Sample records for octane rating greater

  1. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries.

  2. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.

    1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries. 3 figs.

  3. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mixture Preparation Chemical Properties Pressure & Temperature (air preheating, Turbo charging, EGR & compression ratio) Octane rating, cetane rating (Fuels & Additives)...

  4. Proton NMR analysis of octane number for motor gasoline: Part V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichikawa, M.; Nonaka, N.; Amano, H.; Takada, I.; Ishimori, S. [Suzuki Motor Corp., Hamamatsu (Japan); Andoh, H.; Kumamoto, K. [Showa Shell Sikiyu Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to predict the octane number of automobile gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectrometry was studied. Samples of gasoline whose octane numbers had been identified according to the ASTM standards (commercially available premium gasoline to which MTBE was added at rates of 7 vol % and 14 vol %) were used in this investigation of the effect of MTBE on the octane number. The findings were utilized to introduce a term regarding MTBE into the previously reported linear regression equation for estimating the octane number from the PMR spectrum, and the appropriateness of the linear regression equation was assessed. As a result the MTBE contents in the sample were determined with satisfactory accuracy by using a standard addition method, and a linear regression equation reflecting the effect of MTBE was obtained. These achievements are reported. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary systems sulfolane + octane + benzene, sulfolane + octane + toluene and sulfolane + octane + p-xylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Kim, H. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfolane is widely used as a solvent for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons. Ternary phase equilibrium data are essential for the proper understanding of the solvent extraction process. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the systems sulfolane + octane + benzene, sulfolane + octane + toluene and sulfolane + octane + p-xylene were determined at 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15 K. Tie line data were satisfactorily correlated by the Othmer and Tobias method. The experimental data were compared with the values calculated by the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. Good quantitative agreement was obtained with these models. However, the calculated values based on the NRTL model were found to be better than those based on the UNIQUAC model.

  6. The relation of octane number, compression ratio, and exhaust temperature in the gasoline engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jentsch, Donald George

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this effect was aided by the use of two test engines, one a single cylinder variable compression ratio experimental engine, and the other a standard industrial V-8 automotive engine. The follosing discussion is given to define "fuel octane ratings...", by C. D. Hiller p S. A. E. Transactions, Vol. 1, No. 19 January 19479 pp. 98. 24. "Evaluating Fuels for &igh Compression Engines", by N. Roensch and J. C. Hughes, Automotive Industries, November 1, 1950, pp. 50. THE RELATION OF OCTANE NM3ER...

  7. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" The Impact of Low Octane...

  8. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization...

  9. A Vehicle Manufacturer’s Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels A Vehicle Manufacturer’s Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels Tom Leone, Technical Expert, Powertrain Evaluation and Analysis, Ford Motor Company

  10. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Primary Reference Fuels for Diesel Cetane Number and Spark-Ignition Octane Number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

    2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    For the first time, a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is developed for primary reference fuel mixtures of n-hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane for diesel cetane ratings. The mechanisms are constructed using existing rules for reaction pathways and rate expressions developed previously for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, n-heptane and iso-octane. These reaction mechanisms are validated by comparisons between computed and experimental results for shock tube ignition and for oxidation under jet-stirred reactor conditions. The combined kinetic reaction mechanism contains the submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for diesel cetane ratings and submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, all in one integrated large kinetic reaction mechanism. Representative applications of this mechanism to two test problems are presented, one describing fuel/air autoignition variations with changes in fuel cetane numbers, and the other describing fuel combustion in a jet-stirred reactor environment with the fuel varying from pure 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane (Cetane number of 15) to pure n-hexadecane (Cetane number of 100). The final reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels for diesel fuel and gasoline is available on the web.

  11. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    IMPACT OF LOW OCTANE HYDROCARBON BLENDING STREAMS ON "E85" ENGINE OPTIMIZATION Jim Szybist and Brian West Oak Ridge National Laboratory October 19, 2012 Acknowledgement This...

  12. Exploring the use of a higher octane gasoline for the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Eric W

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the possible benefits that can be achieved if U.S. oil companies produced and offered a grade of higher-octane gasoline to the consumer market. The octane number of a fuel represents how resistant the ...

  13. Vapor-liquid equilibria and excess enthalpies for octane + N-methylacetamide, cyclooctane + N-methylacetamide, and octane + acetic acid anhydride at 125 C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haan, A.B. de [DSM-Research, Geleen (Netherlands); Heine, A.; Fischer, K.; Gmehling, J. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal P-x data and excess enthalpies have been measured at approximately 125 C for the binary mixtures of octane + N-methylacetamide, cyclooctane + N-methylacetamide, and octane + acetic anhydride. For each binary system linear temperature dependent interaction parameters were fitted to experimental data using the NRTL model. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution were derived from the P-x data at low concentrations using a flexible Legendre polynomial.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDY OF THE AUTOIGNITION OF 1-HEXENE / ISO-OCTANE MIXTURES AT LOW TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDY OF THE AUTOIGNITION OF 1-HEXENE / ISO-OCTANE MIXTURES AT LOW, France Full-length article Shortened running title : AUTOIGNITION OF 1-HEXENE / ISO-OCTANE MIXTURES * E compression from 630 to 840 K, pressures from 8 to 14 bar, = 1 and for a iso-octane/1-hexene mixture

  15. High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

  16. The MTBE solution: Octanes, technology, and refinery profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lander, E.P.; Hubbard, J.N.; Smith, L.A.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been developed to provide refiners with business decision insight regarding the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from refinery - (FCC) produced isobutylene. The driving forces making MTBE an attractive investment are examined with regard to the increasing demand for higher octane unleaded gasolines. The decision to proceed with MTBE production depends on the profitability of such an investment and the refiner's ability to meet market demands using available processing equipment, refinery produced streams and external feedstocks. The factors affecting this decision are analyzed in this paper and include: industry ability to meet rising octane demand; profit potential realized by diverting isobutylene to MTBE; availability of technology for producing MTBE; and investment and operating costs required to produce MTBE. Chemical Research and Licensing and NEOCHEM have developed a simple, low cost process to produce MTBE, reducing the excessive equipment and high operating costs that were associated with conventional MTBE designs. The economics and process benefits of installing a CRandL/NEOCHEM MTBE process are examined within the framework of a generalized medium-sized refinery configuration.

  17. A near infrared regression model for octane measurements in gasolines which contain MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggard, S.M. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has emerged as a superior technique for the on-line determination of octane during the blending of gasoline. This results from the numerous advantages that NIR spectroscopy has over conventional on-line instrumentation. Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently the oxygenated blending component of choice. MTBE is advantageous because it has a high blending octane, a low Reid vapor pressure, is relatively cheap, and does not form peroxides (1). The goal of this project was to develop a NIR regression model that could be used to predict pump octanes regardless of whether they contained MTBE.

  18. Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference 'HILQLQJ6XFFHVV Naples Beach a Committee of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force and Working Group #12;Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference Page ii #12;December 11-15, 2000 z Naples, Florida Page

  19. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H[sub 2]/CO/CO[sub 2] coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-l-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. MIBE is an isomer of MTBE and a process is proposed whereby MTBE from the two alcohols is maximized and MIBE is minimized. This will be achieved by the proper choice of reaction conditions, i.e. intermediate pressures, and of inorganic acid catalysts that are stable at temperatures higher than 200[degree]C, at which the carbonium ion reaction coupling of the two alcohols to MTBE is more effective than the oxonium ion or ester reaction coupling to MIBE. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts of these classes will be subjected to long term performance studies. The long term performance studies of the combined process will extend to 1000 hr and detailed analytical data for all products will be provided.

  20. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  1. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates FY 15 PRR worksheet (PDF - 31K) FY...

  2. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on...

