Sample records for offset slow growth

  1. Fracture mechanics analysis of slow crack growth in polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Self, Robert Alan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Slow crack growth in polyethylene is often the limiting factor in long-term service of plastic pipe or other structural applications. A new test method and analysis method was developed to study slow crack growth in polyethylene. Two high density...

  2. Fast and slow crystal growth kinetics in glass-forming melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orava, J.; Greer, A. L., E-mail: alg13@cam.ac.uk [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan and Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Published values of crystal growth rates are compared for supercooled glass-forming liquids undergoing congruent freezing at a planar crystal-liquid interface. For the purposes of comparison pure metals are considered to be glass-forming systems, using data from molecular-dynamics simulations. For each system, the growth rate has a maximum value U{sub max} at a temperature T{sub max} that lies between the glass-transition temperature T{sub g} and the melting temperature T{sub m}. A classification is suggested, based on the lability (specifically, the propensity for fast crystallization), of the liquid. High-lability systems show “fast” growth characterized by a high U{sub max}, a low T{sub max}?/?T{sub m}, and a very broad peak in U vs. T?/?T{sub m}. In contrast, systems showing “slowgrowth have a low U{sub max}, a high T{sub max}?/?T{sub m}, and a sharp peak in U vs. T?/?T{sub m}. Despite the difference of more than 11 orders of magnitude in U{sub max} seen in pure metals and in silica, the range of glass-forming systems surveyed fit into a common pattern in which the lability increases with lower reduced glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}?/?T{sub m}) and higher fragility of the liquid. A single parameter, a linear combination of T{sub g}?/?T{sub m} and fragility, can show a good correlation with U{sub max}. For all the systems, growth at U{sub max} is coupled to the atomic/molecular mobility in the liquid. It is found that, across the diversity of glass-forming systems, T{sub max}?/?T{sub g} = 1.48 ± 0.15.

  3. Slow bainite: an opportunity to determine the carbon content of the bainitic ferrite during growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caballero, Francesca G. [CENIM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Garcia-Mateo, C. [CENIM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of carbon in solid solution in bainitic ferrite at the early stage of transformation has been directly determined by atom probe tomography at 200 C, taking advantage of the extremely slow transformation kinetics of a novel nanocrystalline steel. Results demonstrated that the original bainitic ferrite retains much of the carbon content of the parent austenite providing strong evidence that bainite transformation is essentially displacive in nature. In this work, the carbon content of the bainitic ferrite away from any carbon-enriched regions has been determined by atom probe tomography as the bainite transformation progresses at 200 C in this nanocrystalline steel. Results provide experimental evidence for the mechanism controlling bainitic ferrite growth in steels.

  4. Journal of Statistical Physics, Vol. 90, Nos. 5/6, 1998 We study the nucleation and growth of flame fronts in slow combustion. This

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Martin

    fronts in slow combustion. This is modeled by a set of reaction-diffusion equations for the temperature: Nucleation; reaction-diffusion systems; flame fronts. Nucleation, Growth, and Scaling in Slow Combustion applied to understand some aspects of slow combustion. We use a phase-field model of two coupled reaction

  5. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Slow, Bi-directional Perfusion Enhance the Formation of Tissue-Engineered Cardiac Grafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Mingyu

    Biochemical and mechanical signals enabling cardiac regeneration can be elucidated using in vitro tissue-engineering models. We hypothesized that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF) and slow, bi-directional perfusion could ...

  6. Was Dinosaurian Physiology Inherited by Birds? Reconciling Slow Growth in Archaeopteryx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inouye, Brian

    of Science, Beijing, China, 4 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New, China, 6 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, United States). It is believed that the growth and energetic physiology of basalmost birds such as Archaeopteryx were inherited

  7. Shaped Offset QPSK Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin, Cenk

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we compute the capacities and the pragmatic capacities of military-standard shaped-offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK-MIL) and aeronautical telemetry SOQPSK (SOQPSK-TG). In the pragmatic approach, SOQPSK is treated as a...

  8. The Singularity is Not Near: Slowing Growth of Wikipedia Bongwon Suh, Gregorio Convertino, Ed H. Chi, Peter Pirolli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, Ed Huai-hsin

    . Chi, Peter Pirolli Palo Alto Research Center 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94304 +1 (650 plateaued, indicating that it may have come against its limits to growth. We measure growth, population law, logistic model, Wikipedia, resistance, population 1. Introduction Many natural systems have

  9. Running Jobs Intermittently Slow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jobs Intermittently Slow Running Jobs Intermittently Slow October 2, 2014 (0 Comments) Symptom: User jobs are seeing intermittent slowness, jobs can run very slow in certain stages...

  10. Discounts, Fungibility and Agricultural GHG Offset projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    arising at an offset price giving $/tonne carbon equiv ·Assumes offsets are perfect substitutes ·Different of Carbon Equivalents Biofuel Offsets Discount for Saturating Sinks No Sink Discounting #12;PortfolioDiscounts, Fungibility and Agricultural GHG Offset projects Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor

  11. Explaining the Price of Voluntary Carbon Offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conte, Marc N.; Kotchen, Matthew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford Univer- sity. Figure 1: Histogram of carbon offset prices (

  12. Carbon offsets, the CDM, and sustainable development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 11 Carbon offsets, the CDM, and sustainable development Diana M. Liverman Diana M. Liverman the vulnerabil- ity of food systems, climate and development, and the role of carbon offsets. She is an IPCC Choices. #12;Liverman130 Carbon offsets comprise one of the international climate regime's core strategies

  13. Explaining the Price of Voluntary Carbon Offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conte, Marc N.; Kotchen, Matthew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) of 10 Northeastern and Mid-32, partici- pants in the RGGI are allowed to offset up to

  14. Insights from Agricultural GHG Offset studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Sequestration MMt arising at an offset price giving $/tonne carbon equiv ·Many contributions ·DifferentInsights from Agricultural GHG Offset studies Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University Presented at EPRI Workshop on Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Alexandria VA

  15. 29 April 2010 The What, Why, and How of Offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What's a Carbon Offset? Carbon Offsets (Or Greenhouse Gas Offsets) Are Reductions In Emissions (Or Occurred But For The Existence Of A Carbon Market. Offsets Cannot Simply Involve Goods Deeds (there. Thursday, 29 April 2010 5 Carbon Offsets in Cap-and-Trade Emissions Under Cap Emissions Outside Cap 50 tons

  16. Turbine blade tip with offset squealer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Ronald Scott (Niskayuna, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An industrial turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationary shroud. The rotating blade includes a root section, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall defining an outer periphery and a tip portion having a tip cap. An offset squealer is disposed on the tip cap. The offset squealer is positioned inward from the outer periphery of the rotating blade. The offset squealer increases the flow resistance and reduces the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  17. CARBON OFFSETTING IN A TOURSIM CONTEXT: WHISTLER BC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARBON OFFSETTING IN A TOURSIM CONTEXT: WHISTLER BC by Katie von Gaza Bachelor of Environmental: Carbon offsetting in a Tourism Context: Whistler, BC. Project No.: 471 Examining Committee: Chair 2.2 Carbon Offsetting

  18. Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    findings from a research study in Uganda and India looking at the opportunities that carbon offset projects offer for poor rural communities." References "Carbon Offsets...

  19. Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions of Over 300 Power Plants Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions of Over 300...

  20. Missouri: EERE Funds Help Offset City Electricity Expenses |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Missouri: EERE Funds Help Offset City Electricity Expenses Missouri: EERE Funds Help Offset City Electricity Expenses November 6, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The Pointe at Ballwin...

  1. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript This document contains the transcript for the...

  2. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lunsford, James S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  3. Slow light with flat or offset band edges in few-mode fiber with two gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , C. J. Handmer2, C. Martijn de Sterke2 and M. J. Steel3 1 ARC Center of Excellence for Ultrahigh waveguides with dual Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 38, 1049­1051 (2002). 10. T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Tilted fiber phase gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 296­313 (1996). 11. S. K. Case, "Coupled-wave theory

  4. Grow Iron, Slow Pollution | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grow Iron, Slow Pollution Grow Iron, Slow Pollution Scientists connect previous studies on electron transport in hematite Making a Deposit: Scanning electron micrographs of...

  5. The COSI Tool -Carbon Offsets with SD Impacts (COSI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The COSI Tool - Carbon Offsets with SD Impacts (COSI) Fifth Meeting of the Development Dividend is to develop one, unified international standard for SD assessment (distinguishing 'gourmet offsets') rather

  6. Random Offset Curves and Surfaces with Controllable Noise (Extended Abstract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, In-Kwon

    similar complex patterns often being able to be defined with the gradient noise functions. PORN is defined by replacing a static offset distance in a general offset with a gradient noise function. For example, PORN

  7. EXPLAINING THE PRICE OF VOLUNTARY CARBON OFFSETS MARC N. CONTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotchen, Matthew J.

    EXPLAINING THE PRICE OF VOLUNTARY CARBON OFFSETS MARC N. CONTE Stanford University, Stanford, CA of voluntary carbon offsets. We estimate hedonic price functions using a variety of provider- and project-profit or not-for-profit. Keywords: Voluntary carbon offsets; hedonic price method. 1. Introduction

  8. Voluntary Carbon Confusion: A Consumer's Guide to Purchasing Carbon Offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Andrew J.

    Voluntary Carbon Confusion: A Consumer's Guide to Purchasing Carbon Offsets and Renewable Energy 4 Report Introduction 5 Product Types 5 A. Carbon Offsets 5 B. Certified Emission Reductions (CERs. Voluntary Carbon Confusion: A Consumer's Guide to Purchasing Carbon Offsets and Renewable Energy

  9. Report of the Offset Drilling Workshop Ocean Drilling Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report of the Offset Drilling Workshop held at Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University College Need for an Engineering Leg 35 Realistic Strategies for Offset Drilling 37 Appendix 1 Workshop (Leg 153) 21 Figure 4 "Rig Floor Perception" of Generic Boreholes Drilled During Leg 153 22 Figure 5

  10. Reversing Climate Change: Using Carbon Technology to Offset Carbon Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reversing Climate Change: Using Carbon Technology to Offset Carbon Emissions Climate change is real not only emitting less greenhouse gas (GHG), but actually sources of negative carbon. We then present two

  11. Saturable absorption and 'slow light'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian C Selden

    2006-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative evaluation of some recent 'slow light' experiments based on coherent population oscillations (CPO) shows that they can be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. Therefore they do not provide an unambiguous demonstration of 'slow light'. Indeed a limiting condition on the spectral bandwidth is not generally satisfied, such that the requirements for burning a narrow spectral hole in the homogeneously broadened absorption line are not met. Some definitive tests of 'slow light' phenomena are suggested, derived from analysis of phase shift and pulse delay for a saturable absorber

  12. Slow modes in Keplerian disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott Tremaine

    2000-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-mass disks orbiting a massive body can support "slow" normal modes, in which the eigenfrequency is much less than the orbital frequency. Slow modes are lopsided, i.e., the azimuthal wavenumber m=1. We investigate the properties of slow modes, using softened self-gravity as a simple model for collective effects in the disk. We employ both the WKB approximation and numerical solutions of the linear eigenvalue equation. We find that all slow modes are stable. Discrete slow modes can be divided into two types, which we label g-modes and p-modes. The g-modes involve long leading and long trailing waves, have properties determined by the self-gravity of the disk, and are only present in narrow rings or in disks where the precession rate is dominated by an external potential. In contrast, the properties of p-modes are determined by the interplay of self-gravity and other collective effects. P-modes involve both long and short waves, and in the WKB approximation appear in degenerate leading/trailing pairs. Disks support a finite number---sometimes zero---of discrete slow modes, and a continuum of singular modes.

  13. Prediction Indicators for Voluntary Carbon-Offset Purchases Among Trail Runners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, M. Nils

    Prediction Indicators for Voluntary Carbon-Offset Purchases Among Trail Runners M. Nils Peterson Voluntary carbon offsets (VCOs) represent a rapidly growing tool for addressing climate change, but few voluntary carbon offsets (VCOs) to offset emissions from activities they engage in. Prior to the global

  14. Gas Slow Control System Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    AMS-02 TRD Gas Slow Control System Specifications v 4.2 26-06-2006 A. Bartoloni, B. Borgia, F. Bucci, F. R. Spada INFN Sezione di Roma 1- Roma, Italy #12;2/45 #12;3/45 1. ABSTRACT 5 2. GAS SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION 5 3. GAS CONTROL SYSTEM 8 4. CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS 12 a. Universal Control System

  15. The COSI Framework -Carbon Offsets with SD Impacts (COSI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The COSI Framework - Carbon Offsets with SD Impacts (COSI) Carbonmarkets Africa 14-15 November 2007 of assessment methodologies exist (e.g. MATA-CDM, Gold Standard, MDG Carbon assessment, the Development Dividend developing countries ­ especially in Africa ­ to access carbon finance to stimulate SD · A partnership

  16. JOINT CHANNEL AND FREQUENCY OFFSET ESTIMATION FOR OFDM SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Hüseyin

    . of Electrical Eng., University of South Florida and Raytheon Company 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, ENB-118, Tampa, FL 1501 72th Street North, Saint Petersburg, FL yucek@eng.usf.edu mohamed k nezami@raytheon.com ABSTRACT is transmitted and This work is supported by Raytheon Company. frequency offset is estimated by finding the phase

  17. Proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop, held February 10-11 in Palo Alto, California. Twenty-two papers were presented on various aspects of AOA by utilities, EPRI Robust Fuel Program contractors, staff from EPRI and universities, international researchers, and equipment vendors.

  18. Spoofing GPS Receiver Clock Offset of Phasor Measurement Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    satellites and decoding their data, the GPS receiver of a PMU estimates its own position and the offset the feasibility of a spoofing attack on the GPS receiver of a Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU). We formulate the attack as an optimization problem where the objective is to maximize the difference between the PMU

  19. POTENTIAL MEXICAN OFFSETS TO Business Council for Sustainable Development Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    POTENTIAL MEXICAN OFFSETS TO CALIFORNIA Business Council for Sustainable Development ­ Mexico Companies ALFA Altos Hornos de Mexico Bachoco CEMEX Cuprum DeAcero FEMSA GCC Grupo Bimbo Grupo Syngenta Acciona Energía 2 #12;Basic Facts on the California ­ Mexico Relationship 3 · Major trade partner

  20. Growth of geologic fractures into large-strain populations: review of nomenclature, subcritical crack growth, and some implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth of geologic fractures into large-strain populations: review of nomenclature, subcritical at the earliest stages of fracture nucleation). Slow, subcritical crack growth in rock is associated

  1. Band offsets for mismatched interfaces: The special case of ZnO on CdTe (001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffe, John E.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Varga, Tamas [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-quality planar interfaces between ZnO and CdTe would be useful in optoelectronic applications. Although CdTe is zinc blende with cubic lattice constant a = 6.482 Å while ZnO is hexagonal wurtzite with a = 3.253 Å and c = 5.213 Å, (001)-oriented cubic zinc blende ZnO films could be stabilized epitaxially on a CdTe (001) surface in an ?2 × ?2 R45° configuration with a lattice mismatch of <0.5%. Modeling such a configuration allows density-functional total-energy electronic-structure calculations to be performed on several interface arrangements (varying terminations and in-plane fractional translations) to identify the most likely form of the interface, and to predict valence-band offsets between CdTe and ZnO in each case. Growth of ZnO on Te-terminated CdTe(001) is predicted to produce small or even negative (CdTe below ZnO) valence band offsets, resulting in a Type I band alignment. Growth on Cd-terminated CdTe is predicted to produce large positive offsets for a Type II alignment as needed, for example, in solar cells. To corroborate some of these predictions, thin layers of ZnO were deposited on CdTe(001) by pulsed laser deposition, and the band alignments of the resulting heterojunctions were determined from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Although zinc blende ZnO could not be confirmed, the measured valence band offset (2.0–2.2 eV) matched well with the predicted value.

  2. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Source

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Economic Activity AEO 2013 Trends in economic activity Mkt trends Market Trends Productivity and investment offset slow growth in labor force...Read full section Slow consumption...

  3. EECBG Success Story: Small Town Using Wind Power to Offset Electricity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Town Using Wind Power to Offset Electricity Costs EECBG Success Story: Small Town Using Wind Power to Offset Electricity Costs September 8, 2010 - 10:26am Addthis Carmen, Oklahoma,...

  4. Kyotoforcommuters Offset schemes are a small but potentially useful addition to the carbon balance sheet.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Kyotoforcommuters Offset schemes are a small but potentially useful addition to the carbon balance response to it is carbon offsetting, a practice that allows people to compensate for the impact of the more popular carbon offsetting schemes allow con- sumers to buy credits on an emerging, but unregulated

  5. PROJECT GOALS To establish a Carbon Offset Fund that will strategically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROJECT GOALS To establish a Carbon Offset Fund that will strategically invest in projects options, developments in the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting System, National Carbon Off-Set emissions through the Carbon Off-Set Fund. This is an opportunity for Australia's national university to set

  6. Economic Trade-Offs between Carbon Offset and Timber Opportunities in British Columbia's Central Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Trade-Offs between Carbon Offset and Timber Opportunities in British Columbia's Central: Master of Resource Management (Planning) Report No.: 602 Title: Economic Trade-Offs between Carbon Offset Licence #12;iv Abstract Emerging carbon offset markets create economic opportunities to manage carbon

  7. First principles investigation of scaling trends of zirconium silicate interface band offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutton, Robert W.

    First principles investigation of scaling trends of zirconium silicate interface band offsets out to investigate the scaling trends of band offsets at model silicon/zirconium silicate interfaces. Owing to the d character of zirconium silicate conduction bands, the band gap and band offset are shown

  8. Fast Food with Slow Cookers SESSION GOALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fast Food with Slow Cookers SESSION GOALS: Participants will learn how to use a slow cooker to help cooker. SESSION OBJECTIVES: By participating in today's session, participants will be able to: 1. Demonstrate an understanding of key food safety principles when using a slow cooker. 2. Prepare more

  9. Slow light microfluidics: a proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumetsky, M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The resonant slow light structures created along a thin-walled optical capillary by nanoscale deformation of its surface can perform comprehensive simultaneous detection and manipulation of microfluidic components. This concept is illustrated with a model of a 0.5 millimeter long 5 nm high triangular bottle resonator created at a 50 micron radius silica capillary containing floating microparticles. The developed theory shows that the microparticle positions can be determined from the bottle resonator spectrum. In addition, the microparticles can be driven and simultaneously positioned at predetermined locations by the localized electromagnetic field created by the optimized superposition of eigenstates of this resonator, thus, exhibiting a multicomponent near field optical tweezers.

  10. Pushing the limits of CANPushing the limits of CAN --Scheduling frames with offsetsScheduling frames with offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navet, Nicolas

    60 70 80 90 100 5 2,5 0 110 5 2,5 0 Periods 20 ms 15 ms 10 ms Principle: desynchronize transmissions and size of the frame #12;4 System model (1/2)System model (1/2) ECU Frame Transmission request task Frame (2/2)System model (2/2) The offset of a message stream is the time at which the transmission request

  11. K-theoretic rigidity and slow dimension growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 28, 2009 ... In fact, there are no simple separable nuclear stably finite C. ? ... fine locally finite nuclear dimension here; it is enough for us that separable.

  12. Band offsets for mismatched interfaces: The special case of ZnO on CdTe (001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffe, John E.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Varga, Tamas

    2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    High-quality planar interfaces between ZnO and CdTe would be useful in optoelectronic applications, but appear difficult to achieve given the rather different crystal structures (CdTe is zinc blende with cubic lattice constant a = 6.482 Å, ZnO is hexagonal wurtzite with a = 3.253 Å and c = 5.213 Å.) However, ZnO has been reported to occur in some epitaxially stabilized films in the zinc blende structure with an fcc primitive lattice constant close to the hexagonal a value. Observing that this value equals half of the CdTe cubic lattice constant to within 1%, we propose that (001)-oriented cubic ZnO films could be grown epitaxially on a CdTe (001) surface in an R45° ?2??2 configuration. Many terminations and alignments (in-plane fractional translations) are possible, and we describe density-functional total-energy electronic-structure calculations on several configurations to identify the most likely form of the interface, and to predict valence-band offsets between CdTe and ZnO in each case. Growth of ZnO on Te-terminated CdTe (001) is predicted to produce small or even negative (CdTe below ZnO) valence band offsets, resulting in a Type I band alignment. Growth on Cd-terminated CdTe is predicted to produce large positive offsets for a type II alignment as needed, for example, in solar cells. We also describe recent experiments that corroborate some of these predictions.

  13. Drill-bit with full offset cutter bodies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frear, L.

    1985-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary drag drill bit is seen wherein cutter bodies are rotatively connected to a main body structure at a fully offset position. The fully offset position is defined by a rotational axis of each cutter body, a longitudinal axis of the drill bit and end support points or positions of the cutter bodies. The rotational axes of the cutter bodies are perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the drill bit. The end supports of the cutter body are each equal distance from any point on the longitudinal axis of the drill bit. The cutter bodies of essentially ellipsoidal configuration, being slightly thicker at a mid-portion thereof. Cutting elements are connected to flutes projecting above an outer surface of each cutter body. In a primary rotational direction of the drill string and drill bit, the rows abrade the bottom and side walls of a well bore as the cutter body attacks the earth formation as the drill bit is rotated. The impingement of the cutting elements of the cutter body on the earth formation imparts a secondary rotation to the cutter bodies, which secondary rotation is induced by the primary rotation. The secondary rotation allows the rows of cutting elements to engage the side wall of the bore and gauge the hole as well as abrading away material from the bottom of the well bore. A roller bearing assembly is provided for the cutter body to permit the secondary rotation, while a thrust bearing assembly assists the primary abrasive action imparted by the primary rotational movement of the rotary drill bit. A lubrication system is included in the main body structure of the drill bit wherein both the roller bearing assembly and thrust bearing assembly are lubricated.

  14. Insights from Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offset Bruce A. McCarl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Insights from Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offset Studies Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor EPA but with contributions from USDA and DOE. Presented at the EPRI Workshop on Terrestrial Carbon Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offset Studies that Might Influence IAM Modeling," that will appear in the book

  15. Slow technology for well-being Steffi Beckhaus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckhaus, Steffi

    Slow technology for well-being Steffi Beckhaus IAD - Technical University of Darmstadt interactiondesign@steffi.beckhaus.de ABSTRACT Slow technology is technology that actively influences our well): Miscellaneous General Terms Slow Technology SLOW TECHNOLOGY IS... Slow technology is technology that actively

  16. Slow motion responses of compliant offshore structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Peimin

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient method is developed to predict slow motion responses of slender compliant offshore structures in the unidirectional irregular waves and currents. The environmental loads are computed using the modified Morison equation based on slender...

  17. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite Print At the ALS, an international team of researchers has used low-energy coherent x rays to extract new knowledge about the...

  18. Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

  19. ZnO/Sn:In2O3 and ZnO/CdTe band offsets for extremely thin absorber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ZnOSn:In2O3 and ZnOCdTe band offsets for extremely thin absorber photovoltaics . ZnOSn:In2O3 and ZnOCdTe band offsets for extremely thin absorber photovoltaics . Abstract: Band...

  20. Influence of Impurity Segregation on Temper Embrittlement and on Slow Fatigue Crack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    of segregated impurity atoms (temper embrittlement) and hydrogen atoms, evolved from crack tip surface reactions with water vapor in the moist air environment (hydrogen embrittlement). The signifi- cance of crack closureInfluence of Impurity Segregation on Temper Embrittlement and on Slow Fatigue Crack Growth

  1. Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing in Technology and Policy Abstract Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission

  2. Offset voltage of Schottky-collector silicon-on-glass vertical PNP's G. Lorito, L. K. Nanver and N. Nenadovi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    Offset voltage of Schottky-collector silicon-on-glass vertical PNP's G. Lorito, L. K. Nanver and N and investigated with respect to the influence of the collector design on the offset voltage. With Schottky collector contacts the offset voltage can be made both very low (

  3. Transplanckian energy production and slow roll inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulf H. Danielsson

    2004-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate how the energy density due to a non-standard choice of initial vacuum affects the expansion of the universe during inflation. To do this we introduce source terms in the Friedmann equations making sure that we respect the relation between gravity and thermodynamics. We find that the energy production automatically implies a slow rolling cosmological constant. Hence we also conclude that there is no well defined value for the cosmological constant in the presence of sources. We speculate that a non-standard vacuum can provide slow roll inflation on its own.

  4. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite Cultural Resourcestepidum FMO *IncreasingSlow Dynamics ofSlow

  5. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher, Assistant7/2013 LogisticalSlow Dynamics ofSlow

  6. Author's personal copy Risks to forest carbon offset projects in a changing climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Author's personal copy Review Risks to forest carbon offset projects in a changing climate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2212 4.2. Management techniques to maximize carbon storage 1 December 2008 Received in revised form 9 March 2009 Accepted 10 March 2009 Keywords: Carbon

  7. Can reductions in logging damage increase carbon storage over time? Evaluation of a simulation model for a pilot carbon offset project in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinard, M.A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective timber harvesting operations, if uncontrolled, can severely degrade a forest. Although techniques for reducing logging damage are well-known and inexpensive to apply, incentives to adopt these techniques are generally lacking. Power companies and other emitters of {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} gases soon may be forced to reduce or otherwise offset their net emissions; one offset option is to fund programs aimed at reducing logging damage. To investigate the consequences of reductions in logging damage for ecosystem carbon storage, I constructed a model to simulate changes in biomass and carbon pools following logging of primary dipterocarp forests in southeast Asia. I adapted a physiologically-driven, tree-based model of natural forest gap dynamics (FORMIX) to simulate forest recovery following logging. Input variables included stand structure, volume extracted, stand damage (% stems), and soil disturbance (% area compacted). Output variables included total biomass, tree density, and total carbon storage over time. Assumptions of the model included the following: (1) areas with soil disturbances have elevated probabilities of vine colonization and reduced rates of tree establishment, (2) areas with broken canopy but no soil disturbance are colonized initially by pioneer tree species and 20 yr later by persistent forest species, (3) damaged trees have reduced growth and increased mortality rates. Simulation results for two logging techniques, conventional and reduced-impact logging, are compared with data from field studies conducted within a pilot carbon offset project in Sabah, Malaysia.

  8. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R. C.; Imel, G. R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  9. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite Cultural Resourcestepidum FMO *Increasing solarSlideshow:Slow

  10. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite Cultural Resourcestepidum FMO *IncreasingSlow Dynamics of

  11. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite Cultural Resourcestepidum FMO *IncreasingSlow Dynamics

  12. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher, Assistant7/2013 LogisticalSlow Dynamics of

  13. LM193/LM293/LM393/LM2903 Low Power Low Offset Voltage Dual Comparators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanterman, Aaron

    LM193/LM293/LM393/LM2903 Low Power Low Offset Voltage Dual Comparators General Description The LM clock timers; multivibrators and high voltage digital logic gates. The LM193 series was designed to directly interface with TTL and CMOS. When operated from both plus and minus power supplies, the LM193

  14. Reducing axial offset and improving stability in PWRs by using uraniumethorium fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    Reducing axial offset and improving stability in PWRs by using uraniumethorium fuel Cheuk Wah Lau a that a new type uraniumethorium (UeTh) based fuel assembly could be used to achieve a more homogenous radial that a core containing UeTh fuel assemblies also reduces the AO and improves the core stability

  15. Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Andrzej J. Fiedler ABSTRACT A high solidity, small scale, 2.5m diameter by 3m high Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT in an open-air wind tunnel facility to investigate the effects of preset toe-in and toe-out turbine blade

  16. Learning Grasp Affordances with Variable Tool Point Offsets Thomas J. Palmer and Andrew H. Fagg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagg, Andrew H.

    Learning Grasp Affordances with Variable Tool Point Offsets Thomas J. Palmer and Andrew H. Fagg.D. student and University of Oklahoma Foun- dation Fellow, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA fagg@cs.ou.edu In this paper, we examine the grasp affordance

  17. Joint Carrier Frequency Offset and Fast Time-varying Channel Estimation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    environment. An L-path channel model with known path delays is considered to jointly estimate the multi1 Joint Carrier Frequency Offset and Fast Time-varying Channel Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Systems, a novel pilot-aided iterative algorithm is developed for MIMO-OFDM systems operating in fast time- varying

  18. CRLB for Blind Timing Offset Estimation of a Two-Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Bernard C.

    CRLB for Blind Timing Offset Estimation of a Two-Channel Time-Interleaved A/D Converter Steve Huang Engineering University of California at Davis #12;1 Outline Motivation Blind Calibration Method Large signals or blindly. Blind methods do not lower ADC throughput and can adjust to changes online. Asilomar

  19. Beyond Additionality in Cap-and-Trade Offset Policy Reuters/Nguyen Huy Kham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), continues to cite additionality as the most important part of any offset for additionality rules. Ironically, even as programs such as RGGI have stopped rewarding higher emitters through gases (GHGs), including the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), the Western Climate Initiative

  20. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

  1. Joint Identification of Stepper Motor Parameters and of Initial Encoder Offset

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    procedure to identify at the same time the electrical parameters of a permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM is present. The standard DQ model of PMSM's assumes that the permanent magnet is lined up with a winding when, offset calibration, sliding modes. 1. INTRODUCTION Permanent Magnet Stepper Motors (PMSM's) are widely

  2. The sensitivity of patient specific IMRT QC to systematic MLC leaf bank offset errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangel, Alejandra; Palte, Gesa; Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2, Canada and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive North West, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Patient specific IMRT QC is performed routinely in many clinics as a safeguard against errors and inaccuracies which may be introduced during the complex planning, data transfer, and delivery phases of this type of treatment. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of detecting systematic errors in MLC leaf bank position with patient specific checks. Methods: 9 head and neck (H and N) and 14 prostate IMRT beams were delivered using MLC files containing systematic offsets ({+-}1 mm in two banks, {+-}0.5 mm in two banks, and 1 mm in one bank of leaves). The beams were measured using both MAPCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) and the aS1000 electronic portal imaging device (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Comparisons with calculated fields, without offsets, were made using commonly adopted criteria including absolute dose (AD) difference, relative dose difference, distance to agreement (DTA), and the gamma index. Results: The criteria most sensitive to systematic leaf bank offsets were the 3% AD, 3 mm DTA for MAPCHECK and the gamma index with 2% AD and 2 mm DTA for the EPID. The criterion based on the relative dose measurements was the least sensitive to MLC offsets. More highly modulated fields, i.e., H and N, showed greater changes in the percentage of passing points due to systematic MLC inaccuracy than prostate fields. Conclusions: None of the techniques or criteria tested is sufficiently sensitive, with the population of IMRT fields, to detect a systematic MLC offset at a clinically significant level on an individual field. Patient specific QC cannot, therefore, substitute for routine QC of the MLC itself.

