80% removal with conventional RO. (3) Brines from other proposed sequestration sites can now be analyzed readily. An osmotic pressure curve appropriate to these brines can be used to evaluate cost and equipment specifications. (4) We have examined a range of subsurface brine compositions that is potentially pertinent to carbon sequestration and noted the principal compositional trends pertinent to evaluating the feasibility of freshwater extraction. We have proposed a general categorization for the feasibility of the process based on total dissolved solids (TDS). (5) Withdrawing pressurized brine can have a very beneficial effect on reservoir pressure and total available storage capacity. Brine must be extracted from a deeper location in the aquifer than the point of CO{sub 2} injection to prevent CO{sub 2} from migrating to the brine extraction well.

Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

2009-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

205

Evaluation of ceramic filters for high-temperature/high-pressure fine particulate control. Final report Dec 75-Jun 76  

SciTech Connect

High temperature gas turbines used to generate electric power require gas streams virtually free of particulate matter. Gas streams from high temperature, high pressure coal processes, such as low Btu gasification and pressurized fluidized bed combustion, require considerable particulate removal. In order to maintain high thermal efficiency the particulate clean-up must be done at the high temperatures of the process. Many new concepts for fine particulate control at elevated temperatures are presently being proposed. One such concept utilizes ceramic membrane filters. The report gives results of a study to analyze and evaluate ceramic membrane filters as a new, fine particulate (<3 um) control concept for high-temperature (approx. 900/sup 0/C), high-pressure processes. Several ceramic filters were identified as potential candidates for fine particulate removal. There does not seem to be any inherent material limitation to high-temperature operation; however, no evidence of high-temperature filter application was found. The filters typically are 2-6 mm thick, cylindrical, and available with various pore sizes, increasing upward from 0.5 um. These elements may be suitable for fine particulate control in hot gas streams. The most promising, although undeveloped, idea for a ceramic filter is to use ceramic honeycomb monoliths similar to those available for catalyst supports and heat exchangers. The walls of the monoliths are about 0.2-0.4 mm thick and of varying pore size and porosity. Geometric configurations are available which would force the gas to flow through the membrane walls. Pressure losses would be very small relative to those of standard ceramic filter elements. The application of ceramic monoliths to high-temperature fine particulate control appears very promising. It is strongly recommended that this concept be investigated further.

Poe, G.G.; Evans, R.M.; Bonnett, W.S.; Waterland, L.R.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

PRESSURE VESSEL FABRICATION USING T-1 STEEL  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication of pressure vessels using C-l steel is described. The welding, welding electrodes, explosionbulge test, and impact and fatigue properties for the pressure vessel are given. (W.L.H.)

Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

1957-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

207

Pressure Compensation and the Bottom Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is an observed characteristic of oceans that velocities and horizontal pressure gradients are larger new the ocean surface than they are in deeper water. This is conventionally labeled “pressure compensation” whereby baroclinic structure, ...

George L. Mellor; Xiao Hua Wang

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Energy Basics: Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color...

209

Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

210

Autogenic Pressure Reactions for Battery Materials Manufacture...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Autogenic Pressure Reactions for Battery Materials Manufacture Technology available for licensing: A unique method for anode and cathode manufacture autogenicpressurereactions...

211

LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF POLYSILICON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THEORY The mass transport processes in low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) are similar to those occuring in catalytic reactors

Gieske, R.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

WH[eta] under pressure  

SciTech Connect

An initial observation of the formation of WH under pressure from W gaskets surrounding hydrogen in diamond anvil cells led to a theoretical study of tungsten hydride phases. At P = 1 atm no stoichiometry is found to be stable with respect to separation into the elements, but as the pressure is raised WH{sub n} (n = 1-6, 8) stoichiometries are metastable or stable. WH and WH{sub 4} are calculated to be stable at P > 15 GPa, WH{sub 2} becomes stable at P > 100 GPa and WH{sub 6} at P > 150 GPa. In agreement with experiment, the structure computed for WH is anti-NiAs. WH{sub 2} shares with WH a hexagonal arrangement of tungsten atoms, with hydrogen atoms occupying octahedral and tetrahedral holes. For WH{sub 4} the W atoms are in a distorted fcc arrangement. As the number of hydrogens rises, the coordination of W by H increases correspondingly, leading to a twelve-coordinated W in WH{sub 6}. In WH{sub 8} H{sub 2} units also develop. All of the hydrides considered should be metallic at high pressure, though the Fermi levels of WH{sub 4} and WH{sub 6} lie in a deep pseudogap. Prodded by these theoretical studies, experiments were then undertaken to seek phases other than WH, exploring a variety of experimental conditions that would favor further reaction. Though a better preparation and characterization of WH resulted, no higher hydrides have as yet been found.

Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Labet, Vanessa; Strobel, Timothy A.; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N.W. (Cornell); (CIW)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

213

Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Reactor pressure vessel vented head  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

Sawabe, James K. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

215

Effects of Pressure on Oxygen Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To measure the effects of pressure on the output of a membrane oxygen sensor and a nonmembrane oxygen sensor, the authors pressure cycled a CTD sensor package in a laboratory pressure facility. The CTD sensor package was cycled from 30 to 6800 db ...

M. J. Atkinson; F. I. M. Thomas; N. Larson

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

High-pressure microhydraulic actuator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA); Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA)

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

217

Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Pressurized SOFC Test Program is an integral part of the Cooperative Agreement between Westinghouse and DOE and was put into place to evaluate the effects of pressurization on SOFC performance. The goals of the SOFC pressurized test program are to obtain cell voltage versus current (VI) performance data as a function of pressure; to evaluate the effects of operating parameters such as temperature, air stoichiometry, and fuel utilization on cell performance, and to demonstrate long term stability of the SOFC materials at elevated pressures.

Ray, E.R.; Basel, R.A.; Pierre, J.F.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

Pressure transient method for front tracking  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A pressure transient technique for tracking the advance of cold water fronts during water flooding and goethermal injection operations has been developed. The technique is based on the concept that the steady state pressure buildup in the reservoir region inside the front can be calculated by a fluid skin factor. By analyzing successive pressure falloff tests, the advance of the front in the reservoir can be monitored. The validity of the methods is demonstrated by application to three numerically simulated data sets, a nonisothermal step-rate injection test, a series of pressure falloffs in a multilayered reservoir, and a series of pressure falloff tests in a water flooded oil reservoir.

Benson, S.M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Low frequency pressure modulation of indium antimonide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lumped parameter resonator capable of generating megapascal pressures at low frequency (kilohertz) is described. Accelerometers are used to determine the applied pressure, and are calibrated with a piezoelectric sample. A laser diagnostic was also developed to measure the pressure in semiconductor samples through the band gap pressure dependence. In addition, the laser diagnostic has been used to measure the attenuation coefficient {alpha} of commercially available indium antimonide (InSb) wafers. The resonator and laser diagnostic have been used with InSb samples to verify the pressure response.

Hallock, Gary A. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-0240 (United States); Meier, Mark A. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, Texas 77252-2189 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Air flow and pressure inside a pressure-swirl spray and their effects on spray development  

SciTech Connect

Air flow and pressure inside a pressure-swirl spray for direct injection (DI) gasoline engines and their effects on spray development have been analyzed at different injector operating conditions. A simulation tool was utilized and the static air pressure at the centerline of the spray was measured to investigate the static pressure and flow structure inside the swirl spray. To investigate the effect of static air pressure on swirl spray development, a liquid film model was applied and the Mie-scattered images were captured. The simulation and experiment showed that recirculation vortex and air pressure drop inside the swirl spray were observable and the air pressure drop was greater at high injection pressure. At high fuel temperature, the air pressure at the nozzle exit showed higher value compared to the atmospheric pressure and then continuously decreased up to few millimeters distance from the nozzle exit. The pressure drop at high fuel temperatures was more than that of atmospheric temperature. This reduced air pressure was recovered to the atmospheric pressure at further downstream. The results from the liquid film model and macroscopic spray images showed that the air pressure started to affect the liquid film trajectory about 3 mm from the nozzle exit and this effect was sustained until the air pressure recovered to the atmospheric pressure. However, the entrained air motion and droplet size have more significant influence on the spray development after the most of the liquid sheet is broken-up and the spray loses its initial momentum. (author)

Moon, Seoksu; Bae, Choongsik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea); Abo-Serie, Essam [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Design, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry CV1 5FB (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

AUTOMATIC CALIBRATING SYSTEM FOR PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic system for calibrating a number of pressure transducers is described. The disclosed embodiment of the invention uses a mercurial manometer to measure the air pressure applied to the transducer. A servo system follows the top of the mercury column as the pressure is changed and operates an analog- to-digital converter This converter furnishes electrical pulses, each representing an increment of pressure change, to a reversible counterThe transducer furnishes a signal at each calibration point, causing an electric typewriter and a card-punch machine to record the pressure at the instant as indicated by the counter. Another counter keeps track of the calibration points so that a number identifying each point is recorded with the corresponding pressure. A special relay control system controls the pressure trend and programs the sequential calibration of several transducers.

Amonette, E.L.; Rodgers, G.W.

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Passive tire pressure sensor and method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

Pfeifer, Kent Bryant (Los Lunas, NM); Williams, Robert Leslie (Albuquerque, NM); Waldschmidt, Robert Lee (Calgary, CA); Morgan, Catherine Hook (Ann Arbor, MI)

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

224

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc. August 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information History of Innovations... Announced breakthrough in all-composite lightweight, high capacity, low-cost fuel storage technologies. * Developed a series of robust, OEM compatible electronic control products. Developed H 2 storage system for SunLine Tran-sit Hythane® bus. Awarded patent for integrated module including in-tank regulator * Developed high efficiency H 2 fuel storage systems for DOE Future Truck programs Developed H 2 storage and metering system for Toyota's FCEV platform. First to certify 10,000 psi systems in Japan

225

Low-pressure ion source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low pressure ion source for a neutron source comprises a filament cathode and an anode ring. Approximately 150V is applied between the cathode and the anode. Other electrodes, including a heat shield, a reflector and an aperture plate with a focus electrode, are placed at intermediate potentials. Electrons from the filament drawn out by the plasma and eventually removed by the anode are contained in a magnetic field created by a magnet ring. Ions are formed by electron impact with deuterium or tritium and are extracted at the aperture in the focus electrode. The ion source will typically generate a 200 mA beam through a 1.25 cm/sup 2/ aperture for an arc current of 10A. For deuterium gas, the ion beam is over 50 percent D/sup +/ with less than 1% impurity. The current density profile across the aperture will typically be uniform to within 20%.

Bacon, F.M.; Brainard, J.P.; O' Hagan, J.B.; Walko, R.J.

1982-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

226

Reactor pressure vessel vented head  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

Sawabe, J.K.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

227

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09  

SciTech Connect

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

228

Top Hat Pressure System Hyperbaric Test Analysis | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Top Hat Pressure System Hyperbaric Test Analysis Top Hat Pressure System Hyperbaric Test Analysis This file contains data from pressure measurements inside Top Hat 4....

229

High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

230

Temperature impacts on the set pressure of soft seated pressure relief valves  

SciTech Connect

From a safety standpoint, regardless of plant or facility type, the most important pieces of equipment are the pressure relief devices. The most critical characteristics of a pressure relief device are its set pressure and the related relieving capacity. The Set Pressure of a pressure relief device is defined as that value of increasing inlet static pressure at which the discharge becomes continuous (ASME PTC 25-1994, Performance Test Codes). To preclude an unsafe overpressure situation, the set pressure of the pressure relief device must not exceed the maximum allowable working pressure of the equipment or system being protected. Because of testing facility limitations, size or pressure, pressure relief valves intended for elevated temperature service are often set using ambient temperature air. Adjustments are made to the ambient valve opening pressures to compensate for the temperature differences. The extent of the adjustments to the pressure relief valve set pressure is important to ensure the valve will provide the required overpressure protection at the elevated in-service temperature.

Engel, J.J.; Zirps, G.T.; Gleason, R.B. [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

232

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

233

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

SciTech Connect

A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Marchant, Norman J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bolton, Steven M. (Pocatello, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Promising Futures: Workforce Development and Upward Mobility in Information Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

work do you perform offshore? (e.g. , routine vs. creative)to have extra managers for offshore work? 11. What are thethe US, in the Bay Area, offshore? 16. What types of IT work

Chapple, Karen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Upward Momentum Transfer in the Marine Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the study of momentum flux between ocean and atmosphere in light winds and is based on the data collected during several field campaigns, the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment, the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere ...

A. A. Grachev; C. W. Fairall

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Promising Futures: Workforce Development and Upward Mobility in Information Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protocol for Initial Training Program Graduate Interviews A.since you graduated from your computer training program?Protocol for Follow-up Training Program Graduate Interviews

Chapple, Karen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Promising Futures: Workforce Development and Upward Mobility in Information Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a. New job working with information technology b. Anyworking in information technology firm c. Any kind of newworking with information technology f. Self-employment in

Chapple, Karen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Multicomponent fuel vaporization at high pressures.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We extend our multicomponent fuel model to high pressures using a Peng-Robinson equation of state, and implement the model into KIVA-3V. Phase equilibrium is achieved by equating liquid and vapor fugacities. The latent heat of vaporization and fuel enthalpies are also corrected for at high pressures. Numerical simulations of multicomponent evaporation are performed for single droplets for a diesel fuel surrogate at different pressures.

Torres, D. J. (David J.); O'Rourke, P. J. (Peter J.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Embrittlement of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III App. G Protection Against Nonductile Fracture (New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1986 ). 3.

240

Carbon Nanotubes Make Simultaneous Temperature, Pressure ...  

ORNL 2010-G00384/jcn UT-B ID 200702020 Carbon Nanotubes Make Simultaneous Temperature, Pressure Sensors Possible Technology Summary Carbon nanotubes ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Pressure and Vacuum Group International Comparisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Vacuum. 2010 Olson DA, Abbott PJ, Jousten K, Redgrave FJ, Mohan P, Hong SS, Final report of key comparison CCM.P-K3 absolute pressure ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

242

Conceptual Design for Pressure Swing Distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The separation of homogenous azeotropic mixtures is a common task in the chemical industry. In the literature, pressure swing distillation is often mentioned as an… (more)

Bozzacco, Carmen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Electron reactions in nonpolar liquids: Pressure effects  

SciTech Connect

Theory predicts that electron energy levels in nonpolar molecular hydrocarbons should increase in energy with density/pressure increase, and therefore electron attachment rates in solution should change with pressure. Studies of pressure effect on electron mobility show that some contraction occurs around trapped electrons, but more contraction occurs around ions in hydrocarbons. After a brief discussion of pressure effects on electron energy levels and mobility, this paper reports studies of electron attachment reactions of N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and n-C{sub 5}F{sub 12} in tetramethylsilane, and of toluene, benzene, CO{sub 2}, and 1,3-butadiene in several solvents.