  3. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for n-Alkane Hydrocarbons From n-Octane to n-Hexadecane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms have been developed to describe the pyrolysis and oxidation of nine n-alkanes larger than n-heptane, including n-octane (n-C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), n-nonane (n-C{sub 9}H{sub 20}), n-decane (n-C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-undecane (n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24}), n-dodecane (n-C{sub 12}H{sub 26}), n-tridecane (n-C{sub 13}H{sub 28}), n-tetradecane (n-C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32}), and n-hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). These mechanisms include both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. The mechanisms are based on our previous mechanisms for the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane, using the reaction class mechanism construction first developed for n-heptane. Individual reaction class rules are as simple as possible in order to focus on the parallelism between all of the n-alkane fuels included in the mechanisms, and these mechanisms will be refined further in the future to incorporate greater levels of accuracy and predictive capability. These mechanisms are validated through extensive comparisons between computed and experimental data from a wide variety of different sources. In addition, numerical experiments are carried out to examine features of n-alkane combustion in which the detailed mechanisms can be used to compare reactivities of different n-alkane fuels. The mechanisms for all of these n-alkanes are presented as a single detailed mechanism, which can be edited to produce efficient mechanisms for any of the n-alkanes included, and the entire mechanism, with supporting thermochemical and transport data, together with an explanatory glossary explaining notations and structural details, will be available for download from our web page.

  4. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1...

  5. A study of the physics and chemistry of knock in modern SI engines and their relationship to the octane tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Vikram

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Avoiding knock is the major design constraint for spark ignition engines because of the unacceptable noise and engine damage associated with it. Hence, the Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) tests were established ...

  6. Greater West Texas State Employee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    together we change lives Greater West Texas State Employee Charitable Campaign 2013 Annual Report of Transportation-Odessa Vickie Wilhite, Health and Human Services Commission Greater West Texas Local Campaign.ttuhsc.edu/relations/secc www.facebook.com/gwtsecc #12;2013 Top Greater West Texas State Agencies In Employee Participation 2013

  7. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

  8. A shock tube study of iso-octane ignition at elevated pressures: The influence of diluent gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Hsi-Ping S.; Vanderover, Jeremy; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, JEC 2049, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ignition of iso-octane/air and iso-octane/O{sub 2}/Ar ({proportional_to}20% O{sub 2}) mixtures was studied in a shock tube at temperatures of 868-1300 K, pressures of 7-58 atm, and equivalence ratios {phi}=1.0, 0.5, and 0.25. Ignition times were determined using endwall OH* emission and sidewall piezoelectric pressure measurements. Measured iso-octane/air ignition times agreed well with the previously published results. Mixtures with argon as the diluent exhibited ignition times 20% shorter, for most conditions, than those with nitrogen as the diluent (iso-octane/air mixtures). The difference in measured ignition times for mixtures containing argon and nitrogen as the diluent gas can be attributed to the differing heat capacities of the two diluent species and the level of induction period heat release prior to ignition. Kinetic model predictions of ignition time from three mechanisms are compared to the experimental data. The mechanisms overpredict the ignition times but accurately capture the influence of diluent gas on iso-octane ignition time, indicating that the mechanisms predict an appropriate amount of induction period heat release. (author)

  9. Distinguishing Between Greater and Lesser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    .e. knee high), minimal cover at ground level, and an abundance of flowering plants that harbor insects, see Ecology and Management of the Greater Prairie-Chicken E-969 at nrem.okstate.edu/extension. Threats power devel- opment. GPCs can tolerate some minimal levels of fragmentation, but at higher levels

  10. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for n-Alkane Hydrocarbons from n-Octane to n-Hexadecane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Herbinet, O; Silke, E J; Curran, H J

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms have been developed to describe the pyrolysis and oxidation of the n-alkanes, including n-octane (n-C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), n-nonane (n-C{sub 9}H{sub 20}), n-decane (n-C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-undecane (n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24}), n-dodecane (n-C{sub 12}H{sub 26}), n-tridecane (n-C{sub 13}H{sub 28}), n-tetradecane (n-C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32}), and n-hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). These mechanisms include both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. The mechanisms are based on previous mechanisms for n-heptane, using the same reaction class mechanism construction developed initially for n-heptane. Individual reaction class rules are as simple as possible in order to focus on the parallelism between all of the n-alkane fuels included in the mechanisms, and there is an intent to develop these mechanisms further in the future to incorporate greater levels of accuracy and predictive capability. Several of these areas for improvement are identified and explained in detail. These mechanisms are validated through comparisons between computed and experimental data from as many different sources as possible. In addition, numerical experiments are carried out to examine features of n-alkane combustion in which the detailed mechanisms can be used to compare processes in all of the n-alkane fuels. The mechanisms for all of these n-alkanes are presented as a single detailed mechanism, which can be edited to produce efficient mechanisms for any of the n-alkanes included, and the entire mechanism, with supporting thermochemical and transport data, together with an explanatory glossary explaining notations and structural details, will be available on our web page when the paper is accepted for publication.

  11. Use of a thermodynamic cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled engine and an iso-octane-fuelled engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Dushyant

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    the engine cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled and an iso-octane-fuelled engine for the same operating conditions and engine specifications. A comprehensive parametric investigation was conducted to examine the effects...

  12. Use of a thermodynamic cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled engine and an iso-octane-fuelled engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Dushyant

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    the engine cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled and an iso-octane-fuelled engine for the same operating conditions and engine specifications. A comprehensive parametric investigation was conducted to examine the effects...

  13. An experimental and modeling study of iso-octane ignition delay times under homogeneous charge compression ignition conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Donovan, M.T.; Zigler, B.T.; Palmer, T.R.; Walton, S.M.; Wooldridge, M.S.; Atreya, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Autoignition of iso-octane was examined using a rapid compression facility (RCF) with iso-octane, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon mixtures. The effects of typical homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) conditions on the iso-octane ignition characteristics were studied. Experimental results for ignition delay times, t{sub ign}, were obtained from pressure time-histories. The experiments were conducted over a range of equivalence ratios (f=0.25-1.0), pressures (P=5.12-23 atm), temperatures (T=943-1027 K), and oxygen mole fractions ({chi}{sub O{sub 2}}=9-21%), and with the addition of trace amounts of combustion product gases (CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O). It was found that the ignition delay times were well represented by the expression t{sub ign}=1.3x10{sup -4}P{sup -1.05}f{sup -0.77}{chi}{sub O{sub 2}}{sup -1.41}exp(33,700/R{sub (c} {sub al/mol/K)}T), where P is pressure (atm), T is temperature (K), f is the equivalence ratio (based on iso-octane to O{sub 2} molar ratios), {chi}{sub O{sub 2}} is the oxygen mole percent (%), and t{sub ign} is the ignition delay time (ms). Carbon dioxide was found to have no chemical effect on t{sub ign}. Water was found to systematically decrease t{sub ign} by a small amount (less than 14% for the range of conditions studied). The maximum uncertainty in the measured t{sub ign} is +/-12% with an average uncertainty of +/-6%. The performance of several proposed chemical reaction mechanisms (including detailed, reduced, and skeletal mechanisms) was evaluated in the context of the current experimental results.

  14. Vapor-liquid equilibria of ethanol with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane or octane at 101. 3 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiaki, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Kenji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Hongo, Masaru (Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry); Kojima, Kazuo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) are required for engineering use such as in the design and operation of separation processes. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for ethanol with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane or octane at 101.3 kPa in an equilibrium still with circulation of both the vapor and liquid phases. The results were correlated with the Wilson and nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) equations.