  3. LM139/LM239/LM339/LM2901/LM3302 Low Power Low Offset Voltage Quad Comparators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanterman, Aaron

    LM139/LM239/LM339/LM2901/LM3302 Low Power Low Offset Voltage Quad Comparators General Description The LM139 series consists of four independent precision voltage comparators with an offset voltage clock timers; multivibrators and high voltage digital logic gates. The LM139 series was designed

  4. Middle East: Slow year on the Gulf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article surveys the petroleum outlook in the Middle East area. Observations include: Saudi Arabia's money crunch continues to keep the lid on exploration, production work; Abu Dhabi has also curtailed operations because of low oil prices, reduced budgets; Followup drilling has been disappointing around recent gas strikes in Sharjah, Dubai; Oman's aggressive EandP program will result in a 30% drilling increase this year; Kuwait isn't slowing down its development of light oil either; the goal is 40 new wells; Iran and Iraq are still boosting export capacities despite attacks on oil facilities; North Yemen's Alief field is a major find. Numerous structures remain to be drilled; Syria, Bahrain have development projects underway. Turkey is attracting U.S. majors.

  5. Slow speed object detection for haul trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Caterpillar integrates radar technology with its current camera based system. Caterpillar has developed the Integrated Object Detection System, a slow speed object detection system for mining haul trucks. Object detection is a system that aids the truck operator's awareness of their surroundings. The system consists of a color touch screen display along with medium- and short-range radar as well as cameras, harnesses and mounting hardware. It is integrated into the truck's Work Area Vision System (WAVS). After field testing in 2007, system commercialization began in 2008. Prototype systems are in operation in Australia, Utah and Arizona and the Integrated Object Detection System will be available in the fourth quarter of 2009 and on production trucks 785C, 789C, 793D and 797B. The article is adapted from a presentation by Mark Richards of Caterpillar to the Haulage & Loading 2009 conference, May, held in Phoenix, AZ. 1 fig., 5 photos.

  6. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Research Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Gavron, Victor; Danon, Yaron; Weltz, Adam; Harris, Jason; Stewart, T.

    2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometry (LSDS) project has been evaluating the feasibility of using LSDS techniques to assay fissile isotopes in used nuclear fuel assemblies. The approach has the potential to provide considerable improvement in the assay of fissile isotopic masses in fuel assemblies compared to other non-destructive techniques in a direct and independent manner. The LSDS collaborations suggests that the next step to in empirically testing the feasibility is to conduct measurements on fresh fuel assemblies to understand investigate self-attenuation and fresh mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel rodlets so we may betterto understand extraction of masses for 235U and 239Pu. While progressing toward these goals, the collaboration also strongly suggests the continued development of enabling technology such as detector development and algorithm development, thatwhich could provide significant performance benefits.

  7. Influence of GaAs surface termination on GaSb/GaAs quantum dot structure and band offsets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zech, E. S.; Chang, A. S.; Martin, A. J.; Canniff, J. C.; Millunchick, J. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States); Lin, Y. H. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States); Goldman, R. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States)

    2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the influence of GaAs surface termination on the nanoscale structure and band offsets of GaSb/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy reveals both coherent and semi-coherent clusters, as well as misfit dislocations, independent of surface termination. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy reveal clustered GaSb QDs with type I band offsets at the GaSb/GaAs interfaces. We discuss the relative influences of strain and QD clustering on the band offsets at GaSb/GaAs interfaces.

  8. "Carbon emission offsets for aviation-generated emissions due to international travel to and from New Zealand" revised personal version of paper to appear in Energy Policy (in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    "Carbon emission offsets for aviation-generated emissions due to international travel to and from.1016/j.enpol.2008.10.046 1 CARBON EMISSION OFFSETS FOR AVIATION-GENERATED EMISSIONS DUE TO INTERNATIONAL-called carbon offsetting schemes have emerged that allow individual travellers and companies to compensate

  9. University Statement on Carbon Offsetting for Travel July 2011 Travel contributes significantly to the emissions of the University. We all have a role to play in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    University Statement on Carbon Offsetting for Travel July 2011 Travel contributes significantly be considered in the first instance. If flying is necessary, it is recommended that carbon offsets are purchased through one of the following: Government Quality Assurance Scheme for Carbon Offsetting (discontinued

  10. Direct optical measurement of the valence band offset of p Si1 x yGexCy /p Si,,100... by heterojunction internal photoemission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokhinson, Leonid

    have been performed to study the effect of substitutional carbon on the valence band offset with substitutional carbon levels up to 2.5%. Carbon decreased the valence band offset by 26 1 meV/% substitutional indicated that carbon decreased the valence band offset ( Ev) of the resulting Si1 x yGexCy /Si

  11. Household scale slow sand filtration in the Dominican Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donison, Kori S. (Kori Shay), 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Slow sand filtration is a method of water treatment that has been used for hundreds of years. In the past two decades, there has been resurgence in interest in slow sand filtration, particularly as a low-cost, household-scale ...

  12. Bioinspired Slowness for Robotic Systems Ronald C. Arkin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bio­inspired Slowness for Robotic Systems Ronald C. Arkin Mobile Robot Laboratory School of Interactive Computing Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA USA 30332 arkin@gatech.edu Abstract: Slowness in robotic systems is a quality that is typically undervalued. It is our contention

  13. Bio-inspired Slowness for Robotic Systems Ronald C. Arkin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bio-inspired Slowness for Robotic Systems Ronald C. Arkin Mobile Robot Laboratory School of Interactive Computing Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA USA 30332 arkin@gatech.edu Abstract: Slowness in robotic systems is a quality that is typically undervalued. It is our contention

  14. Band Offsets at the Epitaxial Anatase TiO2/n-SrTiO3(001) Interface...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to measure valence band offsets at the epitaxial anatase TiO2(002)n-SrTiO3(001) heterojunction prepared by molecular beam epitaxy, Within experimental error, the valance band...

  15. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth while Limiting the Spread of Sensititive Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Shropshire

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21st century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Nuclear states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions not to develop indigenous fuel cycle capabilities have been driven primarily by economics. However, additional incentives may be required to offset a nuclear state’s perceived loss of energy independence. This paper proposes alternative economic development incentives that could help countries decide to forgo development of sensitive nuclear technologies. The incentives are created through a nuclear-centered industrial complex with “symbiotic” links to indigenous economic opportunities. This paper also describes a practical tool called the “Nuclear Materials Exchange” for identifying these opportunities.

  16. The use of starch matrices in slow release fungicide formulations and their efficacy in controlling Phymatotrichum omnivorum on cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Theresa Marie

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. omnivorum 23 First Experiment ? In Vitro Analysis of Hyphal Inhibition. Second Experiment - In Vitro Analysis of Inhib1tion of Sclerotial Germination. . . . . 23 24 Evaluation of the Release of Propiconazole from the Starch Matrices under... pesticide. . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Growth of Ph matotr1chum omnivorum hyphae on potato dextrose agar amended w1th decanted incubation water of slow release starch matrices with entrapped propiconazo le. . . . . . . . 46 Ouench curves for three starch...

  17. Computation of Slow Invariant Manifolds for Hydrogen-Air Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Summary #12;Introduction Motivation and background · Detailed kinetics are essential for accurate modeling systems · ILDM, CSP, and ICE-PIC are approximations of the reaction slow invariant manifold. · MEPT

  18. Heterojunction band offsets and dipole formation at BaTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaz, Snjezana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, One University Plaza, Youngstown, Ohio 44555 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, One University Plaza, Youngstown, Ohio 44555 (United States); Zeng, Zhaoquan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, 205 Dreese Lab, 2015 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, 205 Dreese Lab, 2015 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Brillson, Leonard J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, 205 Dreese Lab, 2015 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States) [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, 205 Dreese Lab, 2015 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We used a complement of photoemission and cathodoluminescence techniques to measure formation of the BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) on SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) heterojunction band offset grown monolayer by monolayer by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) provided core level and valence band edge energies to monitor the valence band offset in-situ as the first few crystalline BTO monolayers formed on the STO substrate. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) measured Fermi level positions within the band gap, work functions, and ionization potentials of the growing BTO film. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy measured energies and densities of interface states at the buried heterojunction. Kraut-based XPS heterojunction band offsets provided evidence for STO/BTO heterojunction linearity, i.e., commutativity and transitivity. In contrast, UPS and XPS revealed a large dipole associated either with local charge transfer or strain-induced polarization within the BTO epilayer.

  19. The effect of carbon on the valence band offset of compressively strained Si1 x yGexCy/(100) Si heterojunctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The effect of carbon on the valence band offset of compressively strained Si1 x yGexCy/(100) Si Capacitance­voltage measurements have been used to study the effect of carbon on the valence band offset with substitutional C levels from 0% to 2.5%. The valence band offset between Si1 x yGexCy and unstrained 100 Si

  20. Band offsets in HfO{sub 2}/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Hyun [Department of Nanomechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Gyeongnam 627-706 (Korea, Republic of); Douglas, E. A.; Gila, B. P.; Craciun, V.; Lambers, E. S.; Pearton, S. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Ren Fan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The valence band discontinuity ({Delta}E{sub V}) of sputter deposited HfO{sub 2}/InZnGaO{sub 4} (IGZO) heterostructures was obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The HfO{sub 2} exhibited a bandgap of 6.07 eV from absorption measurements. A value of {Delta}E{sub V} = 0.48 {+-} 0.025 eV was obtained by using the Ga 2p{sub 3/2}, Zn 2p{sub 3/2}, and In 3d{sub 5/2} energy levels as references. This implies a conduction band offset {Delta}E{sub C} of 2.39 eV in HfO{sub 2}/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterostructures and a nested interface band alignment.

  1. Formalising the Slow-Roll Approximation in Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew R. Liddle; Paul Parsons; John D. Barrow

    1994-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The meaning of the inflationary slow-roll approximation is formalised. Comparisons are made between an approach based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equations, governing the evolution of the Hubble parameter, and the usual scenario based on the evolution of the potential energy density. The vital role of the inflationary attractor solution is emphasised, and some of its properties described. We propose a new measure of inflation, based upon contraction of the comoving Hubble length as opposed to the usual e-foldings of physical expansion, and derive relevant formulae. We introduce an infinite hierarchy of slow-roll parameters, and show that only a finite number of them are required to produce results to a given order. The extension of the slow-roll approximation into an analytic slow-roll expansion, converging on the exact solution, is provided. Its role in calculations of inflationary dynamics is discussed. We explore rational-approximants as a method of extending the range of convergence of the slow-roll expansion up to, and beyond, the end of inflation.

  2. SLOW MAGNETOSONIC WAVES AND FAST FLOWS IN ACTIVE REGION LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofman, L.; Wang, T. J. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Davila, J. M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast ({approx}100-300 km s{sup -1}) quasi-periodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow-driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux tubes and the establishment of siphon flow. We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast-mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magnetosonic waves is close to the coronal sound speed. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased we find that slow shock-like wave trains are produced. When the upflows are driven periodically, undamped oscillations are produced with periods determined by the periodicity of the upflows. Based on the results of the 3D MHD model we suggest that the observed slow magnetosonic waves and persistent upflows may be produced by the same impulsive events at the bases of ARs.

  3. Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration Offset Programs: Strengths, Difficulties, and Suggestions for Their Potential Use in AB 32's Cap and Trade Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernadett, Lauren

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    offset credits for installing “a biogas control system thatemissions by installing biogas control systems (BCS), whichin exchange for installing biogas control systems (BCS), a

  4. Chronic water stress reduces tree growth and the carbon sink of deciduous hardwood forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Richard P.

    have the potential to offset gains in carbon (C) uptake from phenology trends, rising atmospheric CO2Chronic water stress reduces tree growth and the carbon sink of deciduous hardwood forests E D W Institute of Technology, IMK-IFU, Garmisch-Partenkirchen 82467, Germany, 4 USDA Forest Service ­ SilvaCarbon

  5. Growth and crown architecture of two aspen genotypes exposed to interacting ozone and carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth and crown architecture of two aspen genotypes exposed to interacting ozone and carbon to O3, atmos- pheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing rapidly (Keeling et al., 1995 concentrations may offset the detrimental effects of increasing O3 (Allen, 1990). Some studies have shown that CO

  6. Crosswell Seismic Amplitude-Versus-Offset for Detailed Imaging of Facies and Fluid Distribution within Carbonate Oil Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crosswell Seismic Amplitude-Versus-Offset for Detailed Imaging of Facies and Fluid Distribution within Carbonate Oil Reservoirs DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-04NT15508 Oct 2004 - Sep 2007 Michigan in carbonate reef reservoirs that are currently under production. This project will develop, test

  7. Interactions Between Membrane Conductances Underlying Thalamocortical Slow-Wave Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Destexhe, Alain

    or oscillations can be explained by interactions between calcium- and voltage-dependent channels. At the networkInteractions Between Membrane Conductances Underlying Thalamocortical Slow-Wave Oscillations A: Oscillations and Bursts Emerging From the Interplay of Intrinsic Conductances in Single Neurons 1404 A

  8. Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    REVIEW Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef and soy supply 70% decline in deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon suggests that it is possible to manage, as did a decline in the demand for new deforestation. The supply chain interventions that fed

  9. Robust concatenated codes for the slow Rayleigh fading channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Teh-Hsuan

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we design a robust concatenated code for the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) system in the presence of slow Rayleigh fading with no channel side information at the transmitter (no CSIT) and perfect channel side information...

  10. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niels Asger Mortensen; Sanshui Xiao

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measurements widely employed in analytical chemistry.

  11. LM139,LM239,LM2901,LM3302,LM339 LM139/LM239/LM339/LM2901/LM3302 Low Power Low Offset Voltage Quad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravikumar, B.

    LM139,LM239,LM2901,LM3302,LM339 LM139/LM239/LM339/LM2901/LM3302 Low Power Low Offset Voltage Quad Comparators Literature Number: SNOSBJ3C #12;LM139/LM239/LM339/LM2901/LM3302 Low Power Low Offset Voltage Quad Comparators General Description The LM139 series consists of four independent precision voltage comparators

  12. ON THE PERSISTENCE OF LABOR MARKET INSECURITY AND SLOW GROWTH IN THE US: Reckoning with the Waltonist Growth Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vidal, Matt

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    domains – such as corporate governance, industrial relationsshareholder value model of corporate governance. While thesevalue approach to corporate governance – an externalized

  13. Association of length-slow silica with evaporites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heaney, P.J. (Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States). Dept. of Geology); Sheppard, R.A. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center); Post, J.E. (Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Mineral Sciences)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1971, Folk and Pittman described the common occurrence of length-slow quartz (or lutecite) with evaporitic minerals, and they suggested that lutecite might be a useful indicator for vanished evaporites. However, the subsequent discoveries of length-slow silica in carbonate turbidites and in abyssal Pacific cherts revealed that lutecite is not restricted to near-surface deposits. Moreover, Kastner found that length-slow quartz could be crystallized in slightly alkaline solutions enriched in Mg[sup 2+], Na[sup +], and SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2]. Following these studies, researchers have cited the presence of lutecite in rock samples as suggestive but not compelling evidence for an evaporitic origin, and the precise nature of this form of silica has remained somewhat enigmatic. Investigations of chert nodules from evaporitic and non-evaporitic regimes support an identification of length-slow quartz'' with the mineral moganite, a polymorph of silica that is fibrous and optically length slow. Results are based upon X-ray powder diffraction of the chert, followed by Rietveld refinement of the X-ray patterns to quantify the weight fraction of quartz and moganite in each specimen. Most non-evaporitic chert appears to contain between 5 and 15 wt. % moganite, but evaporitic cherts often contain more than 20 wt. %. Cherts that have transformed from precursor magadiite can be particularly rich in moganite; samples from Lake Magadi, Kenya and from Harney Lake, Oregon revealed about equal parts moganite and quartz. However, the observation of decreasing abundances of moganite in rocks of increasing age indicates that moganite is metastable relative to quartz.

  14. MHD Turbulence: Properties of Alfven, Slow and Fast Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Lazarian; A. Beresnyak

    2005-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarise basic properties of MHD turbulence. First, MHD turbulence is not so messy as it is believed. In fact, the notion of strong non-linear coupling of compressible and incompressible motions along MHD cascade is not tenable. Alfven, slow and fast modes of MHD turbulence follow their own cascades and exhibit degrees of anisotropy consistent with theoretical expectations. Second, the fast decay of turbulence is not related to the compressibility of fluid. Rates of decay of compressible and incompressible motions are very similar. Third, the properties of Alfven and slow modes are similar to their counterparts in the incompressible MHD. The properties of fast modes are similar to accoustic turbulence, which does require more studies. Fourth, the density at low Mach numbers and logarithm of density at higher Mach numbers exhibit Kolmogorov-type spectrum.

  15. Criticality and axial offset searches based on the integrated neutron balance approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dall'Osso, A. [AREVA NP Tour AREVA, 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex (France); Van Geemert, R. [AREVA GmbH, Paul Gossenstrasse 100, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Criticality and axial offset (AO) searches are key features in the simulation of plant operation procedures. Typically, the dedicated algorithms consist of either a Newton method or a secant method that features the successive computation of difference quotients to be used as derivatives. Within this context, computational robustness and efficiency are of paramount importance. This applies in particular to when the variations imposed during the search are spatially heterogeneous, such as in the case of tuning control rod positions for achieving target AO. In order to optimize this kind of search capability in AREVA NP's reactor code ARTEMIS in accordance with this design principle, a generalized approach has been implemented that harmonizes very well numerically with the overall multi-physics iterative solution process. As embedded in the latter, the new neutronic integral re-balancing approach is defined through periodic whole-core space-energy integrations of the principal terms in the core-integrated process-rate balance terms (i.e. neutron absorption, production and leakage). This procedure yields sequences of single zero-dimensional equations from which the chosen tuning parameters can be solved directly in dependence of the imposed (and systematically fixed) values for the response quantities k{sub eff} and/or AO. The converged result of the iteration sequence of successively obtained search parameter values is final in terms of being fully consistent with the entire set of multi-physics equations while enabling the accurate fulfillment of the target response value. The k etc and AO searches can be pursued simultaneously. Judging from the results of pursued verifications, the neutronic integral re-balancing approach fulfils the above-mentioned expectations convincingly. Specific verification examples are presented, such as the determination of the insertion depth of a critical control bank, a double search on target criticality and target AO by adjusting the boron concentration and the position of a control bank, and a critical power search during reactor cycle stretch out. (authors)

  16. First-principles calculations of quasiparticle energies at surfaces and interfaces: Semiconductor surface-state spectra and band offsets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louie, S.G.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first-principles theory for calculating surface-state energies and semiconductor band offsets is described. Within a quasiparticle interpretation of excitation spectra, the approach provides well-founded energies which can be compared directly with sepctroscopy measurements. Results for the As-capped Si(111) and Ge(111) surfaces and for the GaAs-AlAs(001) heterojunction are discussed and compared with experiment. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Conduction-Band-Offset Rule Governing J-V Distortion in CdS/CI(G)S Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    Conduction-Band-Offset Rule Governing J-V Distortion in CdS/CI(G)S Solar Cells A. Kanevce, MV at the n/p interface of a solar cell can lead to significant distortion of the current-voltage (J-V) curve-layer [TCO/CdS/CI(G)S] approximation for the solar cell. The parameters that influence the barrier height

  18. This fund was established through generous gifts by C. Richard Yarbrough (ABJ '59). The purpose of the Student Support Funds is to provide funding to help offset extraordinary costs students incur when participating in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    of the Student Support Funds is to provide funding to help offset extraordinary costs students incur when

  19. Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    eld quantized slow cesium atoms Jason M. Amini, ? Charles T.experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic ?elds,magnetic ?elds seen by the atoms reduced to less than 200

  20. Slow Dynamics of Earth Materials: An Experimental Overview JAMES A. TENCATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ascertain the role of water as a potential mechanism. Key words: Slow dynamics, emergent creep, creep. A careful study of slow dynamics may make it possible to learn about emergent behavior, e.g., subcritical

  1. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  2. Neutron Slowing Down in a Detector with Absorption Sara A. Pozzi*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    Neutron Slowing Down in a Detector with Absorption Sara A. Pozzi* Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P of scattering collisions undergone by fast neutrons as they slow down until they are absorbed was presented realistic case of neutron slowing down in a homogeneous mixture. The formulas are derived and evaluated

  3. Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration Offset Programs: Strengths, Difficulties, and Suggestions for Their Potential Use in AB 32's Cap and Trade Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernadett, Lauren

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pdf; Section 3: Emissions Trading/Offset Credits – A Market1, 2013. 19 Under the Emissions Trading Program , L EGAL Pand-ab-32s- emissions-trading-program/. Additionally,

  4. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fining Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  5. Report on First Activations with the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Mace, Emily K.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Stave, Sean; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    On Feb. 17 and 18 2011, six items were irradiated with neutrons using the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer. After irradiation, dose measurements and gamma-spectrometry measurements were completed on all of the samples. No contamination was found on the samples, and all but one provided no dose. Gamma-spectroscopy measurements qualitatively agreed with expectations based on the materials, with the exception of silver. We observed activation in the room in general, mostly due to 56Mn and 24Na. Most of the activation was short lived, with half-lives on the scale of hours, except for 198Au which has a half-life of 2.7 d.

  6. Extending magnetohydrodynamics to the slow dynamics of collisionless plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L. [Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Hunana, P. [Code 673, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid approach aimed to provide a consistent description of the slow dynamics of a collisionless plasma, is presented. In this regime, both Landau damping and finite Larmor radius effects cannot be ignored. Two models are discussed; one retains the dynamics at sub-ionic scales, while the other is restricted to scales larger than the ion gyroscale. Special attention is paid to the capability of these approaches to accurately reproduce the properties of linear waves that are known to play an important role, for example, in the small-scale dynamics of solar wind turbulence.

  7. A study on the contribution of slow reaction in detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, P.K.; Seitz, W.L.; Stacy, H.L.; Wackerle, J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interface velocimetry and plate push experiments of the TATB-based explosives investigated so far show the presence of nonsteady detonation; namely, the initial velocity history increases with increasing explosive charge length, a condition generally attributed to the variation of effective CJ pressure. A multistage reaction model is used to simulate these experiments. For these explosives, we find that the reaction must include a slow process stage so that the numerical results can be brought into good agreement with experimental observation. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  8. A low-neutron background slow-positron source.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M. M.

    1998-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of a thermionic rf gun [1] and a photocathode rf gun will allow the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator (linac) [2] [3] to become a free-electron laser (FEL) driver [4]. As the FEL project progresses, the existing high-charge DC thermionic gun will no longer be critical to APS operation and could be used to generate high-energy or low-energy electrons to drive a slow-positron source. We investigated possibilities to create a useful low-energy source that could operate semi-independently and would have a low neutron background.

  9. Gravitational red-shift and deflection of slow light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Dressel; S. G. Rajeev; J. C. Howell; A. N. Jordan

    2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the nature of the classical propagation of light through media with strong frequency-dependent dispersion in the presence of a gravitational field. In the weak field limit, gravity causes a redshift of the optical frequency, which the slow-light medium converts into a spatially-varying index of refraction. This results in the bending of a light ray in the medium. We further propose experimental techniques to amplify and detect the phenomenon using weak value measurements. Independent heuristic and rigorous derivations of this effect are given.

  10. Evidence For The Production Of Slow Antiprotonic Hydrogen In Vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Zurlo; M. Amoretti; C. Amsler; G. Bonomi; C. Carraro; C. L. Cesar; M. Charlton; M. Doser; A. Fontana; R. Funakoshi; P. Genova; R. S. Hayano; L. V. Jorgensen; A. Kellerbauer; V. Lagomarsino; R. Landua; E. Lodi Rizzini; M. Macrì; N. Madsen; G. Manuzio; D. Mitchard; P. Montagna; L. G. Posada; H. Pruys; C. Regenfus; A. Rotondi; G. Testera; D. P. Van der Werf; A. Variola; L. Venturelli; Y. Yamazaki

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present evidence showing how antiprotonic hydrogen, the quasistable antiproton-proton (pbar-p) bound system, has been synthesized following the interaction of antiprotons with the hydrogen molecular ion (H2+) in a nested Penning trap environment. From a careful analysis of the spatial distributions of antiproton annihilation events, evidence is presented for antiprotonic hydrogen production with sub-eV kinetic energies in states around n=70, and with low angular momenta. The slow antiprotonic hydrogen may be studied using laser spectroscopic techniques.

  11. Slow Waveguide Structures for Particle Accelerators - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite Cultural Resourcestepidum FMO *IncreasingSlow

  12. Slow Mo Guys and Cold Spray | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher, Assistant7/2013 LogisticalSlow Dynamics

  13. Report on Second Activations with the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stave, Sean C.; Mace, Emily K.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary On August 18 and 19 2011, five items were irradiated with neutrons using the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS). After irradiation, dose measurements and gamma-spectrometry measurements were completed on all of the samples. No contamination was found on the samples, and all but one provided no dose. Gamma-spectroscopy measurements qualitatively agreed with expectations based on the materials. As during the first activation run, we observed activation in the room in general, mostly due to 56Mn and 24Na. Most of the activation of the samples was short lived, with half-lives on the scale of hours to days, except for 60Co which has a half-life of 5.3 y.

  14. Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Cong, Longqing; Bettiol, Andrew A; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally study the effect of near field coupling on the transmission of light in terahertz metasurfaces, possessing slightly distinctive SRR resonances. Our results show that the interplay between the strengths of electric and magnetic dipoles, modulates the amplitude of resulting electromagnetically induced transmission, probed under different types of asymmetries in the coupled system. We employ a two-particle model to theoretically study the influence of the near field coupling between bright and quasi-dark modes on the transmission properties of the coupled system and we find an excellent agreement with our observed results. Adding to the enhanced transmission characteristics, our results provide a deeper insight into the metamaterial analogues of atomic electromagnetically induced transparency and offer an approach to engineer slow light devices, broadband filters and attenuators at terahertz frequencies.

  15. Slow stress relaxation in randomly disordered nematic elastomers and gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Clarke; E. M. Terentjev

    1998-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Randomly disordered (polydomain) liquid crystalline elastomers align under stress. We study the dynamics of stress relaxation before, during and after the Polydomain-Monodomain transition. The results for different materials show the universal ultra-slow logarithmic behaviour, especially pronounced in the region of the transition. The data is approximated very well by an equation Sigma(t) ~ Sigma_{eq} + A/(1+ Alpha Log[t]). We propose a theoretical model based on the concept of cooperative mechanical resistance for the re-orientation of each domain, attempting to follow the soft-deformation pathway. The exact model solution can be approximated by compact analytical expressions valid at short and at long times of relaxation, with two model parameters determined from the data.

  16. Amplitude death in coupled slow and fast dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kajari Gupta; G. Ambika

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study how mismatch between dynamical time scales of interacting identical systems can result in the suppression of collective dynamics leading to amplitude death. We find that the inability of the interacting systems to fall in step leads to difference in phase as well as change in amplitude. If the mismatch is small, the systems settle to a frequency synchronised state with constant phase difference. But as mismatch in time scale increases, the systems have to compromise to a state of no oscillations. We establish that this regime of amplitude death exists in a net work of identical systems also for sufficient number of slow systems. For standard nonlinear systems, the regions of quenched dynamics in the parameter plane and the transition curves are studied analytically and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  17. Experimental Investigation of the Root Cause Mechanism and Effectiveness of Mitigating Actions for Axial Offset Anomaly in Pressurized Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Said Abdel-Khalik

    2005-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Axial offset anomaly (AOA) in pressurized water reactors refers to the presence of a significantly larger measured negative axial offset deviation than predicted by core design calculations. The neutron flux depression in the upper half of high-power rods experiencing significant subcooled boiling is believed to be caused by the concentration of boron species within the crud layer formed on the cladding surface. Recent investigations of the root-cause mechanism for AOA [1,2] suggest that boron build-up on the fuel is caused by precipitation of lithium metaborate (LiBO2) within the crud in regions of subcooled boiling. Indirect evidence in support of this hypothesis was inferred from operating experience at Callaway, where lithium return and hide-out were, respectively, observed following power reductions and power increases when AOA was present. However, direct evidence of lithium metaborate precipitation within the crud has, heretofore, not been shown because of its retrograde solubility. To this end, this investigation has been undertaken in order to directly verify or refute the proposed root-cause mechanism of AOA, and examine the effectiveness of possible mitigating actions to limit its impact in high power PWR cores.