Holroyd, R.A.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Absolute permeability as a function of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature  

SciTech Connect

This work is an investigation of the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand and consolidated sandstone cores to distilled water as a function of the temperature of the system, confining pressure on the core and the pore pressure of the flowing liquid. The results of this study indicate that temperatures is not an important variable that needs to be reproduced in the laboratory. Confining pressure and pore pressure affect permeability in a predictable manner. This allows measurements at a lower pressure level to be extrapolated to higher pressure conditions. 21 refs.

Gobran, B.D.; Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

246

Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

Mitlitsky, Fred (1125 Canton Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Myers, Blake (4650 Almond Cir., Livermore, CA 94550); Magnotta, Frank (1206 Bacon Way, Lafayette, CA 94549)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device. 2 figures.

Rehberger, K.M.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

248

Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US DOE pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) research and development program is designed to develop the technology and data base required for the successful commercialization of the PFBC concept. A cooperative program with the US, West Germany, and the UK has resulted in the construction of the 25 MWe IEA-Grimethorpe combined-cycle pilot plant in England which will be tested in 1981. A 13 MWe coal-fired gas turbine (air cycle) at Curtis-Wright has been designed and construction scheduled. Start-up is planned to begin in early 1983. A 75 MWe pilot plant is planned for completion in 1986. Each of these PFBC combined-cycle programs is discussed. The current status of PFB technology may be summarized as follows: turbine erosion tolerance/hot gas cleanup issues have emerged as the barrier technology issues; promising turbine corrosion-resistant materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking; first-generation PFB combustor technology development is maturing at the PDU level; however, scale-up to larger size has not been demonstrated; and in-bed heat exchanger materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking. The DOE-PFB development plan is directed at the resolution of these key technical issues. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Synthetic Subsurface Pressure Derived from Bottom Pressure and Tide Gauge Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic subsurface pressure (SSP) can be formed from tide gauge records and from bottom pressure measurements to provide a consistent and convenient basis for comparison of these two different types of observations. Common methods for this ...

Sabine Harms; Clinton D. Winant

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

Michael L. Swanson

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

251

Balanced pressure techniques applied to geothermal drilling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the study is to evaluate balanced pressure drilling techniques for use in combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling. Drilling techniques evaluated are: aerated drilling mud, parasite tubing, concentric drill pipe, jet sub, and low density fluids. Based on the present state of the art of balanced pressure drilling techniques, drilling with aerated water has the best overall balance of performance, risk, availability, and cost. Aerated water with a 19:1 free air/water ratio reduce maximum pressure unbalance between wellbore and formation pressures from 1000 psi to 50 psi. This pressure unbalance is within acceptable operating limits; however, air pockets could form and cause pressure surges in the mud system due to high percent of air. Low density fluids used with parasite tubing has the greatest potential for combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling, when performance only is considered. The top portion of the hole would be aerated through the parasite tube at a 10:1 free air/mud ratio and the low density mud could be designed so that its pressure gradient exactly matches the formation pore pressure gradient. The main problem with this system at present is the high cost of ceramic beads needed to produce low density muds.

Dareing, D.W.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Convolution analysis of surge pressure data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure data from underbalanced perforating or back-surge perforation washing are analyzed by convolution analysis. The method presented allows closed-chamber test evaluation of reservoir transmissivity and wellbore skin by a straight-line graph analogous to a Horner plot. As a well-test analysis method, the closed-chamber test avoids surface pressure buildup, which often prohibits conventional drillstem testing.

Simmons, J.F. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A practical pressure sensitive computer keyboard  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pressure sensitive computer keyboard is presented that independently senses the force level on every depressed key. The design leverages existing membrane technologies and is suitable for low-cost, high-volume manufacturing. A number of representative ... Keywords: force pressure sensitive keyboard

Paul H. Dietz; Benjamin Eidelson; Jonathan Westhues; Steven Bathiche

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Pressure Temperature Log | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Pressure Temperature Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Pressure Temperature Log Details Activities (13) Areas (13) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Log Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Log Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Perturbations in temperature or pressure can be indicative of faults or other structural features Hydrological: fluid cirulation, over-pressured zones, and under-pressured zones. Thermal: Temperature profile with depth Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 0.6060 centUSD 6.0e-4 kUSD

256

Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Application of pressure and pressure integral functions for the analysis of well test data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The analysis of well test data by methods which only use the pressure change can be ambiguous, and analysis using the derivative of the pressure change is often distorted by random error in the data or data noise. Although various "smoothing" techniques have been used to reduce data noise, some concern exists that smoothing procedures may alter the basic character of the data. In this work, we use pressure integral and pressure integral derivative functions to reduce the data noise. First, we perform the conventional semilog analysis on the well test data using the pressure integral functions. Then, we demonstrate the applicability of the pressure change integral and derivative of pressure change integral functions. In this manner we couple the integral functions with the pressure change and pressure change derivative functions to derive useful qualitative and quantitative information from these test data. We also analyze well test data with these methods without the use of superposition time functions such as, Horner time and Agarwal "effective time" functions. In addition, we introduce a numerical technique to generate the pressure integral functions. Thus, we integrate the pressure analysis approach with the pressure integral analysis approach and develop a consistent and applicable method for the analysis of well test data.

Samad, Zahid

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Experimental investigation of convection heat transfer of CO{sub 2} at supercritical pressures in a vertical circular tube  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The convection heat transfer characteristics of supercritical CO{sub 2} in a vertical circular tube of 2 mm inner diameter were investigated experimentally for pressures ranging from 78 to 95 bar, inlet temperatures from 25 to 40 C, and inlet Reynolds numbers from 3800 to 20,000. The effects of the heat flux, thermo-physical properties, buoyancy and thermal acceleration on the convection heat transfer were analyzed. The experimental results show that for high inlet Reynolds numbers (e.g. Re = 9000) and high heat fluxes, a significant local deterioration and recovery of the heat transfer was found for upward flows but not for downward flows. Comparison of the experimental data for inlet Reynolds numbers from 3800 to 20,000 with some well-known empirical correlations showed large differences especially when the heat transfer deteriorates and then recovers when the effect of buoyancy is significant. The experimental data was used to develop modified local turbulent Nusselt number correlations for supercritical CO{sub 2} flowing in vertical small circular tubes. (author)

Li, Zhi-Hui; Jiang, Pei-Xue; Zhao, Chen-Ru; Zhang, Yu. [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Electrochemical cell having improved pressure vent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The electrochemical cell of the instant invention includes a case having a gas outlet, one or more positive electrodes positioned within the case, one or more negative electrodes positioned within the case electrode separators positioned between the positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte positioned within the case, and a pressure vent for releasing internal pressure occurring in the case to the surrounding atmosphere. The pressure vent is affixed to the case covering the gas outlet, the pressure vent includes a vent housing having a hollow interior area in gaseous communication with the surrounding atmosphere and the interior of the case via the gas outlet, a pressure release piston positioned within the hollow interior area, the pressure release piston sized to surround the gas outlet and having a seal groove configured to encapsulate all but one surface of a seal mounted within the seal groove, leaving the non-encapsulated surface of the seal exposed, and a compression spring positioned to urge the pressure release piston to compress the seal in the seal groove and block the gas outlet in the case.

Dean, Kevin (Pontiac, MI); Holland, Arthur (Troy, MI); Fillmore, Donn (Waterford, MI)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements.

Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Eddy current technique for predicting burst pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A signal processing technique which correlates eddy current inspection data from a tube having a critical tubing defect with a range of predicted burst pressures for the tube is provided. The method can directly correlate the raw eddy current inspection data representing the critical tubing defect with the range of burst pressures using a regression technique, preferably an artificial neural network. Alternatively, the technique deconvolves the raw eddy current inspection data into a set of undistorted signals, each of which represents a separate defect of the tube. The undistorted defect signal which represents the critical tubing defect is related to a range of burst pressures utilizing a regression technique.

Petri, Mark C. (Yorkville, IL); Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL); Morman, James A. (Woodridge, IL); Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, D.W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

265

RHIC PRESSURE RISE AND ELECTRON CLOUD.  

SciTech Connect

In RHIC high intensity operation, two types of pressure rise are currently of concern. The first type is at the beam injection, which seems to be caused by the electron multipacting, and the second is the one at the beam transition, where the electron cloud is not the dominant cause. The first type of pressure rise is limiting the beam intensity and the second type might affect the experiments background for very high total beam intensity. In this article, the pressure rises at RHIC are described, and preliminary study results are reported. Some of the unsettled issues and questions are raised, and possible counter measures are discussed.

Zhang, S Y; Blaskiewicz, M; Cameron, P; Drees, P; Afischer, W; Gassner, D; Gullotta, J; He, P; Hseuh, H; Chuang, H; Iriso-Aziz, U; Lee, R; Mackay, W; Woerter, B; Ptitsyn, V; Ponnaiyan, V; Roser, T; Satogata, T; Smart, L; Trbojevic, D

2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

266

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

Carver, D.W.

1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

267

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies of phase transitions and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials at high pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The behavior of nanocrystals under extreme pressure was investigated using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. A major part of this investigation was the testing of a prototype synchrotron endstation on a bend magnet beamline at the Advanced Light Source for high pressure work using a diamond anvil cell. The experiments conducted and documented here helped to determine issues of efficiency and accuracy that had to be resolved before the construction of a dedicated ''super-bend'' beamline and endstation. The major conclusions were the need for a cryo-cooled monochromator and a fully remote-controllable pressurization system which would decrease the time to change pressure and greatly reduce the error created by the re-placement of the diamond anvil cell after each pressure change. Two very different types of nanocrystal systems were studied, colloidal iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and thin film TiN/BN. Iron oxide nanocrystals were found to have a transition from the {gamma} to the {alpha} structure at a pressure strongly dependent on the size of the nanocrystals, ranging from 26 GPa for 7.2 nm nanocrystals to 37 GPa for 3.6 nm nanocrystals. All nanocrystals were found to remain in the {alpha} structure even after release of pressure. The transition pressure was also found, for a constant size (5.7 nm) to be strongly dependent on the degree of aggregation of the nanocrystals, increasing from 30 GPa for completely dissolved nanocrystals to 45 GPa for strongly aggregated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction pattern of the pressure induced {alpha} phase demonstrated a decrease in intensity for certain select peaks. Together, these observations were used to make a complete picture of the phase transition in nanocrystalline systems. The size dependence of the transition was interpreted as resulting from the extremely high surface energy of the {alpha} phase which would increase the thermodynamic offset and thereby increase the kinetic barrier to transition that must be overridden with pressure. The anomalous intensities in the x-ray diffraction patterns were interpreted as being the result of stacking faults, indicating that the mechanism of transition proceeds by the sliding of {gamma}(111) planes to form {alpha}(001) planes. The increasing transition pressure for more aggregated samples may be due to a positive activation volume, retarding the transition for nanocrystals with less excess (organic) volume available to them. The lack of a reverse transition upon decompression makes this interpretation more difficult because of the lack of an observable hysteresis, and it is therefore difficult to ascertain kinetic effects for certain. In the case TiN/BN nanocomposite systems, it was found that the bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) of the TiN nanoparticles was not correlated to the observed hardness or Young's modulus of the macroscopic thin film. This indicates that the origin of the observed super-hard nature of these materials is not due to any change in the Ti-N interatomic potential. Rather, the enhanced hardness must be due to nano-structural effects. It was also found that during pressurization the TiN nanoparticles developed a great deal of strain. This strain can be related to defects induced in individual nanoparticles which generates strain in adjacent particles due to the highly coupled nature of the system.

Prilliman, Gerald Stephen

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- December 2007 - December 2007 1 December 2007 Short-Term Energy Outlook December 11, 2007 Release Highlights Global oil markets will likely remain tight through the forecast period. EIA projects that world oil demand will grow much faster than oil supply outside of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), leaving OPEC and inventories to offset the resultant upward pressure on prices. However, at last week's meeting in Abu Dhabi, OPEC decided to maintain its existing production quotas, noting that, in its view, the global oil market continued to be well supplied. Additional factors contributing to expectations that prices will remain high and volatile through 2008 include ongoing geopolitical risks,

270

Documentation Requirements for Pressurized Experiment Equipment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Documentation Requirements for Pressurized Experiment Apparatus Documentation Requirements for Pressurized Experiment Apparatus PSSC NOTE01 15-Jan-2013 When bringing a piece of apparatus to the APS for an experiment that will involve pressure, whether it is to be used on a beamline during a measurement or in a laboratory to prepare the sample prior to the experiment, the hazards associated with the equipment must be reviewed. To review the equipment and make any recommendations, a certain level of documentation must be provided by the experimenter. The length and depth of the documentation should be commensurate with the complexity of the system. 1. Description of apparatus a. Description of the assembly and operation of the system. b. State the maximum working pressure, working fluid (liquid or gas) used to

271

Pressurization of whole element canister during staging  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analytical model was developed to estimate the buildup of gas pressure for a single outer element in a hot cell test container for a post cold vacuum drying staging/storage test. This model considers various sources of gas generation and gas consumption as a function of time. In a canister containing spent nuclear fuel, hydrogen is generated from the reactions of uranium with free water or hydrated water, hydride decomposition, and radiolysis. The canister pressurization model predicts a stable pressure and a peak temperature during staging, with an assumption that a fuel element contains 40 gm of corrosion products and a decay heat of 2.07 or 1.06 Watts. Calculations were also performed on constant temperature tests for fuel elements containing varied amounts of sludge tested at 150, 125, 105, and 85 C. The pressurization model will be used to evaluate test results obtained from post-drying testing on whole fuel elements.

Huang, F.F.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

272

Practical Conversion of Pressure to Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conversion formula between pressure and depth is obtained employing the recently adopted equation of state for seawater (Millero et al., 1980). Assuming the ocean of uniform salinity 35 NSU and temperature 0°C the following equation is proposed,...

Peter M. Saunders

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

A Revised Hurricane Pressure–Wind Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique for relating central pressure and maximum winds in tropical cyclones is presented, together with a method of objectively determining a derivative of the Holland b parameter, bs, which relates directly to surface winds and varies ...

Greg Holland

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Radiative Measurements of Pressure Modulator Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pressure modulator is extensively used in atmospheric measurements but is not well characterized in terms of its spectroscopic operation. A series of measurements on a carbon monoxide radiometer is described and comparisons are made with ...

J. R. Drummond; A. Ashton

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage Zhili Feng Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Gap Analysis for Bulk...

276

Basic Meteorological Observations for Schools: Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article addresses measurement of atmospheric surface pressure using economical instruments. It is intended to provide members of the Society with a ready reference to respond to inquiries from earth and physical science teachers at the ...