  15. A Computer Generated Reduced Iso-Octane Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Applied to Simulation of HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Flowers, D; Smith, J R; Dibble, R; Chen, J Y

    2002-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper shows how a computer can systematically remove non-essential chemical reactions from a large chemical kinetic mechanism. The computer removes the reactions based upon a single solution using a detailed mechanism. The resulting reduced chemical mechanism produces similar numerical predictions significantly faster than predictions that use the detailed mechanism. Specifically, a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for iso-octane has been derived from a detailed mechanism by eliminating unimportant reaction steps and species. The reduced mechanism has been developed for the specific purpose of fast and accurate prediction of ignition timing in an HCCI engine. The reduced mechanism contains 199 species and 383 reactions, while the detailed mechanism contains 859 species and 3606 reactions. Both mechanisms have been used in numerical simulation of HCCI combustion. The simulations show that the reduced mechanism predicts pressure traces and heat release with good accuracy, similar to the accuracy obtained with the detailed mechanism. As may be expected, emissions of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide are not as well predicted with the reduced mechanism as with the detailed mechanism, since the reduced mechanism was targeted for predicting HCCI ignition and not HC and CO emissions. Considering that the reduced mechanism requires about 25 times less computational time than the detailed mechanism (2 hours vs. 2 days), the ability to automatically generate a problem specific reduced mechanism is an important new tool for combustion research in general.

  16. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Iso-octane SI-HCCI Transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havstad, Mark A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Aceves, Salvador M [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); McNenly, Matthew J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Piggott, William T [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a CHEMKIN-based multi-zone model that simulates the expected combustion variations in a single-cylinder engine fueled with iso-octane as the engine transitions from spark-ignited (SI) combustion to homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. The model includes a 63-species reaction mechanism and mass and energy balances for the cylinder and the exhaust flow. For this study we assumed that the SI-to-HCCI transition is implemented by means of increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at constant engine speed. This transition scenario is consistent with that implemented in previously reported experimental measurements on an experimental engine equipped with variable valve actuation. We find that the model captures many of the important experimental trends, including stable SI combustion at low EGR (-0.10), a transition to highly unstable combustion at intermediate EGR, and finally stable HCCI combustion at very high EGR (-0.75). Remaining differences between the predicted and experimental instability patterns indicate that there is further room for model improvement.

  17. DETAILED CHEMICAL KINETIC MODELING OF ISO-OCTANE SI-HCCI TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havstad, M A; Aceves, S M; McNenly, M J; Piggott, W T; Edwards, K D; Wagner, R M; Daw, C S; Finney, C A

    2009-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors describe a CHEMKIN-based multi-zone model that simulates the expected combustion variations in a single-cylinder engine fueled with iso-octane as the engine transitions from spark-ignited (ST) combustion to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. The model includes a 63-species reaction mechanism and mass and energy balances for the cylinder and the exhaust flow. For this study they assumed that the SI-to-HCCI transition is implemented by means of increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at constant engine speed. This transition scneario is consistent with that implemented in previously reported experimental measurements on an experimental engine equipped with variable valve actuation. They find that the model captures many of the important experimental trends, including stable SI combustion at low EGR ({approx} 0.10), a transition to highly unstable combustion at intermediate EGR, and finally stable HCCI combustion at very high EGR ({approx} 0.75). Remaining differences between the predicted and experimental instability patterns indicate that there is further room for model improvement.

  18. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  19. Greater West Texas State Employee Charitable Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    together we changed lives Greater West Texas State Employee Charitable Campaign 2011 Annual Report of Transportation Vickie Wilhite, Health and Human Services Commission Greater West Texas Campaign Manager Nicole campaign information 2011 Local Employee Committee Darcy Pollock (chair), Texas Tech University Health

  20. 2010 Annual Report Greater West Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    2010 Annual Report Greater West Texas State Employee Charitable Campaign You will find, as you look,717 and West Central Texas SECC raised $131,797 for a combined total of $957,514! · 4,608 state employees gave a fan! www.facebook.com/pages/Greater-West-Texas-State- Employee-Charitable-Campaign/103542263037744

  1. New low-mass members of the Octans stellar association and an updated 30-40 Myr lithium age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Simon J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Octans association is one of several young stellar moving groups recently discovered in the Solar neighbourhood, and hence a valuable laboratory for studies of stellar, circumstellar disc and planetary evolution. However, a lack of low-mass members or any members with trigonometric parallaxes means the age, distance and space motion of the group are poorly constrained. To better determine its membership and age, we present the first spectroscopic survey for new K and M-type Octans members, resulting in the discovery of 29 UV-bright K5-M4 stars with kinematics, photometry and distances consistent with existing members. Nine new members possess strong Li I absorption, which allow us to estimate a lithium age of 30-40 Myr, similar to that of the Tucana-Horologium association and bracketed by the firm lithium depletion boundary ages of the Beta Pictoris (20 Myr) and Argus/IC 2391 (50 Myr) associations. Several stars also show hints in our medium-resolution spectra of fast rotation or spectroscopic binarity. M...

  2. Greater West Texas State Employee Charitable Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    together we changed lives Greater West Texas State Employee Charitable Campaign 2012 Annual Report campaign information 2012 Local Employee Committee Darcy Pollock (Chair), Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center David Abercia, Texas Tech University Dianah Ascencio, Texas Department of Transportation

  3. A model of reduced oxidation kinetics using constituents and species: Iso-octane and its mixtures with n-pentane, iso-hexane and n-heptane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harstad, Kenneth; Bellan, Josette [California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, M/S 125-109, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A previously described methodology for deriving a reduced kinetic mechanism for alkane oxidation and tested for n-heptane is here shown to be valid, in a slightly modified version, for iso-octane and its mixtures with n-pentane, iso-hexane and n-heptane. The model is still based on partitioning the species into lights, defined as those having a carbon number smaller than 3, and heavies, which are the complement in the species ensemble, and mathematically decomposing the heavy species into constituents which are radicals. For the same similarity variable found from examining the n-heptane LLNL mechanism in conjunction with CHEMKIN II, the appropriately scaled total constituent molar density still exhibits a self-similar behavior over a very wide range of equivalence ratios, initial pressures and initial temperatures in the cold ignition regime. When extended to larger initial temperatures than for cold ignition, the self-similar behavior becomes initial temperature dependent, which indicates that rather than using functional fits for the enthalpy generation due to the heavy species' oxidation, an ideal model based on tabular information extracted from the complete LLNL kinetics should be used instead. Similarly to n-heptane, the oxygen and water molar densities are shown to display a quasi-linear behavior with respect to the similarity variable, but here their slope variation is no longer fitted and instead, their rate equations are used with the ideal model to calculate them. As in the original model, the light species ensemble is partitioned into quasi-steady and unsteady species; the quasi-steady light species mole fractions are computed using the ideal model and the unsteady species are calculated as progress variables using rates extracted from the ideal model. Results are presented comparing the performance of the model with that of the LLNL mechanism using CHEMKIN II. The model reproduces excellently the temperature and species evolution versus time or versus the similarity variable, with the exception of very rich mixtures, where the predictions are still very good but the multivalued aspect of these functions at the end of oxidation is not captured in the reduction. The ignition time is predicted within percentages of the LLNL values over a wide range of equivalence ratios, initial pressures and initial temperatures. (author)

  4. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-l-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. MIBE is an isomer of MTBE and a process is proposed whereby MTBE from the two alcohols is maximized and MIBE is minimized. This will be achieved by the proper choice of reaction conditions, i.e. intermediate pressures, and of inorganic acid catalysts that are stable at temperatures higher than 200{degree}C, at which the carbonium ion reaction coupling of the two alcohols to MTBE is more effective than the oxonium ion or ester reaction coupling to MIBE. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts of these classes will be subjected to long term performance studies. The long term performance studies of the combined process will extend to 1000 hr and detailed analytical data for all products will be provided.

  5. Eight Approaches to Enable Greater Energy Efficiency: A Guide...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Eight Approaches to Enable Greater Energy Efficiency: A Guide for State Government Officials Prepared by The National Council on Electricity Policy November 2009 NATIONAL COUNCIL...

  6. Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance- Residential Rebate Program (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance provides rebate incentives for homeowners in Hamilton, Boone, Kenton, and Campbell counties. To qualify for rebates, homeowners must receive a [http://www...