  18. Characterization of slow rusting components in maize (Zea mays) inbreds and single crosses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngoko

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gompertz model The logistic model Materials and methods Results Discussion CHAPTERIII INHERITANCE OF SLOW RUSTING IN MAIZE Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion CHAPTERIV IDENTIFICATION OF THE COMPONENTS OF SLOW RUSTING... (30) working with oats, found out that the Gompertz transformation was more consistent at detecting degrees of slow rusting than the logistic model. Vanderplank (61) stressed the concept of disease increase as a function of time. This theory implies...

  19. Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-51xxx Electron electric dipole momentexperiment using electric-?eld quantized slow cesium atomsA proof-of-principle electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM)

  20. ZnO/Sn:In2O3 and ZnO/CdTe band offsets for extremely thin absorber photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Jaffe, John E.

    2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Band alignments were measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for thin films of ZnO on polycrystalline Sn:In2O3 (ITO) and single crystal CdTe. Hybrid density functional theory calculations of epitaxial zinc blende ZnO(001) on CdTe(001) were performed to compare with experiment. A conduction band offset of -0.6 eV was measured for ZnO/ITO, which is larger than desired for efficient electron injection. For ZnO/CdTe, the experimental conduction band offset of 0.25 eV is smaller than the calculated value of 0.67 eV, likely due to the TeOx layer at the ZnO/CdTe interface. The measured conduction band offset for ZnO/CdTe is favorable for photovoltaic devices.

  1. Slow neutron leakage spectra from spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.G.; Carpenter, J.M.; Prael, R.E.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient technique is described for Monte Carlo simulation of neutron beam spectra from target-moderator-reflector assemblies typical of pulsed spallation neutron sources. The technique involves the scoring of the transport-theoretical probability that a neutron will emerge from the moderator surface in the direction of interest, at each collision. An angle-biasing probability is also introduced which further enhances efficiency in simple problems. These modifications were introduced into the VIM low energy neutron transport code, representing the spatial and energy distributions of the source neutrons approximately as those of evaporation neutrons generated through the spallation process by protons of various energies. The intensity of slow neutrons leaking from various reflected moderators was studied for various neutron source arrangements. These include computations relating to early measurements on a mockup-assembly, a brief survey of moderator materials and sizes, and a survey of the effects of varying source and moderator configurations with a practical, liquid metal cooled uranium source Wing and slab, i.e., tangential and radial moderator arrangements, and Be vs CH/sub 2/ reflectors are compared. Results are also presented for several complicated geometries which more closely represent realistic arrangements for a practical source, and for a subcritical fission multiplier such as might be driven by an electron linac. An adaptation of the code was developed to enable time dependent calculations, and investigated the effects of the reflector, decoupling and void liner materials on the pulse shape.

  2. Interpretation of long-offset transient electromagnetic data fromMount Merapi, Indonesia, using a three-dimensional optimizationapproach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commer, Michael; Helwig, Stefan L.; Hordt, Andreas; Tezkan, Bulent

    2004-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In the years 1998, 2000, and 2001, long-offset transientelectromagnetic (LOTEM) surveys were carried out at the active volcanoMerapi in Central Java. The measurements investigated the conductivitystructure of the volcanic edifice. Our area of interest, which is belowthe summit and the upper flanks, was investigated using horizontal andvertical magnetic field time derivative data from seventransmitter-receiver setups. Because of topography and athree-dimensional (3-D) underground structure, a 3-D interpretation isused. The method optimizes few parameters of a 3-D model by a stableleast squares joint inversion of the data, providing sufficientresolution capability. Reasonable data fits are achieved with anonhorizontally layered model featuring a very conductive basement belowdepths of 1.5 km. While hydrothermal alteration is also considered, wetentatively explain the high conductivities by aqueous solutions withrelatively high salt contents. A large magma body or a small superficialreservoir below Merapi's central volcanic complex, as discussed by otherauthors, cannot be resolved by the LOTEM data.

  3. Electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface: Band offsets and oxygen dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KC, Santosh; Dong, Hong; Longo, Roberto C.; Xiong, Ka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Wang, Weichao [Department of Electronics and Microelectronics and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Device and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae, E-mail: kjcho@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Using ab-initio methods, atomic structures and electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are studied within the framework of density functional theory. We examine the InP/HfO{sub 2} model interface electronic structures under varying oxidation conditions. The effects of indium and phosphorous concentrations on interfacial bonding, defect states, band offsets, and the thermodynamic stability at the interface are also investigated. The origin of interfacial gap states in InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are proposed, mainly from the P-rich oxides, which is validated by our experimental work. This highlights the importance of surface passivation prior to high-? deposition based on the in situ spectroscopic results of atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on InP.

  4. Economic Growth Policies & Economic Growth Theory Influences.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallden, Sophie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? The aim of this thesis is to describe the presence of theories for economic growth in municipalities’ economic growth strategies, and to compare the… (more)

  5. The extended wedge method: Atomic force microscope friction calibration for improved tolerance to instrument misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khare, H. S.; Burris, D. L. [126 Spencer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS{sub 2} to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS{sub 2} had friction coefficients of {mu}= 0.20 {+-} 0.04 and {mu}= 0.006 {+-} 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS{sub 2} had a friction coefficient of {mu}= 0.005 {+-} 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).

  6. The 2006 aseismic slow slip event in Guerrero, Mexico: New results Kristine M. Larson,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Kristine

    The 2006 aseismic slow slip event in Guerrero, Mexico: New results from GPS Kristine M. Larson,1. Miyazaki, and J. A. S. Santiago (2007), The 2006 aseismic slow slip event in Guerrero, Mexico: New results from Guerrero, Mexico were made with continuous GPS instrumentation. This network spans 75 km along

  7. Measurements with the high flux lead slowing-down spectrometer at LANL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    slow down by scattering interactions with the lead and thus enable measurements of neutron.40.Sc Keywords: Lead-slowing-down spectrometer; Lithium; Alpha; Cross section; Neutron reactions 1.elsevier.com/locate/nimb Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 261 (2007) 953­955 NIM BBeam Interactions

  8. Ultrahigh-intensity optical slow-wave structure for direct laser electron acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchberg, Howard

    WAVEGUIDE Ultraintense laser­plasma interaction applications in- cluding x-ray lasers, coherentUltrahigh-intensity optical slow-wave structure for direct laser electron acceleration Andrew G of corrugated slow-wave plasma guiding structures with application to quasi- phase-matched direct laser

  9. The slow start power controlled MAC protocol for mobile ad hoc networks and its performance analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varvarigo, Emmanouel "Manos"

    is achieved by allowing more transmissions to take place simultaneously. The slow start principle used energy consumption and increase network throughput and lifetime. In our scheme the transmission power used for the RTS frames is not constant, but follows a slow start principle. The CTS frames, which

  10. Characterization of Co-planar Silicon Transmission Lines with and without Slow-waveEffect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    Characterization of Co-planar Silicon Transmission Lines with and without Slow-waveEffect Woopoung and package transmission lines has been explained showing that the slow-wave mode cannot be represented only][2][3][4], characterization methods for package transmission lines have been applied to silicon transmission lines under

  11. Dancoff's solution for the number of collisions necessary to slow down

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby, L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A succession of authors, following in the footsteps of Glasstone and Edlund, have perpetuated the same estimate for the number of collisions to slow down. Investigation of the slowing down distribution by Dancoff and others has been shown to correspond to a more meaningful estimate. Dancoff's treatment, probably the most concise of any thus far proposed, is discussed in detail.

  12. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer FY2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Gavron, Victor A.; Danon, Yaron; Weltz, Adam; Harris, Jason; Stewart, T.

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary The Lead Slowing Down Spectrometry (LSDS) project, funded by the Materials Protection And Control Technology campaign, has been evaluating the feasibility of using LSDS techniques to assay fissile isotopes in used nuclear fuel assemblies. The approach has the potential to provide considerable improvement in the assay of fissile isotopic masses in fuel assemblies compared to other non-destructive techniques in a direct and independent manner. This report is a high level summary of the progress completed in FY2013. This progress included: • Fabrication of a 4He scintillator detector to detect fast neutrons in the LSDS operating environment. Testing of the detector will be conducted in FY2014. • Design of a large area 232Th fission chamber. • Analysis using the Los Alamos National Laboratory perturbation model estimated the required number of neutrons for an LSDS measurement to be 10 to the 16th source neutrons. • Application of the algorithms developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to LSDS measurement data of various fissile samples conducted in 2012. The results concluded that the 235U could be measured to 2.7% and the 239Pu could be measured to 6.3%. Significant effort is yet needed to demonstrate the applicability of these algorithms for used-fuel assemblies, but the results reported here are encouraging in demonstrating that we are making progress toward that goal. • Development and cost-analysis of a research plan for the next critical demonstration measurements. The plan suggests measurements on fresh fuel sub assemblies as a means to experimentally test self-attenuation and the use of fresh mixed-oxide fuel as a means to test simultaneous measurement of 235U and 239Pu.

  13. Predicted roles of defects on band offsets and energetics at CIGS (Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS) solar cell interfaces and implications for improving performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    , and in- deed the global operating capacity for solar photovoltaics is increasing steadily.1 CurrentlyPredicted roles of defects on band offsets and energetics at CIGS (Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS) solar cell ZnO sputtering on the performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 083906

  14. Merger-driven Fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei: Six Dual and Offset Active Galactic Nuclei Discovered with Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comerford, Julia M; Barrows, R Scott; Greene, Jenny E; Zakamska, Nadia L; Madejski, Greg M; Cooper, Michael C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and offset AGNs are kpc-scale separation supermassive black holes pairs created during galaxy mergers, where both or one of the black holes are AGNs, respectively. These dual and offset AGNs are valuable probes of the link between mergers and AGNs but are challenging to identify. Here we present Chandra/ACIS observations of 12 optically-selected dual AGN candidates at z < 0.34, where we use the X-rays to identify AGNs. We also present HST/WFC3 observations of 10 of these candidates, which reveal any stellar bulges accompanying the AGNs. We discover a dual AGN system with separation of 2.2 kpc, where the two stellar bulges have coincident [O III] and X-ray sources. This system is an extremely minor merger (460:1) that may include a dwarf galaxy hosting an intermediate mass black hole. We also find six single AGNs, and five systems that are either dual or offset AGNs with separations < 10 kpc. Four of the six dual AGNs and dual/offset AGNs are in ongoing major mergers, a...

  15. Slow isocharged sequence ions with helium collisions: Projectile core dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Deyang; Cai Xiaohong; Shao Caojie; Lu Jun; Yang Zhihu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lu Rongchun; Ruan Fangfang [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang Hongqiang; Cui Ying; Xu Xu; Shao Jianxiong; Ding Baowei; Chen Ximeng; Liu Zhaoyuan [Department of Modern Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The collisions of the isocharged sequence ions of q=6 (C{sup 6+}, N{sup 6+}, O{sup 6+}, F{sup 6+}, Ne{sup 6+}, Ar{sup 6+}, and Ca{sup 6+}), q=7 (F{sup 7+}, Ne{sup 7+}, S{sup 7+}, Ar{sup 7+}, and Ca{sup 7+}), q=8 (F{sup 8+}, Ne{sup 8+}, Ar{sup 8+}, and Ca{sup 8+}), q=9 (F{sup 9+}, Ne{sup 9+}, Si{sup 9+}, S{sup 9+}, Ar{sup 9+}, and Ca{sup 9+}) and q=11 (Si{sup 11+}, Ar{sup 11+}, and Ca{sup 11+}) with helium at the same velocities were investigated. The cross-section ratios of the double-electron transfer (DET) to the single-electron capture (SEC) {sigma}{sup DET}/{sigma}{sup SEC} and the true double-electron capture (TDC) to the double-electron transfer {sigma}{sup TDC}/{sigma}{sup DET} were measured. It shows that for different ions in an isocharged sequence, the experimental cross-section ratio {sigma}{sup DET}/{sigma}{sup SEC} varies by a factor of 3. The results confirm that the projectile core is another dominant factor besides the charge state and the collision velocity in slow (0.35-0.49v{sub 0}; v{sub 0} denotes the Bohr velocity) highly charged ions (HCIs) with helium collisions. The experimental cross-section ratio {sigma}{sup DET}/{sigma}{sup SEC} is compared with the extended classical over-barrier model (ECBM) [A. Barany et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 9, 397 (1985)], the molecular Coulombic barrier model (MCBM) [A. Niehaus, J. Phys. B 19, 2925 (1986)], and the semiempirical scaling laws (SSL) [N. Selberg et al., Phys. Rev. A 54, 4127 (1996)]. It also shows that the projectile core properties affect the initial capture probabilities as well as the subsequent relaxation of the projectiles. The experimental cross-section ratio {sigma}{sup TDC}/{sigma}{sup DET} for those lower isocharged sequences is dramatically affected by the projectile core structure, while for those sufficiently highly isocharged sequences, the autoionization always dominates, hence the cross-section ratio {sigma}{sup TDC}/{sigma}{sup DET} is always small.

  16. LATERAL OFFSET OF THE CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM THE X-FLARE OF 2006 DECEMBER 13 AND ITS TWO PRECURSOR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L. [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Harra, Louise K., E-mail: alphonse.sterling@nasa.gov, E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.gov, E-mail: lkh@mssl.ucl.ac.uk [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Two GOES sub-C-class precursor eruptions occurred within {approx}10 hr prior to and from the same active region as the 2006 December 13 X4.3-class flare. Each eruption generated a coronal mass ejection (CME) with center laterally far offset ({approx}> 45 Degree-Sign ) from the co-produced bright flare. Explaining such CME-to-flare lateral offsets in terms of the standard model for solar eruptions has been controversial. Using Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data, and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) data, we find or infer the following. (1) The first precursor was a 'magnetic-arch-blowout' event, where an initial standard-model eruption of the active region's core field blew out a lobe on one side of the active region's field. (2) The second precursor began similarly, but the core-field eruption stalled in the side-lobe field, with the side-lobe field erupting {approx}1 hr later to make the CME either by finally being blown out or by destabilizing and undergoing a standard-model eruption. (3) The third eruption, the X-flare event, blew out side lobes on both sides of the active region and clearly displayed characteristics of the standard model. (4) The two precursors were offset due in part to the CME originating from a side-lobe coronal arcade that was offset from the active region's core. The main eruption (and to some extent probably the precursor eruptions) was offset primarily because it pushed against the field of the large sunspot as it escaped outward. (5) All three CMEs were plausibly produced by a suitable version of the standard model.

  17. New measurement of the scattering cross section of slow neutrons on liquid parahydrogen from neutron transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. B. Grammer; R. Alarcon; L. Barrón-Palos; D. Blyth; J. D. Bowman; J. Calarco; C. Crawford; K. Craycraft; D. Evans; N. Fomin; J. Fry; M. Gericke; R. C. Gillis; G. L. Greene; J. Hamblen; C. Hayes; S. Kucuker; R. Mahurin; M. Maldonado-Velázquez; E. Martin; M. McCrea; P. E. Mueller; M. Musgrave; H. Nann; S. I. Penttilä; W. M. Snow; Z. Tang; W. S. Wilburn

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Slow neutron scattering provides quantitative information on the structure and dynamics of materials of interest in physics, chemistry, materials science, biology, geology, and other fields. Liquid hydrogen is a widely-used neutron moderator medium, and an accurate knowledge of its slow neutron cross section is essential for the design and optimization of intense slow neutron sources. In particular the rapid drop of the slow neutron scattering cross section of liquid parahydrogen below 14.5~meV is especially interesting and important. We have measured the total cross section and the scattering cross section for slow neutrons with energies between 0.43~meV and 16.1~meV on liquid hydrogen at 15.6~K using neutron transmission measurements on the hydrogen target of the NPDGamma collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. At 1~meV this measurement is a factor of 3 below the data from previous work which has been used in the design of liquid hydrogen moderators at slow neutron sources. We describe our measurements, compare them with previous work, and discuss the implications for designing more intense slow neutron sources.

  18. Exponential energy growth in adiabatically changing Hamiltonian Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiago Pereira; Dmitry Turaev

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermi acceleration is the process of energy transfer from massive objects in slow motion to light objects that move fast. The model for such process is a time-dependent Hamiltonian system. As the parameters of the system change with time, the energy is no longer conserved, which makes the acceleration possible. One of the main problems is how to generate a sustained and robust energy growth. We show that the non-ergodicity of any chaotic Hamiltonian system must universally lead to the exponential growth of energy at a slow periodic variation of parameters. We build a model for this process in terms of a Geometric Brownian Motion with a positive drift, and relate it to the entropy increase.

  19. Method for solid state crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolas, George S.; Beekman, Matthew K.

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for high quality crystal growth of intermetallic clathrates is presented. The synthesis of high quality pure phase crystals has been complicated by the simultaneous formation of both clathrate type-I and clathrate type-II structures. It was found that selective, phase pure, single-crystal growth of type-I and type-II clathrates can be achieved by maintaining sufficient partial pressure of a chemical constituent during slow, controlled deprivation of the chemical constituent from the primary reactant. The chemical constituent is slowly removed from the primary reactant by the reaction of the chemical constituent vapor with a secondary reactant, spatially separated from the primary reactant, in a closed volume under uniaxial pressure and heat to form the single phase pure crystals.

  20. Seeds may be started in peat pots; they are slow to germinate (up to three weeks indoors),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Seeds may be started in peat pots; they are slow to germinate (up to three weeks indoors), so in peat pots; they are slow to germinate, so be patient. Seedlings may be transplanted in June. Crowns

  1. Nonlinear theory of resonant slow waves in anisotropic and dispersive plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Clack; Istvan Ballai

    2008-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar corona is a typical example of a plasma with strongly anisotropic transport processes. The main dissipative mechanisms in the solar corona acting on slow magnetoacoustic waves are the anisotropic thermal conductivity and viscosity. Ballai et al. [Phys. Plasmas 5, 252 (1998)] developed the nonlinear theory of driven slow resonant waves in such a regime. In the present paper the nonlinear behaviour of driven magnetohydrodynamic waves in the slow dissipative layer in plasmas with strongly anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity is expanded by considering dispersive effects due to Hall currents. The nonlinear governing equation describing the dynamics of nonlinear resonant slow waves is supplemented by a term which describes nonlinear dispersion and is of the same order of magnitude as nonlinearity and dissipation. The connection formulae are found to be similar to their non-dispersive counterparts.

  2. Efficient tunable switch from slow light to fast light in quantum opto-electromechanical system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Javed Akram; Khalid Naseer; Farhan Saif

    2015-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The control of slow and fast light propagation, in the probe transmission in a single experiment, is a challenging task. This type of control can only be achieved through highly nonlinear interactions and additional interfering pathway(s), which is therefore seldom reported. Here, we devise a scheme in which slow light, and a tunable switch from slow light to fast light can be achieved in the probe transmission based on a hybrid setup, which is composed of an optical cavity with two charged nano mechanical resonators (MRs). The two MRs are electrostatically coupled via tunable Coulomb coupling strength ($g_{c}$) making a quantum opto-electromechanical system (QOEMS). The parameter $g_{c}$ that couples the two MRs can be switched on and off by controlling the bias voltages on the MRs, and acts as a tunable switch that allows the propagation of transmitted probe field as slow light ($g_{c} \

  3. Slow vacuolar channels from barley mesophyll cells are regulated by 14-3-3 proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schönknecht, Gerald

    Slow vacuolar channels from barley mesophyll cells are regulated by 14-3-3 proteins Paul W.J. van den Wijngaarda , Tom D. Bunneya , Ilja Roobeeka , Gerald Scho«nknechtbY1 , Albertus H. de Boera

  4. The Homeowner Revolution: Democracy, Land Use and the Los Angeles Slow-Growth Movement, 1965-1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Architecture) ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS University of California, Los Angeles Fellow, Institute of the Environment & Sustainability

  5. The Homeowner Revolution: Democracy, Land Use and the Los Angeles Slow-Growth Movement, 1965-1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainability Special Reader and Teaching Assistant, Department of Urban Planning Occidental College

  6. The Homeowner Revolution: Democracy, Land Use and the Los Angeles Slow-Growth Movement, 1965-1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Valley, along with incumbent 517,000, and Planning Chief Roberts estimated that the area farmers, were not at all happy

  7. The Homeowner Revolution: Democracy, Land Use and the Los Angeles Slow-Growth Movement, 1965-1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Newman, Peter, Timothy Beatley, and Heather Boyer. Resilient55. Peter Newman, Timothy Beatley, and Heather Boyer, “Hope

  8. The Homeowner Revolution: Democracy, Land Use and the Los Angeles Slow-Growth Movement, 1965-1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into the Inglewood Oilfield, an environmental would beginnot surprisingly – held that oilfield operations were not aSurvey documented that oilfield operations had the Yellow

  9. The Homeowner Revolution: Democracy, Land Use and the Los Angeles Slow-Growth Movement, 1965-1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from oil sands to “fracking” for natural tidal) account forhorizontal fracturing or “fracking”) to extend the space has

  10. Simulations of slow positron production using a low-energy electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Rourke, B. E.; Kinomura, A.; Kuroda, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Oshima, N.; Suzuki, R. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST-Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Hayashizaki, N. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Minehara, E. J. [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Centre, 64-52-1 Nagatani, Tsuruga, Fukui 941-0821 (Japan)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo simulations of slow positron production via energetic electron interaction with a solid target have been performed. The aim of the simulations was to determine the expected slow positron beam intensity from a low-energy, high-current electron accelerator. By simulating (a) the fast positron production from a tantalum electron-positron converter and (b) the positron depth deposition profile in a tungsten moderator, the slow positron production probability per incident electron was estimated. Normalizing the calculated result to the measured slow positron yield at the present AIST linear accelerator, the expected slow positron yield as a function of energy was determined. For an electron beam energy of 5 MeV (10 MeV) and current 240 {mu}A (30 {mu}A), production of a slow positron beam of intensity 5 x 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} is predicted. The simulation also calculates the average energy deposited in the converter per electron, allowing an estimate of the beam heating at a given electron energy and current. For low-energy, high-current operation the maximum obtainable positron beam intensity will be limited by this beam heating.

  11. Simulations of slow positron production using a low energy electron accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, B E; Kinomura, A; Kuroda, R; Minehara, E; Ohdaira, T; Oshima, N; Suzuki, R

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo simulations of slow positron production via energetic electron interaction with a solid target have been performed. The aim of the simulations was to determine the expected slow positron beam intensity from a low energy, high current electron accelerator. By simulating (a) the fast positron production from a tantalum electron-positron converter and (b) the positron depth deposition profile in a tungsten moderator, the slow positron production probability per incident electron was estimated. Normalizing the calculated result to the measured slow positron yield at the present AIST LINAC the expected slow positron yield as a function of energy was determined. For an electron beam energy of 5 MeV (10 MeV) and current 240 $\\mu$A (30 $\\mu$A) production of a slow positron beam of intensity 5 $\\times$ 10$^{6}$ s$^{-1}$ is predicted. The simulation also calculates the average energy deposited in the converter per electron, allowing an estimate of the beam heating at a given electron energy and current. For...

  12. Florida Growth Fund (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Florida Growth Fund can provide investments in technology and growth-related companies through co-investments with other institutional investors. The Fund awards preference to companies...

  13. Measurement of the valence band-offset in a PbSe/ZnO heterojunction by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Lin; Qiu Jijun; Weng Binbin; Yuan Zijian; Shi Zhisheng [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Li Xiaomin; Gan Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Sellers, Ian R. [Deparment of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A heterojunction of PbSe/ZnO has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to directly measure the valence-band offset (VBO) of the heterojunction. The VBO, {Delta}E{sub V}, was determined as 2.51 {+-} 0.05 eV using the Pb 4p{sup 3/2} and Zn 2p{sup 3/2} core levels as a reference. The conduction-band offset, {Delta}E{sub C}, was, therefore, determined to be 0.59 {+-} 0.05 eV based on the above {Delta}E{sub V} value. This analysis indicates that the PbSe/ZnO heterojunction forms a type I (Straddling Gap) heterostructure.

  14. Channelization architecture for wide-band slow light in atomic vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachary Dutton; Mark Bashkansky; Michael Steiner; John Reintjes

    2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a ``channelization'' architecture to achieve wide-band electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and ultra-slow light propagation in atomic Rb-87 vapors. EIT and slow light are achieved by shining a strong, resonant ``pump'' laser on the atomic medium, which allows slow and unattenuated propagation of a weaker ``signal'' beam, but only when a two-photon resonance condition is satisfied. Our wideband architecture is accomplished by dispersing a wideband signal spatially, transverse to the propagation direction, prior to entering the atomic cell. When particular Zeeman sub-levels are used in the EIT system, then one can introduce a magnetic field with a linear gradient such that the two-photon resonance condition is satisfied for each individual frequency component. Because slow light is a group velocity effect, utilizing differential phase shifts across the spectrum of a light pulse, one must then introduce a slight mismatch from perfect resonance to induce a delay. We present a model which accounts for diffusion of the atoms in the varying magnetic field as well as interaction with levels outside the ideal three-level system on which EIT is based. We find the maximum delay-bandwidth product decreases with bandwidth, and that delay-bandwidth product ~1 should be achievable with bandwidth ~50 MHz (~5 ns delay). This is a large improvement over the ~1 MHz bandwidths in conventional slow light systems and could be of use in signal processing applications.

  15. Forest carbon market already shows cracks Reuters, 4 June 2009 -It could save the rainforests of Borneo, slow climate change and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and companies in the developed world to buy the rights to the carbon stored in trees as they grow, to offset Somare to counter-sign a certificate allowing the brokers to sell forest carbon offsets valued at $500Forest carbon market already shows cracks Reuters, 4 June 2009 - It could save the rainforests

  16. Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Hao, E-mail: hz2299@columbia.edu, E-mail: tg2342@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu [College of Electronic Information, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Gu, Tingyi, E-mail: hz2299@columbia.edu, E-mail: tg2342@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; McMillan, James F.; Wong, Chee Wei, E-mail: hz2299@columbia.edu, E-mail: tg2342@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Petrone, Nicholas; Zande, Arend van der; Hone, James C. [Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee [The Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Feng, Guoying [College of Electronic Information, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhou, Shouhuan [College of Electronic Information, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); North China Research Institute of Electro-Optics, Beijing 100015 (China)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the enhanced four-wave mixing of monolayer graphene on slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides. 200-?m interaction length, a four-wave mixing conversion efficiency of ?23?dB is achieved in the graphene-silicon slow-light hybrid, with an enhanced 3-dB conversion bandwidth of about 17?nm. Our measurements match well with nonlinear coupled-mode theory simulations based on the measured waveguide dispersion, and provide an effective way for all-optical signal processing in chip-scale integrated optics.

  17. Slow dynamics of nanocomposite polymer aerogels as revealed by X-ray photocorrelation spectroscopy (XPCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernández, Rebeca, E-mail: rhernandez@ictp.csic.es, E-mail: aurora.nogales@csic.es; Mijangos, Carmen [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, ICTP-CSIC, Juan de la Cierva, 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, ICTP-CSIC, Juan de la Cierva, 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Nogales, Aurora, E-mail: rhernandez@ictp.csic.es, E-mail: aurora.nogales@csic.es; Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sprung, Michael [Petra III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Petra III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a novel slow dynamics of polymer xerogels, aerogels, and nanocomposite aerogels with iron oxide nanoparticles, as revealed by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. The polymer aerogel and its nanocomposite aerogels, which are porous in nature, exhibit hyper-diffusive dynamics at room temperature. In contrast, non-porous polymer xerogels exhibit an absence of this peculiar dynamics. This slow dynamical process has been assigned to a relaxation of the characteristic porous structure of these materials and not to the presence of nanoparticles.

  18. Slow-MAS NMR: A New Technology for In Vivo Metabolomic Studies. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite Cultural Resourcestepidum FMO *IncreasingSlowSlow-MAS NMR: A

  19. Suppression of chaos at slow variables by rapidly mixing fast dynamics through linear energy-preserving coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafail V. Abramov

    2011-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Chaotic multiscale dynamical systems are common in many areas of science, one of the examples being the interaction of the low-frequency dynamics in the atmosphere with the fast turbulent weather dynamics. One of the key questions about chaotic multiscale systems is how the fast dynamics affects chaos at the slow variables, and, therefore, impacts uncertainty and predictability of the slow dynamics. Here we demonstrate that the linear slow-fast coupling with the total energy conservation property promotes the suppression of chaos at the slow variables through the rapid mixing at the fast variables, both theoretically and through numerical simulations. A suitable mathematical framework is developed, connecting the slow dynamics on the tangent subspaces to the infinite-time linear response of the mean state to a constant external forcing at the fast variables. Additionally, it is shown that the uncoupled dynamics for the slow variables may remain chaotic while the complete multiscale system loses chaos and becomes completely predictable at the slow variables through increasing chaos and turbulence at the fast variables. This result contradicts the common sense intuition, where, naturally, one would think that coupling a slow weakly chaotic system with another much faster and much stronger mixing system would result in general increase of chaos at the slow variables.