John T. Snow; Michelle E. Akridge; Shawn B. Harley

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Vapor Pressure Measurement of Supercooled Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new dewpoint hygrometer was developed for subfreezing temperature application. Vapor pressure of supercooled water was determined by measuring temperatures at the dew-forming surface and the vapor source ice under the flux density balance, and ...

N. Fukuta; C. M. Gramada

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Mars Atmosphere Pressure Periodicities from Viking Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first martian year of pressure data taken by the Viking landers on Mars is subjected to power spectrum analysis. The analysis suggests that strong periodicities are present in the martian atmosphere, especially at the high-latitude (48°N) ...

R. D. Sharman; J. A. Ryan

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Statistics of the Global Tropopause Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistics of the global tropopause pressure are evaluated for the period between 1979 and 1993. The analysis is based on gridded data as provided by the ECMWF reanalysis project. The thermal and dynamical definitions of the tropopause are ...

Klaus P. Hoinka

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Decommissioning: Reactor Pressure Vessel Internals Segmentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decommissioning a nuclear plant covers a wide variety of challenging projects. One of the most challenging areas is the removal and disposal of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the RPV internals. This report describes commercial reactor pressure vessel segmentation projects that have been completed and discusses several projects that are still in the planning stages. The report also covers lessons learned from each project.

2001-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Pressure limits of an axisymmetric torus  

SciTech Connect

In order to clarify the pressure limit of a toroidal plasma equilibrium in a three-dimensional geometry, an azimuthally symmetric toroidal plasma was considered. In a tokamak-like plasma, the net toroidal current is necessary for a finite ..beta.. plasma equilibrium. If external conductors are used to provide the rotational transform, iota, the plasma pressure is limited to ..beta.. = (iota/2..pi..)/sup 2//2A, where A is the aspect ratio.

Yoshikawa, S.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Pressure responsive perforating and testing system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a well perforating and testing system includes packer and test valve means for respectively isolating a well bore interval and controlling flow of well fluids therefrom, a perforating gun connected below the packer means, and firing means responsive to a greater pressure in the well annulus above the packer means than in said isolated interval for actuating the perforating gun so theat the casing can be perforated at underbalanced pressure conditions.

Upchurch, J. M.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

283

Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

Berry, Jan [ORNL; Griffin, Mr. Bob [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc.; Wright, Anthony L [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Dynamic surge/swab pressure predictions  

SciTech Connect

It is generally accepted that the pulling and running of pipe causes pressure surges. The prediction of pressure surges is of economic importance in wells where the pressure must be examined within narrow limits to prevent lost circulation and formation-fluid influx. For these wells, the drilling engineer needs the best possible method of calculating surge pressures to drill wells with a minimum of trouble. This paper presents a dynamic surge/swab model that extends existing technology with the following features: (1) pipe and annulus pressures are coupled through the pipe elasticity; (2) longitudinal pipe elasticity and fluid viscous forces determine pipe displacement; (3) fluid properties vary as a function of temperature and pressure; and (4) formation elasticity; pipe elasticity, and cement elasticity are all used to determine the composite elastic response of the wellbore. Comparisons between the model and field data demonstrate good agreement. Data matches have been made for both water- and oil-based muds in both shallow and deep wells. Furthermore, the model matches data that had not been previously matched by other models.

Mitchell, R.F. (Enertech Engineering and Research (US))

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Fluctuating pressure correlations in wall turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of the present paper is to study the influence of wall-echo on pressure fluctuations $p'$, and on statistical correlations containing $p'$, {\\em viz} redistribution $\\phi_{ij}$ and pressure diffusion $d_{ij}^{(p)}$. We extend the usual analysis of turbulent correlations containing pressure fluctuations in wall-bounded \\tsc{dns} computations [Kim J.: {\\em J. Fluid Mech.} {\\bf 205} (1989) 421--451], separating $p'$ not only into rapid $p_{(\\mathrm{r})}'$ and slow $p_{(\\mathrm{s})}'$ parts [Chou P.Y.: {\\em Quart. Appl. Math.} {\\bf 3} (1945) 38--54], but further into volume (weakly inhomogeneous; $p'_{(\\mathrm{r};\\mathfrak{V})}$ and $p'_{(\\mathrm{s};\\mathfrak{V})}$) and surface (strongly inhomogeneous wall-echo; $p'_{(\\mathrm{r};w)}$ and $p'_{(\\mathrm{s};w)}$) terms. An algorithm, based on a Green's function approach, is developed to compute the above splittings for various correlations containing pressure fluctuations (redistribution, pressure diffusion, velocity/pressure-gradient), in fully develope...

Gerolymos, G A; Senechal, D; Vallet, I

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

NETL: Gasification Systems - Development of High-Pressure Dry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Development of High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Project Number: DE-FC26-04NT42237 High-Pressure Solids Pump High-Pressure Solids Pump Pratt &...

287

NETL: Gasification Systems - Development of High-Pressure Dry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Project No.: DE-FC26-04NT42237 High-Pressure Solids Pump High-Pressure Solids Pump Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is...

288

An Inexpensive Method for Measurements of Static Pressure Fluctuations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An application of a commercially available and inexpensive pressure probe and transducer, originally designed for pressure drop measurements in air conditioning conduits, is suggested for accurate and reliable measurements of static pressure ...

Dan Liberzon; Lev Shemer

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Reexamination of Tropical Cyclone Wind–Pressure Relationships  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tropical cyclone wind–pressure relationships are reexamined using 15 yr of minimum sea level pressure estimates, numerical analysis fields, and best-track intensities. Minimum sea level pressure is estimated from aircraft reconnaissance or ...

John A. Knaff; Raymond M. Zehr

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Meso-?-scale Pressure Dips Associated with Typhoons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a mesoscale model, the formation process of a pressure dip, which was characterized by a rapid decrease and subsequent increase in surface pressure lasting less than an hour, was investigated. A simulated pressure dip accompanied by Typhoon ...

Hironori Fudeyasu; Satoshi Iizuka; Taiichi Hayashi

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Putting downward pressure on natural gas prices: The impact of renewable energy and energy efficiency  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) is expected to reduce natural gas demand and in turn place downward pressure on gas prices. A number of recent modeling studies include an evaluation of this effect. Based on data compiled from those studies summarized in this paper, each 1% reduction in national natural gas demand appears likely to lead to a long-term average wellhead gas price reduction of 0.75% to 2.5%, with some studies predicting even more sizable reductions. Reductions in wellhead prices will reduce wholesale and retail electricity rates, and will also reduce residential, commercial, and industrial gas bills. We further find that many of these studies appear to represent the potential impact of RE and EE on natural gas prices within the bounds of current knowledge, but that current knowledge of how to estimate this effect is extremely limited. While more research is therefore needed, existing studies suggest that it is not unreasonable to expect that any increase in consumer electricity costs attributable to RE and/or EE deployment may be substantially offset by the corresponding reduction in delivered natural gas prices. This effect represents a wealth transfer (from natural gas producers to consumers) rather than a net gain in social welfare, and is therefore not a standard motivation for policy intervention on economic grounds. Reducing gas prices and thereby redistributing wealth may still be of importance in policy circles, however, and may be viewed in those circles as a positive ancillary effect of RE and EE deployment.

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matthew

2004-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

292

Destruction of plutonium using non-uranium fuels in pressurized water reactor peripheral assemblies  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines and confirms the feasibility of using non-uranium fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) radial blanket to eliminate plutonium of both weapons and civilian origin. In the equilibrium cycle, the periphery of the PWR is loaded with alternating fresh and once burned non-uranium fuel assemblies, with the interior of the core comprised of conventional three batch UO{sub 2} assemblies. Plutonium throughput is such that there is no net plutonium production: production in the interior is offset by destruction in the periphery. Using this approach a 50 MT WGPu inventory could be eliminated in approximately 400 reactor years of operation. Assuming all other existing constraints were removed, the 72 operating US PWRs could disposition 50 MT of WGPu in 5.6 years. Use of a low fissile loading plutonium-erbium inert-oxide-matrix composition in the peripheral assemblies essentially destroys 100% of the {sup 239}Pu and {ge}90% {sub total}Pu over two 18 month fuel cycles. Core radial power peaking, reactivity vs EFPD profiles and core average reactivity coefficients were found to be comparable to standard PWR values. Hence, minimal impact on reload licensing is anticipated. Examination of potential candidate fuel matrices based on the existing experience base and thermo-physical properties resulted in the recommendation of three inert fuel matrix compositions for further study: zirconia, alumina and TRISO particle fuels. Objective metrics for quantifying the inherent proliferation resistance of plutonium host waste and fuel forms are proposed and were applied to compare the proposed spent WGPu non-uranium fuel to spent WGPu MOX fuels and WGPu borosilicate glass logs. The elimination disposition option spent non-uranium fuel product was found to present significantly greater barriers to proliferation than other plutonium disposal products.

Chodak, P. III

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Measurements of Vapor Pressures and PVT Properties for n ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Measurements of Vapor Pressures and PVT Properties for n-Butane from 280 to 440 K at Pressures to 200 MPa ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

294

Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research...

295

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2 Experiment Reactor Pressure...

296

Studies in Magnetism and Superconductivity under Extreme Pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract Studies of superconductivity, magnetism and structure under pressure have made important contributions to furthering our understanding of the physical properties of materials. High pressure… (more)

Bi, Wenli

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Pressure Temperature Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pressure Temperature Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP)...

298

A Gas Pressure Scale Based on Primary Standard Piston ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Gas Pressure Scale Based on Primary Standard Piston Gauges. Summary: ... Distortion is a major contributor to uncertainty at higher pressures. ...

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

299

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at high pressures yields more methane, less hydrogen at thermodynamic equilibrium Coke formation tendency increases with increasing pressures Coking tendency can be...

300

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Automatic Misconfiguration Troubleshooting with PeerPressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technical support contributes 17 % of the total cost of ownership of today’s desktop PCs [25]. An important element of technical support is troubleshooting misconfigured applications. Misconfiguration troubleshooting is particularly challenging, because configuration information is shared and altered by multiple applications. In this paper, we present a novel troubleshooting system: PeerPressure, which uses statistics from a set of sample machines to diagnose the root-cause misconfigurations on a sick machine. This is in contrast with methods that require manual identification on a healthy machine for diagnosing misconfigurations [30]. The elimination of this manual operation makes a significant step towards automated misconfiguration troubleshooting. In PeerPressure, we introduce a ranking metric for misconfiguration candidates. This metric is based on empirical Bayesian estimation. We have prototyped a PeerPressure troubleshooting system and used a database of 87 machine configuration snapshots to evaluate its performance. With 20 real-world troubleshooting cases, PeerPressure can effectively pinpoint the root-cause misconfigurations for 12 of these cases. For the remaining cases, PeerPressure significantly narrows down the number of root-cause candidates by three orders of magnitude. 1

Helen J. Wang; John C. Platt; Yu Chen; Ruyun Zhang; Yi-min Wang

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Pressure balance at the magnetopause: Experimental studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pressure balance at the magnetopause is formed by magnetic field and plasma in the magnetosheath, on one side, and inside the magnetosphere, on the other side. In the approach of dipole earth's magnetic field configuration and gas-dynamics solar wind flowing around the magnetosphere, the pressure balance predicts that the magnetopause distance R depends on solar wind dynamic pressure Pd as a power low R ~ Pd^alpha, where the exponent alpha=-1/6. In the real magnetosphere the magnetic filed is contributed by additional sources: Chapman-Ferraro current system, field-aligned currents, tail current, and storm-time ring current. Net contribution of those sources depends on particular magnetospheric region and varies with solar wind conditions and geomagnetic activity. As a result, the parameters of pressure balance, including power index alpha, depend on both the local position at the magnetopause and geomagnetic activity. In addition, the pressure balance can be affected by a non-linear transfer of the solar ...

Suvorova, A V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

PRESSURIZER ANALYSIS AND THE PRE DIGITAL PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is given which was programmed for the Philco 2000 (TRANSAC) Computer in order to provide a means for making pressurizer design and performance calculations. The analysis and digital program provide the exibility for studying the effects of various assumptions such as the type of steam compression process (i.e., isentropic or saturation), spray efficiency, wall condensation, and mixing of the pressurizer water and of the insurge. Also included in the program are data on pressure controlled steam and water relief,valves (total of four), pressure controlled heaters (total of five), pressure controlled spray valve, and various input formats allowing the use of either total surge, surge rate or bulk average temperature for the surge, spray fraction or spray rate for the spray and either temperatures or enthalpies for the surge and spray energies. The program uses steam and water properties in the form of empirical equations where the empirical constants in these equations may be changed depending upon the range of interest of the problem. (auth)

Findlay, J.A.

1961-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

304

Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ambient pressure superconductor CePt3Si  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We studied the evolution of superconductivity (sc) and antiferromagnetism (afm) in the heavy fermion compound CePt3Si with hydrostatic pressure. We present a pressure-temperature phase diagram established by electrical transport measurements. Pressure shifts the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, to lower temperatures. Antiferromagnetism is suppressed at a critical pressure Pc ? 0.5 GPa. Key words: CePt3Si, superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, hydrostatic pressure Superconductivity (sc) is one of the most striking effects in solid state physics. In a conventional superconductor Cooper pairing is mediated by phonons. In general, magnetism destroys superconductivity. In heavy fermion systems, however, sc exists in close proximity to magnetism, promoting the suspicion that the sc is mediated by magnetic excitations. Since the discovery of sc in the heavy fermion compound CeCu2Si2 at atmospheric pressure [1], only a few Ce-based systems were found which also exhibit sc at atmospheric pressure, like CeMIn5 (M=Co, Ir) [4]. Most superconducting pure Ce-based systems show sc only under applied pressure sufficient to suppress long range magnetic order, like CeIn3 [2] or CeRh2Si2 [3]. CeIn3 displays a typical temperature-pressure phase diagram for these compounds; antiferromagnetism (afm) is suppressed to zero temperature with pressure and sc develops right in the vicinity where afm disappears [2]. Very recently another material, namely CePt3Si, was found showing magnetic order and sc at atmospheric pressure [5]. In contrast to the systems mentioned before, the crystal

M. Nicklas A

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

A New Method for Solving the Quasi-Geostrophic Omega Equation by Incorporating Surface Pressure Tendency Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method for numerically solving the classical quasi-geostrophic omega equation is proposed. The method, in effect, integrates the omega equation upward using two bottom boundary conditions at the top of the boundary layer: ? and ??/?p. The ...

Peter Zwack; Benoit Okossi

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

Dacus, Michael W. (Gilbert, AR); Cole, Jack H. (Fayetteville, AR)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

Dacus, M.W.; Cole, J.H.