  7. Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance- Residential Rebate Program (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance provides rebate incentives for homeowners in Hamilton, Boone, Kenton, and Campbell counties. To qualify for rebates, homeowners must receive a [http://www...

  8. Vapor-liquid equilibria of binary and ternary mixtures of cyclohexane, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and octane at 101.3 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.C.; Tang, M.; Chen, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibria were measured at 101.3 kPa for the three binary and one ternary mixtures of cyclohexane, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and octane. The isobaric T-x-y data were reported, including an azeotropic point for the binary mixture cyclohexane + 3-methyl-2-butanone. The virial equation of state truncated after the second coefficient was used to calculate the vapor-phase fugacity coefficients. The Tsonopoulos correlation equation was applied to determine the second virial coefficients. Various activity coefficient models of the Wilson, the NRTL, and the UNIQUAC equations were used to correlate the binary experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium results. Optimally-fitted binary parameters of the activity coefficient models were obtained and those parameters of the NRTL model were employed to predict the ternary vapor-liquid equilibria. Satisfactory results were presented for the correlation and prediction of the vapor-liquid equilibrium data on binary and ternary mixtures.

  9. Molluscan Mariculture in the Greater Caribbean: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molluscan Mariculture in the Greater Caribbean: An Overview DARRYL E. JORY and EDWIN S. IVERSEN mariculture in the greater Caribbean area (Fig. 1). Sea- food is and has been a staple for Carib- bean people since pre-Columbian times. ABSIRACF-Marine mollusks suitable for mariculture in the Caribbean area have

  10. Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance- Residential Loan Program (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance provides loans for single family residencies and owner occupied duplexes in Hamilton county in Ohio and Boone, Kenton, and Campbell counties in Kentucky. To...

  11. Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance- Residential Loan Program (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance provides loans for single family residencies and owner occupied duplexes in Hamilton county in Ohio and Boone, Kenton, and Campbell counties in Kentucky. To...

  12. asymptomatic greater kudus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Land Cover Change (1975-2000) in the Greater Border Lakes Region Research Map NRS-3 United land cover classifications and change detection for a 13.8 million ha landscape...

  13. Captive propagation and brood behavior of greater prairie chickens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drake, David

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CAPTIVE PROPAGATION AND BROOD BEHAVIOR OF GREATER PRAIRIE CHICKENS A Thesis by DAVID DRAKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1994 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences CAPTIVE PROPAGATION AND BROOD BEHAVIOR OF GREATER PRAIRIE CHICKENS A Thesis by DAVID DRAKE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  14. Rates & Repayment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and...

  15. COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter GQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  16. CAN INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRING GREATER FOOD SECURITY IN ETHIOPIA?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    CAN INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRING GREATER FOOD SECURITY IN ETHIOPIA? Oloro V. McHugh, Amy S, Ethiopia Gete Zeleke ARARI, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Abstract: In the food insecure regions, short annual. Ethiopia's agricultural sector is driven by the subsistence strategies of smallholder farmers

  17. Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Don

    Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale Jean-Bernard Caron , Donald A and composition, ecological attributes, and environmental influences for the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale ecosystems further suggest the Burgess Shale community was probably highly dependent on immigration from

  18. Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface in Forested Landscapes Andrew A- tems. In 1998, a severe ice storm damaged over ten million hectares of forest across northern New York investigated the spatial arrangement of forest damage at the terrestrial-aquatic interface, an ecological edge

  19. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  20. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frohne, K.H. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Boswell, R. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Spark-Ignited Combustion with High-Octane Biofuels and EGR. 1. Engine Load Range and Downsize Downspeed Opportunity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in midlevel alcohol gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine was used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions with = 1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. Higher octane number biofuel blends exhibited increased stoichiometric torque capability at this compression ratio, where the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg (indicated mean effective pressure gross) at = 1. EGR provided thermodynamic advantages and was a key enabler for increasing engine efficiency for all fuel types. However, with E30, EGR was less useful for knock mitigation than gasoline or IB24. Torque densities with E30 with 15% EGR at = 1 operation were similar or better than a modern EURO IV calibration turbo-diesel engine. The results of the present study suggest that it could be possible to implement a 40% downsize + downspeed configuration (1.2 L engine) into a representative midsize sedan. For example, for a midsize sedan at a 65 miles/h cruise, an estimated fuel consumption of 43.9 miles per gallon (MPG) (engine out 102 g-CO2/km) could be achieved with similar reserve power to a 2.0 L engine with 87AKI (38.6 MPG, engine out 135 g-CO2/km). Data suggest that, with midlevel alcohol gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol gasoline blends and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  2. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

  3. Clean Cities: Greater Long Island Clean Cities coalition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma0 12Denver Metro CleanGeneseeGreater Long

  4. Clean Cities: Greater New Haven Clean Cities coalition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma0 12Denver Metro CleanGeneseeGreater

  5. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  6. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M. [University of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  7. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  8. STATE OF CALIFORNIA NEWLY CONSTRUCTED BUILDINGS AND ADDITIONS GREATER THAN 1,000 FT2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA NEWLY CONSTRUCTED BUILDINGS AND ADDITIONS GREATER THAN 1,000 FT2 CEC- CF-1R Newly Constructed Buildings and Additions Greater Than 1,000 ft2 (Page 1 of 5) Project Name: Climate________ Project Type: New Building Construction New Addition1 greater than 1,000 ft2 1. Additions greater than 1

  9. Brandon Heller A number of recent advances in the physical layer are enabling wireless communications devices to reach ever-greater speeds. These

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    -Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 3. Multi-Antenna Techniques 3.1 Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) 3.2 Multiple Input range, better bit rates, greater battery life, and increased reliability. Upcoming standards bit-error rates. Section 4 describes options for more reliably encoding data. Section five discusses

  10. Seeking Greater Influence in the World of Low-Energy Buildings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Seeking Greater Influence in the World of Low-Energy Buildings Seeking Greater Influence in the World of Low-Energy Buildings July 23, 2010 - 4:03pm Addthis Cindy Regnier,...

  11. Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    primarily of greater metabolic inten- sities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient500 Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic/22/2007; Electronically Published 7/13/2007 ABSTRACT We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR

  12. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  13. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tariff Rates FY 2015 Rates and Rate Schedules **Effective October 1, 2014** FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

  14. cast rates greater than about 0.4 per output port, since at that rate the multicast queues themselves become unstable.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennsylvania, University of

    1998. [4] G. Birkhoff. Tres observaciones sobre el algebra lineal. Univ. Nac. Tu­ cumâ??an Rev. Ser. A5

  15. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2015 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule 2009 Rates and...

  16. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2015 Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process...

  17. State of Indiana/Greater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications State of IndianaGreater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan State of IndianaGICC Alternative Fuels Implementation...

  18. Prioritizing winter habitat quality for greater sage-grouse in a landscape influenced by energy development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    Prioritizing winter habitat quality for greater sage-grouse in a landscape influenced by energy, and F. C. Blomquist. 2014. Prioritizing winter habitat quality for Greater Sage-Grouse in a landscape influenced by energy development. Ecosphere 5(2):15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES13-00238. 1 Abstract

  19. 0040: 1-24 2008 The bees of Greater Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franz, Nico M.

    1 0040: 1-24 2008 The bees of Greater Puerto Rico (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) Julio A-mail:polimita@hotmail.com Nico M. Franz Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico PO Box 9012, Mayagüez, PR 00681, U.S.A. E-mail:franz@uprm.edu Abstract. The bee fauna of the Greater Puerto Rico area was studied. A review

  20. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix H: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, G.; Grant, P.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report develops and presents estimates for a set of three values that represent a reasonable range for the packaging factors for several waste streams that are potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a greater-than-Class C low-level waste disposal container divided by the original, as-generated or ``unpackaged,`` volume of the wastes loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors take into account any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of a greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. The three values developed represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated volume of waste for disposal, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. Three categories of greater-than-Class C low-level waste are evaluated in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other wastes. Estimates of reasonable packaging factors for the low, base, and high cases for the specific waste streams in each category are shown in Table H-1.