  20. Modelling propagation of sinkhole, in both slow and dynamic modes, using the UDEC computer code.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling propagation of sinkhole, in both slow and dynamic modes, using the UDEC computer code RISques) : Adresse* : Ecole des mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy-Cedex, France ; Adresse sinkhole forms and to propose a prediction model. The UDEC code is used. An actual case of sinkhole

  1. Soft-ratchet modeling of slow dynamics in the nonlinear resonant response of sedimentary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soft-ratchet modeling of slow dynamics in the nonlinear resonant response of sedimentary rocks of Physics 0-7354-0330-9/06/$23.00 CREDIT LINE (BELOW) TO BE INSERTED ONLY ON THE FIRST PAGE OF THE #12;SOFT-RATCHET

  2. Introduction: the concept of the MOC Climate models project a slow down of the Atlantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    be sustained. Also the `pull' by small-scale mixing, that gradually lightens the deep waters, is necessary water cools and sinks, forming North Atlantic Deep Water which spreads southward into the deep ocean78 Introduction: the concept of the MOC Climate models project a slow down of the Atlantic

  3. Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannesson, Henrik

    Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light and then trapped in a bottle whose "walls" are magnetic fields. Cooled atoms are ideal for exploring basic. research has traditionally been the study of the intrinsic prop erties of isolated atoms. In the early part

  4. Dynamic control of slow water transport by aquaporin 0: Implications for hydration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, David E.

    Dynamic control of slow water transport by aquaporin 0: Implications for hydration and junction as the primary water channel in this tissue but also appears to mediate the formation of thin junctions between fiber cells. AQP0 is remarkably less water perme- able than other aquaporins, but the structural basis

  5. Slow Roll Reconstruction: Constraints on Inflation from the 3 Year WMAP Dataset

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiranya Peiris; Richard Easther

    2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the constraints on the inflationary parameter space derived from the 3 year WMAP dataset using ``slow roll reconstruction'', using the SDSS galaxy power spectrum to gain further leverage where appropriate. This approach inserts the inflationary slow roll parameters directly into a Monte Carlo Markov chain estimate of the cosmological parameters, and uses the inflationary flow hierarchy to compute the parameters' scale-dependence. We work with the first three parameters (epsilon, eta and xi) and pay close attention to the possibility that the 3 year WMAP dataset contains evidence for a ``running'' spectral index, which is dominated by the xi term. Mirroring the WMAP team's analysis we find that the permitted distribution of xi is broad, and centered away from zero. However, when we require that inflationary parameters yield at least 30 additional e-folds of inflation after the largest observable scales leave the horizon, the bounds on xi tighten dramatically. We make use of the absence of an explicit pivot scale in the slow roll reconstruction formalism to determine the dependence of the computed parameter distributions on the pivot. We show that the choice of pivot has a significant effect on the inferred constraints on the inflationary variables, and the spectral index and running derived from them. Finally, we argue that the next round of cosmological data can be expected to place very stringent constraints on the region of parameter space open to single field models of slow roll inflation.

  6. Environment Agency volunteers and Forestry Commission working together to Slow the Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environment Agency volunteers and Forestry Commission working together to Slow the Flow A team of Environment Agency staff from the York office recently volunteered for a day building timber dams in Cropton. As part of their `environmental leave day' programme Environment Agency staff are encouraged to get out

  7. Quadratic voltage profiles in lead acid cells during slow, steady processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haaser, Robert Anthony

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is standard lore that the voltage profile varies linearly in space within the electrolyte of a lead acid cell under slow, steady discharge. However, this hypothesis has never been put to the test. A recent theory predicts a uniform, non...

  8. Novel Results on Slow Coherency in Consensus and Power Networks Diego Romeres Florian Dorfler Francesco Bullo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullo, Francesco

    Novel Results on Slow Coherency in Consensus and Power Networks Diego Romeres Florian D¨orfler, Florian D¨orfler, and Francesco Bullo are with the Center for Control, Dynamical Systems and Computation, University of California at Santa Barbara. Email: diego.romeres@gmail.com and {dorfler

  9. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Receptive Field Positions in Area MT during Slow Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krekelberg, Bart

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Receptive Field Positions in Area MT during Slow Eye Movements Till S across eye movements. We first tested the hypothesis that motion signals are integrated by neurons whose receptive fields (RFs) do not move with the eye but stay fixed in the world. Specifically, we measured

  10. Slow-Rate Utility-Based Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    a network [6]. Utility-based resource allocation has recently received atten- tion both for wire-line [41 Slow-Rate Utility-Based Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks Peijuan Liu, Randall Berry are specified via a utility function that depends on the received data rate. The allocation of power across

  11. Friction experiments with elastography: the slow slip and the super-shear regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Friction experiments with elastography: the slow slip and the super-shear regimes S. Cathelinea , S technique derived from elastography, is used to follow the dynamic of the interface failure in a friction by Amontons in 1699 [1], the resistance to slip of an interface can be modeled by two main frictional states

  12. ON QUASI-ELASTIC SCATTERING OF SLOW NEUTRONS IN MOLECULAR LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-317 ON QUASI-ELASTIC SCATTERING OF SLOW NEUTRONS IN MOLECULAR LIQUIDS M. UTSURO Research Reactor de neutrons avec élargissement par rotation moléculaire dans le liquide sont étudiés dans le cadre du du benzène liquide. Abstract. 2014 The rotational broadened quasi-elastic scattering spectrum

  13. Slow waves in fractures filled with viscous fluid Valeri Korneev1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    Slow waves in fractures filled with viscous fluid Valeri Korneev1 ABSTRACT Stoneley guided waves in a fluid-filled fracture generally have larger amplitudes than other waves; therefore, their properties, a simple dispersion equa- tion for wave-propagation velocity is obtained. This velocity is much smaller

  14. TOWARDS BENCHMARK MEASUREMENTS FOR USED NUCLEAR FUEL ASSAY USING A LEAD SLOWING-DOWN SPECTROMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    for spent fuel testing. The characterization of spent fuel is particularly important for nuclear safeguardsTOWARDS BENCHMARK MEASUREMENTS FOR USED NUCLEAR FUEL ASSAY USING A LEAD SLOWING-DOWN SPECTROMETER B) is considered as a possible option for non- destructive assay of fissile material in used nuclear fuel

  15. Nematode faunal analysis in an aquic brown soil fertilised with slow-release urea, Northeast China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Nematode faunal analysis in an aquic brown soil fertilised with slow-release urea, Northeast China, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, PR China b Department of Earth of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, PR China Received 14 May 2004; received in revised form 15

  16. Rethinking Query Processing for Energy Efficiency: Slowing Down to Win the Race

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Jignesh

    Rethinking Query Processing for Energy Efficiency: Slowing Down to Win the Race Willis Lang of an energy efficiency metric along with traditional performance metrics. This change is fueled by the growing, real, and urgent demand for energy-efficient database processing. Database query processing engines

  17. Locating an atmospheric contamination source using slow manifolds Wenbo Tang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Wenbo

    the origin of atmospheric particle pollution from dispersed particle positions, provided that diffusion efLocating an atmospheric contamination source using slow manifolds Wenbo Tang,1 George Haller,2,a-dimensional atmospheric wind field in an urban street canyon. © 2009 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10

  18. Neoproterozoic tectonothermal evolution of the Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: a slow velocity tectonic process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fritz, Harald

    Neoproterozoic tectonothermal evolution of the Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: a slow velocity, University of Assiut, Egypt Received 10 January 2001; received in revised form 24 October 2001; accepted 25 in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt is constraint by 40 Ar/39 Ar ages of hornblende and muscovite from Meatiq

  19. CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Slow Recovery in Nevada's Economy Continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    the seasonally adjusted data reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Nevada Coincident Employment IndexCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Slow Recovery in Nevada's Economy Continues The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using

  20. CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Employment Recovery in Nevada Continues Its Slow Pace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Nevada Coincident Employment Index includes four employment measuresCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Employment Recovery in Nevada Continues Its Slow Pace The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy

  1. Slow exhumation of UHP terranes: Titanite and rutile ages of the Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    Slow exhumation of UHP terranes: Titanite and rutile ages of the Western Gneiss Region, Norway A: titanite rutile geochronology ultrahigh-pressure Norway U­Pb ages of titanite and rutile were obtained from of the Western Gneiss UHP terrane. Approximately half of the titanite ages are concordant, the majority of which

  2. Growth strains and creep in thermally grown alumina : oxide growth mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veal, B. W.; Paulikas, A. P.; Materials Science Division

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ measurements of growth strains and creep relaxation in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, isothermally grown on {beta}-NiAl alloys at 1100 C, are reported and analyzed. Samples containing the reactive element Zr, and Zr-free samples, are examined. For Zr-free samples, steady state growth strains are compressive, whereas the growth strains are tensile when the reactive element (RE) is added to the alloy. This behavior is attributed to the counterflow of oxygen and aluminum interstitials, and to simultaneous counterflow of oxygen and aluminum vacancies, all moving through the grain boundaries. Cross diffusing oxygen and aluminum interstitials may merge and combine within the film, forming new oxide along grain boundary walls, a mechanism that leads to an in-plane compressive stress. Cross diffusing oxygen and aluminum vacancies will also merge and combine within the film; in this case material is removed from grain boundary walls, a mechanism that leads to an in-plane tensile stress. When no RE is present, the interstitial mechanism dominates and the resultant stress is compressive. Consistent with the 'dynamic segregation model', the RE slows the outdiffusion of Al interstitials permitting the tensile mechanism to dominate. This interpretation invokes the unconventional view that oxygen and aluminum interstitials and vacancies, created in and driven by the strong chemical gradient, all participate meaningfully in the scale growth process. Grain boundary diffusion measurements were obtained from low stress creep data, interpreted using the Coble model of grain boundary diffusion. Reported diffusion measurements of oxygen through grain boundaries of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which are known to be inconsistent with oxide scale growth, are critically examined. A simple picture, a 'balanced defect model', emerges that is consistent with the dynamic segregation model, observed growth stresses and their dependence on the presence of a reactive element, sequential oxidation experiments, and our best knowledge about grain boundary diffusion coefficients.

  3. Band offsets of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} oxides deposited by atomic layer deposition technique on hydrogenated diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Koide, Y. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Nanofabrication Platform, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Center of Materials Research for Low Carbon Emission, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    High-k oxide insulators (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}) have been deposited on a single crystalline hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) epilayer by an atomic layer deposition technique at temperature as low as 120 Degree-Sign C. Interfacial electronic band structures are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on core-level binding energies and valence band maximum values, valence band offsets are found to be 2.9 {+-} 0.2 and 2.6 {+-} 0.2 eV for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions, respectively. Band gaps of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} have been determined to be 7.2 {+-} 0.2 and 5.4 {+-} 0.2 eV by measuring O 1s energy loss spectra, respectively. Both the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions are concluded to be type-II staggered band configurations with conduction band offsets of 1.2 {+-} 0.2 and 2.7 {+-} 0.2 eV, respectively.

  4. Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Trigonal Prismatic Uranium(III) Complex Jeffrey D. Rinehart and Jeffrey R. Long*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Trigonal Prismatic Uranium(III) Complex Jeffrey D. Rinehart and Jeffrey R. Long* Department of Chemistry, UniVersity of California, Berkeley, California 94720 Herein, we show that a simple trigonal prismatic uranium(III) complex can indeed display slow magnetic

  5. The slow-mode nature of compressible wave power in solar wind turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howes, G G; Klein, K G; Chen, C H K; Salem, C S; TenBarge, J M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a large, statistical set of measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU, and supporting synthetic spacecraft data based on kinetic plasma theory, to show that the compressible component of inertial range solar wind turbulence is primarily in the kinetic slow mode. The zero-lag cross correlation C(delta n, delta B_parallel) between proton density fluctuations delta n and the field-aligned (compressible) component of the magnetic field delta B_parallel is negative and close to -1. The typical dependence of C(delta n,delta B_parallel) on the ion plasma beta_i is consistent with a spectrum of compressible wave energy that is almost entirely in the kinetic slow mode. This has important implications for both the nature of the density fluctuation spectrum and for the cascade of kinetic turbulence to short wavelengths, favoring evolution to the kinetic Alfven wave mode rather than the (fast) whistler mode.

  6. Universality of the Volume Bound in Slow-Roll Eternal Inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubovsky, Sergei; Senatore, Leonardo; Villadoro, Giovanni

    2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    It has recently been shown that in single field slow-roll inflation the total volume cannot grow by a factor larger than e{sup S{sub dS}/2} without becoming infinite. The bound is saturated exactly at the phase transition to eternal inflation where the probability to produce infinite volume becomes non zero. We show that the bound holds sharply also in any space-time dimensions, when arbitrary higher-dimensional operators are included and in the multi-field inflationary case. The relation with the entropy of de Sitter and the universality of the bound strengthen the case for a deeper holographic interpretation. As a spin-off we provide the formalism to compute the probability distribution of the volume after inflation for generic multi-field models, which might help to address questions about the population of vacua of the landscape during slow-roll inflation.

  7. Sorghum Growth and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerik, Tom; Bean, Brent W.; Vanderlip, Richard

    2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorghum is well adapted to Texas, and its ability to yield consistently makes it popular with growers. This publication discusses sorghum plant biology and growth....

  8. Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

  9. Multiple scattering of slow ions in a partially degenerate electron fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popoff, Romain; Maynard, Gilles; Deutsch, Claude [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, UMR 8578, Universite Paris-Sud XI, Orsay 91400 (France)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend former investigation to a partially degenerate electron fluid at any temperature of multiple slow ion scattering at T=0. We implement an analytic and mean-field interpolation of the target electron dielectric function between T=0 (Lindhard) and T{yields}{infinity} (Fried-Conte). A specific attention is given to multiple scattering of proton projectiles in the keV energy range, stopped in a hot-electron plasma at solid density.

  10. HYDROGEN-ASSISTED FAILURE OF ALLOYS X-750 AND 625 UNDER SLOW STRAIN-RATE CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    HYDROGEN-ASSISTED FAILURE OF ALLOYS X-750 AND 625 UNDER SLOW STRAIN-RATE CONDITIONS R.S. Daum, A-purity, deaerated water in order to determine whether hydrogen embrittlement occurs in these alloys at room psig nitrogen (0 cc H2/kg H2O STP) and 40 psig hydrogen (60 cc H2/kg H2O STP), on Alloy X-750 in two

  11. Inflating Fat Bubbles in Clusters of Galaxies by Precessing Massive Slow Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sternberg, Assaf

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We conduct hydrodynamical numerical simulations and find that precessing massive slow jets can inflate fat bubble, i.e., more or less spherical, attached to the center of clusters of galaxies. To inflate a fat bubble the jet should precess fast. The precessing angle $\\theta$ should be large, or change over a large range $ 0 \\le \\theta \\le \\theta_{\\max} \\sim 30-70 ^\\circ$ (depending also on other parameters), where $\\theta=0$ is the symmetry axis. The constraints on the velocity and mass outflow rate are similar to those on wide jets to inflate fat bubbles. The velocity should be $v_j \\sim 10^4 \\km \\s^{-1}$, and the mass loss rate of the two jets should be $ 2 \\dot M_j \\simeq 1-50 \\dot M_\\odot \\yr^{-1} $. These results and our results from a previous paper dealing with slow wide jets support the claim that a large fraction of the feedback heating in cooling flow clusters and in the processes of galaxy formation is done by slow massive jets.

  12. Inflating Fat Bubbles in Clusters of Galaxies by Precessing Massive Slow Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assaf Sternberg; Noam Soker

    2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We conduct hydrodynamical numerical simulations and find that precessing massive slow jets can inflate fat bubbles, i.e., more or less spherical bubbles, that are attached to the center of clusters of galaxies. To inflate a fat bubble the jet should precess fast. The precessing angle $\\theta$ should be large, or change over a large range $ 0 \\le \\theta \\le \\theta_{\\max} \\sim 30-70 ^\\circ$ (depending also on other parameters), where $\\theta=0$ is the symmetry axis. The constraints on the velocity and mass outflow rate are similar to those on wide jets to inflate fat bubbles. The velocity should be $v_j \\sim 10^4 \\kms$, and the mass loss rate of the two jets should be $ 2 \\dot M_j \\simeq 1-50 \\dot M_\\odot \\yr^{-1} $. These results, and our results from a previous paper dealing with slow wide jets, support the claim that a large fraction of the feedback heating in cooling flow clusters and in the processes of galaxy formation is done by slow massive jets.

  13. Damage profile and ion distribution of slow heavy ions in compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Yanwen; Wang Chongmin; Zhu Zihua; Jiang Weilin; Weber, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Bae, I.-T. [Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Sun Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Ishimaru, Manabu [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Slow heavy ions inevitably produce a significant concentration of defects and lattice disorder in solids during their slowing-down process via ion-solid interactions. For irradiation effects research and many industrial applications, atomic defect production, ion range, and doping concentration are commonly estimated by the stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) code. In this study, ion-induced damage and projectile ranges of low energy Au ions in SiC are determined using complementary ion beam and microscopy techniques. Considerable errors in both disorder profile and ion range predicted by the SRIM code indicate an overestimation of the electronic stopping power, by a factor of 2 in most cases, in the energy region up to 25 keV/nucleon. Such large discrepancies are also observed for slow heavy ions, including Pt, Au, and Pb ions, in other compound materials, such as GaN, AlN, and SrTiO{sub 3}. Due to the importance of these materials for advanced device and nuclear applications, better electronic stopping cross section predictions, based on a reciprocity principle developed by Sigmund, is suggested with fitting parameters for possible improvement.

  14. Enhanced efficiency of p-type doping by band-offset effect in wurtzite and zinc-blende GaAs/InAs-core-shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Changsheng; Wang, Jiqing, E-mail: jqwang@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Lin, Weixian; Mao, Huibing; Zhao, Qiang; Yang, Pingxiong [Key Laboratory of Polarized Materials and Devices, East china Normal University, shanghai 200241 (China); Xing, Huaizhong [Department of Applied Physics, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first principles calculation based on density-functional theory, we investigated p-type electronic structures and the doping mechanism in wurtzite (WZ) and zinc-blende (ZB) GaAs/InAs-core-shell nanowires (NWs) along the [0001] and [111] directions, respectively. Comparing the doping in WZ and ZB core-shell NWs, we found it is easier and more stable to realize dopant in WZ NWs. Due to the type I band-offset, p-type doping in the GaAs-core of GaAs{sub core}/InAs{sub shell} for both WZ and ZB NWs makes that the valence band-edge electrons in the InAs-shell can spontaneously transfer to the impurity states, forming one-dimensional hole gas. In particular, this process accompanies with a reverse transition in WZ core-shell nanowire due to the existence of antibonding and bonding states.

  15. The nonlinear theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers with inclusion of the beam velocity spread

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Ling-Bao, E-mail: konglingbao@gmail.com [School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China) [School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Assessment, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Hong-Yu [School of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China)] [School of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China); Hou, Zhi-Ling, E-mail: houzl@mail.buct.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China) [School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Assessment, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Jin, Hai-Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Du, Chao-Hai [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonlinear theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers (ECM) with an initially straight electron beam is developed. The evolution equation of the nonlinear beam electron energy is derived. The numerical studies of the slow-wave ECM efficiency with inclusion of Gaussian beam velocity spread are presented. It is shown that the velocity spread reduces the interaction efficiency. -- Highlights: •The theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers is considered. •The calculation of efficiency under the resonance condition is presented. •The efficiency under Gaussian velocity spreads has been obtained.

  16. Slow-light propagation using mode locking of spin precession in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabaev, A. [George Mason University, Fairfax Virginia 22030 (United States); Dutton, Z. [Raytheon BBN Technologies, 10 Moulton Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Kennedy, T. A.; Efros, Al. L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose using mode locking to enable coherent nonlinear optical effects in inhomogenously broadened spin ensembles. We carry out detailed calculations for quantum dot systems in which increased spin coherence via mode locking has been recently observed [A. Greilich et al., Science 313, 341 (2006); 317, 1896 (2007)]. We show how, in the presence of spin locking, a strong pulse-matching effect occurs, providing a powerful tool for high-bandwidth linear optical processing. We then go on to study 'slow light' in this system and show that high-bandwidth pulses can be controllably delayed by a time comparable to the pulse width.

  17. Qubit transfer between photons at telecom and visible wavelengths in a slow-light atomic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gogyan

    2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method that enables efficient conversion of quantum information frequency between different regions of spectrum of light based on recently demonstrated strong parametric coupling between two narrow-band single-photon pulses propagating in a slow-light atomic medium [1]. We show that an input qubit at telecom wavelength is transformed into another at visible domain in a lossless and shape-conserving manner while keeping the initial quantum coherence and entanglement. These transformations can be realized with a quantum efficiency close to its maximum value.

  18. NLO Dispersion Laws for Slow-Moving Quarks in HTL QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abada, Abdessamad; Benchallal, Karima

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the next-to-leading order dispersion laws for slow-moving quarks in hard-thermal-loop perturbation of high-temperature QCD where weak coupling is assumed. Real-time formalism is used. The next-to-leading order quark self-energy is written in terms of three and four HTL-dressed vertex functions. The hard thermal loops contributing to these vertex functions are calculated ab initio and expressed using the Feynman parametrization which allows the calculation of the solid-angle integrals involved. We use a prototype of the resulting integrals to indicate how finite results are obtained in the limit of vanishing regularizer.

  19. Huge enhancement of backward second-harmonic generation with slow light in photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iliew, Rumen [Nonlinear Physics Center, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Institute of Condensed Matter Theory and Solid State Optics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Etrich, Christoph; Pertsch, Thomas [Institute of Applied Physics/Ultra Optics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Lederer, Falk [Institute of Condensed Matter Theory and Solid State Optics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Kivshar, Yuri S. [Nonlinear Physics Center, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study theoretically forward and backward second-harmonic generation in a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure made of lithium niobate. The aim of this article is twofold: First, we propose a reliable modal algorithm for describing the light propagation taking into account the vectorial character of the interacting fields as well as the tensorial character of the nonlinearity and verify it by means of the nonlinear finite-difference time-domain method. Second, we propose a photonic crystal where we obtain a giant efficiency increase for backward second-harmonic generation with slow light.

  20. Rainman: Renowned rainwater harvester Billy Kniffen may be retired, but he's not slowing down anytime soon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Leslie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    18 tx H2O Summer 2011 Story by Leslie Lee One week a#31;er his o#23;cial retirement from the Texas AgriLife Extension Service on April #27;#24;, Billy Kni#28;en could be found crisscrossing the United States#30;bringing rainwater harvesting... harvester Billy Kni#31;en may be retired, but he?s not slowing down anytime soon Summer 2011 tx H2O 19 Left: Billy Kniffen travels around the country, teaching people to make rain barrels for rainwater harvesting. Photo by Leslie Lee, Texas Water...

  1. Growth studies and characterization of the mycorrhizal fungi associated with Sophora secundiflora (Ortega) Lag.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong, Martha Erin

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . secundiflora seedlings grown in sterilized 1 sand 1 peat media amended with 0, 1. 19, and 4. 15 kg/m of 18N-6P-12K slow release fertilizer. After 263 days, seedlings lgd 1gGl d~Gfg*g'2dg*d growth responses at the intermediate fertilizer level. Fresh and dry... . . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ . . ~ ~ . ~ 34 Soil analyses of pot culture and growth study media 41 incidence of endomycorrhizal infection of ~So hors secundiflora from experiment 1 grown in 1 sand:1 peat media Effect of endomycorrhizal inocula on ~So hors secundiflora using 1 sand:1...

  2. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  3. Planar elliptic growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  4. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  5. The importance of population growth in future commercial energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolsrud, G. [Congress, Washington, DC (United States); Torrey, B.B. [Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper estimates the contribution of population growth to commercial energy consumption, which is considered a major cause of increases in air pollution and greenhouse gases. This paper first summarizes some of the recent estimates of future energy use developed by well-known models. It then develops several alternative scenarios that use different assumptions about population growth and energy use per capita for 122 countries for the years 2020 and 2050. It calculates the relative contribution of population growth to the change in total commercial energy use and demonstrates the sensitivity of the results to different assumptions. Individual country data are separately summed to totals for more-developed countries (MDCs) and less-developed countries (LDCs). Under a business as usual scenario for both MDCs and LDCs, population growth is important, but not the most important factor, in future increases in global energy consumption. Analysis of other scenarios shows that while slower population growth always contributes to a slowing of future global energy consumption, such changes are not as effective as reductions in per capita commercial energy use. Calculations on a global basis are made in two ways: from global aggregates and by summing individual country data. Comparison of the results shows that the first method is misleading because of the heterogeneity of population growth rates and energy consumption rates of individual countries. The tentative conclusions reached in this paper are only small pieces of a much larger puzzle. More work needs to be done to better understand the dynamics of these relationships before the analysis is extended to the broader questions of population growth and environmental change.

  6. Photonic-band-gap properties for two-component slow light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruseckas, J.; Kudriasov, V.; Juzeliunas, G.; Unanyan, R. G.; Otterbach, J.; Fleischhauer, M. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, A. Gostauto 12, Vilnius 01108 (Lithuania); Fachbereich Physik and Research Center OPTIMAS, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern D-67663 (Germany)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider two-component ''spinor'' slow light in an ensemble of atoms coherently driven by two pairs of counterpropagating control laser fields in a double tripod-type linkage scheme. We derive an equation of motion for the spinor slow light (SSL) representing an effective Dirac equation for a massive particle with the mass determined by the two-photon detuning. By changing the detuning the atomic medium acts as a photonic crystal with a controllable band gap. If the frequency of the incident probe light lies within the band gap, the light experiences reflection from the sample and can tunnel through it. For frequencies outside the band gap, the transmission and reflection probabilities oscillate with the increasing length of the sample. In both cases the reflection takes place into the complementary mode of the probe field. We investigate the influence of the finite excited state lifetime on the transmission and reflection coefficients of the probe light. We discuss possible experimental implementations of the SSL using alkali-metal atoms such as rubidium or sodium.

  7. Large Deviations and Importance Sampling for Systems of Slow-Fast Motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos, E-mail: kspiliop@dam.brown.edu [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)] [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we develop the large deviations principle and a rigorous mathematical framework for asymptotically efficient importance sampling schemes for general, fully dependent systems of stochastic differential equations of slow and fast motion with small noise in the slow component. We assume periodicity with respect to the fast component. Depending on the interaction of the fast scale with the smallness of the noise, we get different behavior. We examine how one range of interaction differs from the other one both for the large deviations and for the importance sampling. We use the large deviations results to identify asymptotically optimal importance sampling schemes in each case. Standard Monte Carlo schemes perform poorly in the small noise limit. In the presence of multiscale aspects one faces additional difficulties and straightforward adaptation of importance sampling schemes for standard small noise diffusions will not produce efficient schemes. It turns out that one has to consider the so called cell problem from the homogenization theory for Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations in order to guarantee asymptotic optimality. We use stochastic control arguments.

  8. Can Light Echoes Account for the Slow Decay of Type IIn Supernovae?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Roscherr; B. E. Schaefer

    1999-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectra of type IIn supernovae indicate the presence of apre-existing slow, dense circumstellar wind (CSW). If the CSW extends sufficiently far from the progenitor star, then dust formation should occur in the wind. The light from the supernova explosion will scatter off this dust and produce a light echo. Continuum emission seen after the peak will have contributions from both this echo as well as from the shock of the ejecta colliding with the CSW, with a fundamental question of which source dominates the continuum. We calculate the brightness of the light echo as a function of time for a range of dust shell geometries, and use our calculations to fit to the light curves of SN 1988Z and SN 1997ab, the two slowest declining IIn supernovae on record. We find that the light curves of both objects can be reproduced by the echo model. However, their rate of decay from peak, color at peak and their observed peak absolute magnitudes when considered together are inconsistent with the echo model. Furthermore, when the observed values of M$_{B}$ are corrected for the effects of dust scattering, the values obtained imply that these supernovae have unrealistically high luminosities. We conclude that light echoes cannot properly account for the slow decline seen in some IIn's, and that the shock interaction is likely to dominate the continuum emission.

  9. The Intense Slow Positron Beam Facility at the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawari, Ayman I.; Moxom, Jeremy; Hathaway, Alfred G.; Brown, Benjamin [Nuclear Engineering/Nuclear Reactor Program, North Carolina State University, P.O. Box 7909, Raleigh NC 27695 (United States); Gidley, David W.; Vallery, Richard [Physics Department, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor MI 48109 (United States); Xu, Jun [Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States)

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An intense slow positron beam is in its early stages of operation at the 1-MW open-pool PULSTAR research reactor at North Carolina State University. The positron beam line is installed in a beam port that has a 30-cmx30-cm cross sectional view of the core. The positrons are created in a tungsten converter/moderator by pair-production using gamma rays produced in the reactor core and by neutron capture reactions in cadmium cladding surrounding the tungsten. Upon moderation, slow ({approx}3 eV) positrons that are emitted from the moderator are electrostatically extracted, focused and magnetically guided until they exit the reactor biological shield with 1-keV energy, approximately 3-cm beam diameter and an intensity exceeding 6x10{sup 8} positrons per second. A magnetic beam switch and transport system has been installed and tested that directs the beam into one of two spectrometers. The spectrometers are designed to implement state-of-the-art PALS and DBS techniques to perform positron and positronium annihilation studies of nanophases in matter.