1980-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

309

Pressure-activated well perforating apparatus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A well perforating technique utilizes a predetermined pressure difference developed at different points in the borehole to actuate the firing mechanism of a tubing conveyed perforating gun. A first embodiment incorporated as part of a well test string includes a packer for isolating a wellbore interval and a perforating gun connected in the string below the packer which is fired in response to development of a greater pressure in the annulus above the packer than in the isolated interval, thereby causing perforation at ''underbalanced'' conditions. A modified ''full-bore'' embodiment has an annular configuration firing mechanism as part of a tubing string and fires the perforating gun in response to development of a predetermined difference between the pressures at a point in the annulus and a point in the central bore of the tubing string.

Upchurch, J. M.

1985-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

310

High pressure electrical insulated feed thru connector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A feed-thru type hermetic electrical connector including at least one connector pin feeding through an insulator block within the metallic body of the connector shell. A compression stop arrangement coaxially disposed about the insulator body is brazed to the shell, and the shoulder on the insulator block bears against this top in a compression mode, the high pressure or internal connector being at the opposite end of the shell. Seals between the pin and an internal bore at the high pressure end of the insulator block and between the insulator block and the metallic shell at the high pressure end are hermetically brazed in place, the first of these also functioning to transfer the axial compressive load without permitting appreciable shear action between the pin and insulator block.

Oeschger, Joseph E. (Palo Alto, CA); Berkeland, James E. (San Jose, CA)

1979-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

311

Nuclear Power Plant Containment Pressure Boundary Research  

SciTech Connect

Research to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants is summarized. This research is aimed at understanding the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containment and liners of concrete containment. This understanding will lead to improvements in risk-informed regulatory decision making. Containment pressure boundary components are described and potential aging factors identified. Quantitative tools for condition assessments of aging structures to maintain an acceptable level of reliability over the service life of the plant are discussed. Finally, the impact of aging (i.e., loss of shell thickness due to corrosion) on steel containment fragility for a pressurized water reactor ice-condenser plant is presented.

Cherry, J.L.; Chokshi, N.C.; Costello, J.F.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.

1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Forests to offset the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the role of trees in the prevention of global warming. If forest plantations are used as carbon sinks, it is estimated that 500 million hectares of intensively managed, rapidly growing plantation forests could sequester all of the 5 billion tons or so of carbon released annually through the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. Land area requirements would be large enough to dwarf all previous forest plantation efforts. The cost would bean average of $400 per hectare to establish such plantations in the United States.

Sedjo, R.A. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

OVERVIEW OF EVOLVING FINANCIAL AND OFFSETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demands · RE (Renewable Energy Directive) · Incentives and barriers for mitigating initiatives on waste) · By investments in mitigating activities in other countries (Joint Implementation or Clean Development Mechanism to COP-15 CDM: CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM Industries or states under reduction obligations invest

Columbia University

314

BPM button characterization for offset calibration  

SciTech Connect

In this note, a basic theory of wave propagation in dielectric media is discussed in conjunction with S parameters to derive the button gain coefficient g{sub e} and an analytic expression for the signal from time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurement on a cable and a button. The results can be used to measure the button capacitance and the characteristic impedances of the cable and the button feedthrough. Since g{sub e} is a function of S parameters and the button capacitance C{sub p}, a suggestion is made to make the gain coefficients the same for all four buttons in a BPM by carefully matching the buttons and the cables.

Chung, Y.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Green Power Network: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Offsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

projects include renewable electricity generation, energy efficiency measures, methane capture at landfill sites, soil carbon sequestration, and reforestation projects....

316

Explaining the Price of Voluntary Carbon Offsets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prices. In both specifications, statisti- cally significant coefficients are those on the project types of biomass

Conte, Marc N.; Kotchen, Matthew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Turbine power plant with back pressure turbine  

SciTech Connect

A combined gas/steam turbine power plant is disclosed including a gas turbine having a combustion chamber and a steam turbine driven by steam generated with heat from the combustion gases of the gas turbine. The steam is utilized in a technological process downstream of the steam turbine. Relatively small fluctuations in back pressure are compensated by varying a delivery of fuel to the combustion chamber. Relatively large fluctuations in back pressure are compensated by supplying live steam directly to the technological process downstream of the steam turbine. Various devices are provided for conditioning the steam prior to being supplied to the technological process.

Kalt, J.; Kehlhofer, R.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

318

Hydrogen at high pressure and temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures is challenging scientifically and has many real and potential applications. Minimum metallic conductivity of fluid hydrogen is observed at 140 GPa and 2600 K, based on electrical conductivity measurements to 180 GPa (1.8 Mbar), tenfold compression, and 3000 K obtained dynamically with a two-stage light-gas gun. Conditions up to 300 GPa, sixfold compression, and 30,000 K have been achieved in laser-driven Hugoniot experiments. Implications of these results for the interior of Jupiter, inertial confinement fusion, and possible uses of metastable solid hydrogen, if the metallic fluid could be quenched from high pressure, are discussed.

Nellis, W J

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

319

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

320

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Berry Berry Salvador M. Aceves Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (925) 422-0864 saceves@LLNL.GOV DOE Delivery Tech Team Presentation Chicago, Illinois February 8, 2005 Inexpensive delivery of compressed hydrogen with ambient temperature or cryogenic compatible vessels * Pressure vessel research at LLNL Conformable (continuous fiber and replicants) Cryo-compressed * Overview of delivery options * The thermodynamics of compressed and cryo-compressed hydrogen storage * Proposed analysis activities * Conclusions Outline We are investigating two techniques for reduced bending stress: continuous fiber vessels and vessels made of replicants Conformable tanks require internal stiffeners (ribs) to efficiently support the pressure and minimize bending stresses Spherical and cylindrical tanks

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

322

Variable pressure power cycle and control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

323

High pressure water jet mining machine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO)

1981-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

324

Pressure on the well servicing market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the well servicing and workover (ws/wo) market is extremely strong and is expected to grow even stronger in the foreseeable future, several pressures are affecting the overall market. These pressures include (1) uncertainty about crude oil prices that is forcing operators to reconsider some marginal ws/wo prospects; (2) demand for oil and gas in future periods; (3) effect of current rate of rig building; and (4) changing requirements of producers. This discussion evaluates the probable effects of possible changes in each of these areas.

Haynes, J.P.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increasing number of open hole horizontal well completions in low-pressure and depleted reservoirs requires the use of non-damaging low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) to avoid formation damage and realize optimum well productivity. To address this need we have formulated new LDDIFS with specific density lower than 1.0 sg (8.34 ppg) specifically to drill and complete low pressure and depleted reservoirs with minimum formation damage and maximum production. These materials exhibit typical drilling fluid characteristics, allowing the well to be safely drilled (0 required well depth but also perform as completion fluids, lessening formation damage to a greater extent than fluids with greater density and higher wellbore pressures. The new LDDIF incorporates low-density hollow glass spheres (HGS) to allow near-balanced drilling in low pressure and depleted reservoirs. The LDDIF uses potassium chloride (KCI) brine as the base fluid because of its low density and inhibition of clay hydration and employs low concentrations of the HGS so that fluid rheology is not altered. We have conducted extensive laboratory testing to compare performance of the HGS LDDIF with that of conventional horizontal well DIFs. Experiments consisted of permeability regain tests on unconsolidated sands with sand control screens. Test variables included temperature, concentration of drill solids cleanup technique and HGS concentration. Test results have shown that the new fluids are up to 50% easier to remove from the wellbore formation faces and provide higher productivity than higher density fluids. Such results indicate that higher well productivity from wells with less impairment would offset any added costs of HGS additives in the fluids.

Chen, Guoqiang

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Gravity-Capillary Lumps Generated by a Moving Pressure Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nonlinear wave pattern generated by a localized pressure source moving over a liquid free surface

Diorio, James

327

Corrosion of Low Pressure Steam Turbine Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most outage hours for steam turbines are due to corrosion of low pressure (LP) blades and disks in the phase transition zone (PTZ). The development of an effective localized corrosion damage prediction technology is essential for the successful avoidance of unscheduled outages of steam

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

328

Reconstruction of Pressure Profile Evolution during  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of plasma current and plasma pressure profiles from external measurements of the equilibrium magnetic field currents, eddy currents flowing in the vacuum vessel, constant magnetic flux linking the superconductor, and new flux loops located near the hot plasma in order to closely couple to plasma current and dipole

329

Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.  

SciTech Connect

Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.

Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Notes 11. High pressure floating ring seals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Floating ring seals for compressors: leakage and force coefficients, seal lock up and effect on rotor stability, recommendations to reduce seal cross-coupled effects. Long oil seals as pressure barriers in industrial mixers: leakage and force coefficients, effect on rotor stability, recommendations for grooved seals with reduced leakage and lesser cross-stiffnesses.

San Andres, Luis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Reactor pressure vessel with forged nozzles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Inlet nozzles for a gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) are forged with a cylindrical reactor pressure vessel (RPV) section to which a support skirt for the RPV is attached. The forging provides enhanced RPV integrity around the nozzle and substantial reduction of in-service inspection costs by eliminating GDCS nozzle-to-RPV welds.

Desai, Dilip R. (Fremont, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Compensated vibrating optical fiber pressure measuring device  

SciTech Connect

A microbending optical fiber is attached under tension to a diaphragm to se a differential pressure applied across the diaphragm which it causes it to deflect. The fiber is attached to the diaphragm so that one portion of the fiber, attached to a central portion of the diaphragm, undergoes a change in tension; proportional to the differential pressure applied to the diaphragm while a second portion attached at the periphery of the diaphragm remains at a reference tension. Both portions of the fiber are caused to vibrate at their natural frequencies. Light transmitted through the fiber is attenuated by both portions of the tensioned sections of the fiber by an amount which increases with the curvature of fiber bending so that the light signal is modulated by both portions of the fiber at separate frequencies. The modulated light signal is transduced into a electrical signal. The separate modulation signals are detected to generate separate signals having frequencies corresponding to the reference and measuring vibrating sections of the continuous fiber, respectively. A signal proportional to the difference between these signals is generated which is indicative of the measured pressure differential across the diaphragm. The reference portion of the fiber is used to compensate the pressure signal for zero and span changes resulting from ambient temperature and humidity effects upon the fiber and the transducer fixture.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Goff, David R. (Christiansburg, VA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Vlasov fluid model with electron pressure  

SciTech Connect

The Vlasov-ion, fluid-electron model of Freidberg for studying the linear stability of hot-ion pinch configurations is here extended to include electron pressure. Within the framework of an adiabatic electron-gas picture, it is shown that this model is still amenable to the numerical methods described by Lewis and Freidberg. (auth)

Gerwin, R.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Polynomial Fits to Saturation Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe eighth- and sixth-order polynomial fits to Wexler's and Hyland-Wexler's saturation-vapor-pressure expressions. Fits are provided in both least-squares and relative-error norms. Error analysis is presented. The authors show ...

Piotr J. Flatau; Robert L. Walko; William R. Cotton

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SGP-TR-169 Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam- Water Relative Permeability Peter A. O by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative

Stanford University

336

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Hydrogen International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications

337

Gravitational Instability in Radiation Pressure Dominated Backgrounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I consider the physics of gravitational instabilities in the presence of dynamically important radiation pressure and gray radiative diffusion, governed by a constant opacity, kappa. For any non-zero radiation diffusion rate on an optically-thick scale, the medium is unstable unless the classical gas-only isothermal Jeans criterion is satisfied. When diffusion is "slow," although the dynamical Jeans instability is stabilized by radiation pressure on scales smaller than the adiabatic Jeans length, on these same spatial scales the medium is unstable to a diffusive mode. In this regime, neglecting gas pressure, the characteristic timescale for growth is independent of spatial scale and given by (3 kappa c_s^2)/(4 pi G c), where c_s is the adiabatic sound speed. This timescale is that required for a fluid parcel to radiate away its thermal energy content at the Eddington limit, the Kelvin-Helmholz timescale for a radiation pressure supported self-gravitating object. In the limit of "rapid" diffusion, radiation does nothing to suppress the Jeans instability and the medium is dynamically unstable unless the gas-only Jeans criterion is satisfied. I connect with treatments of Silk damping in the early universe. I discuss several applications, including photons diffusing in regions of extreme star formation (starburst galaxies & pc-scale AGN disks), and the diffusion of cosmic rays in normal galaxies and galaxy clusters. The former (particularly, starbursts) are "rapidly" diffusing and thus cannot be supported against dynamical instability in the linear regime by radiation pressure alone. The latter are more nearly "slowly" diffusing. I speculate that the turbulence in starbursts may be driven by the dynamical coupling between the radiation field and the self-gravitating gas, perhaps mediated by magnetic fields. (Abridged)

Todd A. Thompson

2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

338

High Rate Plasticity under Pressure using a Windowed Pressure-Shear Impact Experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experimental technique has been developed to study the strength of materials under conditions of moderate pressures and high shear strain rates. The technique is similar to the traditional pressure-shear plate-impact experiments except that window interferometry is used to measure both the normal and transverse particle velocities at a sample-window interface. Experimental and simulation results on vanadium samples backed with a sapphire window show the utility of the technique to measure the flow strength under dynamic loading conditions. The results show that the strength of the vanadium is 600 MPa at a pressure of 4.5 GPa and a plastic strain of 1.7%.

Florando, J N; Jiao, T; Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Ferranti, L; Becker, R C; Minich, R W; Bazan, G

2009-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

339

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on regenerating low-pressure steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Spectroscopic Study of the Effects of Pressure Media on High-Pressure Phase Transitions in Natrolite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Structural phase transitions in natrolite have been investigated as a function of pressure and different hydrostatic media using micro-Raman scattering and synchrotron infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Natrolite undergoes two reversible phase transitions at 0.86 and 1.53 GPa under pure water pressure medium. These phase transitions are characterized by the changes in the vibrational frequencies of four- and eight-membered rings related to the variations in the bridging T-O-T angles and the geometry of the elliptical eight-ring channels under pressure. Concomitant to the changes in the framework vibrational modes, the number of the O-H stretching vibrational modes of natrolite changes as a result of the rearrangements of the hydrogen bonds in the channels caused by a successive increase in the hydration level under hydrostatic pressure. Similar phase transitions were also observed at relatively higher pressures (1.13 and 1.59 GPa) under alcohol-water pressure medium. Furthermore, no phase transition was found up to 2.52 GPa if a lower volume ratio of the alcohol-water to natrolite was employed. This indicates that the water content in the pressure media plays a crucial role in triggering the pressure-induced phase transitions in natrolite. In addition, the average of the mode Grueneisen parameters is calculated to be about 0.6, while the thermodynamic Grueneisen parameter is found to be 1.33. This might be attributed to the contrast in the rigidity between the TO{sub 4} tetrahedral primary building units and other flexible secondary building units in the natrolite framework upon compression and subsequent water insertion.