  1. Greater sage-grouse population response to energy development and habitat loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, B.L.; Naugle, D.E.; Doherty, K.E. [University of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Modification of landscapes due to energy development may alter both habitat use and vital rates of sensitive wildlife species. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, have experienced rapid, widespread changes to their habitat due to recent coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development. We analyzed lek-count, habitat, and infrastructure data to assess how CBNG development and other landscape features influenced trends in the numbers of male sage-grouse observed and persistence of leks in the PRB. From 2001 to 2005, the number of males observed on leks in CBNG fields declined more rapidly than leks outside of CBNG. Of leks active in 1997 or later, only 38% of 26 leks in CBNG fields remained active by 2004-2005, compared to 84% of 250 leks outside CBNG fields. By 2005, leks in CBNG fields had 46% fewer males per active lek than leks outside of CBNG. Persistence of 110 leks was positively influenced by the proportion of sagebrush habitat within 6.4 km of the lek. After controlling for habitat, we found support for negative effects of CBNG development within 0.8 km and 3.2 km of the lek and for a time lag between CBNG development and lek disappearance. Current lease stipulations that prohibit development within 0.4 km of sage-grouse leks on federal lands are inadequate to ensure lek persistence and may result in impacts to breeding populations over larger areas. Seasonal restrictions on drilling and construction do not address impacts caused by loss of sagebrush and incursion of infrastructure that can affect populations over long periods of time. Regulatory agencies may need to increase spatial restrictions on development, industry may need to rapidly implement more effective mitigation measures, or both, to reduce impacts of CBNG development on sage-grouse populations in the PRB.

  2. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Rates Loveland Area Projects Firm Power Rates Open Access Transmission Tariff Rates Chart of Loveland Area Projects Historical Transmission Rates...

  3. The impact of multifamily development on single family home prices in the Greater Boston Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuur, Arah (Arah Louise Adele)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of large, multifamily developments on nearby single-family home prices was tested in five towns in the Greater Boston Area. Case studies that had recent multifamily developments built near transit nodes or town ...

  4. Landscape-scale patterns of forest pest and pathogen damage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    rust by examining changes in the spatial scale of significant stress and mortality clusters computedLandscape-scale patterns of forest pest and pathogen damage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

  5. You are on a path to greater prosperity and knowledge of nature, science, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    You are on a path to greater prosperity and knowledge of nature, science, and engineering. Our'Texas Aggie football team is nationally acclaimed, and every game brings a festive atmosphere

  6. An extinct monkey from Haiti and the origins of the Greater Antillean primates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberger, Alfred H.

    An extinct monkey from Haiti and the origins of the Greater Antillean primates Siobhán B. Cookea from Haiti, Insulacebus toussaintiana, is described here from the most complete Caribbean subfossil

  7. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  8. Longshore sediment transport rate calculated incorporating wave orbital velocity fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ernest Ray

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study and improve longshore sediment transport rate predictions. Measured total longshore transport in the laboratory was approximately three times greater for plunging breakers than spilling breakers. Three...

  9. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State University

    2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most abandoned lek sites were located <5 km from turbines. Probability of lek persistence was significantly related to habitat and number of males. Leks had a higher probability of persistence in grasslands than agricultural fields, and increased from ~0.2 for leks of 5 males, to >0.9 for leks of 10 or more males. Large leks in grasslands should be a higher priority for conservation. Overall, wind power development had a weak effect on the annual probability of lek persistence. 3. We used molecular methods to investigate the mating behavior of prairie chickens. The prevailing view for lek-mating grouse is that females mate once to fertilize the clutch and that conspecific nest parasitism is rare. We found evidence that females mate multiple times to fertilize the clutch (8-18% of broods, 4-38% of chicks) and will parasitize nests of other females during egg-laying (~17% of nests). Variable rates of parentage were highest in the fragmented landscapes at the Smoky Hills field site, and were lower at the Flint Hills field site. Comparisons of the pre- and postconstruction periods showed that wind energy development did not affect the mating behaviors of prairie chickens. 4. We examined use of breeding habitats by radio-marked females and conducted separate analyses for nest site selection, and movements of females not attending nests or broods. The landscape was a mix of native prairie and agricultural habitats, and nest site selection was not random because females preferred to nest in grasslands. Nests tended to be closer to turbines during the postconstruction period and there was no evidence of behavioral avoidance of turbines by females during nest site selection. Movements of females not attending nests or broods showed that females crossed the site of the wind power development at higher rates during the preconstruction period (20%) than the postconstruction period (11%), and that movements away from turbines were more frequent during the postconstruction period. Thus, wind power development appears to affect movements in breeding habitats but not nest site s

  10. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-4: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, G.; Grant, P.; Winberg, M.; Williams, K.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report estimates packaging factors for several waste types that are potential greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a GTCC LLW disposal container divided by the as-generated or ``unpackaged`` volume of the waste loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors reflect any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of GTCC LLW, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. Three values are developed that represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated disposal volume of waste, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. GTCC LLW is placed in three categories for evaluation in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other waste.

  11. Space use by female Greater Prairie-Chickens in response to wind energy development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    Space use by female Greater Prairie-Chickens in response to wind energy development V. L. WINDER,1-Chickens in response to wind energy development. Ecosphere 5(1):3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ ES13-00206.1 Abstract. Wind energy development is targeted to meet 20% of U.S. energy demand by 2030. In Kansas, optimal sites

  12. FORT UNION COAL IN THE GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, EAST FLANK OF THE ROCK SPRINGS UPLIFT,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter GS FORT UNION COAL IN THE GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, EAST FLANK OF THE ROCK SPRINGS UPLIFT 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

  13. Effects of wind energy development on survival of female greater prairie-chickens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    community, grouse, hazard function, mortality, preda- tion, wind turbine *Correspondence author. EEffects of wind energy development on survival of female greater prairie-chickens Virginia L of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA Summary 1. The potential effects of wind energy development

  14. Impact of folivory on photosynthesis is greater than the sum of its holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Impact of folivory on photosynthesis is greater than the sum of its holes A. R. Zangerl*, J. G), pp. 135­151.]. An impediment to understanding the effects of leaf damage on photosynthesis has been chlorophyll fluo- rescence and used it to map the effects of caterpillar feeding on whole-leaf photosynthesis

  15. Citizen Science System Assemblages: Toward Greater Understanding of Technologies to Support Crowdsourced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowston, Kevin

    Citizen Science System Assemblages: Toward Greater Understanding of Technologies to Support crowston@syr.edu ABSTRACT We explore the nature of technologies to support citizen science, a method different citizen science platforms may be comprised of widely varying functionalities, yet still support

  16. Asthenospheric upwelling, oceanic slab retreat, and exhumation of UHP mantle rocks: Insights from Greater Antilles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Greater Antilles in Hispaniola. We use numerical models of intra-oceanic subduction to explain exhumation Antilles in Hispaniola [Abbott et al., 2006; Abbott et al., 2005]. Field observations show that the garnet and Hispaniola islands [e.g., Lewis et al., 2006]. It was formed during subduction of the Proto-Caribbean oceanic

  17. The Potential of Distributed Cogeneration in Commercial Sites in the Greater Vancouver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (production of electricity at the point of use) may reduce CO2 emissions relative to the most likely of electricity and CO2 emissions. The results showed that while greater energy efficiency is achieved: December 10, 1999 #12;iii ABSTRACT The Canadian government is evaluating options to reduce CO2 emissions

  18. Novel Battery Thermal Management System for Greater Lifetime Ratifying Current Quality and Safety Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    acceptance; o power and energy capability; o reliability; o lifetime and life cycle cost. ThereofNovel Battery Thermal Management System for Greater Lifetime Ratifying Current Quality and Safety,Denmark. Temperature excursions and non-uniformity of the temperature inside the battery systems are the main concern