  10. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  11. Research District Seeing Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: It’s been a while since I’ve updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and there’s more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.

  12. Spectral Slope Variation at Proton Scales from Fast to Slow Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno, R; Telloni, D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the behavior of the spectral slope of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations at proton scales for selected high resolution time intervals from WIND and MESSENGER spacecraft at $1$ AU and $0.56$ AU, respectively. The analysis was performed within the profile of high speed streams, moving from fast to slow wind regions. The spectral slope showed a large variability between $-3.75$ and $-1.75$ and a robust tendency for this parameter to be steeper within the trailing edge where the speed is higher and to be flatter within the subsequent slower wind, following a gradual transition between these two states. The value of the spectral index seems to depend firmly on the power associated to the fluctuations within the inertial range, higher the power steeper the slope. Our result support previous analyses suggesting that there must be some response of the dissipation mechanism to the level of the energy transfer rate along the inertial range.

  13. An explanation for the kHz-QPO twin peaks separation in slow and fast rotators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Petri

    2005-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter we further explore the idea, suggested previously by Klu{\\'z}niak and collaborators, that the high frequency QPOs may be explained as a resonant coupling between the neutron star spin and two epicyclic modes of accretion disk oscillations. We confirm result of Lee, Abramowicz and Klu{\\'z}niak (\\cite{Lee2004}) that the strongest response occurs when the frequency difference of the two modes equals either the spin frequency (for ``slow rotators'') or half of it (for ``fast rotators''). New points discussed in this Letter are: (1) We suggest that the coupling is gravitational, and due to a non-axially symmetric structure of the rotating neutron star. (2) We found that two excited modes may be both connected to vertical oscillations of the disk, and that strong gravity is not needed to excite the modes.

  14. An elastic, plastic, viscous model for slow shear of a liquid foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe Marmottant; François Graner

    2007-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a scalar model for deformation and flow of an amorphous material such as a foam or an emulsion. To describe elastic, plastic and viscous behaviours, we use three scalar variables: elastic deformation, plastic deformation rate and total deformation rate; and three material specific parameters: shear modulus, yield deformation and viscosity. We obtain equations valid for different types of deformations and flows slower than the relaxation rate towards mechanical equilibrium. In particular, they are valid both in transient or steady flow regimes, even at large elastic deformation. We discuss why viscosity can be relevant even in this slow shear (often called "quasi-static") limit. Predictions of the storage and loss moduli agree with the experimental literature, and explain with simple arguments the non-linear large amplitude trends.

  15. Testing T Invariance in the Interaction of Slow Neutrons with Aligned Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. L. Barabanov; A. G. Beda

    2005-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of five-fold (P even, T odd) correlation in the interaction of slow polarized neutrons with aligned nuclei is a possible way of testing the time reversal invariance due to the expected enhancement of T violating effects in compound resonances. Possible nuclear targets are discussed which can be aligned both dynamically as well as by the "brute force" method at low temperature. A statistical estimation is performed of the five-fold correlation for low lying p wave compound resonances of the $^{121}$Sb, $^{123}$Sb and $^{127}$I nuclei. It is shown that a significant improvement can be achieved for the bound on the intensity of the fundamental parity conserving time violating (PCTV) interaction.

  16. Slow Strain Rate Testing of Alloy 22 in Simulated Concentrated Ground Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, K J; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed engineering barriers for the high-level nuclear waste repository in Yucca Mountain include a double walled container and a detached drip shield. The candidate material for the external wall of the container is Alloy 22 (N06022). One of the anticipated degradation modes for the containers could be environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). The objective of the current research was to characterize the effect of applied potential and temperature on the susceptibility of Alloy 22 to EAC in simulated concentrated water (SCW) and other environments using the slow strain rate technique (SSRT). Results show that the temperature and applied potential have a strong influence on the susceptibility of Alloy 22 to suffer EAC in SCW solution. Limited results show that sodium fluoride solution is more detrimental than sodium chloride solution.

  17. A scheme comparison of Autler-Townes based slow light in inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Per Lunnemann; Jesper Mørk

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method to achieve significant optical signal delays exploiting the effect of Autler-Townes splitting in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium. The absorption and slow-down effects are compared for three schemes i.e. $\\Xi$, V and $\\Lambda$, corresponding to different excitation configurations. Qualitative differences of the V-scheme compared to the $\\Xi$- and $\\Lambda$-scheme are found, which show that features of Autler-Townes splitting are only revealed in the V-scheme. The underlying physical mechanisms causing this discrepancy are analyzed and discussed. Finally we compare field propagation calculations of the schemes showing significantly larger achievable signal delays for the V-scheme despite finite absorption of the coupling field. This opens the possibility for using waveguide structures for both coupling and probe fields, thus significantly increasing the achievable signal delays.

  18. $Om$ diagnostic applied to scalar field models and slowing down of cosmic acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahalam, M; Agarwal, Abhineet

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply the $Om$ diagnostic to models for dark energy based on scalar fields. In case of the power law potentials, we demonstrate the possibility of slowing down the expansion of the Universe around the present epoch for a specific range in the parameter space. For these models, we also examine the issues concerning the age of Universe. We use the $Om$ diagnostic to distinguish the $\\Lambda$CDM model from non minimally coupled scalar field, phantom field and generic quintessence models. Our study shows that the $Om$ has zero, positive and negative curvatures for $\\Lambda$CDM, phantom and quintessence models respectively. We use an integrated data base (SN+Hubble+BAO+CMB) for bservational analysis and demonstrate that $Om$ is a useful diagnostic to apply to observational data.

  19. Growth & Development / Parental Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Christopher J.

    participate; if one parents is lost, fledging rates usually drop #12;Winkler reduced clutch size from 5 to 3Growth & Development / Parental Care #12;Embryonic Development Although the sequence of 42 stages the egg The hatching muscle helps the chick break out of the egg Parents typically dispose of the egg

  20. Nanoparticle growth Controlled Growth of Platinum Nanoparticles on Strontium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    Nanoparticle growth Controlled Growth of Platinum Nanoparticles on Strontium Titanate Nanocubes nanoparticles platinum strontium titanate X-ray analysis 750 Ã? 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  1. Analysis of amplitude versus offset

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Xiaotao

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). Waves generated at a plane interface by an incident P-wave or S-wave. Reflection coefFicients versus angle of incidence for the gas sa, nd/shale model. P-P reflection coefFicients. SV-SV reflection coefiicients. P-P reflection coefficients of shale/gas... sand model. Curves from top to bottom correspond to oi ? 0. 4, 0. 3, 0. 2, 0. 1. SV-SV reflection coefflcients of shale/gas sand model. Curves froin bottoiu to top at normal incidence correspond to &r, = 0. 4, 0. 3, 0. 2, 0. 1. Error surface iii...

  2. Small Enterprise Growth Fund (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Enterprise Growth Fund is a professionally-managed venture capital fund that invests in Maine companies which demonstrate high potential for growth and public benefit. The fund has...

  3. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry for Spent Fuel Assay: FY11 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Casella, Andrew M.; Haight, R. C.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Danon, Yaron; Hatchett, D.; Becker, Bjorn; Devlin, M.; Imel, G. R.; Beller, D.; Gavron, A.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; O'Donnell, J. M.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary Developing a method for the accurate, direct, and independent assay of the fissile isotopes in bulk materials (such as used fuel) from next-generation domestic nuclear fuel cycles is a goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign. To meet this goal, MPACT supports a multi-institutional collaboration to study the feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This technique is an active nondestructive assay method that has the potential to provide independent, direct measurement of Pu and U isotopic masses in used fuel with an uncertainty considerably lower than the approximately 10% typical of today’s confirmatory assay methods. This document is a progress report for FY2011 collaboration activities. Progress made by the collaboration in FY2011 continues to indicate the promise of LSDS techniques applied to used fuel. PNNL developed an empirical model based on calibration of the LSDS to responses generated from well-characterized used fuel. The empirical model demonstrated the potential for the direct and independent assay of the sum of the masses of 239Pu and 241Pu to within approximately 3% over a wide used fuel parameter space. Similar results were obtained using a perturbation approach developed by LANL. Benchmark measurements have been successfully conducted at LANL and at RPI using their respective LSDS instruments. The ISU and UNLV collaborative effort is focused on the fabrication and testing of prototype fission chambers lined with ultra-depleted 238U and 232Th, and uranium deposition on a stainless steel disc using spiked U3O8 from room temperature ionic liquid was successful, with improving thickness obtained. In FY2012, the collaboration plans a broad array of activities. PNNL will focus on optimizing its empirical model and minimizing its reliance on calibration data, as well continuing efforts on developing an analytical model. Additional measurements are planned at LANL and RPI. LANL measurements will include a Pu sample, which is expected to provide more counts at longer slowing-down times to help identify discrepancies between experimental data and MCNPX simulations. RPI measurements will include the assay of an entire fresh fuel assembly for the study of self-shielding effects as well as the ability to detect diversion by detecting a missing fuel pin in the fuel assembly. The development of threshold neutron sensors will continue, and UNLV will calibrate existing ultra-depleted uranium deposits at ISU.

  4. Implications of early stages in the growth of stress corrosion cracking on component reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environment-induced crack growth generally progresses through several stages prior to component failure. Crack initiation, short crack growth, and stage 1 growth are early stages in crack development that are summarized in this paper. The implications of these stages on component reliability, derive from the extended time that the crack exists in the early stages because crack velocity is slow. The duration of the early stages provides a greater opportunity for corrective action if cracks can be detected. Several important factors about the value of understanding short crack behavior include: (1) life prediction requires a knowledge of the total life cycle of the crack including the early stages, (2) greater reliability is possible if the transition between short and long crack behavior is known component life after this transition is short and (3) remedial actions are more effective for short than long cracks.

  5. The establishment, growth, and forage production of five grass species during their first growing season on an upland postoak site in Brazos County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adcock, Willie Leroy

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    showing good growth and its erect culms on July 16, 1953 King Ranch bluestem on July 16, 1953, showing its sprawling culms and slow initial growth 31 32 32 14. Silver beardgrass on July 16, 1953. Growth compares favorably with that of RF472... and isolation strips. When plantings were made and when readings were taken of the plots, the inside plots A I' ) Replications V Poi Poi Pci Bou 4sa RF472 Asa RF472 Asa Asa 4is N Bou Poi Cheek Asa RF472 Asa Ais Cheok Pci 1. 9 ' Cheek Bou Asa RF...

  6. Detection of slow atoms confined in a Cesium vapor cell by spatially separated pump and probe laser beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Detection of slow atoms confined in a Cesium vapor cell by spatially separated pump and probe laser distribution of atoms in a thermal gas is usually described through a Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of energy, and assumes isotropy. As a consequence, the probability for an atom to leave the surface under an azimuth

  7. Slow oscillations of KATP conductance in mouse pancreatic islets provide support for electrical bursting driven by metabolic oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertram, Richard

    of the ramp current-voltage curves, oscillated and was larger during the silent phase than during the activeSlow oscillations of KATP conductance in mouse pancreatic islets provide support for electrical bursting driven by metabolic oscillations Jianhua Ren,1 Arthur Sherman,2 Richard Bertram,3 Paulette B

  8. The role of linear and voltage-dependent ionic currents in the generation of slow wave oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bose, Amitabha

    The role of linear and voltage-dependent ionic currents in the generation of slow wave oscillations voltages, re- spectively. Oscillations are created by inward currents driving the cell away from rest voltages and one outward current that repolarizes the cell. Such currents have traditionally been assumed

  9. On a slow drift of a massive piston in an ideal gas that remains at mechanical equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chernov, Nikolai

    On a slow drift of a massive piston in an ideal gas that remains at mechanical equilibrium N@math.uab.edu Fax: 1-205-934-9025 February 18, 2004 Abstract We consider a heavy piston in an infinite cylinder surrounded by ideal gases on both sides. The piston moves under elastic collisions with gas atoms. We assume

  10. WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? #12;Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming: most CO2 stays in the air over a century, though individual molecules come and go. Global warming. But we need to research it -- starting now. If global warming gets bad, public opinion may suddently flip

  11. Relation of the wave{propagation metric tensor to the curvatures of the slowness and ray{velocity surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Relation of the wave{propagation metric tensor to the curvatures of the slowness and ray The contravariant components of the wave{propagation metric tensor equal half the second{order partial derivatives. The relations of the wave{propagation metric tensor to the curvature matrix and Gaussian curvature

  12. Most impacts on wildlife will likely be indirect as wildlife species respond to slow changes in plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    : status and concerns. Ecological relationships of winter ticks, moose, and climate change. Moose) changes · "moose sickness" · deer keds · forestry impacts ("sprucification") Russia: poaching#12; Most impacts on wildlife will likely be indirect as wildlife species respond to slow changes

  13. Z .Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 7 2002 228 234 Slow dynamics in glasses, gels and foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Z .Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 7 2002 228 234 Slow dynamics in glasses, gels and foams Luca CipellettiU , Laurence Ramos Groupe de Dynamique des Phases Condensees, Uni. Keywords: Aging; Lightscattering; Glass; Gel; Colloids; Rheolgy 1. Introduction Disordered, out

  14. Slow positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron microscopy of electron beam evaporated cobalt and nickel silicides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frost, R.L.; DeWald, A.B. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (USA)); Zaluzec, M.; Rigsbee, J.M. (University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)); Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal silicide thin films on single-crystal silicon substrates are the subject of much research, due to their applications as electrical contacts and interconnects, diffusion barriers, low resistance gates, and field-assisted positron moderators, among others. Defects within the silicide layer and/or at the silicide/silicon interface are detrimental to device performance, since they can act as traps for charge carriers, as well as positrons. Pinholes penetrating the film are another detriment particularly for cobalt silicide films, since they allow electrons to permeate the film, rather than travel ballistically, in addition to greatly increasing surface area for recombination events. A series of epitaxial cobalt and nickel silicide thin films, deposited via electron-beam evaporation and annealed at various temperatures, have been grown on single-crystal silicon (111) substrates, in an effort to establish a relationship between deposition and processing parameters and film quality. The films have been analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, sputter depth profile Auger, and slow positron annihilation spectroscopy. The latter has been shown to both correlate and complement the traditional electron microscopy results.

  15. Last Passage Percolation with a Defect Line and the Solution of the Slow Bond Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riddhipratim Basu; Vladas Sidoravicius; Allan Sly

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the question of how a localized microscopic defect, especially if it is small with respect to certain dynamic parameters, affects the macroscopic behavior of a system. In particular we consider two classical exactly solvable models: Ulam's problem of the maximal increasing sequence and the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process. For the first model, using its representation as a Poissonian version of directed last passage percolation on $\\mathbb R^2$, we introduce the defect by placing a positive density of extra points along the diagonal line. For the latter, the defect is produced by decreasing the jump rate of each particle when it crosses the origin. The powerful algebraic tools for studying these processes break down in the perturbed versions of the models. Taking a more geometric approach we show that in both cases the presence of an arbitrarily small defect affects the macroscopic behavior of the system: in Ulam's problem the time constant increases, and for the exclusion process the flux of particles decreases. This, in particular, settles the longstanding Slow Bond Problem.

  16. Design concepts for a pulse power test facility to simulate EMP surges. Part II. Slow pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dethlefsen, R.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work described in this report was sponsored by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) through a subcontract with the Power Systems Technology Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work deals with the effect of high altitude nuclear bursts on electric power systems. In addition to fast voltage transients, slow, quasi-dc currents are also induced into extended power systems with grounded neutral connections. Similar phenomena at lower magnitude are generated by solar induced electromagnetic pulses (EMP). These have caused power outages, related to solar storms, at northern latitudes. The applicable utility experience is reviewed in order to formulate an optimum approach to future testing. From a wide variety of options two pulser designs were selected as most practical, a transformer-rectifier power supply, and a lead acid battery pulser. both can be mounted on a trailer as required for field testing on utility systems. The battery system results in the least cost. Testing on power systems requires that the dc pulser pass high values of alternating current, resulting from neutral imbalance or from potential fault currents. Batteries have a high ability to pass alternating currents. Most other pulser options must be protected by an ac bypass in the form of an expensive capacitor bank. 8D truck batteries can meet the original specification of 1 kA test current. Improved batteries for higher discharge currents are available.

  17. Glass-like slow dynamics in a colloidal solid with multiple ground states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandana Mondal; Smarajit Karmakar; Surajit Sengupta

    2014-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the phase ordering dynamics of a two dimensional model colloidal solid using molecular dynamics simulations. The colloid particles interact with each other with a Hamaker potential modified by the presence of equatorial "patches" of attractive and negative regions. The total interaction potential between two such colloids is, therefore, strongly directional and has three-fold symmetry. Working in the canonical ensemble, we determine the tentative phase diagram in the density-temperature plane which features three distinct crystalline ground states viz, a low density honeycomb solid followed by a rectangular solid at higher density, which eventually transforms to a close packed triangular structure as the density is increased further. We show that when cooled rapidly from the liquid phase along isochores, the system undergoes a transition to a "strong glass" while slow cooling gives rise to crystalline phases. We claim that geometrical frustration arising from the presence of many crystalline ground states causes glassy ordering and dynamics in this solid. Our results may be easily confirmed by suitable experiments on patchy colloids.

  18. Inverse patchy colloids with small patches: fluid structure and dynamical slowing down

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvano Ferrari; Emanuela Bianchi; Yura V. Kalyuzhnyi; Gerhard Kahl

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Inverse Patchy Colloids (IPCs) differ from conventional patchy particles because their patches repel (rather than attract) each other and attract (rather than repel) the part of the colloidal surface that is free of patches. These particular features occur, .e.g., in heterogeneously charged colloidal systems. Here we consider overall neutral IPCs carrying two, relatively small, polar patches. Previous studies of the same model under planar confinement have evidenced the formation of branched, disordered aggregates composed of ring-like structures. We investigate here the bulk behavior of the system via molecular dynamics simulations, focusing on both the structure and the dynamics of the fluid phase in a wide region of the phase diagram. Additionally, the simulation results for the static observables are compared to the Associative Percus Yevick solution of an integral equation approach based on the multi-density Ornstein-Zernike theory. A good agreement between theoretical and numerical quantities is observed even in the region of the phase diagram where the slowing down of the dynamics occurs.

  19. Advanced slow-magic angle spinning probe for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi; Minard, Kevin R.; Rommereim, Donald N.

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a probe and processes useful for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy instruments. More particularly, the invention relates to a MR probe and processes for obtaining resolution enhancements of fluid objects, including live specimens, using an ultra-slow (magic angle) spinning (MAS) of the specimen combined with a modified phase-corrected magic angle turning (PHORMAT) pulse sequence. Proton NMR spectra were measured of the torso and the top part of the belly of a female BALBc mouse in a 2T field, while spinning the animal at a speed of 1.5 Hz. Results show that even in this relatively low field with PHORMAT, an isotropic spectrum is obtained with line widths that are a factor 4.6 smaller than those obtained in a stationary mouse. Resolution of 1H NMR metabolite spectra are thus significantly enhanced. Results indicate that PHORMAT has the potential to significantly increase the utility of 1H NMR spectroscopy for in vivo biochemical, biomedical and/or medical applications involving large-sized biological objects such as mice, rats and even humans within a hospital setting. For small-sized objects, including biological objects, such as excised tissues, organs, live bacterial cells, and biofilms, use of PASS at a spinning rate of 30 Hz and above is preferred.

  20. Regional companies eye growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising ScienceRecentRegional companies eye growth Regional

  1. Growth, microstructure, and luminescent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGetGraphene'sEMSL barium oxideGrowth,

  2. Resistance of fast-and slow-growing subalpine fir to pheromone-induced attack by western balsam bark beetle (Coleoptera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Staffan

    Resistance of fast- and slow-growing subalpine fir to pheromone- induced attack by western balsam the resistance of fast- and slow-growing subalpine fir to pheromone-induced attack by western balsam bark beetle at two sites in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. 2 Attack success by the beetle and subsequent

  3. Argentina: export-biased growth versus import-biased growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley, Michael Page

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ARGENTINA. : EXPORT-BIASED GROWTH VERSUS IMPORT-BIASED GROWTH A Thesis by MICHAEL PAGE BRADLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972... Major Subject: Economics ARGENTINA: EXPORT-BIASED GROWTH VERSUS IMPORT-BIASED GROWTH A Thesis by MICHAEL PAGE BRADLEY Approved as to style and content by: rman o omit ee ea o Depar men em er Mem er May 1&72 ABSTRACT Argentina: Export...

  4. Exercise overloading in the equine: cardiorespiratory and metabolic response to a combined long, slow, distance and interval training exercise regimen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drozd, Leann Francine

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXERCISE OVERLOADING IN THE EQUINE CARDIORESPIRATORY AND METABOLIC RESPONSE TO A COMBINED LONG& SLOW, DISTANCE AND INTERVAL TRAINING EXERCISE REGIMEN A Thesis by LEANN FRANCINE DROZD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... AND INTERVAL TRAINING EXERCISE REGIMEN A Thesis by LEANN FRANCINE DROZD Approved as to style and content by: Gary . P er (Chair of Committee) George T. Jessup (Member) James G. Anderson (Member) G. C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1988 ABSTRACT...

  5. Robust Growth-Optimal Portfolios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    May 24, 2014 ... Adopting standard terminology, we refer to the portfolio managed under the Kelly strategy as the growth-optimal portfolio. This portfolio displays ...

  6. Dynamics of slow light and light storage in a Doppler-broadened electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium: A numerical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Yu, Ite A. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Gou, Shih-Chuan [Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50058, Taiwan (China); Horng, Tzyy-Leng [Department of Applied Mathematics, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40074, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical scheme to study the dynamics of slow light and light storage in an electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) medium at finite temperatures. Allowing for the motional coupling, we derive a set of coupled Schroedinger equations describing a boosted closed three-level EIT system according to the principle of Galilean relativity. The dynamics of a uniformly moving EIT medium can thus be determined by numerically integrating the coupled Schroedinger equations for atoms plus one ancillary Maxwell-Schroedinger equation for the probe pulse. The central idea of this work rests on the assumption that the loss of ground-state coherence at finite temperatures can be ascribed to the incoherent superposition of density matrices representing the EIT systems with various velocities. Close agreements are demonstrated in comparing the numerical results with the experimental data for both slow light and light storage. In particular, the distinct characters featuring the decay of ground-state coherence can be well verified for slow light and light storage. This warrants that the current scheme can be applied to determine the decaying profile of the ground-state coherence as well as the temperature of the EIT medium.

  7. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry Time Spectral Analysis for Spent Fuel Assay: FY11 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Casella, Andrew M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Warren, Glen A.

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing a method for the accurate, direct, and independent assay of the fissile isotopes in bulk materials (such as used fuel) from next-generation domestic nuclear fuel cycles is a goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign. To meet this goal, MPACT supports a multi-institutional collaboration, of which PNNL is a part, to study the feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This technique is an active nondestructive assay method that has the potential to provide independent, direct measurement of Pu and U isotopic masses in used fuel with an uncertainty considerably lower than the approximately 10% typical of today's confirmatory assay methods. This document is a progress report for FY2011 PNNL analysis and algorithm development. Progress made by PNNL in FY2011 continues to indicate the promise of LSDS analysis and algorithms applied to used fuel. PNNL developed an empirical model based on calibration of the LSDS to responses generated from well-characterized used fuel. The empirical model, which accounts for self-shielding effects using empirical basis vectors calculated from the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a matrix containing the true self-shielding functions of the used fuel assembly models. The potential for the direct and independent assay of the sum of the masses of 239Pu and 241Pu to within approximately 3% over a wide used fuel parameter space was demonstrated. Also, in FY2011, PNNL continued to develop an analytical model. Such efforts included the addition of six more non-fissile absorbers in the analytical shielding function and the non-uniformity of the neutron flux across the LSDS assay chamber. A hybrid analytical-empirical approach was developed to determine the mass of total Pu (sum of the masses of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu), which is an important quantity in safeguards. Results using this hybrid method were of approximately the same accuracy as the pure empirical approach. In addition, total Pu with much better accuracy with the hybrid approach than the pure analytical approach. In FY2012, PNNL will continue efforts to optimize its empirical model and minimize its reliance on calibration data. In addition, PNNL will continue to develop an analytical model, considering effects such as neutron-scattering in the fuel and cladding, as well as neutrons streaming through gaps between fuel pins in the fuel assembly.

  8. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry Time Spectral Analysis for Spent Fuel Assay: FY12 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary Developing a method for the accurate, direct, and independent assay of the fissile isotopes in bulk materials (such as used fuel) from next-generation domestic nuclear fuel cycles is a goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign. To meet this goal, MPACT supports a multi-institutional collaboration, of which PNNL is a part, to study the feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This technique is an active nondestructive assay method that has the potential to provide independent, direct measurement of Pu and U isotopic masses in used fuel with an uncertainty considerably lower than the approximately 10% typical of today’s confirmatory methods. This document is a progress report for FY2012 PNNL analysis and algorithm development. Progress made by PNNL in FY2012 continues to indicate the promise of LSDS analysis and algorithms applied to used fuel assemblies. PNNL further refined the semi-empirical model developed in FY2011 based on singular value decomposition (SVD) to numerically account for the effects of self-shielding. The average uncertainty in the Pu mass across the NGSI-64 fuel assemblies was shown to be less than 3% using only six calibration assemblies with a 2% uncertainty in the isotopic masses. When calibrated against the six NGSI-64 fuel assemblies, the algorithm was able to determine the total Pu mass within <2% uncertainty for the 27 diversion cases also developed under NGSI. Two purely empirical algorithms were developed that do not require the use of Pu isotopic fission chambers. The semi-empirical and purely empirical algorithms were successfully tested using MCNPX simulations as well applied to experimental data measured by RPI using their LSDS. The algorithms were able to describe the 235U masses of the RPI measurements with an average uncertainty of 2.3%. Analyses were conducted that provided valuable insight with regard to design requirements (e.g. Pb stack size, neutron source location) of an LSDS for the purpose of assaying used fuel assemblies. Sensitivity studies were conducted that provide insight as to how the LSDS instrument can be improved by making it more sensitive to the center of the fuel assemblies. In FY2013, PNNL will continue efforts to develop and refine design requirements of an LSDS for the ultimate purpose of assaying used fuel assemblies. Future efforts will be directed toward more extensive experimental benchmarking of currently implemented time-spectra analysis algorithms.

  9. Capping layer growth rate and the optical and structural properties of GaAsSbN-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulloa, J. M., E-mail: jmulloa@isom.upm.es; Utrilla, A. D.; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A. [Institute for Systems based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology (ISOM) and Dpto. Ingeniería Electrónica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Reyes, D. F.; Ben, T.; González, D. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e IM y QI, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) (Spain)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing the growth rate during the heteroepitaxial capping of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) with a 5?nm-thick GaAsSbN capping layer (CL) strongly modifies the QD structural and optical properties. A size and shape transition from taller pyramids to flatter lens-shaped QDs is observed when the CL growth rate is decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 ML/s. This indicates that the QD dissolution processes taking place during capping can be controlled to some extent by the GaAsSbN CL growth rate, with high growth rates allowing a complete preservation of the QDs. However, the dissolution processes are shown to have a leveling effect on the QD height, giving rise to a narrower size distribution for lower growth rates. Contrary to what could be expected, these effects are opposite to the strong blue-shift and improvement of the photoluminescence (PL) observed for higher growth rates. Nevertheless, the PL results can be understood in terms of the strong impact of the growth rate on the Sb and N incorporation into the CL, which results in lower Sb and N contents at higher growth rates. Besides the QD-CL band offsets and QD strain, the different CL composition alters the band alignment of the system, which can be transformed to type-II at low growth rates. These results show the key role of the alloyed CL growth parameters on the resulting QD properties and demonstrate an intricate correlation between the PL spectra and the sample morphology in complex QD-CL structures.