D Liu; W Lei; Z Liu; Y Lee

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

BOP Pressure Summary 28 May 2010  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pressures (psi) +/- 50 psi" Pressures (psi) +/- 50 psi" ,,,,,,,"Pre Kill","Post Kill","Post Junk","Post Junk shot 2" ,,,,,,,2250,2250,2250,2250 ,,,,,,"Delta",310,250,229 ,,,,,,,2560,2500,2479 ,,,,,,"Delta",60,120,108,493 ,,,,,,,2620,2620,2587,2743 ,,,,,,"Delta",620,510,794,410 ,,,,,,,3240,3130,3381,3153 ,,,,,,"Delta",430,150,284,242 ,,26.51,,,,,3670,3280,3665,3395 ,,,,,,"Delta",730,40,32,101 ,,,,,,"BOP Pres",4400,3320,3697,3496 ,,,,,,"(corrected)","(Test Ram closed)","(Test Ram open)","(Test Ram open)","(Test Ram open)" "Top of Wellhead:",,"5053 ft" ,"BP MACONDO" ,"TOP KILL PROCEDURE - MC252 #1"

343

Vapor-pressure lowering in geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

The water vapor-pressure lowering phenomenon in porous media was investigated for a range of temperatures by measuring vapor pressure vs. mass of water adsorbed in consolidated sandstone cores and unconsolidated silica sands. Experimental results showed that the mass of water adsorbed on the rock surface is much more than the amount of pore steam. Results also revealed that the water adsorption is caused mainly by micropores in the porous medium. Measurement of the mass of methane and ethane adsorbed on dry rocks showed that the amount of adsorption is not great in comparison with the pore gas. It was found that adsorption data for water/sandstone core studies could be normalized with respect to temperature. Although this appears not to have been reported previously, it does agree in principle with findings for solid powders with micropores. Another interesting result was that reanalysis of previous studies of capillarity in sandstones indicates that experimental data probably were influenced mostly by adsorption.

Hsieh, C.H.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Magnetic Switching under Pressure | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Revealing the Secrets of Chemical Bath Deposition Revealing the Secrets of Chemical Bath Deposition DNA Repair Protein Caught in the Act of Molecular Theft Velcro for Nanoparticles A Molecular Fossil Ultrafast Imaging of Electron Waves in Graphene Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Magnetic Switching under Pressure DECEMBER 2, 2010 Bookmark and Share A schematic representation of the pressure-induced magnetic switching effect. The colored images highlight the direction of the magnetic orbital (grey plane) for the copper centers (green balls: copper, blue: nitrogen, red: oxygen/water, yellow: fluoride). A material's properties are a critical factor in the way that material

345

Pressure Drops Due to Silica Scaling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experience with reinjection returns in many geothermal fields has prompted a move towards injecting waste fluids at some distance from the production field. This means that often, reinjection pipelines cover very long distances. If the waste water in the pipelines is supersaturated with respect to amorphous silica, then the deposition of silica in these pipelines is almost certain. Although the deposit may be of negligible thickness, the inner surface characteristics of the pipe will be different to those of clean mild steel. During a silica scaling experiment. geothermal brine was passed through a series of pipes of different sizes and over a period of three weeks, silica scale formed on the inner surface. The pressure drop along a distance of approximately 5m was measured by a water manometer in all test pipe sections. Significant pressure drop was observed during this time and can be correlated with the increase in the friction factor of the pipe walls due to silica scaling.

Brown, K.L.; Freeston, D.H.; Dimas, Z.O.; Slatter, A.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

VACUUM SEALING MEANS FOR LOW VACUUM PRESSURES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

S>A vacuum seal is designed in which the surface tension of a thin layer of liquid metal of low vapor pressure cooperates with adjacent surfaces to preclude passages of gases across pressure differentials as low as 10/sup -8/ mm Hg. Mating contiguous surfaces composed of copper, brass, stainless steel, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, glass, quartz, and/or synthetic mica are disposed to provide a maximum tolerance, D, expressed by 2 gamma /P/sub 1/, where gamma is the coefflcient of the surface tension of the metal sealant selected in dynes/cm/sub 2/. Means for heating the surfaces remotely is provided where temperatures drop below about 250 deg C. A sealant consisting of an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, among other combinations tabulated, is disposed therebetween after treating the surfaces to improve wettability, as by ultrasonic vibrations, the surfaces and sealants being selected according to the anticipated experimental conditions of use. (AEC)

Milleron, N.

1962-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

347

Managed pressure drilling techniques and tools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The economics of drilling offshore wells is important as we drill more wells in deeper water. Drilling-related problems, including stuck pipe, lost circulation, and excessive mud cost, show the need for better drilling technology. If we can solve these problems, the economics of drilling the wells will improve, thus enabling the industry to drill wells that were previously uneconomical. Managed pressure drilling (MPD) is a new technology that enables a driller to more precisely control annular pressures in the wellbore to prevent these drillingrelated problems. This paper traces the history of MPD, showing how different techniques can reduce drilling problems. MPD improves the economics of drilling wells by reducing drilling problems. Further economic studies are necessary to determine exactly how much cost savings MPD can provide in certain situation. Furter research is also necessary on the various MPD techniques to increase their effectiveness.

Martin, Matthew Daniel

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Casing design for trapped annular pressure buildup  

SciTech Connect

Conventional single-string analysis for casing design with annular-fluid expansion can underpredict or overpredict pressures between strings because multistring effects are neglected. Multiple-string systems with multiple sealed annuli behave as composite interactive systems. This paper presents a constitutive-based multistring analysis method for composite string effects and complex fluid behavior. The composite stiffness of cemented casings is determined from elastic stress/strain relationships, and the nonlinear fluid behavior is modeled by direct use of fluid PVT relations in the formulation and solution. The method is incorporated in a computer model linking comprehensive stress calculations to accurate temperature and pressure predictions. Sensitivity studies of the system response to various key parameters and operating conditions are presented, and comparisons are made with single-string analyses to demonstrate the strong interaction between casing strings.

Halal, A.S.; Mitchell, R.F. (Enertech Engineering Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Pressure transient analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New ideas are presented for the interpretation of pressure transient tests for wells in naturally fractured reservoirs. This work is based on the transient matrix flow model formulated by de Swaan. The differences between this model and the Warren and Root model occur during the transition flow period. It is demonstrated that the behavior of a naturally fractured reservoir can be correlated by using three dimensionless parameters. It is established that regardless of matrix geometry the transition period might exhibit a straight line whose slope is equal to half the slope of the classical parallel semilog straight lines, provided the transient matrix linear flow is present. In addition, information is provided on the estimation of fracture area per unit matrix volume or matrix parameters from the transition period semilog straight line. It is shown that matrix geometry might be identified when pressure data are smooth. Field examples are included to illustrate the application and the validity of the theoretical results of this study.

Cinco-ley, H.; Samaniego, F.V.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

351

Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

352

PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR CORE WITH PLUTONIUM BURNUP  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized water reactor is described having a core containing Pu/sup 240/ in which the effective microscopic neutronabsorption cross section of Pu/sup 240/ in unconverted condition decreases as the time of operation of the reactor increases, in order to compensate for loss of reactivity resulting from fission product buildup during reactor operation. This means serves to improve the efficiency of the reactor operation by reducing power losses resulting from control rods and burnable poisons. (AEC)

Puechl, K.H.

1963-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

353

Method for reducing coke oven carbonization pressure  

SciTech Connect

A method of reducing the carbonization pressure in the coking of coal is provided which comprises randomly dispersing flakes through the coal, said flakes formed of a material that does not pass through a plastic phase such as pressed sawdust wherein the flakes have a thickness of between about 1/8 '' and about 3/4 '' and a length and width of between about 1'' and about 5''.

Perch, M.

1981-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

354

Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Free-Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas Free-Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas G. A. Wurden, Z. Wang, C. Ticos Los Alamos National Laboratory L Al NM 87545 USA Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA C. J. v. Wurden Los Alamos High School L Al NM 87544 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Presented at the PPPL Colloquium Sept. 17, 2008 U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA LA-UR-08-06284 Outline of this talk *A discussion of ball lightning reports in nature *How can ball plasmas be made in the laboratory? *Detailed experiments on long lived free floating *Detailed experiments on long-lived free-floating atmospheric pressure ball plasmas C i f l b b ll l i h "b ll *Comparison of laboratory ball plasmas with "ball lightning" *Summary U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA

355

Surface mine blasting near pressurized transmission pipelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Bureau of Mines and the State of Indiana cooperated with AMAX Coal Co. and its consultants to determine the effects of coal mine overburden blasting on nearby pipelines. Five pressurized 76-m pipeline sections were installed on the Minnehaha Mine highwall near Sullivan, IN, for testing to failure. Four 17- to 51-cm-diameter welded steel pipes and one 22-cm PVC pipe were monitored for vibration, strain, and pressure for a period of 6 months while production blasting advanced up to the test pipeline field. In contrast to previous studies of small-scale, close-in blasting for construction, these tests involved overburden blasts of up to 950 kg per delay in 31-cm blastholes. Analyses found low pipe responses, strains, and calculated stresses from even large blasts. Ground vibrations of 120 to 250 mm/s produced worst case strains that were about 25 pcts of the strains resulting from normal pipeline operations and calculated stresses of only about 10 to 18 pct of the ultimate tensile strength. No pressurization failures or permanent strains occurred even at vibration amplitudes of 600 mm/s.

Siskind, D.E.; Stagg, M.S.; Wiegand, J.E.; Schultz, D.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Radiation Pressure in Massive Star Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stars with masses of >~ 20 solar masses have short Kelvin times that enable them to reach the main sequence while still accreting from their natal clouds. The resulting nuclear burning produces a huge luminosity and a correspondingly large radiation pressure force on dust grains in the accreting gas. This effect may limit the upper mass of stars that can form by accretion. Indeed, simulations and analytic calculations to date have been unable to resolve the mystery of how stars of 50 solar masses and up form. We present two new ideas to solve the radiation pressure problem. First, we use three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations to study the collapse of massive cores. We find that in three dimensions a configuration in which radiation holds up an infalling envelope is Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, leading radiation driven bubbles to collapse and accretion to continue. We also present Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations showing that the cavities created by protostellar winds provides a valve that allow radiation to escape the accreting envelope, further reducing the ability of radiation pressure to inhibit accretion.

Mark R. Krumholz; Richard I. Klein; Christopher F. McKee

2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

357

Wakes of ram pressure stripped disc galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spiral galaxies that move through the intracluster medium lose a substantial amount of their gas discs due to ram pressure stripping. The recent observations of NGC 4388 by Oosterloo & van Gorkom 2005 reveal a tail of stripped gas of ~ 100 kpc behind the source galaxy. We present first 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the evolution of such ram pressure stripped tails. We find that if the ICM wind does not vary significantly over a period of a few 100 Myr, subsonic galaxies produce a tail with regular features similar to a von-Karman vortex street. In this case, the tail widens systematically by about 45 kpc per 100 kpc distance behind the source galaxy. The widening rate is independent of the galaxy's inclination for a large range of inclinations. For supersonic galaxies, the tail is more irregular than for subsonic ones. The tail observed for NGC 4388 is narrower than the tails in our simulations. Reasons for this difference may be additional physical processes such as heat conduction or viscosity. In addition, we conclude that the observed S-shape of this tail is not due to von Karman oscillations, because this galaxy is likely to move supersonically. A reason for the observed shape may be motions in the ambient ICM. Finally, we discuss implications for the distribution of metals in the ICM due to ram pressure stipping.

E. Roediger; M. Brueggen; M. Hoeft

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

358

Pressure measurements in low permeability formations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper examines the performance requirements and identifies candidate hardware implementations for pressure instrumentation that is needed to provide well test data in low permeability formations. Low permeability values are typically defined to be less than 1 microdarcy and are usually encountered in hard rock formations, such as granite, that are of interest in hot dry rock geothermal, deep exploration drilling, and fluid waste disposal. Groundwater flow in these tight formations has been shown to be dominated by flow-through fractures rather than through the formation's intrinsic permeability. In these cases, we cannot use Darcy's law or the usual dimensionless coefficients to estimate the expected scale factors and dynamic responses necessary to properly select and setup the wellbore pressure instrument. This paper shows that the expected instrument responses can be estimated using some recent work by Wang, Narasimhan, and Witherspoon. This paper further describes the minimum electronic capability that the downhole pressure instrument must have in order to provide the required measurement resolution, dynamic range, and transient response. Three specific hardware implementations are presented based on the following transducers: a quartz resonator, a capacitance gauge, and a resistance strain gauge.

Veneruso, A.F.; McConnell, T.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Precision pressure/temperature logging tool  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Interwell pressure testing for field pilots  

SciTech Connect

Procedures are described, and results are compared with core analyses, for a number of transient pressure experiments that were carried out between wells in a small chemical flood pilot. Tests include: a standard pulse test, a simultaneous pressure buildup and falloff of wells in a five-spot pattern, a reverse pulse test, in which response from a producer was measured at a nearby injector during injection, and production drawdown tests from normally shut-in observation wells during polymer injection and during subsequent waterflood in a nearby injector. Flowing these observation wells provided an effective way to measure in-situ mobilities of injected fluids. For pulse tests, a simplified method for design and interpretation of single pulses is derived from basic equations. Dimensionless functions, representing directional permeability and geometrical mean permeability, are shown to be functions of a single dimensionless time lag of the maximum pressure response. For large dimensionless time lags, the ratio of dimensionless permeabilities approaches the value ..pi..e and simple geometric relationships may be used to predict either compressibility or formation thickness.

Stegemeier, G.L.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Surveillance Guide - OSS 19.4 Pressure Safety  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PRESSURE SAFETY PRESSURE SAFETY 1.0 Objective The objective of this surveillance is to evaluate the contractor's implementation of programs to ensure the integrity of pressure vessels and minimize risks from failure of vessels to the public and to workers. Facility Representatives will examine the installed configuration of pressure vessels, observe pressure testing and review documentation associated with maintenance or repair of pressure vessels. In performing the surveillance, Facility Representatives will examine implementation of applicable DOE requirements and best practices. 2.0 References 2.1 DOE 5480.4, Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards 2.2 DOE 5483.1A, Occupational Safety and Health Programs

362

Analysis of hydrogen vehicles with cryogenic high pressure storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LIQ) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH2). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

Aceves, S. M.; Berry, G. D.

1998-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

363

Comments on “Influence of Location, Population, and Climate on Building Damage and Fatalities due to Australian Bushfire: 1925–2009”  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The absence of an upward trend in normalized building damage in Australian bushfires may reflect reduced vulnerability (due to improved weather forecasts and other factors) offsetting increases in the frequency or intensity of bushfires.