  19. Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noel, Claudel, E-mail: claudelnoel@gmail.co [University of the West Indies, Institute for Sustainable Development, Environmental Management Unit, 13 Gibraltar Camp Way, Mona Campus, Kingston (Jamaica)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

  20. Drilling Off-Shore (Mademoiselle From Armentiers) Pedrolina "Paige" Delaparrucca and the Greater Westerly Grannies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nightingale, Peter

    Drilling Off-Shore (Mademoiselle From Armentiers) Pedrolina "Paige" Delaparrucca and the Greater- George ofU Old Drill- Litt- heat lost had need had get E his no more his more belch, ba- Bush, A, Rea Car- Ba- Litt- U Old Drill- B 7 5 bon rack le S Ron- ing more oil, D o we his no more his in ma who we

  1. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  2. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  3. The Interest Rate Conundrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craine, Roger; Martin, Vance L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flows and US Interest Rates,” NBER Working Paper No 12560. [Working Paper # 2008 -03 The Interest Rate Conundrum Roger

  4. BiOctane | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouth Carolina:Energy LLC

  5. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  6. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  7. Activities of ?-ray emitting isotopes in rainwater from Greater Sudbury, Canada following the Fukushima incident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. T. Cleveland; F. A. Duncan; I. T. Lawson; N. J. T. Smith; E. Vazquez-Jauregui

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the activity measured in rainwater samples collected in the Greater Sudbury area of eastern Canada on 3, 16, 20, and 26 April 2011. The samples were gamma-ray counted in a germanium detector and the isotopes 131I and 137Cs, produced by the fission of 235U, and 134Cs, produced by neutron capture on 133Cs, were observed at elevated levels compared to a reference sample of ice-water. These elevated activities are ascribed to the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor complex in Japan that followed the 11 March earthquake and tsunami. The activity levels observed at no time presented health concerns.

  8. Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At high penetration of solar generation there are a number of challenges to economically integrating this variable and uncertain resource. These include the limited coincidence between the solar resource and normal demand patterns and limited flexibility of conventional generators to accommodate variable generation resources. Of the large number of technologies that can be used to enable greater penetration of variable generators, concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) presents a number of advantages. The use of storage enables this technology to shift energy production to periods of high demand or reduced solar output. In addition, CSP can provide substantial grid flexibility by rapidly changing output in response to the highly variable net load created by high penetration of solar (and wind) generation. In this work we examine the degree to which CSP may be complementary to PV by performing a set of simulations in the U.S. Southwest to demonstrate the general potential of CSP with TES to enable greater use of solar generation, including additional PV.

  9. Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste treatment technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, T W; Fischer, D K

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was developed to provide the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program with criteria and a methodology to select candidate treatment technologies for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) destined for dedicated storage and ultimately disposal. The technology selection criteria are provided in a Lotus spreadsheet format to allow the methodology to evolve as the GTCC LLW Program evolves. It is recognized that the final disposal facility is not yet defined; thus, the waste acceptance criteria and other facility-specific features are subject to change. The spreadsheet format will allow for these changes a they occur. As additional treatment information becomes available, it can be factored into the analysis. The technology selection criteria were established from program goals, draft waste acceptance criteria for dedicated storage (including applicable regulations), and accepted remedial investigation methods utilized under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Kepner-Tregoe decisionmaking techniques are used to compare and rank technologies against the criteria.

  10. BCP Annual Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 BCP Annual Rate Process (FY 2016 Base Charge & Rate) Informal Process Rate Activity Schedule (doc) Informal Customer Meeting Thursday March 11, 2015 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms 3&4...

  11. Research Rate Liaison Rate for outside academic &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    as of 12/9/13 External Rate Spark Plasma Sintering ) Spark Plasma Sintering > 24 hrs 2 8 Vacuum Hot Press

  12. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  13. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10012014 - 03312015 Mid-Year Change (if applicable) 10012014 - 09302015 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 70,091,227 CV-F13...

  14. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the FY Mid-Year Change 10012013 - 03312014 04012014 - 09302014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 73,441,557...

  15. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  16. WAPA-169 Rate Order

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    69 Rate Order Western is proposing adjustments to the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects firm power rate and the Colorado River Storage Project Transmission and ancillary...

  17. Multiple System Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savisngs Under...

  18. Department of Energy treatment capabilities for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrell, D.K.; Fischer, D.K.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides brief profiles for 26 low-level and high-level waste treatment capabilities available at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP). Six of the treatments have potential use for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW). They include: (a) the glass ceramic process and (b) the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility incinerator at INEL; (c) the Super Compaction and Repackaging Facility and (d) microwave melting solidification at RFP; (e) the vitrification plant at SRS; and (f) the vitrification plant at WVDP. No individual treatment has the capability to treat all GTCC LLW streams. It is recommended that complete physical and chemical characterizations be performed for each GTCC waste stream, to permit using multiple treatments for GTCC LLW.

  19. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  20. Weed evolution after crop gene introgression: greater survival and fecundity of hybrids in a new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snow, Allison A.

    . raphanistrum · Raphanus sativus) in Michigan (MI), USA. Hybrid and wild populations had similar growth rates-wild hybrids, we established four wild (Raphanus raphanistrum) and four hybrid radish populations (R, Raphanus raphanistrum. Ecology Letters (2006) 9: 1198­1209 I N T R O DU C T I O N Weed populations can

  1. Eocene climates, depositional environments, and geography, greater Green River basin, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roehler, H.W.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The climates, depositional environments, and geography of Eocene rocks in the greater Green River basin are investigated to determine the origin, mode of deposition, and areal distribution of the Wasatch, Green River, Bridger, and Washakie Formations. The data indicate that Eocene climates ranged from cool temperature to tropical and were affected by both terrestrial and astronomical factors. The terrestrial factors were mainly latitude, altitude, regional geography, tectonism, and volcanism. The astronomical factors are interpreted from reptitious rock sequences in the Wilkins Peak Member of the Green River Formation that record seasonal changes, 21,000 year precession of the equinox cycles, 100,000 year eccentricity cycles, and an undetermined cycle of 727,000 years. Eight depositional environments are identified, discussed, and illustrated by diagrams, columnar sections, and photographs. They are: (1) fluvial, (2) paludal, (3) freshwater lacustrine, (4) saltwater lacustrine, (5) pond and playa lake, (6) evaporite (salt pan), (7) mudflat, and (8) volcanic and fluviovolcanic. The areal distribution of the eight depositional environments in the Wasatch, Green River, Bridger, and Washakie Formations is illustrated by photographs and 13 paleogeographic maps. 76 refs., 90 figs.

  2. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 7(b)(2) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act), 16 U.S.C. {section} 839e(b)(2), directs the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to conduct, after July 1, 1985, a comparison of the projected rates to be charged its preference and Federal agency customers for their firm power requirements, over the rate test period plus the ensuing four years, with the costs of power (hereafter called rates) to those customers for the same time period if certain assumptions are made. The effect of this rate test is to protect BPA's preference and Federal agency customers wholesale firm power rates from certain specified costs resulting from provisions of the Northwest Power Act. The rate test can result in a reallocation of costs from the general requirements loads of preference and Federal agency customers to other BPA loads. The rate test involves the projection and comparison of two sets of wholesale power rates for the general requirements loads of BPA's public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers (7(b)(2) Customers). The two sets of rates are: (1) a set for the test period and the ensuing four years assuming that section 7(b)(2) is not in effect (known as Program Case rates); and (2) a set for the same period taking into account the five assumptions listed in section 7(b)(2), (known as 7(b)(2) Case rates). Certain specified costs allocated pursuant to section 7(g) of the Northwest Power Act are subtracted from the Program Case rates. Next, each nominal rate is discounted to the beginning of the test period of the relevant rate case. The discounted Program Case rates are averaged, as are the 7(b)(2) Case rates. Both averages are rounded to the nearest tenth of a mill for comparison. If the average Program Case rate is greater than the average 7(b)(2) Case rate, the rate test triggers. The difference between the average Program Case rate and the average 7(b)(2) Case rate determines the amount to be reallocated from the 7(b)(2) Customers to other BPA loads in the rate proposal test period.