  10. CALIFORNIA SMART GROWTH ENERGY SAVINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (particularly autos) comprises a large share of total energy consumption, its reduction through more compact in transportation energy consumption resulting from Smart Growth planning. Since energy consumed by transportationCALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA SMART GROWTH ENERGY SAVINGS MPO SURVEY FINDINGS SEPTEMBER

  11. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry for Spent Fuel Assay: FY12 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, A.; Haight, R. C.; Harris, Jason; Imel, G. R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Stewart, T.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary The Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign is supporting a multi-institutional collaboration to study the feasibility of using Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS) to conduct direct, independent and accurate assay of fissile isotopes in used fuel assemblies. The collaboration consists of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), Idaho State University (ISU). There are three main challenges to implementing LSDS to assay used fuel assemblies. These challenges are the development of an algorithm for interpreting the data with an acceptable accuracy for the fissile masses, the development of suitable detectors for the technique, and the experimental benchmarking of the approach. This report is a summary of the progress in these areas made by the collaboration during FY2012. Significant progress was made on the project in FY2012. Extensive characterization of a “semi-empirical” algorithm was conducted. For example, we studied the impact on the accuracy of this algorithm by the minimization of the calibration set, uncertainties in the calibration masses, and by the choice of time window. Issues such a lead size, number of required neutrons, placement of the neutron source and the impact of cadmium around the detectors were also studied. In addition, new algorithms were developed that do not require the use of plutonium fission chambers. These algorithms were applied to measurement data taken by RPI and shown to determine the 235U mass within 4%. For detectors, a new concept for a fast neutron detector involving 4He recoil from neutron scattering was investigated. The detector has the potential to provide a couple of orders of magnitude more sensitivity than 238U fission chambers. Progress was also made on the more conventional approach of using 232Th fission chambers as fast neutron detectors. For benchmarking measurements, we continue to improve our understanding of the experimental setup by studying issues such as the effect of room return and impurities in the lead. RPI performed a series of experiments with a fresh fuel pin and various 235U and 239Pu sources. A comparison between simulations and measurements shows significant deviations after 200 µs for both 235U and 239Pu samples, as well as significant deviations at earlier times for the 239Pu sample. The FY2013 effort will shift focus to planning for a Technical Readiness Level 5 demonstration. The primary deliverable for the year will be a plan on how to do this demonstration. The plan will include measurement design, sample acquisition, sample handling, cost estimate, schedule and assumptions. Research will continue on the 4He detector, algorithms development, thorium fission chambers and benchmarking measurements involving sub assemblies of fresh fuel.

  12. Synthesis, growth, structure determination and optical properties of chalcone derivative single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthi, S., E-mail: girijaeaswaradas@gmail.com; Girija, E. K., E-mail: girijaeaswaradas@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem - 636011 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Acquiring large nonlinear optical (NLO) efficient organic material is essential for the development of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Chalcone is the donor - ? - acceptor - ? - donor (D-?-A-?-D) type conjugated molecule with appreciable hyperpolarizability of potential interest in NLO applications. The addition of vinyl and electron donor groups in the chalcone molecule may enhance the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency. Here we report the synthesis, crystal growth and characterization of a chalcone derivative 1-(4-methylphenyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-penta-2,4-dien-1-one (MPMPP). The MPMPP crystal was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique from acetone. The grown crystal structure was studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal was determined by Kurtz and Perry method.

  13. Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S

    2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

  14. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic...

  15. Rate coefficient for the chemi-ionization in slow Li*(n)+Li and Na*(n)+Na collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignjatovic, Lj.M.; Mihajlov, A.A. [Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 68, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemi-ionization processes in slow-atom-Rydberg-atom collisions are considered in this paper. A version of the semiclassical method of rate coefficient calculation that is free of the presumptions which significantly limited its applicability previously is presented. The method is applied to the cases of Li*(n)+Li and Na*(n)+Na collisions for the principal quantum numbers 5{<=}n{<=}25 and temperatures 600{<=}T{<=}1200 K. The results of calculation of the rate coefficients of the corresponding chemi-ionization processes are compared to the existing experimental data from the literature.

  16. Slow motions detection in polybutadiene through novel analyses of MSE refocusing efficiency and spin-lattice relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone Sturniolo; Marco Pieruccini; Maurizio Corti; Attilio Rigamonti

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel methods to analyze NMR signals dominated by dipolar interaction are applied to the study of slow relaxation motions in polybutadiene approaching its glass transition temperature. The analysis is based on a recently developed model where the time dependence in an ensemble of dipolar interacting spin pairs is described without resorting to the Anderson-Weiss approximation. The ability to catch relevant features of the $\\alpha$ relaxation process is emphasized. In particular, it is shown that the temperature profile of the Magic Sandwich Echo efficiency carries information on the frequency profile of the $\\alpha$-process. The analysis is corroborated by the temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation time.

  17. Floods on Nottely River and Martin, Peachtree, and Slow Creeks in Cherokee County, North Carolina. Flood report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the flood situation along the Nottely River from the North Carolina-Georgia State line, at stream mile 18.72, downstream to the head of Hiwassee Reservoir backwater, stream mile 6.50; Martin Creek from mile 6.12 downstream to mile 1.38; Peachtree Creek from Ammon Bottom at mile 4.78 downstream to its mouth at Hiwassee River mile 100,68; and Slow Creek from mile 3.15 downstream to its mouth at Peachtree Creek mile 1.98.

  18. Growth machine theory: a qualitative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Gavin Paul

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of land inherent in growth machine theory, does not necessarily result in a dialectic, win-lose situation. Furthermore, it is argued that the growth coalition may not always ado t a unidimensional roach to development where further growth...

  19. Vermont Employment Growth Incentive (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Employment Growth Incentive (VEGI) is to encourage job creation in Vermont by a Vermont company, a Vermont division of a company that plans to grow and expand in Vermont, a...

  20. Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hal

    Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith 1 Simple Models Bacteria are the dominant form of life on the planet the concentration of the nutrient in the media (grams/liter) and N(t) de

  1. Cosmic Growth History and Expansion History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linder, Eric V.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the expansion history dark energy equation of state,and growth history constraints on the dark energy equationand growth history constraints on the dark energy equation

  2. The intense slow positron beam facility at the PULSTAR reactor and applications in nano-materials study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ming; Moxom, Jeremy; Hawari, Ayman I. [Nuclear Reactor Program, Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, P.O. Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Gidley, David W. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An intense slow positron beam has been established at the PULSTAR nuclear research reactor of North Carolina State University. The slow positrons are generated by pair production in a tungsten moderator from gammarays produced in the reactor core and by neutron capture reactions in cadmium. The moderated positrons are electrostatically extracted and magnetically guided out of the region near the core. Subsequently, the positrons are used in two spectrometers that are capable of performing positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and positron Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) to probe the defect and free volume properties of materials. One of the spectrometers (e{sup +}-PALS) utilizes an rf buncher to produce a pulsed beam and has a timing resolution of 277 ps. The second spectrometer (Ps-PALS) uses a secondary electron timing technique and is dedicated to positronium lifetime measurements with an approximately 1 ns timing resolution. PALS measurements have been conducted in the e{sup +}-PALS spectrometer on a series of nano-materials including organic photovoltaic thin films, membranes for filtration, and polymeric fibers. These studies have resulted in understanding some critical issues related to the development of the examined nano-materials.

  3. Economic Growth and Development Economics 777

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Economic Growth and Development Economics 777 July 18, 2008 Fall Semester 2008 Professor J. H. Mc of economic growth and development. We will analyze several different growth models and look at some recent empirical research. Text The text for this course is: Economic Growth (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Barro

  4. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  5. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  6. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  7. Universal slow fall-off to the unique AdS infinity in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeda, Hideki [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the following two propositions are proven under the dominant energy condition for the matter field in the higher-dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in the presence of a cosmological constant {lambda}. First, for {lambda}{<=}0 and {alpha}{>=}0 without a fine-tuning to give a unique anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum, where {alpha} is the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant, vanishing generalized Misner-Sharp mass is equivalent to the maximally symmetric spacetime. Under the fine-tuning, it is equivalent to the vacuum class I spacetime. Second, under the fine-tuning with {alpha}>0, the asymptotically AdS spacetime in the higher-dimensional Henneaux-Teitelboim sense is only a special class of the vacuum class I spacetime. This means the universal slow fall-off to the unique AdS infinity in the presence of physically reasonable matter.

  8. The Slow:Fast substitution ratio reveals changing patterns of natural selection in gamma-proteobacterial genomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alm, Eric; Shapiro, B. Jesse

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Different microbial species are thought to occupy distinct ecological niches, subjecting each species to unique selective constraints, which may leave a recognizable signal in their genomes. Thus, it may be possible to extract insight into the genetic basis of ecological differences among lineages by identifying unusual patterns of substitutions in orthologous gene or protein sequences. We use the ratio of substitutions in slow versus fast-evolving sites (nucleotides in DNA, or amino acids in protein sequence) to quantify deviations from the typical pattern of selective constraint observed across bacterial lineages. We propose that elevated S:F in one branch (an excess of slow-site substitutions) can indicate a functionally-relevant change, due to either positive selection or relaxed evolutionary constraint. In a genome-wide comparative study of gamma-proteobacterial proteins, we find that cell-surface proteins involved with motility and secretion functions often have high S:F ratios, while information-processing genes do not. Change in evolutionary constraints in some species is evidenced by increased S:F ratios within functionally-related sets of genes (e.g., energy production in Pseudomonas fluorescens), while other species apparently evolve mostly by drift (e.g., uniformly elevated S:F across most genes in Buchnera spp.). Overall, S:F reveals several species-specific, protein-level changes with potential functional/ecological importance. As microbial genome projects yield more species-rich gene-trees, the S:F ratio will become an increasingly powerful tool for uncovering functional genetic differences among species.

  9. The Cutaneous Epidermal Growth Factor Network: Can it be Translated Clinically to Stimulate Hair Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of epidermal growth factor on hair growth in the mouse. Jstem cell character in hair follicles. Science. 2006;312:Notch signalling pathway in hair growth. Mech Dev. 1998;78:

  10. Stress corrosion crack growth in porous sandstones. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojala, Ira O

    Stress corrosion crack growth occurs when the chemical weakening of strained crack tip bonds facilitates crack propagation. I have examined the effect of chemical processes on the growth of a creack population by carrying out triaxial compression...

  11. Estimating phytoplankton growth rates from compositional data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Lorraine (Lorraine Marie)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I build on the deterministic phytoplankton growth model of Sosik et al. by introducing process error, which simulates real variation in population growth and inaccuracies in the structure of the matrix model. Adding a ...

  12. Method for crystal growth control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Douglas A. (Burlington, MA); Hatch, Arthur E. (Waltham, MA); Goldsmith, Jeff M. (Medford, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  13. Effect of Pt addition on Ni silicide formation at low temperature: Growth, redistribution, and solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoummada, K.; Perrin-Pellegrino, C.; Mangelinck, D. [Aix-Marseille Universite, IM2NP, Campus de Saint-Jerome, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen-Case 142, F-13397 Marseille Cedex (France); CNRS, IM2NP (UMR 6242), Case 142, Faculte de Saint-Jerome, F-13397 Marseille Cedex (France)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of Ni silicide during the reaction between Ni(5% Pt) and a Si(100) substrate has been analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in situ x-ray diffraction (XRD), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and {sup 4}He{sup +} Rutherford backscattering. The DSC measurements show evidence of the Ni{sub 2}Si nucleation followed by lateral growth formation. In situ XRD and TEM have been used to investigate the sequence of formation of the silicides. These experiments show that the formations of Ni{sub 2}Si and NiSi occur simultaneously in the presence of the Pt alloy. The redistribution of platinum at different stages of the Ni silicide growth has been determined. We have estimated the solubility limit of platinum (1 at. % at 573 K) in the Ni{sub 2}Si phase by extrapolation from a measured value at 1073 K. This redistribution is explained in terms of the solubility limits and the diffusion of Pt in the Ni{sub 2}Si and NiSi phases. Pt is more likely to reside at the silicide grain boundaries and the interfaces where it can slow down the silicide growth kinetics.

  14. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, August 2011, pp. 16491653 Fission Physics and Cross Section Measurements with a Lead Slowing down

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    of methods for assay of used nuclear fuel. The effective energy range for the LSDS is 0.1 eV to 10 ke) A Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS) provides a high neutron flux environment that en- ablesV with energy resolution of about 35%. Two new LSDS applications were recently developed at RPI; the first

  15. Two-photon-absorption photodiodes in Si photonic-crystal slow-light Ryo Hayakawa, Norihiro Ishikura, Hong C. Nguyen, and Toshihiko Baba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baba, Toshihiko

    Two-photon-absorption photodiodes in Si photonic-crystal slow-light waveguides Ryo Hayakawa enhancement and non-linear behavior in avalanche photodiodes under high power condition J. Appl. Phys. 113, 044509 (2013) Near-infrared photodetection of -FeSi2/Si heterojunction photodiodes at low temperatures

  16. Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario, Leonid Kalachev Marko Laine, Lappeenranta University of the phenomena studied. Here, in the case of algae growth modelling, we show how a systematic model reduction may: Algae growth modelling, asymptotic methods, model reduction, MCMC, Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo. 1

  17. Original article Growth stresses in tension wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Growth stresses in tension wood: role of microfibrils and lignification T Okuyama the growth stress generation in the region of normal and tension woods. growth stress/ tension wood in normal and ten- sion wood. The compressive stress from the deposition of lignin controls the level

  18. Effect of non-uniform slow wave structure in a relativistic backward wave oscillator with a resonant reflector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Changhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Sun, Jun; Song, Zhimin; Huo, Shaofei; Bai, Xianchen; Shi, Yanchao; Liu, Guozhi [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a fresh insight into the effect of non-uniform slow wave structure (SWS) used in a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) with a resonant reflector. Compared with the uniform SWS, the reflection coefficient of the non-uniform SWS is higher, leading to a lower modulating electric field in the resonant reflector and a larger distance to maximize the modulation current. Moreover, for both types of RBWOs, stronger standing-wave field takes place at the rear part of the SWS. In addition, besides Cerenkov effects, the energy conversion process in the RBWO strongly depends on transit time effects. Thus, the matching condition between the distributions of harmonic current and standing wave field provides a profound influence on the beam-wave interaction. In the non-uniform RBWO, the region with a stronger standing wave field corresponds to a higher fundamental harmonic current distribution. Particle-in-cell simulations show that with a diode voltage of 1.02 MV and beam current of 13.2 kA, a microwave power of 4 GW has been obtained, compared to that of 3 GW in the uniform RBWO.

  19. Measurement and Analysis Plan for Investigation of Spent-Fuel Assay Using Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Leon E.; Haas, Derek A.; Gavron, Victor A.; Imel, G. R.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Danon, Y.; Beller, D.

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Under funding from the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Materials, Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) program (formerly the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative Safeguards Campaign), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are collaborating to study the viability of lead slowing-down spectroscopy (LSDS) for spent-fuel assay. Based on the results of previous simulation studies conducted by PNNL and LANL to estimate potential LSDS performance, a more comprehensive study of LSDS viability has been defined. That study includes benchmarking measurements, development and testing of key enabling instrumentation, and continued study of time-spectra analysis methods. This report satisfies the requirements for a PNNL/LANL deliverable that describes the objectives, plans and contributing organizations for a comprehensive three-year study of LSDS for spent-fuel assay. This deliverable was generated largely during the LSDS workshop held on August 25-26, 2009 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). The workshop itself was a prominent milestone in the FY09 MPACT project and is also described within this report.

  20. Acoustic waves in a Biot-type porous snow model: The fast slow wave in light snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidler, Rolf

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wave velocities, attenuation and reflection coefficients in snow can not be explained by the widely used elastic or viscoelastic models for wave propagation. Instead, Biot's model of wave propagation in porous materials should be used. However, the application of Biot's model is difficult due to the large property space of the underlying porous material. Here we use the properties of ice and air as well as empirical relationships to define the properties of snow as a function of porosity. This reduction allows to predict phase velocities and attenuation of the shear- and compressional-waves as functions of porosity or density. For light snow the peculiarity was found that the velocity of the compressional wave of the first kind is lower than the compressional wave of the second kind that is commonly referred to as the "slow" wave. The reversal of the velocities comes with an increase of attenuation for the first compressional wave. This is in line with the common observation that sound is strongly absorbed af...

  1. D-Factor: A Quantitative Model of Application Slow-Down in Multi-Resource Shared Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Seung-Hwan [ORNL] [ORNL; Huh, Jae-Seok [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Das, Chita [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scheduling multiple jobs onto a platform enhances system utilization by sharing resources. The benefits from higher resource utilization include reduced cost to construct, operate, and maintain a system, which often include energy consumption. Maximizing these benefits comes at a price - resource contention among jobs increases job completion time. In this paper, we analyze slow-downs of jobs due to contention for multiple resources in a system; referred to as dilation factor. We observe that multiple-resource contention creates non-linear dilation factors of jobs. From this observation, we establish a general quantitative model for dilation factors of jobs in multi-resource systems. A job is characterized by a vector-valued loading statistics and dilation factors of a job set are given by a quadratic function of their loading vectors. We demonstrate how to systematically characterize a job, maintain the data structure to calculate the dilation factor (loading matrix), and calculate the dilation factor of each job. We validate the accuracy of the model with multiple processes running on a native Linux server, virtualized servers, and with multiple MapReduce workloads co-scheduled in a cluster. Evaluation with measured data shows that the D-factor model has an error margin of less than 16%. We also show that the model can be integrated with an existing on-line scheduler to minimize the makespan of workloads.

  2. Does Open Space Pay in Brentwood? Housing Growth and Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    the publication of this article, there have been more studies, followed by a small revolution in New Hampshire administration? It was probably easy for many years in New Hampshire communities to assume that the new homes were at least contributing new taxes that offset the school and town service costs. But tax rates were

  3. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  4. Slow Moving Debt Crises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenzoni, Guido

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    What circumstances or policies leave sovereign borrowers at the mercy of self-fulfilling increases in interest rates? To answer this question, we study the dynamics of debt and interest rates in a model where default is ...

  5. The Slow Gravitino

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karim Benakli; Luc Darmé; Yaron Oz

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When the supersymmetry breaking sector is a fluid background, Lorentz invariance is broken spontaneously. The super-Higgs mechanism leads to a gravitino Lagrangian with Lorentz symmetry violating terms. We analyse the resulting field equations and constraints. We identify the physical spin 3/2 and spin 1/2 helicity states, derive their equations of motion and construct the propagator. The violation of Lorentz symmetry implies that the longitudinal mode has a non-relativistic dispersion relation, whose speed is lower than the speed of light. We briefly comment on possible implications to gravitino cosmology and phenomenology.

  6. Running Jobs Intermittently Slow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource ProgramEnergyMaterials:Bill WilcoxSpear.0 35.0 55.05

  7. From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change and Gumpert, 1985), and virtually all economic models of business creation follow firm birth with firm growth models of new business growth assume a limited number of distinct stages through #12;3 which businesses

  8. Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. I. Growth and feed efficiency responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. I. Growth and feed efficiency responses growth promoters of antibiotic type authorised in the Euro- pean Union as additives for pig and poultry) growth promoter / antibiotic / pig / poultry Résumé - Les promoteurs de croissance dans l

  9. Spallation in ductile void growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.N.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model of ductile void growth under the application of a mean tensile stress is applied to the problem of spallation in solids. Calculation of plate-impact spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 29 kbar) shows good agreement with the dynamically measured spall signal. A second calculation, using identical material parameters, of explosively produced spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 250 kbar) does very well in reproducing experimentally observed multiple spall thicknesses as observed by dynamic x-radiographic techniques. This theoretical model thus appears applicable to a wide range of dynamic uniaxial-strain loading conditions, bridging a gap that has been thought to exist for some time.

  10. The response of self-graviting protostellar discs to slow reduction in cooling timescale: the fragmentation boundary revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Clarke; E. Harper-Clark; G. Lodato

    2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of previous studies of the fragmentation of self-gravitating protostellar discs have modeled radiative cooling with a cooling timescale (t_{cool}) parameterised as a simple multiple (beta_{cool}) of the local dynamical timescale. Such studies have delineated the `fragmentation boundary' in terms of a critical value of beta_{cool} (beta_{crit}), where the disc fragments if beta_{cool} < beta_{crit}. Such an approach however begs the question of how in reality a disc could ever be assembled with beta_{cool} < beta_{crit}. Here we adopt the more realistic approach of gradually reducing beta_{cool}, as might correspond to changes in thermal regime due to secular changes in the disc density profile. We find that when beta_{cool} is gradually reduced (on a timescale longer than t_{cool}), the disc is stabilised against fragmentation, compared with models in which beta_{cool} is reduced rapidly. We therefore conclude that a disc's ability to remain in a self-regulated, self-gravitating state (without fragmentation) is partly dependent on its thermal history, as well as its current cooling rate. Nevertheless, a slow reduction in t_{cool} appears only to lower the fragmentation boundary by about a factor two in t_{cool} and thus only permits maximum alpha values (parameterising the efficiency of angular momentum transfer in the disc) that are about a factor two higher than determined hitherto. Our results therefore do not undermine the notion of a fundamental upper limit to the heating rate that can be delivered by gravitational instabilities before the disc is subject to fragmentation. An important implication of this work, therefore, is that self-gravitating discs can enter into the regime of fragmentation via secular evolution and it is not necessary to invoke rapid (impulsive) events to trigger fragmentation.

  11. Apparatus for monitoring crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  12. Method of monitoring crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  13. OVERVIEW OF EVOLVING FINANCIAL AND OFFSETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    's) A typical CDM on waste would be recovery of landfill gas but it has to be additional (means would not have

  14. Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    [http://www.energy.ca.gov/2009-SOPR-1/documents/sb_1_bill_20060821_chapte... Senate Bill 1 of 2006], which established the statewide California Solar Initiative, also required the California Energy...

  15. Agricultural Mitigation and Offsets: Policy Issues, Progress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emissions Trading Workshop Debbie Reed DRD Associates Purdue University Washington, DC Friday, April 30 Cycles ISSUE: C & N losses from agricultural systems = costly to ag, society SOLUTION: Farmers) Smaller, diffuse, non-point sources = not efficient targets, regulated reductions are too costly Ag = non

  16. Forest and Carbon offset investments: problems and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettenella, Davide

    and problems related to forest investments as C sinks 2. The two markets: ­The "regulated" market ­The voluntary market 3. Some final considerations 1. Mitigation options and problems related to forest (Bioenergy / biofuels) Mitigation options in the forest sector #12;2 Source: Schlamadinger, 2000 2. The two

  17. Explaining the Price of Voluntary Carbon Offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conte, Marc N.; Kotchen, Matthew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on fuel efficiency, hydropower, fuel substitution, solarbiomass methane, wind, hydropower, solar, and other. 8 OECDtypes of biomass methane, hydropower, so- lar, and wind. All

  18. Semiconductor heterojunction band offsets and charge neutrality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chomsik

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    involving lasers, light emitting diodes, and metal-semiconductor field effect transistors, the models of Schottky and Bardeen correspond only to limiting cases, in which the energy barriers for electrons at the interface respectively vary linearly... of metal-lead sulfide contacts on the polarity of the applied voltage. In the 1930's, Tamm, Mott, Schottky and others developed the basic theory related to surface and interface semiconductor properties. Schottky introduced the first modern model Journal...

  19. Sandbag Carbon Offset Map | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar PowerstoriesNrelPartnerType JumpJersey)CarbonOrganization JumpR EMountainSandbag

  20. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal Registry CommentsOverview » Financing Program Pitfalls to

  1. Phenomenological approach for describing environment dependent growths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibyendu Biswas; Swarup Poria

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Different classes of phenomenological universalities of environment dependent growths have been proposed. The logistic as well as environment dependent West-type allometry based biological growth can be explained in this proposed framework of phenomenological description. It is shown that logistic and environment dependent West-type growths are phenomenologically identical in nature. However there is a difference between them in terms of coefficients involved in the phenomenological descriptions. It is also established that environment independent and enviornment dependent biological growth processes lead to the same West-type biological growth equation. Involuted Gompertz function, used to describe biological growth processes undergoing atrophy or a demographic and economic system undergoing involution or regression, can be addressed in this proposed environment dependent description. In addition, some other phenomenological descriptions have been examined in this proposed framework and graphical representations of variation of different parameters involved in the description are executed.

  2. Thermomechanical cavity-growth modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, R.E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of recent field tests, laboratory studies, and modeling efforts in UCG have indicated that the thermal and mechanical properties of coal may be the controlling parameters in determining initial cavity shape. In examining this possibility, laboratory efforts have been directed at determining temperature and bedding plane dependent properties of coal. A thermomechanical model which uses these properties has indicated that the cavity shapes seen at both the Hanna and Hoe Creek test sites result from the temperature dependent properties of the coal such as the coefficients of thermal expansion and the elastic moduli. The model determines stress levels and uses a simple bedding plane dependent stress failure mechanism to determine cavity growth.

  3. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  4. Optimization Online - Robust Growth-Optimal Portfolios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napat Rujeerapaiboon

    2014-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    May 24, 2014 ... Abstract: The growth-optimal portfolio is designed to have maximum ... the asset return distribution, which is not directly observable but must be ...

  5. Essays on India’s Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    initial euphoria about liberalisation, a revisionist viewand industrial policy liberalisation. Three, growth in thebuilt up under the pre-liberalisation policy regime), their

  6. Theoretical Ecology: Continued growth and success

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Alan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EDITORIAL Theoretical Ecology: Continued growth and successof areas in theoretical ecology. Among the highlights areyear represent theoretical ecology from around the world: 20

  7. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy Presentation: Presentation Abstract: Abstract Conflict Between Economic Growth and...

  8. IN THIS ISSUE Excessive Cotton Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    AGRONOMY NOTES July, 2004 IN THIS ISSUE COTTON Excessive Cotton Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Management Influence on Hardlock Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Wet Conditions and Nitrogen Applications on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

  9. Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India* Jeffrey D. Sachs Director The Earth Institute at Columbia_ramiah@yahoo.co.uk Asian Economic Papers 1:3 © 2002 The Earth Institute at Columbia University and the Massachusetts

  10. Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. III. Alternatives to antibiotic growth promotants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. III. Alternatives to antibiotic growth) Abstract - On the basis of improving effects of antibiotic growth promoters in pigs and poultry being / antibiotic / pig / poultry / alternatives to antibiotics Résumé - Les promoteurs de croissance dans l

  11. Social Capital and Growth Bryan R. Routledge ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , labor mobility, and social capital. The key assumption is that technological innovation, which drivesSocial Capital and Growth Bryan R. Routledge , Joachim von Amsberg § March 2002 Revised July 2002 Abstract We define and characterize social capital in a simple growth model. We capture social capital

  12. BIOTIC INFLUENCES AFFECTING POPULATION GROWTH OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Chlorella and Nitz8chia _ Growth curve and division rate of Chlorella _ Growth curve and division rate in conditioned media _ Inhibitory effect o~ Chlorella of Nitz8chia-conditioned medium _ Inhibitory effect on Nitz8chia of Chlorella-condit,ioned medium _ Inhibitory effects of filtrate from conditioned media

  13. Beer and Economic Growth Dr. Martin Shields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beer and Economic Growth Dr. Martin Shields Regional Economics Institute Colorado State University #12;The Idea · Regional economic growth depends, in part, on the ability to sell goods and services) ­ Industry employment is 35 times more concentrated in Larimer County than the US average! #12;Economic

  14. Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India Jeffrey D. Sachs, Nirupam Bajpai and Ananthi Ramiah Papers #12;Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India Jeffrey D. Sachs Center for International Development (CID) Harvard University Ananthi_Ramiah@harvard.edu This paper was prepared for the Asian Economic

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri). They exhibit low growth rates, specific obligate nutrient requirements (hydrogen as electron donor, acetate

  16. Bifurcation Analysis of Endogenous Growth Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Taniya

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    that the model could produce chaotic dynamics, but our analysis cannot confirm that conjecture. Further this thesis analyses the dynamics of a variant of Jones semi-endogenous growth model "Sources of US Economic growth in a World of Ideas" The American Economic...

  17. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  18. The use of slow strain rate technique for studying stress corrosion cracking of an advanced silver-bearing aluminum-lithium alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frefer, Abdulbaset Ali; Raddad, Bashir S. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering/Tripoli University, Tripoli (Libya); Abosdell, Alajale M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering/Mergeb University, Garaboli (Libya)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of naturally aged advanced silver-bearing Al-Li alloy in NaCl solution was investigated using slow strain rate test (SSRT) method. The SSRT’s were conducted at different strain rates and applied potentials at room temperature. The results were discussed based on percent reductions in tensile elongation in a SCC-causing environment over those in air tended to express the SCC susceptbility of the alloy under study at T3. The SCC behavior of the alloy was also discussed based on the microstructural and fractographic examinations.

  19. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of die-cast AM60B magnesium alloys in a complex salt solution: A slow positron beam study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.F. [Wuhan University] [Wuhan University; Qin, Q.L. [Wuhan University] [Wuhan University; Yang, W. [Wuhan University] [Wuhan University; Wen, W. [University of Kentucky] [University of Kentucky; Zhai, T. [University of Kentucky] [University of Kentucky; Yu, B. [University of Alberta] [University of Alberta; Liu, D.Y. [University of Alberta] [University of Alberta; Luo, A. [GM Research and Development Center] [GM Research and Development Center; Song, GuangLing [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure and corrosion behavior of high pressure die-cast (HPDC) and super vacuum die-cast (SVDC) AM60B magnesium alloys were investigated in a complex salt solution using slow positron beam technique and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The experiments revealed that a CaCO3 film was formed on the surface of the alloys and that the rate of CaCO3 formation for the SVDC alloy with immersion time was slower than that of the HPDC alloy. The larger volume fraction of b-phase in the skin layer of the SVDC alloy than that of the HPDC alloy was responsible for the better corrosion resistance.