Neville Nicholls

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Method for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

Leone, Sal Albert (Scotia, NY); Book, Matthew David (Altamont, NY); Banares, Christopher R. (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Pressure Data: BOP Summary 28 May 2010 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Data: BOP Summary 28 May 2010 Pressure Data: BOP Summary 28 May 2010 This is a schematic of the BOP stack with the static pressure data recoded on the 28th of May and shows...

366

Frequency domain model-based intracranial pressure estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), the pressure of the fluid surrounding the brain, can require urgent medical attention. Current methods for determining ICP are invasive, require neurosurgical expertise, and can ...

Hwang, Irena T. (Irena Tammy)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Comments on “Reexamination of Tropical Cyclone Wind–Pressure Relationship”  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In their study on the wind–pressure relationship (WPR) that exists in tropical cyclones, Knaff and Zehr presented results of the use of the Dvorak Atlantic WPR for estimating central pressure and maximum wind speed of tropical cyclones. These ...

Shyamnath Veerasamy

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Near-Ground Pressure and Wind Measurements in Tornadoes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the spring of 2002, tornadoes were sampled on nine occasions using Hardened In-Situ Tornado Pressure Recorder probes, video probes, and mobile mesonet instrumentation. This study describes pressure and, in some cases, velocity data obtained ...

Christopher D. Karstens; Timothy M. Samaras; Bruce D. Lee; William A. Gallus Jr.; Catherine A. Finley

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

On Computing the Horizontal Pressure Gradient Force in Sigma Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corby et al. present a finite-difference expression for the horizontal pressure gradient force in sigma coordinates that, in a barotropic atmosphere where the temperature varies linearly with logarithm of pressure, has the same net truncation ...

Maurice Danard; Qing Zhang; John Kozlowski

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Time and Space Variability of Spectral Estimates of Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the temporal and spatial behavior of atmospheric pressure spectra. The literature shows many examples of pressure, wind and temperature spectra whose shapes display a remarkable degree of universality. ...

Flavio G. Canavero; Franco Einaudi

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Free and Rigid Boundary Quasigeostrophic Models in Pressure Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Starting from the hydrostatic primitive equations in pressure coordinates, a quasigeostrophic (QG) model is derived with temperature and ground surface pressure (GSP) as the governing prognostic fields. In this model two different tendency ...

R. Rõõm

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Dynamic Response of CTD Pressure Sensors to Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure sensors used in CTDs (conductivity temperature depth) respond to transients in temperature. It is often assumed that these transients have a negligible effect on pressure. However, in a Sea-Bird CTD used in Hawaiian waters, these ...

S. M. Chiswell

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Measurement of Cloud Perturbation Pressures Using an Instrumented Aircraft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical accelerations during the early stages of convective cloud formation are often the result of buoyancy and the perturbation vertical pressure gradient forces. Convection modifies the local pressure field surrounding the cloud. Measurement ...

Thomas R. Parish; David Leon

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Measurements of Axial Pressures in Tornado-like Vortices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of a series of measurements of centerline pressure deficit in tornado-like vortices are described. These measurements were undertaken for the purpose of determining 1) how the magnitude of the central pressure deficit in a columnar ...

Christopher R. Church; John T. Snow

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

System for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method are provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

Leone, Sal Albert (Scotia, NY); Book, Matthew David (Altamont, NY); Banares, Christopher R. (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Low Pressure Plasma Technologies for Multifunctional Coatings and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Low Pressure Plasma Technologies for Multifunctional Coatings and ... Examples will include energy saving (smart radiators for satellites, low ...

377

Dynamic Pressure Sensing during Rapid Combustion of Metal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Dynamic Behavior of Materials V. Presentation Title, Dynamic Pressure ...

378

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

379

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

380

The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the Fracture of Concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The topic of this research deals with (1) the hydrostatic distribution along dam upstream face cracks and (2) the material resistance versus cracking when water pressure is present in the crack. Fracture experiments were performed where hydrostatic pressure was present during formation and growth of a crack in a concrete specimen. Experimental results yielded information regarding both the pressure distribution along cracks and the fracture properties as affected by the presence of hydrostatic pressure. ...

1995-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Atmospheric pressure scanning transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images of gold nanoparticles (2.1 nm average diameter) at atmospheric pressure have been recorded through a 0.36 mm thick mixture of CO, O2 and He. This was accomplished using a reaction cell consisting of two electron-transparent silicon nitride membranes mounted on a specially designed specimen rod. Gas flow occurred through plastic tubing from the outside of the microscope to the specimen region and back. Gold nanoparticles of a full width half maximum diameter of 1.0 nm were visible above the background noise and the achieved resolution was 0.5 nm in accordance with calculations of the beam broadening.

De Jonge, Niels [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Bigelow, Wilbur C [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Combustor oscillating pressure stabilization and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High dynamic pressure oscillations in hydrocarbon-fueled combustors typically occur when the transport time of the fuel to the flame front is at some fraction of the acoustic period. These oscillations are reduced to acceptably lower levels by restructuring or repositioning the flame front in the combustor to increase the transport time. A pilot flame front located upstream of the oscillating flame and pulsed at a selected frequency and duration effectively restructures and repositions the oscillating flame in the combustor to alter the oscillation-causing transport time.

Gemmen, Randall S. (Morgantown, WV); Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Yip, Mui-Tong Joseph (Morgantown, WV); Robey, Edward H. (Westover, WV); Cully, Scott R. (Morgantown, WV); Addis, Richard E. (Smithfield, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Combustor oscillating pressure stabilization and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High dynamic pressure oscillations in hydrocarbon-fueled combustors typically occur when the transport time of the fuel to the flame front is at some fraction of the acoustic period. These oscillations are reduced to acceptably lower levels by restructuring or repositioning the flame front in the combustor to increase the transport time. A pilot flame front located upstream of the oscillating flame and pulsed at a selected frequency and duration effectively restructures and repositions the oscillating flame in the combustor to alter the oscillation-causing transport time. 7 figs.

Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.T.J.; Robey, E.H.; Cully, S.R.; Addis, R.E.

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

385

High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

386

Method of detecting oxygen partial pressure and oxygen partial pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

Dees, D.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Subcooled and saturated water flow boiling pressure drop in small diameter helical coils at low pressure  

SciTech Connect

Experimental pressure drop results on boiling water flow through three helical coils of tube inner diameter of 4.03 mm and 4.98 mm and coil diameter to tube diameter ratio of 26.1, 64.1 and 93.3 are presented. Both subcooled and saturated flow boiling are investigated, covering operating pressures from 120 to 660 kPa, mass fluxes from 290 to 690 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and heat fluxes from 50 to 440 kW m{sup -2}. Existing correlations for subcooled flow pressure drop are found not capable to fit the present subcooled database, while the measurements in saturated flow conditions are successfully reproduced by existing correlations for both straight and coiled pipe two-phase flow. The experimental database is included in tabular form. (author)

Cioncolini, Andrea; Santini, Lorenzo; Ricotti, Marco E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Single module pressurized fuel cell turbine generator system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized fuel cell system (10), operates within a common pressure vessel (12) where the system contains fuel cells (22), a turbine (26) and a generator (98) where preferably, associated oxidant inlet valve (52), fuel inlet valve (56) and fuel cell exhaust valve (42) are outside the pressure vessel.

George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Veyo, Stephen E. (Murrysville, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

The Impact of Uncertain Centrifuge Capillary Pressure on Reservoir Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The capillary pressure in a reservoir determines the saturation distribution, and hence the total in situ volumes of fluids (oil/water/gas). The accurate knowledge of the capillary pressure distribution is one of the primary factors that may be decisive ... Keywords: Volterra, Voronoi cells, capillary pressure, centrifuge, ill-posed, inverse, linear integral equation, measured data, stochastic algorithm, synthetic data, uncertainty

Sam Subbey; Mike Christie; Malcolm Sambridge

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Absolute permeability as a function of confining pressure, pore pressure, and temperature  

SciTech Connect

This is an investigation of the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand and consolidated sandstone cores to distilled water as a function of the temperature of the system, confining pressure on the core, and the pore pressure of the flowing fluid. The effects of flow rate and throughput are also discussed. In contrast to some previous investigations, no effect of temperature on permeability was found beyond experimental errors and effects caused by volumetric throughput. The probable causes of differing results in previous studies are also presented.

Gobran, B.D.; Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

System for supplying blasting media to a media blasting system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pressure pot system for supplying blasting media under pressure to a pressurized blasting conduit for feeding blasting media to one or more blasting guns, the system including a media storage means and a first and second pressure chambers with means for pressurizing and exhausting the first and second chambers, the media storage means being stacked above the pressure chambers with the first pressure chamber stacked above the second pressure chamber; first and second media valve means for providing communication between the storage means and the first pressure chamber and between the pressure chambers, respectively; air valve means for controlling the air pressurizing and exhausting of the first and second pressure chambers, the improvement comprising: means for opening and closing the first and second media valve means and the air valve means, the first, second and air valve means being offset from each other in both vertical and horizontal dimensions; push rods extending vertically upward from the valve means and spaced one from the other for actuating the valve means to open and close the same; an overhead cam shaft means mounted above the push rods and having a plurality of spaced cams, each of the cams being aligned and operatively associated with one of the push rods for actuating the push rods and thereby the valve means to control the opening and closing of the first and second media valve means and the air valve means; and actuating means for actuating the cam shaft means.

Van Kuiken, L.L. Jr.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

392

Development of Screenable Pressure Sensitive Adhesives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An industrial research area of high activity in recent years has been the development of pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) products that do not interfere with the processing of post-consumer waste. The problem of PSA contamination is arguably the most important technical challenge in expanding the use of recycled fiber. The presence of PSAs in recovered paper creates problems that reduce the efficiency of recycling and papermaking operations and diminish product quality. The widespread use of PSAs engineered to avoid these problems, often referred to as environmentally benign PSAs, could greatly increase the commercial viability of utilizing secondary fiber. Much of the research efforts in this area have focused on the development of PSAs that are designed for enhanced removal with cleaning equipment currently utilized by recycling plants. Most removal occurs at the pressure screens with the size and shape of residual contaminants in the process being the primary criteria for their separation. A viable approach for developing environmentally benign PSAs is their reformulation to inhibit fragmentation. The reduction of adhesives to small particles occurs almost exclusively during repulping; a process in which water and mechanical energy are used to swell and reduce paper products to their constituent fiber. Engineering PSA products to promote the formation of larger adhesive particles during repulping will greatly enhance their removal and reduce or eliminate their impact on the recycling process.

Steven J. Severtson

2003-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

393

Pressure coal gasification experience in Czechoslovakia  

SciTech Connect

Czechoslovakia's large deposits of brown coal supply the country's three operating pressure gasification plants. The gas produced is suitable for further treatment to provide fuel for household and industrial consumers. Coal gasification is not new to the energy planners in Czechoslovakia. Since 1948, 56 gasifiers have been installed in the three pressure gasification plants currently in operation. The newest and biggest of these plants is at Vresova. The plant processes 5,000 tons of brown coal per day. The locally mined coal used for feed at the Vresova plant has a calorific value of 12 to 14 megajoules per kilogram (52 to 60 Btu's per pound). The gasifiers produce up to 13,000 cubic meters (459,000 cubic feet) per hour of crude gas per gasifier. Gasification technology has been under development in Czechoslovakia since 1945. The country has virtually no oil or natural gas reserves, a fact that emphasizes the importance of coal-based energy. Production of gas from coal in Czechoslovak gasifiers is based on gasification in the fixed bed of a gasifier.

Not Available

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

Sepelak, George R. (McMurray, PA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Electrical conductivity of hydrogen shocked to megabar pressures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The properties of ultra-high pressure hydrogen have been the subject of much experimental and theoretical study. Of particular interest is the pressure-induced insulator-to-metal transition of hydrogen which, according to recent theoretical calculations, is predicted to occur by band-overlap in the pressure range of 1.5-3.0 Mbars on the zero temperature isotherm. Extremely high pressures are required for metallization since the low-pressure band gap is about 15 eV. Recent static-pressure diamond anvil cell experiments have searched for evidence of an insulator-to-metal transition, but no conclusive evidence for such a transition has yet been supplied. Providing conclusive evidence for hydrogen metallization is difficult because no technique has yet been developed for performing static high-pressure electrical conductivity experiments at megabar pressures. The authors report here on electrical conductivity experiments performed on H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} multi-shocked to megabar pressures. Electrical conductivities of dense fluid hydrogen at these pressures and temperatures reached are needed for calculations of the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn, the magnetic fields being generated by convective dynamos of hot, dense, semiconducting fluid hydrogen. Also, since electrical conduction at the pressure-temperature conditions being studied is due to the thermal excitation of charge carriers across the electronic band gap, these experiments yield valuable information on the width of the band gap at high densities.

Weir, S.T.; Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

High temperature vapor pressure and the critical point of potassium  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure of potassium was experimentally determined from 2100 deg F up to-its critical temperature. An empirical equation of the form ln P = A + B/T + C ln T + DT/sup 1.5/ was found to best fit the data. A critical pressure of 2378.2 plus or minus 4.0 psia (161.79 plus or minus 0.27 ata) was measured. The corresponding critical temperature, extrapolated from the pressure-- temperature curve, is 4105.4 plus or minus 5 deg R (2280.8 plus or minus 3 deg K). The technique employed was tae pressure tube method developed earlier in this laboratory and used for determining the vapor pressure of rubidium and cesium. This method measures tae critical pressure directly, as well as the vapor pressure st lower temperatures. (4 tables, 6 figures, 26 references) (auth)

Jerez, W.R.; Bhise, V.S.; Das Gupta, S.; Bonilla, C.F.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:17am Addthis Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and security lighting, where color is not important. Low-pressure sodium lamps work somewhat like fluorescent lamps. Like high-intensity discharge lighting, low-pressure sodium lamps require up to 10 minutes to start and have to cool before they can restart. Therefore, they are most suitable for applications in which they stay on for hours at a time. They are not suitable for use with motion detectors. The chart below compares low-pressure sodium lamps and high-intensity

399

EOR: the revealing curves of transient pressure tests  

SciTech Connect

To better understand a well and the reservoir it drains, it is not unusual to rely heavily on transient testing, a technology based on the pressure changes that result when production or injection rates are changed. Transient tests may involve a change in production or injection rates in one well and measurement of resulting pressure changes in the same well. They may involve a rate change in one well and pressure measurements in one or more other wells. They may involve pressure buildups or they may involve pressure declines. The objective is to record and analyze the pressure response produced by a known rate change during a measured period of time. A recorded pressure response may indicate some detrimental or beneficial condition associated with the drilling or equipping of the borehole.