  3. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  4. A landslide risk rating system for the Baguio City, Philippines area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldivar-Sali, Artessa Niccola D., 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research formulates a LANDSLIDE RISK RATING SYSTEM for the Greater Baguio area in the Philippines. It is hoped that the tool will be made a part of the physical/urban planning process when used by engineers and planners ...

  5. Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory D. Johnson; Chad W. LeBeau; Ryan Nielsen; Troy Rintz; Jamey Eddy; Matt Holloran

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted to obtain baseline data on use of the proposed Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area (SRWRA) in Carbon County, Wyoming by greater sage-grouse. The first two study years were designed to determine pre-construction seasonally selected habitats and population-level vital rates (productivity and survival). The presence of an existing wind energy facility in the project area, the PacifiCorp Seven Mile Hill (SMH) project, allowed us to obtain some information on initial sage-grouse response to wind turbines the first two years following construction. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative data on sage-grouse response to an existing wind energy development. This report presents results of the first two study years (April 1, 2009 through March 30, 2011). This study was selected for continued funding by the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative Sage-Grouse Collaborative (NWCC-SGC) and has been ongoing since March 30, 2011. Future reports summarizing results of this research will be distributed through the NWCC-SGC. To investigate population trends through time, we determined the distribution and numbers of males using leks throughout the study area, which included a 4-mile radius buffer around the SRWRA. Over the 2-year study, 116 female greater sage-grouse were captured by spotlighting and use of hoop nets on roosts surrounding leks during the breeding period. Radio marked birds were located anywhere from twice a week to once a month, depending on season. All radio-locations were classified to season. We developed predictor variables used to predict success of fitness parameters and relative probability of habitat selection within the SRWRA and SMH study areas. Anthropogenic features included paved highways, overhead transmission lines, wind turbines and turbine access roads. Environmental variables included vegetation and topography features. Home ranges were estimated using a kernel density estimator. We developed resource selection functions (RSF) to estimate probability of selection within the SRWRA and SMH. Fourteen active greater sage-grouse leks were documented during lek surveys Mean lek size decreased from 37 in 2008 to 22 in 2010. Four leks located 0.61, 1.3, 1.4 and 2.5 km from the nearest wind turbine remained active throughout the study, but the total number of males counted on these four leks decreased from 162 the first year prior to construction (2008), to 97 in 2010. Similar lek declines were noted in regional leks not associated with wind energy development throughout Carbon County. We obtained 2,659 sage-grouse locations from radio-equipped females, which were used to map use of each project area by season. The sage-grouse populations within both study areas are relatively non-migratory, as radio-marked sage-grouse used similar areas during all annual life cycles. Potential impacts to sage-grouse from wind energy infrastructure are not well understood. The data rom this study provide insight into the early interactions of wind energy infrastructure and sage-grouse. Nest success and brood-rearing success were not statistically different between areas with and without wind energy development in the short-term. Nest success also was not influenced by anthropogenic features such as turbines in the short-term. Additionally, female survival was similar among both study areas, suggesting wind energy infrastructure was not impacting female survival in the short-term; however, further analysis is needed to identify habitats with different levels of risk to better understand the impact of wind enregy development on survival. Nest and brood-rearing habitat selection were not influenced by turbines in the short-term; however, summer habitat selection occurred within habitats closer to wind turbines. Major roads were avoided in both study areas and during most of the seasons. The impact of transmission lines varied among study areas, suggesting other landscape features may be influencing selection. The data provided in this report are preliminary and are not meant to provide a basis for fo

  6. Ratios of heavy hadron semileptonic decay rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Gronau; Jonathan L. Rosner

    2010-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ratios of charmed meson and baryon semileptonic decay rates appear to be satisfactorily described by considering only the lowest-lying (S-wave) hadronic final states and assuming the kinematic factor describing phase space suppression is the same as that for free quarks. For example, the rate for $D_s$ semileptonic decay is known to be $(17.0 \\pm 5.3)%$ lower than those for $D^0$ or $D^+$, and the model accounts for this difference. When applied to hadrons containing $b$ quarks, this method implies that the $B_s$ semileptonic decay rate is about 1% higher than that of the nonstrange $B$ mesons. This small difference thus suggests surprisingly good local quark-hadron duality for $B$ semileptonic decays, complementing the expectation based on inclusive quark-hadron duality that these differences in rates should not exceed a few tenths of a percent. For $\\Lambda_b$ semileptonic decay, however, the inclusive rate is predicted to be about 13% greater than that of the nonstrange $B$ mesons. This value, representing a considerable departure from a calculation using a heavy quark expansion, is close to the corresponding experimental ratio $\\Gamma(\\Lambda_b)/ \\bar \\Gamma(B) = 1.13 \\pm 0.03$ of total decay rates.

  7. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  8. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CPP-2 (Supersedes Schedule CPP-1) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATES FOR CUSTOM PRODUCT POWER Effective:...

  9. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  10. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charges or credits associated with the creation, termination, or modification to any tariff, contract, or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  11. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to...

  12. Effects of engine speed, fueling rate, and combustion phasing on the thermal stratification required to limit HCCI knocking intensity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SjŢoberg, Magnus; Dec, John E.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal stratification has the potential to reduce pressure-rise rates and allow increased power output for HCCI engines. This paper systematically examines how the amount of thermal stratification of the core of the charge has to be adjusted to avoid excessive knock as the engine speed and fueling rate are increased. This is accomplished by a combination of multi-zone chemical-kinetics modeling and engine experiments, using iso-octane as the fuel. The experiments show that, for a low-residual engine configuration, the pressure traces are self-similar during changes to the engine speed when CA50 is maintained by adjusting the intake temperature. Consequently, the absolute pressure-rise rate measured as bar/ms increases proportionally with the engine speed. As a result, the knocking (ringing) intensity increases drastically with engine speed, unless counteracted by some means. This paper describes how adjustments of the thermal width of the in-cylinder charge can be used to limit the ringing intensity to 5 MW/m2 as both engine speed and fueling are increased. If the thermal width can be tailored without constraints, this enables smooth operation even for combinations of high speed, high load, and combustion phasing close to TDC. Since large alterations of the thermal width of the charge are not always possible, combustion retard is considered to reduce the requirement on the thermal stratification. The results show that combustion retard carries significant potential since it amplifies the benefit of a fixed thermal width. Therefore, the thermal stratification required for operation with an acceptable knocking intensity can be decreased substantially by the use of combustion retard. This enables combinations of high engine speed and high fueling rate even for operation with the naturally occurring thermal stratification. However, very precise control of the combustion phasing will likely be required for such operation.