  20. Comparing range data across the slow-time dimension to correct motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM); Heard, Freddie E. (Albuquerque, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  1. Growth, structural and optical characterization of L-histidine 4-nitrophenolate (LHPNP) single crystals for NLO applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahadevan, M., E-mail: devanphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Melmaruvathur - 603319 (India); Ramachandran, K., E-mail: ramach76@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, SRM University - Vadapalani Campus, Chennai -600026 (India); Anandan, P., E-mail: anandantcet@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Thiruvalluvar College of Engineering and Technology, Vandavasi-604 505, India and Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-Ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Arivanandhan, M., E-mail: arivucz@gmail.com, E-mail: royhaya@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp; Hayakawa, Y., E-mail: arivucz@gmail.com, E-mail: royhaya@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-Ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using slow evaporation solution growth technique, single crystals of L-histidine-4-nitro phenolate has been grown from the solution. Structural analyses were carried out by powder x-ray diffraction, FT-Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectral methods to conform the grown crystals. Thermal stability of the grown crystals was studied by thermo-gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). UV-Vis spectral analysis has been carried out to find the transparency of the grown crystal. Nonlinear optical property has been confirmed by Kurtz powder technique. The PL measurements were carried out in Perkin Elmer LS 55 Luminescence spectrometer using 410 nm as excitation wavelength. The observed properties have confirmed that the grown crystal is suitable for nonlinear optical applications.

  2. An experiment to determine the effect of the growth hormone of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland on swine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, Dorris David

    1940-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the parathyroids, removed the thyroid and reported that the gland was not essential for l ife , but that thyroidectomy caused lessened growth and slow ossification. 5 Horsley qb33wj stateJ t9at t9e uit4itary has essential 1or li1e as all o1 9is ouerateJ anivals... to receive the ova, and prevents the development of estrus. 15 Fraenxel qbV87(bVb8j uro2eJ t9at in t9e rammit t9e revo2al o1 mot9 o2aries or t9e Jestr4dtion o1 t9e doruora l4tea J4rin0 t9e 1irst sic Jays o1 ure0nandy in2ariamly tervinateJ t9at ure0nandy...

  3. Hypersonic Measurements of Roughness-Induced Transient Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, Nicole Susanne

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of surface roughness on boundary-layer disturbance growth and laminar-to-turbulent transition are not well understood, especially in hypersonic boundary layers. The transient growth mechanism that produces algebraic growth of stream wise...

  4. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    rebounds but remains relatively slow, as growing demand for electricity services is offset by efficiency gains from new appliance standards and investments in...

  5. Economic Redevelopment and Growth Program (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Economic Redevelopment and Growth program (ERG) is an incentive for real estate development projects that have a financing gap, defined as having insufficient revenues to support the project debt...

  6. New Jersey Business Growth Fund (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Creditworthy small or mid-sized companies that are creating or retaining jobs in New Jersey can apply for financing through the New Jersey Business Growth Fund, a joint program of the EDA and PNC...

  7. Selective anisotropic growth of zeolite crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Tasha April

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise control over particle size and morphology is emerging as a critical issue in the design of nanostructured materials. The explosive growth of nanoparticle synthesis is a good example of this. As material chemists have developed the ability...

  8. Essays on Productivity Change, Growth, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    : To replicate an industrial revolution: from exogenous to endogenous growth In the last quarter of the second millennium many countries experienced, simultane- ously, an industrial revolution (an exponential increase

  9. Crack propagation driven by crystal growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Royne; Paul Meaking; A. Malthe-Sorenssen; B. Jamtveit; D. K. Dysthe

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystals that grow in confinement may exert a force on their surroundings and thereby drive crack propagation in rocks and other materials. We describe a model of crystal growth in an idealized crack geometry in which the crystal growth and crack propagation are coupled through the stress in the surrounding bulk solid. Subcritical crack propagation takes place during a transient period, which may be very long, during which the crack velocity is limited by the kinetics of crack propagation. When the crack is sufficiently large, the crack velocity becomes limited by the kinetics of crystal growth. The duration of the subcritical regime is determined by two non-dimensional parameters, which relate the kinetics of crack propagation and crystal growth to the supersaturation of the fluid and the elastic properties of the surrounding material.

  10. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Chemistry SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF METAL GROWTH ON OXIDES A Thesis by KAI LUO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style a d content by: avid W. Goodman.... , Jilin University, P. R. China Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr, David W. Goodman Metal/oxide chemistry and metal cluster growth on oxides are fundamental to our understanding of the catalytic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts, thus...

  11. Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

  12. NREL: News - NREL's Industry Growth Forum Brings Together Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4014 NREL's Industry Growth Forum Brings Together Energy Innovators Event recognizes the top clean energy technologies and startup businesses October 30, 2014 The Industry Growth...

  13. Epitaxial Growth and Properties of Doped Transition Metal and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of crystalline oxide film growth using vacuum methods is reviewed and discussed with an eye toward gaining fundamental insights into the relationships between growth process and...

  14. allometric appendage growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 PERSPECTIVES Allometric growth, life-history invariants and population energetics Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: IDEAS AND PERSPECTIVES Allometric growth,...

  15. New Partners for Smart Growth Conference | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the nation's largest smart growth and sustainability conference. The three-day conference is themed, "Practical Tools and Innovative...

  16. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Abstract: The...

  17. A Geometric Theory of Growth Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arash Yavari

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we formulate a geometric theory of the mechanics of growing solids. Bulk growth is modeled by a material manifold with an evolving metric. Time dependence of metric represents the evolution of the stress-free (natural) configuration of the body in response to changes in mass density and "shape". We show that time dependency of material metric will affect the energy balance and the entropy production inequality; both the energy balance and the entropy production inequality have to be modified. We then obtain the governing equations covariantly by postulating invariance of energy balance under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms. We use the principle of maximum entropy production in deriving an evolution equation for the material metric. In the case of isotropic growth, we find those growth distributions that do not result in residual stresses. We then look at Lagrangian field theory of growing elastic solids. We will use the Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle with Rayleigh's dissipation functions to derive all the governing equations. We make an explicit connection between our geometric theory and the conventional multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient $\\mathbf{F}=\\mathbf{F}_e\\mathbf{F}_g$ into growth and elastic parts. We linearize the nonlinear theory and derive a linearized theory of growth mechanics. Finally, we obtain the stress-free growth distributions in the linearized theory.

  18. Apparatus for silicon web growth of higher output and improved growth stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S. (Penn Hills, PA); Piotrowski, Paul A. (Monroeville, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure describes an apparatus to improve the web growth attainable from prior web growth configurations. This apparatus modifies the heat loss at the growth interface in a manner that minimizes thickness variations across the web, especially regions of the web adjacent to the two bounding dendrites. In the unmodified configuration, thinned regions of web, adjacent to the dendrites, were found to be the origin of crystal degradation which ultimately led to termination of the web growth. According to the present invention, thinning adjacent to the dendrites is reduced and the incidence of crystal degradation is similarly reduced.

  19. Journal of Crystal Growth 271 (2004) 128133 Growth of strontium barium niobate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Journal of Crystal Growth 271 (2004) 128­133 Growth of strontium barium niobate: the liquidus. Roth Available online 11 September 2004 Abstract The liquidus­solidus phase diagram of strontium barium, and dielectric properties, strontium barium niobate, SrxBa1�xNb2O6--hen- ceforth denoted as SBN, is one

  20. Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

  1. Fractal-Mound Growth of Pentacene Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serkan Zorba; Yonathan Shapir; Yongli Gao

    2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth mechanism of pentacene film formation on SiO2 substrate was investigated with a combination of atomic force microscopy measurements and numerical modeling. In addition to the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) that has already been shown to govern the growth of the ordered pentacene thin films, it is shown here for the first time that the Schwoebel barrier effect steps in and disrupts the desired epitaxial growth for the subsequent layers, leading to mound growth. The terraces of the growing mounds have a fractal dimension of 1.6, indicating a lateral DLA shape. This novel growth morphology thus combines horizontal DLA-like growth with vertical mound growth.

  2. A Geometric Theory of Growth Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yavari, Arash

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we formulate a geometric theory of the mechanics of growing solids. Bulk growth is modeled by a material manifold with an evolving metric. Time dependence of metric represents the evolution of the stress-free (natural) configuration of the body in response to changes in mass density and "shape". We show that time dependency of material metric will affect the energy balance and the entropy production inequality; both the energy balance and the entropy production inequality have to be modified. We then obtain the governing equations covariantly by postulating invariance of energy balance under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms. We use the principle of maximum entropy production in deriving an evolution equation for the material metric. In the case of isotropic growth, we find those growth distributions that do not result in residual stresses. We then look at Lagrangian field theory of growing elastic solids. We will use the Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle with Rayleigh's dissipation functions...

  3. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    at a modest rate Slow consumption growth, fast investment growth, and an ever-improving trade surplus Output growth for energy-intensive industries remains slow Energy...

  4. Population Growth, (Per Capita) Economic Growth, and Poverty Reduction in Uganda: A brief Summary of Theory and Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    Population Growth, (Per Capita) Economic Growth, and Poverty Reduction in Uganda: A brief Summary: This note examines the link between population and per capita economic growth in Uganda. After showing that Uganda has one of the highest population growth rates in the world which, due to the inherent demographic

  5. Monitoring hydraulic fracture growth: Laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groenenboom, J.; Dam, D.B. van

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors carry out small-scale hydraulic fracture experiments to investigate the physics of hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory experiments are combined with time-lapse ultrasonic measurements with active sources using both compressional and shear-wave transducers. For the time-lapse measurements they focus on ultrasonic measurement changes during fracture growth. As a consequence they can detect the hydraulic fracture and characterize its shape and geometry during growth. Hence, this paper deals with fracture characterization using time-lapse acoustic data. Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil and gas industry to stimulate reservoir production.

  6. Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanh Trung, Pham, E-mail: phamtha@fundp.ac.be; Joucken, Frédéric; Colomer, Jean-François; Robert, Sporken [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Electrical Engineering (ELEN), Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Université catholique de Louvain UCL, 3 place du Levant, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hackens, Benoît; Santos, Cristiane N. [Nanoscopic physics (NAPS), Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Université catholique de Louvain UCL, 2 chemin du Cyclotron, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

  7. Surface growth effects on reactive capillary-driven flow: Lattice Boltzmann investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danilo Sergi; Loris Grossi; Tiziano Leidi; Alberto Ortona

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Washburn law has always played a critical role for ceramics. In the microscale, surface forces take over volume forces and the phenomenon of spontaneous infiltration in narrow interstices becomes of particular relevance. The Lattice Boltzmann method is applied in order to ascertain the role of surface reaction and subsequent deformation of a single capillary in 2D for the linear Washburn behavior. The proposed investigation is motivated by the problem of reactive infiltration of molten silicon into carbon preforms. This is a complex phenomenon arising from the interplay between fluid flow, the transition to wetting, surface growth and heat transfer. Furthermore, it is characterized by slow infiltration velocities in narrow interstices resulting in small Reynolds numbers that are difficult to reproduce with a single capillary. In our simulations, several geometric characteristics for the capillaries are considered, as well as different infiltration and reaction conditions. The main result of our work is that the phenomenon of pore closure can be regarded as independent of the infiltration velocity, and in turn a number of other parameters. The instrumental conclusion drawn from our simulations is that short pores with wide openings and a round-shaped morphology near the throats represent the optimal configuration for the underlying structure of the porous preform in order to achieve faster infiltration. The role of the approximations is discussed in detail and the robustness of our findings is assessed.

  8. Growth Versus Government Management Improvement During

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podobnik, Boris

    , we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with DGCI. Further 33% of govern- ment employees has increased its GDP per capita by approximately 4% (corrected and Thermal Energy Science, School of Physical Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 200092, Shanghai

  9. Foreign Fishery Developments Australia Reports Growth in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ." Later studies have also shown both per capita fish and seafood consump- tion and fish prices-76, the last year of the survey. Apparent consumption per person rose another 6 percent in 1976-77 and trendsForeign Fishery Developments Australia Reports Growth in Fish Consumption and Prices Australians

  10. Environmental Problems Facing Lake Tahoe Algal Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    fertilizers, which support the growth of free-floating and attached algae. Eutrophication Eutrophication refers to the effects of an overabundance of nutrients. Eutrophication occurs naturally as part. This process normally occurs over millions of years; however, we are seeing the effects of eutrophication

  11. Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA), Berman, Amir (Ben-Shiva, IL)

    2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

  12. The Henley Accelerator supports ambitious high growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    of a business in the 5-6% of SMEs that are on a high growth trajectory. Typically these businesses will have and Technology Centre, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6BZ Tel: 0118 935 7115 Email

  13. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  14. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    (cf. e.g. [49]), semiconductor crystal growth (cf. [37]), biomineralization (cf. e.g. [48]), DNA (cf. e.g. [2, 4, 10, 26, 28, 32]). The aim of this paper is to bridge between these two type of models

  15. Nanoscale Growth Twins in Sputtered Copper Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderoglu, Osman

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    .............................................................. 7 I.1.3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) .................................... 8 I.2. Fabrication of copper thin films .................................................... 12... to the exposure of the film growth surface to the solution, impurities may be introduced. I.1.3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) CVD is a chemical process used to produce high-purity, high-performance thin films and often used in the semiconductor industry...

  16. WASC EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW GRADUATE GROWTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    graduate education at UC Santa Cruz: · The development of new graduate programs is linked to state budget existing graduate programs (Environmental Toxicology, Ocean Sciences, and Education); three others haveWASC EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW GRADUATE GROWTH "California's future strength depends

  17. Growth strategies of ectothermic animals in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gotthard, Karl

    analysis is also a tool for inves- tigating hypotheses of evolutionary causes and of adaptations in general such as growth, sexual maturation and reproduction as the result of strategic decisions over an organism's life it reduces the risk of being killed before reproduction and entails a short generation time, while a large

  18. Economic Growth, Physical Limits and Liveability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on criteria air contaminants, water use, land use, greenhouse gas emissions and solid waste disposal and population growth, impose the physical limits and then simulate household and firm responses to policy and assess the resulting implications for liveability in the region. I measure liveability using 24

  19. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, Timothy J. (Tijeras, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  20. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  1. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

  2. Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films grown using HfO2 ceramic Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of...

  3. Graphene Layer Growth Chemistry: Five-Six-Ring Flip Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitesides, Russell; Domin, Dominik; Lester Jr., William A.; Frenklach, Michael

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    25-28, 2007. Topic: Soot GRAPHENE LAYER GROWTH CHEMISTRY:on the zigzag edge of a graphene layer isomerizes to reversea possibly important step in graphene layer growth, thus

  4. Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Research at the ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Research at the ALS Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Research at the ALS Print Friday, 09 November 2012 10:06 Lead-free components have...

  5. GROWTH OF SOUTH AFRICAN AFRICA' ~-' ,, I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GROWTH OF SOUTH AFRICAN FISHERIES -SQUTH-: WEST .-' AFRICA' ~-' ,, I I , I :--. .,' UN I .............................................. Regrouping of Interests ······························ Fisheries Development Corporation of South Africa, Ltd and the trawling interests, respectively. The quasi-official Fisheries Develop- ment Corporation of South Africa

  6. Original article Effect of growth and cultivar on alfalfa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Effect of growth and cultivar on alfalfa digestibility in a multi-site trial B growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L), but the effects of genetic variation and the environment. Medicago sativa L = alfalfa / digestibility / forage / genetic variation / growth Résumé - Effet de la

  7. Plant Growth Measurement Techniques Using Near-Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, John

    Plant Growth Measurement Techniques Using Near-Infrared Imagery Amr Aboelela John Barron Dept, for measuring plant growth for corn seedlings and Caster Oil Bean leaves. A near-infrared camera, which allows to hypothesize where growth might be taking place. Keywords: Near-Infrared Imagery, Corn Seedling stem

  8. THE GROWTH OF LIMITS OF VERTEX REPLACEMENT RULES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Previte, Joseph P.

    THE GROWTH OF LIMITS OF VERTEX REPLACEMENT RULES JOSEPH PREVITE, MICHELLE PREVITE, AND MARY a vertex replacement rule given by exactly one replacement graph generates an infinite graph for the growth degree of infinite graphs with polynomial growth that are gener- ated by vertex replacement rules

  9. Assessing the Significance of Above- and Belowground Carbon Allocation of Fast- and Slow-Growing Families of Loblolly Pine - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Topa, M. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Retzlaff, W. A.

    2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this project we experimentally evaluated the below-ground biomass and carbon allocation and partitioning of four different fast- and slow-growing families of loblolly pine located in Scotland County, NC, in an effort to increase the long-term performance of the crop. The trees were subjected to optimal nutrition and control since planting in 1993. Destructive harvests in 1998 and 2000 were used for whole?plant biomass estimates and to identify possible family differences in carbon acquisition (photosynthesis) and water use efficiency. At regular intervals throughout each year we sampled tissues for carbohydrate analyses to assess differences in whole-tree carbon storage. Mini rhizotron observation tubes were installed to monitor root system production and turnover. Stable isotope analysis was used to examine possible functional differences in water and nutrient acquisition of root systems between the various families. A genetic dissection of root ontogenic and architectural traits, including biomass partitioning, was conducted using molecular markers to better understand the functional implications of these traits on resource acquisition and whole-plant carbon allocation.

  10. Semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering off few-nucleon systems: Tagging the EMC effect and hadronization mechanisms with detection of slow recoiling nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Kaptari, L. P. [Department of Physics, University of Perugia, Piazza dell' Universita 1, I-06123 Perugia (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of electrons off {sup 2}H and {sup 3}He with detection of slow protons and deuterons, respectively, i.e., the processes {sup 2}H(e,e{sup '}p)X and {sup 3}He(e,e{sup '}d)X, are calculated within the spectator mechanism, taking into account the final state interaction of the nucleon debris with the detected protons and deuterons. It is shown that by a proper choice of the kinematics the origin of the EMC effect and the details of the interaction between the hadronizing quark and the nuclear medium can be investigated at a level which cannot be reached by inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. A comparison of the results of our calculations, containing no adjustable parameters, with recently available experimental data on the process {sup 2}H(e,e{sup '}p)X shows a good agreement in the backward hemisphere of the emitted nucleons. Theoretical predictions at energies that will be available at the upgraded Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are presented, and the possibility to investigate the proposed semi-inclusive processes at electron-ion colliders is briefly discussed.

  11. SLOW SAND FILTRATIONSLOW SAND FILTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Control valve Effluent flow control structure #12;Characteristic Features of aCharacteristic Features effective size(dSmall effective size(d1010)) and largeand large uniformity coefficient (duniformity coefficient (d6060/d/d1010) of sand) of sand No filter media fluidizationNo filter media fluidization Relative

  12. Hopper /scratch file system slow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas inPortal StartupdefaultTheGraduatesHopper

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - allogeneic growth plate Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: increasing during the early stages of colonial growth after larval settlement. Parents repressed the growth... may engage in competitive over- growth (Jackson 1977) or...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-insulin-like growth factor Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medicine 20 Population Growth, (Per Capita) Economic Growth, and Poverty Reduction in Uganda: A brief Summary of Theory and Evidence Summary: influences due to population growth...

  15. Scaling of bubble growth in a porous medium. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satik, C.; Yortsos, Y.; Li, X. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes involving liquid-to-gas phase change in porous media are routinely encountered, for example in the recovery of oil, geothermal processes, nuclear waste disposal or enhanced heat transfer. They involve diffusion (and convection) in the pore space, driven by an imposed supersaturation in pressure or temperature. Phase change proceeds by nucleation and phase growth. Depending on pore surface roughness, a number of nucleation centers exist, thus phase growth occurs from a multitude of clusters. Contrary to growth in the bulk or in a Hele-Shaw cell, however, growth patterns in porous media are disordered and not compact. As in immiscible displacements, they reflect the underlying pore microstructure. The competition between multiple clusters is also different from the bulk. For example, cluster growth may be controlled by a combination of diffusion (e.g. Laplace equation in the quasi-static case) with percolation. Novel growth patterns axe expected from this competition. While multiple cluster growth is important, the simpler problem of single-bubble growth is still not well understood. In this section, we focus on the growth of a single bubble, subject to a fixed far-field supersaturation (e.g. by lowering the pressure in a supersaturated solution or by raising the temperature in a. superheated liquid). Our emphasis is on deriving a scaling theory for growth at conditions of quasi-static diffusion, guided by recent experimental observations. Visualization of bubble growth in model porous media was recently conducted using 2-D etched-glass micromodels.

  16. Dynamic Modeling of Aerobic Growth of Shewanella oneidensis. Predicting Triauxic Growth, Flux Distributions and Energy Requirement for Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model-based analysis is conducted to investigate metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 strain in aerobic batch culture, which exhibits an intriguing growth pattern by sequentially consuming substrate (i.e., lactate) and by-products (i.e., pyruvate and acetate). A general protocol is presented for developing a detailed network-based dynamic model for S. oneidensis based on the Lumped Hybrid Cybernetic Model (LHCM) framework. The L-HCM, although developed from only limited data, is shown to accurately reproduce exacting dynamic metabolic shifts, and provide reasonable estimates of energy requirement for growth. Flux distributions in S. oneidensis predicted by the L-HCM compare very favorably with 13C-metabolic flux analysis results reported in the literature. Predictive accuracy is enhanced by incorporating measurements of only a few intracellular fluxes, in addition to extracellular metabolites. The L-HCM developed here for S. oneidensis is consequently a promising tool for the analysis of intracellular flux distribution and metabolic engineering.

  17. Reserve growth important to U.S. gas supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmoker, J.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Attanasi, E.D. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1997-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The term reserve growth refers to the typical increases in estimated ultimate recovery that occur as oil or gas fields are developed and produced. An example for a particular field helps explain the nature of reserve growth. This gas field was discovered in the mid-1940s. In 1977, its ultimate recovery was estimated to be 2.1 tcf of gas. One might think that after some 30 years of development and production, the resource potential of a field would be well understood. However, by 1991 the estimated ultimate recovery of this field had increased to 3.1 tcf. Reserve growth over the 15 year period totaled 1 tcf, and it shows no sign of stopping. The paper discusses reserve growth trends, reserve growth roots, and future reserve growth. It is concluded that much work remains to be done on the phenomenon of reserve growth, which is arguably the most significant research problem in the field of hydrocarbon resource assessment.

  18. Growth curve analysis of Rambouillet ewes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathenge, James Mwai

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for this study. However, most of the results were reported for 152 observations; a subset of the 283 records that contained the smst complete set of weighted' Type of birth and rearing was the single most significant source of variation for preweaning body... weights and growth rates. Estimation of mature weight obtained for 184 records was 59. 6 + . 77 kilograms. Based upon analysis of yearly weights, ewes had reached maturity by 42 months of age. Birth and 120-day weight were lower than those reported...

  19. Growth and propagation of Acer grandidentatum Nutt.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tankersley, Boyce Elbert

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    to exogenous auxins, time of season, and type of cutting to determine ability to root from cuttings of current season's growth. Five month old seedlings from the Sabinal source averaged 13. 0 + 1. 9 cm (st. dev. ) in height. At nine months of age, a posi... utilizing softwood and semihardwood single node, 6 cm terminal, or 25 cm terminal cuttings taken from 7 trees during June to September and treated with 0. 1X IBA and 0. 4% IBA. Approximately 26/ of the cuttings callused. Vascular differentiation...

  20. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: thin-film growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-activeNational SolartSSLPV materials (Si CIGS CdTe)growth

  2. A Statistical Physics Perspective on Web Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. L. Krapivsky; S. Redner

    2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches from statistical physics are applied to investigate the structure of network models whose growth rules mimic aspects of the evolution of the world-wide web. We first determine the degree distribution of a growing network in which nodes are introduced one at a time and attach to an earlier node of degree k with rate A_ksim k^gamma. Very different behaviors arise for gamma1. We also analyze the degree distribution of a heterogeneous network, the joint age-degree distribution, the correlation between degrees of neighboring nodes, as well as global network properties. An extension to directed networks is then presented. By tuning model parameters to reasonable values, we obtain distinct power-law forms for the in-degree and out-degree distributions with exponents that are in good agreement with current data for the web. Finally, a general growth process with independent introduction of nodes and links is investigated. This leads to independently growing sub-networks that may coalesce with other sub-networks. General results for both the size distribution of sub-networks and the degree distribution are obtained.

  3. Cavity growth patterns on the partial seam crip test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hommert, P.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) test conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories was characterized by two distinctly different types of cavity growth. Portions of the thermal data from the test have been analyzed using conduction models to infer the dynamics of the cavity growth. Growth during the first phase of the test was characterized by rapid movement of the process to the top of the seam. The growth patterns during this time were remarkably similar to those observed on the Hoe Creek III test. Cavity growth observed later in the test, after the CRIP maneuver and when the horizontal production was in use, showed more lateral extent within the seam similar to patterns that were observed on the Hanna UCG tests. This type of growth resulted in improved process efficiency, at least for the early post-CRIP period. Calculations using a thermal-mechanical growth model are consistent with both types of growth observed. In particular, when stringers that were present in the seam are included in the model calculations, the more favorable growth patterns observed in the test are predicted. It is concluded that non-coal layers within the seam have the potential to significantly affect cavity growth and thus their presence should be accounted for when designing a process. 11 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  4. MIX and Instability Growth from Oblique Shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molitoris, J D; Batteux, J D; Garza, R G; Tringe, J W; Souers, P C; Forbes, J W

    2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the formation and evolution of shock-induced mix resulting from interface features in a divergent cylindrical geometry. In this research a cylindrical core of high-explosive was detonated to create an oblique shock wave and accelerate the interface. The interfaces studied were between the high-explosive/aluminum, aluminum/plastic, and finally plastic/air. Pre-emplaced surface features added to the aluminum were used to modify this interface. Time sequence radiographic imaging quantified the resulting instability formation from the growth phase to over 60 {micro}s post-detonation. Thus allowing the study of the onset of mix and evolution to turbulence. The plastic used here was porous polyethylene. Radiographic image data are compared with numerical simulations of the experiments.

  5. Head erosion with emittance growth in PWFA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S. Z.; Adli, E.; England, R. J.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S. J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M. D.; Walz, D. R.; Muggli, P.; An, W.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W.; Vafaei, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States) and University of Oslo, Oslo, N-0316 (Norway) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Head erosion is one of the limiting factors in plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA). We present a study of head erosion with emittance growth in field-ionized plasma from the PWFA experiments performed at the FACET user facility at SLAC. At FACET, a 20.3 GeV bunch with 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} electrons is optimized in beam transverse size and combined with a high density lithium plasma for beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. A target foil is inserted upstream of the plasma source to increase the bunch emittance through multiple scattering. Its effect on beamplasma interaction is observed with an energy spectrometer after a vertical bend magnet. Results from the first experiments show that increasing the emittance has suppressed vapor field-ionization and plasma wakefields excitation. Plans for the future are presented.

  6. Lid for improved dendritic web growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Charles S. (Penn Hills, PA); Kochka, Edgar L. (Greentree, PA); Piotrowski, Paul A. (Monroeville, PA); Seidensticker, Raymond G. (Forest Hills, PA)

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A lid for a susceptor in which a crystalline material is melted by induction heating to form a pool or melt of molten material from which a dendritic web of essentially a single crystal of the material is pulled through an elongated slot in the lid and the lid has a pair of generally round openings adjacent the ends of the slot and a groove extends between each opening and the end of the slot. The grooves extend from the outboard surface of the lid to adjacent the inboard surface providing a strip contiguous with the inboard surface of the lid to produce generally uniform radiational heat loss across the width of the dendritic web adjacent the inboard surface of the lid to reduce thermal stresses in the web and facilitate the growth of wider webs at a greater withdrawal rate.

  7. Association of automobile passenger transportation and economic growth in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horie, Teruhiko

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) (Nember) January 1969 ABSTRACT Association cf Automobile Passenger Transportation and Economic Growth in Japan. (January 1969) Teruhiko Boric, B. A. , &faseda University Directed by: Dr. ~felvin L. Greenhut In order to evaluate the growth... of Japanese post-war passenger transportation, a comparative study of the U. S. passenger transporta- ti. on development between 1910 and 1940 has been made. The growth rate of automobile ownership prior to the Great Depression is larger than the rate...

  8. Growth of epitaxial thin films by pulsed laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowndes, D.H.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-quality, high-temperature superconductor (HTSc) films can be grown by the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) process. This article provides a detailed introduction to the advantages and curent limitations of PLA for epitaxial film growth. Emphasis is placed on experimental methods and on exploitation of PLA to control epitaxial growth at either the unit cell or the atomic-layer level. Examples are taken from recent HTSc film growth. 33 figs, 127 refs. (DLC)

  9. Growth of epitaxial thin films by pulsed laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowndes, D.H.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-quality, high-temperature superconductor (HTSc) films can be grown by the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) process. This article provides a detailed introduction to the advantages and curent limitations of PLA for epitaxial film growth. Emphasis is placed on experimental methods and on exploitation of PLA to control epitaxial growth at either the unit cell or the atomic-layer level. Examples are taken from recent HTSc film growth. 33 figs, 127 refs. (DLC)

  10. Coefficient ? as a growth analysis parameter for wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledent, Jean-Francois

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subject: Agronony COEFFICIENT u AS A GROWTH ANALYSIS PARAMETER FOR WHEAT A Thesis by JEAN-FRANCOIS LEDENT Approved as to style and content by: c x& W&~ (Chairman of Committee) (Member ) (Head of Department) Member) (Member) /'L~C e (Memb er...) August 1969 ABSTRACT COEFFICIL'NT u AS A GROWTH ANALYSIS PARAMETER FOR WHEAT (August 1969) Jean-Francoi. s Ledent, Ingenieur Agronome, Universite de Louvain (Belgium) Directed by: Dr. E. C. Holt Coefficient u , a growth parameter. , was calculated...

  11. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant...

  12. Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job Creation and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Job Creation and Regulatory Affairs - House Committee on Oversight and Governmant Reform Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job Creation and Regulatory Affairs -...