Fredrick, R.O.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Evidence of Pressure Dependent Permeability in Long-Term Shale Gas Production and Pressure Transient Responses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The current state of shale gas reservoir dynamics demands understanding long-term production, and existing models that address important parameters like fracture half-length, permeability, and stimulated shale volume assume constant permeability. Petroleum geologists suggest that observed steep declining rates may involve pressure-dependent permeability (PDP). This study accounts for PDP in three potential shale media: the shale matrix, the existing natural fractures, and the created hydraulic fractures. Sensitivity studies comparing expected long-term rate and pressure production behavior with and without PDP show that these two are distinct when presented as a sequence of coupled build-up rate-normalized pressure (BU-RNP) and its logarithmic derivative, making PDP a recognizable trend. Pressure and rate field data demonstrate evidence of PDP only in Horn River and Haynesville but not in Fayetteville shale. While the presence of PDP did not seem to impact the long term recovery forecast, it is possible to determine whether the observed behavior relates to change in hydraulic fracture conductivity or to change in fracture network permeability. As well, it provides insight on whether apparent fracture networks relate to an existing natural fracture network in the shale or to a fracture network induced during hydraulic fracturing.

Vera Rosales, Fabian 1986-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP) Conferences. This work is also relevant to the ongoing efforts of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section XI, Working Group on Operating Plant Criteria (WGOPC) efforts to incorporate nozzle fracture mechanics solutions into a revision to ASME B&PV Code, Section XI, Nonmandatory Appendix G.

Walter, Matthew [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc.; Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Stevens, Gary [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Sommerville, Daniel [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc.; Palm, Nathan [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA; Heinecke, Carol [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Dual shell reactor vessel: A pressure-balanced system for high pressure and temperature reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this work was to demonstrate the Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) as a safe and economical reactor for the hydrothermal water oxidation of hazardous wastes. Experimental tests proved that the pressure balancing piston and the leak detection concept designed for this project will work. The DSPBV was sized to process 10 gal/hr of hazardous waste at up to 399{degree}C (750{degree}F) and 5000 psia (34.5 MPa) with a residence time of 10 min. The first prototype reactor is a certified ASME pressure vessel. It was purchased by Innotek Corporation (licensee) and shipped to Pacific Northwest Laboratory for testing. Supporting equipment and instrumentation were, to a large extent, transported here from Battelle Columbus Division. A special air feed system and liquid pump were purchased to complete the package. The entire integrated demonstration system was assembled at PNL. During the activities conducted for this report, the leak detector design was tested on bench top equipment. Response to low levels of water in oil was considered adequate to ensure safety of the pressure vessel. Shakedown tests with water only were completed to prove the system could operate at 350{degree}C at pressures up to 3300 psia. Two demonstration tests with industrial waste streams were conducted, which showed that the DSPBV could be used for hydrothermal oxidation. In the first test with a metal plating waste, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and cyanide concentrations were reduced over 90%. In the second test with a munitions waste, the organics were reduced over 90% using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant.

Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.; Deverman, G.S.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Liquid abrasive pressure pot scoping tests report  

SciTech Connect

The primary initiatives of the LITCO Decontamination Development group at the Idaho Chemical Process Plant (ICPP) are the development of methods to eliminate the use of sodium bearing decontamination chemicals and minimization of the amount of secondary waste generated during decontamination activities. In July of 1994, a Commerce Business Daily (CBD) announcement was issued by the INEL to determine commercial interest in the development of an in-situ liquid abrasive grit blasting system. As a result of the CBD announcement, Klieber & Schulz issued an Expression of Interest letter which stated they would be interested in testing a prototype Liquid Abrasive Pressure Pot (LAPP). LITCO`s Decontamination group and Kleiber & Schulz entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) in which the Decontamination Development group tested the prototype LAPP in a non-radioactive hot cell mockup. Test results are provided.

Archibald, K.E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Finkenthal, D.F. [Palomar Coll. (United States); Naumenko, N. [Inst. for Atomic and Molecular Physics (Japan); Tugarinov, S. [TRINITI (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Pressure equalizing photovoltaic assembly and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the peripheral edge of the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

408

EXAMINATION OF HIGH PRESSURE RECOMBINER LOOP SPECIMENS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Speciments of iodide zirconium, Zircaloy-2, Zr-15Nb, iodide titanium, TMCA-45 titanium, A-110AT titanium, and 430 stainless steel were corroded in a highpressure recombiner loop. Analyses were performed to determine the amount of hydrogen pickup. The titanium materials and iodide zirconium showed very high hydrogen pickups, while the zirconium alloys and the 430 stainless steel absorbed smaller amounts of hydrogen Metallographic examination of the specimens showed that recrystallization occurred in all but the Ar-15Nb specimens. There seems to be little difference in the extent of recrystallization and grain growth whether the in the recombiner section at 430 to 500 deg C. Recrystalliplained or correlated in any way with the amount of f hydrogen sion that occured. Since hydrogen is known to seriously embrittle zirconium and titanium, it is recommended that crystal-bar zirconium and titanium alloys not be used as materials of construction in environ ments sinmilar to that of the High Pressure Recombiner Loop. (auth)

Picklesimer, M.L.; Rittenhouse, P.L.

1958-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

409

Snubbing yields high-pressure savings  

SciTech Connect

Producing wells become deficient because of mechanical problems within the well or depletion of the oil or gas reservoir. Workover is an operation within the well's bore to repair equipment malfunction or well situation, or to enhance the well's performance. Workover performed through existing tubing by means of smaller diameter tubing is called thru-tubing workover. Snubbing utilizes jointed tubing or drill pipe and a hydraulic snubbing unit to run tubing or pipe under pressure conditions without killing the well. Tubing is run either through the blowout preventers and bore of an uncompleted well or through the well-head and tubing of a completed well. Hydraulic snubbing units offer many advantages to well productivity. Some of these are discussed in this article.

Parkhill, T.; Loring, G.; Lirette, R.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Ambient-pressure silica aerogel films  

SciTech Connect

Very highly porous (aerogel) silica films with refractive index in the range 1.006--1.05 (equivalent porosity 98.5--88%) were prepared by an ambient-pressure process. It was shown earlier using in situ ellipsometric imaging that the high porosity of these films was mainly attributable to the dilation or `springback` of the film during the final stage of drying. This finding was irrefutably reconfirmed by visually observing a `springback` of >500% using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Ellipsometry and ESEM also established the near cent per cent reversibility of aerogel film deformation during solvent intake and drying. Film thickness profile measurements (near the drying line) for the aerogel, xerogel and pure solvent cases are presented from imaging ellipsometry. The thickness of these films (crack-free) were controlled in the range 0.1-3.5 {mu}m independent of refractive index.

Prakash, S.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C.J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hurd, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

High-pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve to include micro-groves at the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal penetration loss of pressure for 72 hours. As an application example, in situ 13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacted with supercritical CO2 and H2O at 150 bar and 50?C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Vehicular Storage of Hydrogen in Insulated Pressure Vessels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of an alternative technology for storing hydrogen fuel onboard automobiles. Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can accept cryogenic liquid fuel, cryogenic compressed gas or compressed gas at ambient temperature. Insulated pressure vessels offer advantages over conventional H{sub 2} storage approaches. Insulated pressure vessels are more compact and require less carbon fiber than GH{sub 2} vessels. They have lower evaporative losses than LH{sub 2} tanks, and are much lighter than metal hydrides. After outlining the advantages of hydrogen fuel and insulated pressure vessels, the paper describes the experimental and analytical work conducted to verify that insulated pressure vessels can be used safely for vehicular H{sub 2} storage. The paper describes tests that have been conducted to evaluate the safety of insulated pressure vessels. Insulated pressure vessels have successfully completed a series of DOT, ISO and SAE certification tests. A draft procedure for insulated pressure vessel certification has been generated to assist in a future commercialization of this technology. An insulated pressure vessel has been installed in a hydrogen fueled truck and it is currently being subjected to extensive testing.

Aceves, S M; Berry, G D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F

2005-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

414

Rod Bundle Heat Transfer for Pressurized Water Reactors at Operating Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Currently available heat transfer correlations for subcooled forced convection and subcooled boiling have not been validated with rod-array data at typical PWR fluid conditions. At the present time, rod bundle heat transfer processes cannot be analyzed with sufficient accuracy to make sound decisions regarding changes that might avoid an Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA).

2000-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

415

High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results  

SciTech Connect

A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Combustion Process in a Spark Ignition Engine: Analysis of Cyclic Maximum Pressure and Peak Pressure Angle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we analyze the cycle-to-cycle variations of maximum pressure $p_{max}$ and peak pressure angle $\\alpha_{pmax}$ in a four-cylinder spark ignition engine. We examine the experimental time series of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ for three different spark advance angles. Using standard statistical techniques such as return maps and histograms we show that depending on the spark advance angle, there are significant differences in the fluctuations of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$. We also calculate the multiscale entropy of the various time series to estimate the effect of randomness in these fluctuations. Finally, we explain how the information on both $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ can be used to develop optimal strategies for controlling the combustion process and improving engine performance.

G. Litak; T. Kaminski; J. Czarnigowski; A. K. Sen; M. Wendeker

2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

417

Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Measurement of the differential pressure of liquid metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to an improved means for measuring the differential pressure between any two points in a process liquid metal coolant loop, wherein the flow of liquid metal in a pipe is opposed by a permanent magnet liquid metal pump until there is almost zero flow shown by a magnetic type flowmeter. The pressure producing the liquid metal flow is inferred from the rate of rotation of the permanent magnet pump. In an alternate embodiment, a differential pressure transducer is coupled to a process pipeline by means of high-temperature bellows or diaphragm seals, and a permanent magnet liquid metal pump in the high-pressure transmission line to the pressure transducer can be utilized either for calibration of the transducer or for determining the process differential pressure as a function of the magnet pump speed. (auth)

Metz, H.J.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

High differential pressure, radial flow characteristics of gun perforations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tubing conveyed completion techniques are being utilized more frequently than in the past, because of the apparent advantages derived from underbalanced perforating. These advantages include cleaner perforations, reductions of additional stimulation treatments and reduced completion times. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of gun perforations made under high differential pressure, radial flow conditions. In this study, Berea sandstone cores, modified to permit radial flow, are used to determine the relationship between perforation characteristics and the time-dependent pressure differential between pore pressure (i.e. formation pressure) and ''well bore'' pressure during the completion process. The primary perforation characteristic investigated (Radial Flow Ratio) is defined as the ratio of the perforated flow rate to the flow rate of the unperforated core under identical conditions. The perforated flow rate is measured in radial flow after the perforation has been made under various time-dependent pressure differentials.

Regalbuto, J.A.; Riggs, R.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

End-of-Life Rod Internal Pressures in Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The end-of-reactor-life (EOL) rod internal pressure (RIP) is the primary protagonist for several evolutionary changes during long-term dry storage, which affect cladding resistance to failure when spent fuel assemblies are subjected to normal and accident conditions of transport. At the maximum temperature attained, either during vacuum drying or dry storage, EOL RIP determines the maximum stress state in the fuel rod cladding, which in turn sets the initial conditions for potential time-dependent ...

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Pressurized thermal shock probabilistic fracture mechanics sensitivity analysis for Yankee Rowe reactor pressure vessel  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform a pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) sensitivity analysis for the Yankee Rowe reactor pressure vessel, for the fluences corresponding to the end of operating cycle 22, using a specific small-break-loss- of-coolant transient as the loading condition. Regions of the vessel with distinguishing features were to be treated individually -- upper axial weld, lower axial weld, circumferential weld, upper plate spot welds, upper plate regions between the spot welds, lower plate spot welds, and the lower plate regions between the spot welds. The fracture analysis methods used in the analysis of through-clad surface flaws were those contained in the established OCA-P computer code, which was developed during the Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS) Program. The NRC request specified that the OCA-P code be enhanced for this study to also calculate the conditional probabilities of failure for subclad flaws and embedded flaws. The results of this sensitivity analysis provide the NRC with (1) data that could be used to assess the relative influence of a number of key input parameters in the Yankee Rowe PTS analysis and (2) data that can be used for readily determining the probability of vessel failure once a more accurate indication of vessel embrittlement becomes available. This report is designated as HSST report No. 117.

Dickson, T.L.; Cheverton, R.D.; Bryson, J.W.; Bass, B.R.; Shum, D.K.M.; Keeney, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Pressure Effects on Two Superconducting Iron-based Families  

SciTech Connect

Insight into the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity can be gained by pressure-dependent studies of structural, thermodynamics and transport data. The role of pressure may be complicated by the level of hydrostaticity. High-pressure studies on two iron-based families of RFeAsO (R = rare-earth metals) and AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (A = alkaline-earth metals) are reviewed here.

Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Guidelines for the Development of Pressure Relief Device Specialists  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The people responsible for pressure relief devices in the in the nuclear power industry are known by various titles—safety relief valve technician, relief valve technician, mechanic, in-service testing/in-service inspection engineer, valve engineer, and component engineer, to name a few. Although pressure relief valve duties are mainly in two departments (maintenance and engineering), it is up to the pressure relief device specialist to ensure that the manual, automatic, and power-operated ...

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

424

Determination of the Vapor Pressure of Lanthanum Fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary experiments have been made to determine the vapor pressure of lanthanum fluoride between 0.001 and 0.1 millimeter of mercury by means of the Knudsen effusion method. A tantalum cell for this purpose is described. Only preliminary results were obtained and they were all in a relatively high pressure region. However, a plot of the vapor pressure against the reciprocal of absolute temperature approximates a straight line such as would be predicted from theoretical considerations.

Stone, B. D.

1954-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

425

Vacuum pressures and energy in a strong magnetic field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study vacuum in a strong magnetic field. It shows a nonlinear response, as a ferromagnetic medium. Anisotropic pressures arise, and a negative pressure is exerted in the direction perpendicular to the field. The analogy of this effect with the Casimir effect is analyzed. The vacuum transverse pressure is found to be of the same order of the statistical pressure for $B\\sim10^{15}G$ and $N\\sim10^{33}electrons/cm^{3}$. Vacuum interaction with the field is studied also for $B\\sim10^{16}G$ and larger, including the electron anomalous magnetic moment. We estimate quark contribution to vacuum behavior.

H. Perez Rojas; E. Rodriguez Querts

2004-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

426

Metallurgical Analysis of a Hydrostatic Pressure Test Pipeline Rupture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A segment of natural gas pipeline ruptured during a hydrostatic pressure test in October 2011. Our analysis indicated that the line ruptured due ...

427

A "Colossal" Magnetic Effect under Pressure | Advanced Photon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using High Pressure to Reveal Quantum Criticality in an Elemental Antiferromagnet Nano Changes Have Macro Importance for a Key Electronics Material Squeezing an Old Material Could...

428

Dissociation of carbon dioxide in atmospheric pressure microchannel plasma devices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Plasma discharge of carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure was successfully demonstrated in microchannel plasma devices at breakdown voltages lower than 1 kVRMS. Optical emissions of… (more)

Oh, Taegon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

challenges in harmonizing test protocols and requirements for compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, and CNG-hydrogen (HCNG) blend pressure vessels and to define next steps for...

430

Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves  

SciTech Connect

Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

431

National Ignition Facility (NIF): Under Pressure: Ramp-Compression...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Ignition Facility (NIF): Under Pressure: Ramp-Compression Smashes Record American Fusion News Category: National Ignition Facility Link: National Ignition Facility (NIF):...

432

Pressure Sensor and Telemetry Methods for Measurement While Drilling...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MWD Tools for Directional Drilling Project Description - Phase I: Integrate and test pressure sensor system consisting of a commercial off the shelf silicon-on-sapphire...

433

Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design of a Transonic High Pressure Compressor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this work is to develop a systematic approach for multidisciplinary high pressure transonic axial compressor conceptual design. Several aspects have to be… (more)

Ersavas, Funda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Change (GRAPHIC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Groundwater Resources Assessment under...

435

Gas Turbines for Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

APFBC uses a circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) with a fluid bed heat exchanger to develop hot vitiated air for the gas turbine' s topping combustor and...

436

Pressure dependence of the c-axis resistivity of graphite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The c-axis resistivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite has been measured from 2 to 300 K under hydrostatic pressures of up to 40 kbar. A resistivity peak near 40 K, typical for this type of graphite at ambient pressure, rapidly diminishes with increasing pressure but does not shift its position with respect to temperature. This observation suggests that the origin of the resistivity peak is not in a strong electron-phonon interaction but is associated with a particular structural matrix of these artificially produced graphites. A model is proposed, based on tunneling between microcrystallites, which accounts for the peculiar temperature and pressure dependence of the resistivity.

Uher, C.; Hockey, R.L.; Ben-Jacob, E.

1987-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

High-Pressure Protein Digestion System - PNNL: Available ...  

Summary. Researchers at PNNL have developed a system that utilizes high pressure to reduce the time of protein fractionation and improve peptide ...

438

VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Pressure Temperature Log At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Flint Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Pressure Temperature Log Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown...

440

Damage analysis of composite pressure vessels using acoustic emission monitoring.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Composite pressure vessels (CPVs) fabricated using a metal or plastic liner under a composite structural skin are commonly used for natural gas storage on road… (more)

Chou, H

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "offset upward pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Single Crystal PWA 1472 in High Pressure Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SINGLE CRYSTAL PWA 1472. IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN. D. P. DeLUCA, R. W. HATALA. UNITED TECHNOLOGIES. PRATT & WHITNEY. P. 0.

442

Pressure Temperature Log At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

443

Pressure Temperature Log At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alum Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Alum Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

444

Pressure Temperature Log At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

445

Pressure Temperature Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Pressure Temperature Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

446

Using High Pressure to Reveal Quantum Criticality in an Elemental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Using High Pressure to Reveal Quantum Criticality in an Elemental Antiferromagnet MAY 21, 2009 Bookmark and Share...

447

Thermal Design of Refractory Lined Pressure Oxidation Autoclaves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... for designing a refractory lining as a thermal barrier in pressure oxidation autoclaves. ... Incorporating Radiant Heat Exchange into Finite Element Models of ...

448

Influence of Powder Particle Size Distribution and Pressure on the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

during HIP were determined as a function of applied pressure, temperature and initial powder particle size distribution for the nickel base superalloy. RENE 95.

449

Pressure Gradient Passivation of Carbonaceous Material Normally Susceptible to Spontaneous Combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a process for the passivation or deactivation with respect to oxygen of a carbonaceous material by the exposure of the carbonaceous material to an oxygenated gas in which the oxygenated gas pressure is increased from a first pressure to a second pressure and then the pressure is changed to a third pressure. Preferably a cyclic process which comprises exposing the carbonaceous material to the gas at low pressure and increasing the pressure to a second higher pressure and then returning the pressure to a lower pressure is used. The cycle is repeated at least twice wherein the higher pressure may be increased after a selected number of cycles.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Sands, William D.; Schroeder, Karl; Summers, Cathy A.; Utz, Bruce R.

1999-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

Pressure gradient passivation of carbonaceous material normally susceptible to spontaneous combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a process for the passivation or deactivation with respect to oxygen of a carbonaceous material by the exposure of the carbonaceous material to an oxygenated gas in which the oxygenated gas pressure is increased from a first pressure to a second pressure and then the pressure is changed to a third pressure. Preferably a cyclic process which comprises exposing the carbonaceous material to the gas at low pressure and increasing the pressure to a second higher pressure and then returning the pressure to a lower pressure is used. The cycle is repeated at least twice wherein the higher pressure may be increased after a selected number of cycles.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Sands, William D.; Schroeder, Karl; Summers, Cathy A.; Utz, Bruce R.

2002-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

451

The Ammonia?Hydrogen System under Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Binary mixtures of hydrogen and ammonia were compressed in diamond anvil cells to 15 GPa at room temperature over a range of compositions. The phase behavior was characterized using optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Below 1.2 GPa we observed two-phase coexistence between liquid ammonia and fluid hydrogen phases with limited solubility of hydrogen within the ammonia-rich phase. Complete immiscibility was observed subsequent to the freezing of ammonia phase III at 1.2 GPa, although hydrogen may become metastably trapped within the disordered face-centered-cubic lattice upon rapid solidification. For all compositions studied, the phase III to phase IV transition of ammonia occurred at {approx}3.8 GPa and hydrogen solidified at {approx}5.5 GPa, transition pressures equivalent to those observed for the pure components. A P-x phase diagram for the NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2} system is proposed on the basis of these observations with implications for planetary ices, molecular compound formation, and possible hydrogen storage materials.

Chidester, Bethany A.; Strobel, Timothy A. (CIW)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

452

Anomalous fracture-extension pressure in granitic rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fracture-extension pressures appreciably higher than the least principal earth-stress were observed in hydraulic fractures formed in a pair of 3 km (9600 ft) deep boreholes drilled near the Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Pressurization of open wellbores in rock containing preexisting fractures may open these fractures, instead of creating new fractures at right angles to the least principal stress. The pressure necessary to flow into these fractures may be appreciably higher than the least principal stress. Upon sand-propping one such pre-existing fracture, a lower fracture extension pressure was observed. A second fracture in a parallel well-bore 92 m (300 ft) away, at the same depth of 2 km (6500 ft) exhibited the lower fracture extension pressure without propping, but with about 90/sup 0/ difference in fracture direction. Fractures created through perforations at a depth of 3 km (9600 ft) not only exhibited breakdown pressures upon initial pressurization, but sometimes even higher ''breakdown'' pressures upon repressurization. These phenomena may be of interest in the interpretation of earth stress measurements made by hydraulic fracturing.

Aamodt, R.L.; Potter, R.M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Pressurized Water Reactor Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines – Revision 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art water chemistry programs reduce equipment corrosion and enhance steam generator reliability. A committee of industry experts prepared these revised "Pressurized Water Reactor Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines" to incorporate the latest field and laboratory data on secondary system corrosion and performance issues. Pressurized water reactor (PWR) operators can use these guidelines to update their secondary water chemistry programs.

2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

454

Langley 16-Ft. Transonic Tunnel Pressure Sensitive Paint System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the NASA Langley 16-Ft. Transonic Tunnel Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) System and presents results of a test conducted June 22-23, 2000 in the tunnel to validate the PSP system. The PSP system provides global surface pressure measurements ...

Sprinkle Danny R.; Obara Clifford J.; Amer Tahani R.; Leighty Bradley D.; Carmine Michael T.; Burkett Cecil G.; Sealey Bradley S.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

High fidelity field simulations using density and pressure based approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Density-based and pressure-based approaches in solving the Navier-Stokes equations for computational field simulations for compressible and incompressible flows have been presented. For the density-based flow solver, a generalized grid based framework ... Keywords: CFD, Density-based method, Pressure-based method

Gary C. Cheng; Roy P. Koomullil; Bharat K. Soni

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Lubricants under high local pressure: Liquids act like solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it is confined between two walls at large normal pressures. The atomic scale motion that occurs when the two, atomic- scale details of the plastic flow mechanism are investigated by means of molecular dynamics- city v over a broad velocity range. Under non-extreme condi- tions (intermediate pressures

Müser, Martin H.

457

Deep-Ocean Bottom Pressure Measurements in the Northeast Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure transducers with quartz-crystal resonators are being used to measure deep-ocean bottom pressure in the northeast Pacific as part of a long-term monitoring program. In principal, instrument sensitivity is less than 1 mm for sea-level ...

M. C. Eble; F. I. Gonzalez

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Pressure boundary conditions for computing incompressible flows with SPH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) methods for fluid flow, incompressibility may be imposed by a projection method with an artificial homogeneous Neumann boundary condition for the pressure Poisson equation. This is often inconsistent with physical ... Keywords: Boundary conditions, Flow around obstacle, Incompressibility, Open-boundary flows, Pressure Poisson equation, Projection scheme, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

S. Majid Hosseini; James J. Feng

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Why Pressure Reducing Valves (PVR's) are costing you money  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Throughout many manufacturing facilities, colleges, commercial sites or industrial complexes, pressure reducing valves (PRV's) provide a cheap, reliable method to produce low pressure steam from a high pressure source in order to meet a process requirement or heating load. This simple method of expanding steam in a PRV creates no work and supplies the same heat content available in the high pressure steam at a more manageable low pressure. What if you could produce the same low pressure steam while saving hundreds of thousands of dollars on your electric bill and taking only a minimal hit in the available heat content? Why let steam down and get no benefit from it, when putting it through a low pressure steam turbine coupled to a generator would produce the heat you need for process with the byproduct of onsite electrical generation. This paper analyzes the costs, concerns and benefits of replacing a pressure reducing valve with a Steam Turbine Generator set including illustrations of what the marginal fuel increase would be in order to take advantage of the added benefits of clean, cheap and reliable onsite power production.

Downing, A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Unsteady Loss in a High Pressure Turbine Stage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The widespread use of the gas turbine as a means of aircraft propulsion has provided a considerable impetusUnsteady Loss in a High Pressure Turbine Stage Stephen John Payne Trinity College A thesis in a High Pressure Turbine Stage Stephen John Payne Trinity College A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment

Payne, Stephen J.

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461

Jet engine's speed controller with constant pressure chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper deals with an automatic system meant to control a jet engine's rotation speed, through the fuel injection's control, based on a constant pressure chamber controller. One has established the non-linear mathematical model (based on the motion ... Keywords: actuator, control, fuel injection, fuel pump, jet-engine, pressure chamber

Alexandru Nicolae Tudosie

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

The Summer Plateau Low Pressure System of Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Average July heights and winds over a 10-yr period are computed at 850 mb over Mexico using both surface and radiosonde data. During the day central Mexico at this level is dominated by low pressure, with some smaller areas of high pressure. The ...

Donna F. Tucker

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Fluid-structure interaction for a pressure driven flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we discuss the application of a Lagrange multiplier based fictitious domain method for the simulation of the motion of two rigid flaps in an unsteady flow generated by pressure gradients. The distributed Lagrange multiplier technique ... Keywords: Distributed Lagrange multiplier method, Fluid-structure interaction, Marchuk-Yanenko splitting scheme, Pulse pressure

Arati Nanda Pati

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Superatmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gassification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor.

Isaksson, Juhani M. (Karhula, FI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Super-atmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gasification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor. 2 figs.

Isaksson, J.M.

1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

466

Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Beam(m) 0.6 Depth(m) 0.6 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The 2-Foot Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel is a vertical plane, closed recirculating, variable-speed, variable-pressure, open jet test section, closed jet test section, and semi-rectangular test section. Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 17 Recirculating Yes

467

Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Beam(m) 0.7 Depth(m) 0.7 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel is a vertical plane, closed recirculating with resorber, variable-speed, variable-pressure, two interchangeable circular test sections. Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 25.8 Recirculating Yes Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None

468

Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to solid earth tidal strain Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to solid earth tidal strain Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The nature of solid earth tidal strain and surface load deformation due to the influence of gravitational forces and barometric pressure loading are discussed. The pore pressure response to these types of deformation is investigated in detail, including the cases of a confined aquifer intersected by a well and a discrete fracture intersected by a well. The integration of the tidal response method with conventional pump tests in order to independently calculate the hydraulic parameters of the

469

A Metal That Becomes Transparent under Pressure | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Under Pressure, Atoms Make Unlikely Alloys Under Pressure, Atoms Make Unlikely Alloys Slowing Down Near the Glass Transition New Light on Improving Engine Efficiencies The Crystal Structure of a Meta-stable Intermediate Particle in Virus Assembly Increasing Magnetic Response of Ferromagnetic Semiconductors under High Pressure Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A Metal That Becomes Transparent under Pressure APRIL 20, 2009 Bookmark and Share Sodium clamped in a metallic rhenium gasket between diamond anvils. The photographs were taken through a diamond anvil under combined transmitted and reflected illumination. Sodium, a white metal at pressures below 1.1 Mbar (1 Mbar = 1 million atm), turns black at 1.3 Mbar and becomes

470

Magnetic instabilities in collisionless astrophysical rotating plasma with anisotropic pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique is developed for analytical study of instabilities in collisionless astrophysical rotating plasma with anisotropic pressure that may lead to magnetic turbulence. Description is based on a pair of equations for perturbations of the radial magnetic field and the sum of magnetic field and perpendicular plasma pressures. From these equations, a canonical second-order differential equation for the perturbed radial magnetic field is derived and, subsequently, the dispersion relation for local perturbations. The paper predicts two varieties of hybrid instabilities due to the effects of differential plasma rotation and pressure anisotropy: The rotational-firehose and rotational-mirror ones. When the gravitation force is weak compared with the perpendicular pressure gradient, a new family of instabilities (the pressure-gradient-driven) is revealed.

Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Erokhin, N. N. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Sq., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Lominadze, J. G. [Kharadze Abastumani National Astrophysical Observatory, 2a, Kazbegi Ave., Tbilisi 0160 (Georgia); Nodia Institute of Geophysics, 1, Aleksidze Str., Tbilisi 0193 (Georgia); Smolyakov, A. I. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Sq., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon S7N 5E2 (Canada); Churikov, A. P. [Syzran Branch of Samara Technical University, 45, Sovetskaya Str., Syzran, Samara Region 446001 (Russian Federation)

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

SMALL OIL BURNER CONCEPTS BASED ON LOW PRESSURE AIR ATOMIZATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of several novel oil burner applications based on low pressure air atomization is described. The atomizer used is a prefilming, airblast nozzle of the type commonly used in gas turbine combustion. The air pressure used can be as low as 1,300 Pa and such