  13. aging tumor growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1983), provide valuable data on the age 85 AGE AND GROWTH OF SKIPJACK TUNA, KATSUWONUS PELAMIS, AND YELLOWFIN TUNA, THUNNUS ALBACARES, AS INDICATED Environmental Sciences and...

  14. Grain growth and phase stability of nanocrystalline cubic zirconia...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nanocrystalline cubic zirconia under ion irradiation. Abstract: Grain growth, oxygen stoichiometry and phase stability of nanostructurally-stabilized zirconia (NSZ) in...

  15. Why electric-power growth will not resume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1983-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic structural changes now occurring in the US economy have irrevocably broken previously existing links between gross national product and the growth of sales of electricity. The author contends that the extent of the macroeconomic changes presently taking place are underestimated by many electric-utility planners and, as a result, forecasts projecting electricity growth rates about even with gross national product growth levels when the economy recovers are too high. The article states that electric-utility companies are entering an indefinite period of stagnant sales growth. But it closes on the positive note that electric-utility managements can take certain steps to make their businesses grow again. 8 figures.

  16. anchorage independent growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hinton, Geoffrey E. 42 GEOLOG is an independent and privately owned oilfield services company with a strong track record of growth and international Specialized in Surface...

  17. androgen independent growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hinton, Geoffrey E. 31 GEOLOG is an independent and privately owned oilfield services company with a strong track record of growth and international Specialized in Surface...

  18. Characterizing partition functions of the vertex model by rank growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Schrijver

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We characterize which graph invariants are partition functions of a vertex model over the complex numbers, in terms of the rank growth of associated `connection matrices'.

  19. Hydrology, environment Four remarks on the growth of channel networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    Hydrology, environment Four remarks on the growth of channel networks Quatre remarques sur la online xxx Presented by Ghislain de Marsily Keywords: Geomorphology Hydrology River network Mots cle

  20. Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth Ahead? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies -...

  1. affect yeast growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were carried out under fixed dilution rate after batch growth in YPD as described... Pir, Pinar; Gutteridge, Alex; Wu, Jian; Rash, Bharat; Kell, Douglas B; Zhang, Nianshu;...

  2. Indonesia-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth in Developing Asia" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleIndonesia-StrengtheningPlanningCapacityforLowCarbonGrowthinDevelopingAsia&oldid70041...

  3. Essays on Financial Liberalisation, Financial Crises and Economic Growth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atiq, Zeeshan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis investigates the impact of financial liberalisation policies on finance-growth relationship and financial crises. Analysis of recent trends and economic performance of financially developed… (more)

  4. Finacial liberalisation and sustainable economic growth in ECOWAS countries .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owusu, Erasmus Labri

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The thesis examines the comprehensive relationship between all aspects of financial liberalisation and economic growth in three countries from the Economic Community of West African… (more)

  5. Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RE and EE targets and low carbon growth. India's relatively low carbon economy reflects energy intensity 20 percent below world averages and per capita emissions among the lowest...

  6. ascites tumor growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    circular objects revealing required features, such as the velocity of the growth and fractal behavior of their contours, is presented. It enables to reproduce some of the recent...

  7. adaptive growth strategy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effective ionization and dielectric relaxation times scales 3 146 National Industrial Hemp Strategy ii March 2008Executive Summary Growth of the Canadian Industrial Hemp Sector...

  8. altered growth differentiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    although they did possess fewer eggs. Daphnia responses to chemicals from either roach or Elodea Burks, Romi 7 MATURE TLINEAGE LEUKEMIA WITH GROWTH FACTOR-INDUCED...

  9. apcam mediates growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of piscivore-mediated habitat use on growth, diet and zooplankton consumption of roach: an Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Effects of piscivore-mediated habitat use...

  10. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dedyulin, Sergey N., E-mail: sdedyuli@uwo.ca; Goncharova, Lyudmila V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ?5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T?=?450–650?°C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  11. On Better Understanding Dilute Void Growth in Ductile Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostka, Tim

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and growth of damage in a dual-phase steel observed by X-rayWeck et al. , 2007], dual-phase steel [Maire et al. , 2008],

  12. Persistent hair growth during treatment with the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicleand normal hair development. Am J Pathol. 1997;150:1959-Persistent hair growth during treatment with the EGFR

  13. A Survey of the U.S. ESCO Industry: Market Growth and Development from 2000 to 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry E.; Birr, Dave

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    renewable energy programs. ESCOs project continued growth,renewable energy programs. ESCOs are projecting continued growth,

  14. Metabolic indices for growth: endocrine profile of steers on different nutritional and growth regulation regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinhardt, Christopher Dean

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IN PRELIMINARY MODELS. . Page 45 TABLE 15. SAMPLING DAYS FOR ENDOCRINE AND METABOLITE FACTORS USED IN FINAL MODELS PRODUCED FROM BACKWARD STEPWISE REGRESSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 TABLE 16. FINAL LINEAR PREDICTION MODELS... tends to reflect plasma glucose level and may be elevated when growth regulators alter plasma glucose (Sharp and Dyer, 1970), but this response is also inconsistent with changes in insulin independent of glucose reported by Olsen et al. (1977...

  15. Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission Spectroscopic Study of Band Offsets and Interface Self-cleaning by Atomic Layer Deposited HfO2 on In0.53Ga0.47As and In0.52Al0.48As

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu; /SLAC, SSRL; Chen, P.T.; Sun, Y.; Goel, N.; Majhi, P.; Garner, M; Tsai, W.; Pianetta, P.; Nishi, Y.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission Spectroscopic (SRPES) study was conducted to (a) investigate the surface chemistry of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As post chemical and thermal treatments, (b) construct band diagram and (c) investigate the interface property of HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As. Dilute HCl and HF etch remove native oxides on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.47}As, whereas in-situ vacuum annealing removes surface arsenic pile-up. After the atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2}, native oxides were considerably reduced compared to that in as-received epi-layers, strongly suggesting the self-clean mechanism. Valence and conduction band offsets are measured to be 3.37 {+-} 0.1eV, 1.80 {+-} 0.3eV for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and 3.00 {+-} 0.1eV, 1.47 {+-} 0.3eV for In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.47}As, respectively.

  16. Grain Growth in Niobium for Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vernon, Joshua A.

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    GRAIN GROWTH IN NIOBIUM FOR SUPERCONDUCTING RADIO FREQUENCY CAVITIES Major: Mechanical Engineering April 2009 Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by Joshua A. Vernon GRAIN GROWTH IN NIOBIUM FOR SUPERCONDUCTING RADIO FREQUENCY CAVITIES Approved by: Research Advisor: K. T. Hartwig...

  17. What constrains spread growth in forecasts ini2alized from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamill, Tom

    1 What constrains spread growth in forecasts ini2alized from ensemble Kalman filters? Tom from manner in which ini2al condi2ons are generated, some due to the model (e.g., stochas2c physics as error; part of spread growth from manner in which ini2al condi2ons are generated, some due

  18. Original article Effects of gelling agents on growth,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Effects of gelling agents on growth, mineral composition and naphthoquinone May 1992; accepted 22 October 1992) Summary — Gelling agents affect growth of walnut in vitro, induced mature leaf formation and necroses. The 2 gelling agents differed significantly in mineral content

  19. Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samotoin, N. D., E-mail: samnik@igem.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1-5.0 {mu}m in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1Tc and real structures of this mineral.

  20. Export sophistication and economic growth: evidence from China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Export sophistication and economic growth: evidence from China Joachim Jarreau PSE CEPII sandra halshs-00962593,version1-21Mar2014 #12;Export Sophistication and Economic Growth: evidence from China on economic performance using re- gional variations within a single country (China) over the period 1997

  1. Original article A study on growth stresses, tension wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article A study on growth stresses, tension wood distribution and other related wood variations of wood structure (specific gravity and pulp yield), and the transverse mechanical resistance of wood. To investigate growth stresses, longitudinal displacements after stress release were estimated

  2. Growth of graphene on Ir(111) Johann Coraux1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Growth of graphene on Ir(111) Johann Coraux1 ,, Alpha T. N'Diaye1 §, Martin Engler1 , Carsten Busse a renewed interest as a route towards high quality graphene prepared in a reproducible manner. Here we employ two growth methods for graphene on Ir(111), namely room temperature adsorption and thermal

  3. REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN SOUTH ASIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN SOUTH ASIA Authors Amirul Islam Department;Abstract Understanding the role of regional integration in in productivity growth remains a key question effect of the free trade agreement on productivity. Most of the countries in South Asia have suffered

  4. Technological Advancement and Long-Term Economic Growth in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -term economic growth. We further realize that the innovation process must be sup- ported by a complex set4 Technological Advancement and Long-Term Economic Growth in Asia Jeffrey D. Sachs and John W. Mc to think very hard about the linkages between technology and economic development. The harder we think

  5. Rapid Scan Humidified Growth Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory L. Kok; Athanasios Nenes

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focused on enhancements to the streamwise thermal gradient cloud condensation nuclei counter to support the rapid scan mode and to enhance the capability for aerosol humidified growth measurements. The research identified the needs for flow system modifications and range of capability for operating the conventional instrument in the rapid scan and humidified growth modes.

  6. RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose steps to their practical usage for ethanol production. Ideally, a recombinant microorganism, possessing the capability to utilize cellulose for simultaneous growth and ethanol production, is of great interest. We have

  7. Entertaining Malthus: Bread, Circuses and Economic GrowthI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    historical facts. The widely-held belief that growth prior to the Industrial Revolution was flat is based Growth, Technology Change, Industrial Revolution I First Version: June 20, 2013. We are grateful to NSF capita consumption that has taken place since the Industrial Revolution. Rather, it is asserted

  8. Harmonic moment dynamics in Laplacian growth Alexander Leshchiner,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Harmonic moment dynamics in Laplacian growth Alexander Leshchiner,1 Matthew Thrasher,1 Mark B received 12 November 2009; published 12 January 2010 Harmonic moments are integrals of integer powers of z horizontal closely spaced plates. Harmonic moments are a natural basis for such Laplacian growth phenomena

  9. Original article Effects of arginine, growth hormone-releasing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    release of ARG (1 g/kg body weight, infused between times-15 and -5 min), growth hormone-releasing hormone Growth hormone (GH) secretion is regu- lated by many factors including nutrients. Arginine (ARG) infused infusions of ARG can stimulate GH secre- tion in lambs (Davenport et al, 1990a, 1995), adult sheep

  10. Nonlineai Control of Biotechnological Processes with Growth-Production Decoupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bastin, Georges

    , for instance, to substrate overload- ing. Typical examples involve biological wastewater treatment processes Nonlinear control design techniques for a class of continuous biological processes with growth growth and the product formation. The issue of feedback linearizing control of biological reactors has

  11. Energetic condensation growth of Nb thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krishnan, M.; Valderrama, E.; James, C.; Zhao, X.; Spradlin, J.; Feliciano, A-M Valente; Phillips, L.; Reece, C. E.; Seo, K.; Sung, Z. H.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes energetic condensation growth of Nb films using a cathodic arc plasma, whose 60–120 eV ions penetrate a few monolayers into the substrate and enable sufficient surface mobility to ensure that the lowest energy state (crystalline structure with minimal defects) is accessible to the film. Heteroepitaxial films of Nb were grown on ?-plane sapphire and MgO crystals with good superconducting properties and crystal size (10??mm × 20??mm ) limited only by substrate size. The substrates were heated to temperatures of up to 700°C and coated at 125°C, 300°C, 500°C, and 700°C . Film thickness was varied from ?0.25???m to >3???m . Residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values (up to a record (RRR)=587 on MgO and (RRR)=328 on ?-sapphire) depend strongly on substrate annealing and deposition temperatures. X-ray diffraction spectra and pole figures reveal that RRR increases as the crystal structure of the Nb film becomes more ordered, consistent with fewer defects and, hence, longer electron mean-free path. A transition from Nb(110) to Nb(100) orientation on the MgO(100) lattice occurs at higher temperatures. This transition is discussed in light of substrate heating and energetic condensation physics. Electron backscattered diffraction and scanning electron microscope images complement the XRD data.

  12. Methods of preparing flexible photovoltaic devices using epitaxial liftoff, and preserving the integrity of growth substrates used in epitaxial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Lee, Kyusang; Shiu, Kuen-Ting

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed methods of making photosensitive devices, such as flexible photovoltaic (PV) devices, through the use of epitaxial liftoff. Also described herein are methods of preparing flexible PV devices comprising a structure having a growth substrate, wherein the selective etching of protective layers yields a smooth growth substrate that us suitable for reuse.

  13. Beefmaster progeny evaluation for growth traits and carcass merit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrade, Leopoldo

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their individual farm and ranch The second target is outlined by the demands of the marketplace. This is a very important point where the use of germ plasm plays a critical role in the beef industry. The correct or incorrect selection for genetics... profitability Animals which grow at a faster rate are usually more efficient and produce a higher percentage of lean at comparable ages and weights than those slow gaining animals (Koch, 1980). Depending on the targeted end point, these animals have more...

  14. VP 100: Growth in solar means growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf The 2012Nuclear Guide Remote Access08:Energy3Growth in solar

  15. Workshop on nuclear power growth and nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely viewed that an expansion of nuclear power would have positive energy, economic and environmental benefits for the world. However, there are concerns about the economic competitiveness, safety and proliferation and terrorism risks of nuclear power. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power will depend on the ability of governments and industry to address these concerns, including the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen nonproliferation, nuclear materials accountability and nuclear security. In his Prague speech, President Obama stated: 'we should build a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, including an international fuel bank, so that countries can access peaceful power without increasing the risks of proliferation. That must be the right of every nation that renounces nuclear weapons, especially developing countries embarking on peaceful programs. And no approach will succeed if it's based on the denial of rights to nations that play by the rules. We must harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change, and to advance peace opportunity for all people.' How can the President's vision, which will rekindle a vigorous public debate over the future of nuclear power and its relation to proliferation, be realized? What critical issues will frame the reemerging debate? What policies must be put into place to address these issues? Will US policy be marked more by continuity or change? To address these and other questions, the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars will host a workshop on the future of nuclear power and nonproliferation.

  16. Film Growth and Surface Roughness with Fluctuating Covalent Bonds in Evaporating Aqueous Solution of Reactive Hydrophobic and Polar Groups: A Computer Simulation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihai Yang; Adam Seyfarth; Sam Bateman; Ras B. Pandey

    2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer simulation model is proposed to study film growth and surface roughness in aqueous ($A$) solution of hydrophobic ($H$) and hydrophilic ($P$) groups on a simple three dimensional lattice of size $L_x \\times L_y \\times L_z$ with an adsorbing substrate. Each group is represented by a particle with appropriate characteristics occupying a unit cube (i.e., eight sites). The Metropolis algorithm is used to move each particle stochastically. The aqueous constituents are allowed to evaporate while the concentration of $H$ and $P$ is constant. Reactions proceed from the substrate and bonded particles can hop within a fluctuating bond length. The film thickness ($h$) and its interface width ($W$) are examined for hard-core and interacting particles for a range of temperature ($T$). Simulation data show a rapid increase in $h$ and $W$ is followed by its non-monotonic growth and decay before reaching steady-state equilibrium ($h_s, W_s$) in asymptotic time step limit. The growth can be described by power-laws, e.g., $h \\propto t^{\\gamma}, W \\propto t^{\\beta}$ with a typical value of $\\gamma \\approx 2, \\beta \\approx 1$ in initial time regime followed by $\\gamma \\approx 1.5, \\beta \\approx 0.8$ at $T = 0.5$. For hard-core system, the equilibrium film thickness ($h_s$) and surface roughness ($w_s$) seem to scale linearly with the temperature, i.e., $h_s = 6.206 + 0.302 T, W_s = 1,255 + 0.425 T$ at low $T$ and $h_s = 6.54 + 0.198 T, W_s = 1.808 + 0.202 T$ at higher $T$. For interacting functional groups in contrast, $h_s$ and $W_s$ decay rapidly followed by a slow increase on raising the temperature.

  17. How do regulated and voluntary carbon-offset schemes compare?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. Email: e.corbera@uea.ac.uk; Tel: +44-1603-592813; Fax: +44-1603-591170 #12

  18. Abatement of Air Pollution: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Projects that either capture and destroy landfill methane, avoid sulfur hexafluoride emissions, sequester carbon through afforestation, provide end-use energy efficiency, or avoid...

  19. Band offsets at heterojunctions and the charge neutrality condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taferner, Waltraud Teresa

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Transitivity test for several (110) heterojunctions assuming that Ek & EB & E+ g g g Heterojunction Sequence A/C Ge/A1As Ge/A1Sb Ge/Gaks Ge/Gap Ge/InP Ge/Si Si/A1As Si/GaAs Si/GaP Si/InAs Si/InSb Gaks/InAs GaSb/InAs InP/InAs InP /Alks A/8 Ge.../GaAs Ge/InP Ge/Si Ge/Si Ge/InP Ge/Si Ge/GaAs Ge/Si Ge/Si Ge/GaSb Si/Gaks Si/InP Si/InP Si/GaAs Si/Ge Si/GaSb Si/Ge GaAs/InP Gaks/Si Gaks/Ge GaSb/Ge InP/Si InP/Ge InP/GaAs B/C GaAs/A1As InP/A1As Si/A1As Si/klSb InP/GaAs Si...

  20. Controlling NOx to Obtain Offsets or Meet Compliance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mincy, J. E.

    down any of the process equipment Avoiding outage was a significant economic benefit to the refinery. The fuel used in these process heaters is a variable mixture of refinery off gas and natural gas. The refinery off gas is the principal fuel.... Natural gas is used when the volume of refinery off gas is not sufficient for good operation. In the first heater, the NO x emissions were reduced from 100 ppm to less than 30 ppm (Figures 1 and 21 or 6.21 pounds of NO x per hour. If we assume 300...

  1. Connector-induced offsets in optical fiber power meters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vayshenker, Igor; Li Xiaoyu; Keenan, Darryl A

    2006-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss issues related to calibration of optical fiber power meters. The power readings may vary when using various types of fiber connectors, or even the same type of connectors made by different vendors. We study the connector effects by calibrating four types of optical fiber power meters using six different fiber connectors from four vendors at three wavelengths. We found variations of as much as 12% due to the different reflection properties of the detector windows, connectors, and detectors. We also compared connector measurement results with the data obtained by using open beams.

  2. Improving Offset Assignment on Embedded Processors using Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramanujam, J. "Ram"

    of operators such as commutativity so that current algorithms for variable placement are more effective. 1 technol­ ogy for these processors typically targets code speed and not code size; the generated code and include indirect addressing modes using post increment and decrement operations. These addressing modes

  3. Harvesting the Greenhouse: Comparing Biological Sequestration with Emissions Offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    .g., carbon emission taxes in Norway or potential multi pollutant electric utility regulation in the U costs, as well as ways of increasing economic opportunities for farmers and foresters (Dixon et al 1993-ground stocks can be used in the future for energy and thus emissions may simply be delayed rather than

  4. Galilei Laguerre Geometry and Rational Circular Offset Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallner, Johannes

    and an isotropic model together with their duals and an interpretation in terms of geometrical optics of Galilei 0 0 = x 0 ; x 0 1 = rx 0 + ae cos(OE)x 1 + ae sin(OE)x 2 + ux 3 ; x 0 2 = sx 0 \\Gamma ae sin(OE)x 1 1 ; y 1 ; z 1 ); (x 2 ; y 2 ; z 2 )) = (z 2 \\Gamma z 1 ) 2 ; (3) d 2 2 ((x 1 ; y 1 ; z); (x 2 ; y 2

  5. Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    emissions, it is clear that the energy usage will be subject to corresponding policies. Many have pointed of greenhouse gases (GHG) through net emissions reduction is needed to mitigate climate change. Energy estimated to account for 7.2 percent of all US GHG emissions, while total net sequestration from land

  6. Abatement of Air Pollution: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe Office of FossilMembershipoftheManagementHasdecDioxidePlants

  7. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal Registry CommentsOverview » Financing Program Pitfalls

  8. Missouri: EERE Funds Help Offset City Electricity Expenses | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32 MasterAcquisitiTechnologyPotomac RiverMissionMissouri

  9. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review:Department ofDistribution InfrastructureE:Energy

  10. International Carbon Reduction Offset Alliance ICROA | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (bot load)International Association of Public Transport

  11. Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuo FengBoulder,ResearchInformation Sector of Africa

  12. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain to reduce large grain growth. It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for fabricating a zirconium alloy clad nuclear fuel element wherein the zirconium clad is resistant to large grain growth.

  13. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  14. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY)

    2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  15. Computer simulation of grain growth with mobile particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassold, G.N. [GMI Engineering and Management Inst., Flint, MI (United States). Dept. of Science and Mathematics] [GMI Engineering and Management Inst., Flint, MI (United States). Dept. of Science and Mathematics; Srolovitz, D.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have studied the influence of mobile particles on grain growth kinetics. Three time regimes are evident in the observed coarsening. Initially, most grains grow unhindered by particles, with a growth exponent close to 1/2. As with static impurities, once the mean grain size approaches the average inter-particle separation the microstructure becomes effectively pinned. With mobile impurities, however, the loaded grain boundaries eventually resume their motion. The depinning time is observed to be independent of particle concentration. The observed kinetic behavior, growth exponents, and depinning time are in agreement with a simple theoretical model with different mobilities for boundaries with and without attached particles.

  16. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S., E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  17. Growth Rates, Stable Oxygen Isotopes (18O), and Strontium (Sr/Ca) Composition in Two Species of Pacific Sclerosponges (Acanthocheatetes wellsi and Astrosclera willeyana) with 18O Calibration and Application to Paleoceanography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grottoli, A.; Adkins, J; Panero, W; Reaman, D; Moots, K

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The isotopic and elemental composition of sclerosponge skeletons is used to reconstruct paleoceanographic records. Yet few studies have systematically examined the natural variability in sclerosponge skeletal {delta}{sup 18}O, growth, and Sr/Ca, and how that may influence the interpretation of sclerosponge proxy records. Here, we analyzed short records in seven specimens of Acanthocheatetes wellsi (high-Mg calcite, 21 mol% Mg) from Palau, four A. wellsi (high-Mg calcite, 21 mol% Mg) from Saipan, and three Astrosclera willeyana (aragonite) sclerosponges from Saipan, as well as one long record in an A. wellsi specimen from Palau spanning 1945-2001.5. In Saipan, species-specific and mineralogical effects appear to have a negligible effect on sclerosponge {delta}{sup 18}O, facilitating the direct comparison of {delta}{sup 18}O records between species at a given location. At both sites, A. wellsi {delta}{sup 18}O and growth rates were sensitive to environmental conditions, but Sr/Ca was not sensitive to the same conditions. High-resolution {delta}{sup 18}O analyses confirmed this finding as both A. wellsi and A. willeyana deposited their skeleton in accordance with the trends in isotopic equilibrium with seawater, though with a 0.27{per_thousand} offset in the case of A. willeyana. In the high-Mg-calcite species A. wellsi, Mg may be interfering with Sr incorporation into the skeleton. On multidecadal timescales, A. wellsi sclerosponge {delta}{sup 18}O in Palau tracked the Southern Oscillation Index variability post-1977, but not pre-1977, coincident with the switch in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) at {approx}1976. This suggests that water mass circulation in the region is influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability during positive PDO phases, but not during negative ones.

  18. Regulation of mTOR complex 1 in response to growth factors and nutrients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sancak, Yasemin S. (Yasemin Shechner)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In multicellular organisms, cells ensure the simultaneous availability of growth factors and nutrients before they invest in cellular processes that lead to growth. The TOR kinase is a master regulator of cellular growth ...

  19. assimilation-coupled growth control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    growth and the growth with varying noise. Fractal dimension is determined from cluster size scaling with its area. For isotropic growth we find d 1.7, both at high and low...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted crack growth Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cal crack growth by stress... for the first time in sapphire for both modes of subcritical cracking. It was found that growth rates were... growth rates could be closely...

  1. A study of Korean shipbuilders' strategy for sustainable growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Won, Duck Hee

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper aims to develop potential strategies for Korean shipbuilders for sustainable growth by understanding the characteristics of the shipbuilding industry and the current market situation. Before the financial meltdown ...

  2. Is Florida's Growth Management Act protecting agricultural lands?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd, Stephen (Stephen Charles Rhys)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Florida has experienced more population growth over the past half century than any other state, which has led to some of the most extensive urban development on valuable agricultural lands. To address this and other impacts ...

  3. Thermodynamics of microstructure evolution: grain growth Victor L. Berdichevsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Thermodynamics of microstructure evolution: grain growth Victor L. Berdichevsky Mechanical thermodynamic parameters, entropy of microstructure and temperature of microstruc- ture. It was claimed that there is "one more law of thermodynamics": entropy of microstructure must decay in isolated thermodynamic stable

  4. Climate controls on coral growth in the Caribbean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosshart, Sara A. (Sara Allison)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate predictions of Caribbean coral reef responses to global climate change are currently limited by a lack of knowledge of the dominant environmental controls on coral growth. Corals exhibit significant responses to ...

  5. Oil Prices, External Income, and Growth: Lessons from Jordan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper extends the long-run growth model of Esfahani et al. (2009) to a labour exporting country that receives large inflows of external income - the sum of remittances, FDI and general government transfers - from major oil exporting economies...

  6. Efforts to Enhance Personal Growth When Teaching Academically Diverse Classes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenz, B. Keith; Melvin, Jeff; Kissam, Brenda; Bulgren, Janis; Roth, Janet

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was undertaken to identify what kinds of professional growth experiences teachers value within the context of the challenge presented by academic diversity in their classrooms. The research was carried out With ...

  7. Factors Inhibiting Personal Growth When Teaching Academically Diverse Classes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenz, B. Keith; Melvin, Jeff; Kissam, Brenda; Bulgren, Janis; Roth, Janet

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study seeks to identify the factors that inhibit personal growth in teaching as teachers work to meet the needs of all students in academically diverse groups of learners. To identify these factors, researchers worked ...

  8. Distributed Wind Market Report: Small Turbines Lead to Big Growth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Growth in Exports August 18, 2014 - 12:13pm Addthis 1 of 11 Three 100 kilowatt (kW) wind turbines in Bisaccia, Italy. Last year, U.S. small wind turbines were exported to more than...

  9. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jennings, Elise

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. Here we introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between $\\theta = \

  10. Release of extracellular ATP by bacteria during growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mempin, Roberto; Tran, Helen; Chen, Connie; Gong, Hao; Kim Ho, Katharina; Lu, Sangwei

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    virulence locus by an ATP-sensing leader messenger RNA.between growth rate and ATP concentration in Escherichiafor available cellular ATP. J Biol Chem 2004, 279(9):8262–

  11. Real time observations of the nucleation and growth of nanowires...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real time observations of the nucleation and growth of nanowires and nanotubes December 1, 2011 at 3pm36-428 Eric Stach Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National...

  12. Human Growth and Body Weight Dynamics: An Integrative Systems Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and ...

  13. Non-traditional growth in large, established firms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunderrajan, Suresh, 1970-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Firms must continuously strive to grow through the creation of new sources of competitive advantage. The challenges to growth are more severe for large, established firms that derive a predominant amount of their present ...

  14. Multiphase Models of Tumor Growth: General Framework and Particular Cases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preziosi, Luigi

    and triphasic case including the presence of extracellular liquid and extracellular matrix. 1 Introduction is approached using a description that splits growth and mechanical response into two separate contributions

  15. Energy Payback for Energy Systems Ensembles During Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutowski, Timothy G.

    During periods of growth, the energy payback performance of new energy generating technologies deviates substantially from the usual static measures of energy return on investment (EROI), and time to breakeven (tB) for ...

  16. Growth of yearling fillies fed alfalfa or soybean meal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, Leman H

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sixteen Quarter Horse yearling fillies were used in a 112-d randomized, block experiment to determine the efficacy of alfalfa hay protein to support growth in young horses. The yearlings were paired according to weight and age then randomly allotted...

  17. Characterizing and engineering antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Ginger

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling leads to cellular proliferation and migration, and thus EGFR dysregulation can significantly contribute to the survival of tumor cells. Aberrant EGFR signaling due to ...

  18. Asymptotic Cellular Growth Rate as the Effective Information Utilization Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pugatch, Rami; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the average asymptotic growth rate of cells in randomly fluctuating environments. Using a game-theoretic perspective, we show that any response strategy has an asymptotic growth rate, which is the sum of: (i) the maximal growth rate at the worst possible distribution of environments, (ii) relative information between the actual distribution of environments to the worst one, and (iii) information utilization rate which is the information rate of the sensory devices minus the "information dissipation rate", the amount of information not utilized by the cell for growth. In non-stationary environments, the optimal strategy is the time average of the instantaneous optimal strategy and the optimal switching times are evenly spaced in the statistical (Fisher) metric.

  19. Green Growth and the Efficient Use of Natural Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John

    2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The relatively new concept of "green growth" can be fruitfully connected to concepts and theories in neoclassical economics including market externalities, Ricardian and Hotelling rents, and policies that would correct ...

  20. Future Yield Growth: What Evidence from Historical Data?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gitiaux, Xavier

    The potential future role of biofuels has become an important topic in energy legislation as it is seen as a potential low carbon alternative to conventional fuels. Hence, future yield growth is an important topic from ...