  13. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  14. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  15. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study and Documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 7(b)(2) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act), 16 U.S.C. {section} 839e(b)(2), directs the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to conduct, after July 1, 1985, a comparison of the projected rates to be charged its preference and Federal agency customers for their firm power requirements, over the rate test period plus the ensuing 4 years, with the costs of power (hereafter called rates) to those customers for the same time period if certain assumptions are made. The effect of this rate test is to protect BPA's preference and Federal agency customers wholesale firm power rates from certain specified costs resulting from certain provisions of the Northwest Power Act. The rate test can result in a reallocation of costs from the general requirements loads of preference and Federal agency customers to other BPA loads. The rate test involves the projection and comparison of two sets of wholesale power rates for the general requirement loads of BPA's public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers (collectively, the 7(b)(2) Customers). The two sets of rates are: (1) a set for the test period and the ensuing four years assuming that Section 7(b)(2) is not in effect (known as Program Case rates); and (2) a set for the same period taking into account the five assumptions listed in section 7(b)(2) (known as 7(b)(2) Case rates). Certain specified costs allocated pursuant to section 7(g) of the Northwest Power Act are subtracted from the Program Case rates. Next, each nominal rate is discounted to the beginning of the test period of the relevant rate case. The discounted Program Case rates are averaged, as are the 7(b)(2) Case rates. Both averages are rounded to the nearest tenth of a mill for comparison. If the average of the Program Case rates is greater than the average of the 7(b)(2) Case rates, the rate test triggers. The difference between the average of the Program Case rates and the average of the 7(b)(2) Case rates determines the amount to be reallocated from the 7(b)(2) Customers to other BPA loads in the rate test period. The purpose of this Study is to describe the application of the ''Section 7(b)(2) Implementation Methodology (Implementation Methodology)'' and the results of such application. The accompanying Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study Documentation, WP-07-FS-BPA-06A, contains the documentation of the computer models and data used to perform the 7(b)(2) rate test. This Study is organized into three major sections. The first section provides an introduction to the study, as well as a summary of the section ''7(b)(2) Legal Interpretation and Implementation Methodology''. The second section describes the methodology used in conducting the rate test. It provides a discussion of the calculations performed to project the two sets of power rates that are compared in the rate test. The third section presents a summary of the results of the rate test for the WP-07 Final Rate Proposal.

  16. Does `Facebooking' lead to greater student engagement? Junco, R. (2012). The relationship between frequency of Facebook use, participation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Does `Facebooking' lead to greater student engagement? Junco, R. (2012). The relationship between frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and student engagement. Computers, such as Facebook (FB) is also a somewhat prickly topic in higher education as the stakeholders listed above attempt

  17. Summary We tested the hypothesis that greater cavitation resistance correlates with less total inter-vessel pit area per ves-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacke, Uwe

    Summary We tested the hypothesis that greater cavitation resistance correlates with less total cavitation safety and transport efficiency. Fourteen species of diverse growth form (vine, ring- and diffuse species total). Two types of vulnerability-to-cavitation curves were found. Ring-porous trees and vines

  18. The seismic monitoring of buildings is particularly important in high-population urban areas like Greater Boston. While

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polz, Martin

    PROBLEM The seismic monitoring of buildings is particularly important in high-population urban areas like Greater Boston. While Massachusetts' seismic building codes are adapted from Cali- fornia to damage from earthquakes of small magnitude, particularly if the fundamen- tal frequency of the seismic

  19. 2010FirmRateAdj

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Firm Power Rates & Rate Schedules The Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division: Firm Electric Service Pick Sloan Missouri River -Eastern Division Rates Effective...

  20. <RatesMiscInfo>

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates & Repayment Services Power Reporting MISCELLANEOUS REPORTING Power Supply Report October 2014 (59kb pdf) September 2014 (58kb pdf) August 2014 (47kb pdf) July 2014 (57kb pdf)...

  1. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  2. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  3. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  4. Bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the greater Yellowstone area during four postfire years. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.

  5. Michael Langley GREATER MSP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    prosper here. People prosper here. OUR REGION'S STORY #12;RAPID URBANIZATION & GROWING MIDDLE CLASS Mumbai and Insurance Reports (examples) · Met Council: NARC Study · MGI: Game Changers Data Analysis · Sectors (Mc · Nutrition · Water filtration · Water purification Food & Water Solutions #12;BUSINESS AND PEOPLE PROSPER

  6. Acceleration Rates and Injection Efficiencies in Oblique Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. C. Ellison; M. G. Baring; F. C. Jones

    1995-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate at which particles are accelerated by the first-order Fermi mechanism in shocks depends on the angle, \\teq{\\Tbone}, that the upstream magnetic field makes with the shock normal. The greater the obliquity the greater the rate, and in quasi-perpendicular shocks rates can be hundreds of times higher than those seen in parallel shocks. In many circumstances pertaining to evolving shocks (\\eg, supernova blast waves and interplanetary traveling shocks), high acceleration rates imply high maximum particle energies and obliquity effects may have important astrophysical consequences. However, as is demonstrated here, the efficiency for injecting thermal particles into the acceleration mechanism also depends strongly on obliquity and, in general, varies inversely with \\teq{\\Tbone}. The degree of turbulence and the resulting cross-field diffusion strongly influences both injection efficiency and acceleration rates. The test particle \\mc simulation of shock acceleration used here assumes large-angle scattering, computes particle orbits exactly in shocked, laminar, non-relativistic flows, and calculates the injection efficiency as a function of obliquity, Mach number, and degree of turbulence. We find that turbulence must be quite strong for high Mach number, highly oblique shocks to inject significant numbers of thermal particles and that only modest gains in acceleration rates can be expected for strong oblique shocks over parallel ones if the only source of seed particles is the thermal background.

  7. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  8. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergy InnovationRecentPreviouspower-rates

  9. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergytransmission-rates Sign In About |

  10. Activities of \\gamma-ray emitting isotopes in rainwater from Greater Sudbury, Canada following the Fukushima incident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cleveland, B T; Lawson, I T; Smith, N J T; Vazquez-Jauregui, E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the activity measured in rainwater samples collected in the Greater Sudbury area of eastern Canada on 3, 16, 20, and 26 April 2011. The samples were gamma-ray counted in a germanium detector and the isotopes 131I and 137Cs, produced by the fission of 235U, and 134Cs, produced by neutron capture on 133Cs, were observed at elevated levels compared to a reference sample of ice-water. These elevated activities are ascribed to the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor complex in Japan that followed the 11 March earthquake and tsunami. The activity levels observed at no time presented health concerns.

  11. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  12. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  13. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department ofDepartmentPower-Rates Sign In About |

  14. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department ofDepartmentPower-Rates Sign

  15. [FIXED RATE GUARANTEED OBLIGATIONS]

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong,Women @JoinEnergy ZEROFIXED RATE GUARANTEED

  16. Settlement PF Exchange Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 SeptemberSetting the Stage for the Next SolarRate

  17. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix D-3: Characterization of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from other generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, L.W.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Other Generators category includes all greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) that is not generated or held by nuclear utilities or sealed sources licensees or that is not stored at Department of Energy facilities. To determine the amount of waste within this category, 90 LLW generators were contacted; 13 fit the Other Generators category. Based on information received from the 13 identified Other Generators, the GTCC LLW Management Program was able to (a) characterize the nature of industries in this category, (b) estimate the 1993 inventory of Other Generator waste for high, base, and low cases, and (c) project inventories to the year 2035 for high, base, and low cases. Assumptions were applied to each of the case estimates to account for generators who may not have been identified in this study.

  18. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  19. Catalog of documents produced by the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winberg, M.R.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This catalog provides a ready reference for documents prepared by the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste (GTCC LLW) Management Program. The GTCC LLW Management Program is part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP). The NLLWMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is responsible for assisting the DOE in meeting its obligations under Public Law 99-240, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. This law assigns DOE the responsibility of ensuring the safe disposal of GTCC LLW in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NLLWMP is managed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  20. Evaluation of Department of Energy-Held Potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of commercial facilities have generated potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW), and, through contractual arrangements with the US Department of Energy (DOE) or for health and safety reasons, DOE is storing the waste. This report presents the results of an assessment conducted by the GTCC LLW Management Program to consider specific circumstances under which DOE accepted the waste, and to determine whether disposal in a facility licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or by DOE in a nonlicensed facility, is appropriate. Input from EG&G Idaho, Inc., and DOE Idaho Operations Office legal departments concerning the disposal requirements of this waste were the basis for the decision process used in this report.

  1. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorhaug, A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  2. The potential for coalbed gas exploration and production in the Greater Green River Basin, southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Scott, A.R.; Hamilton, D.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coalbed gas is an important source of natural gas in the United States. In 1993, approximately 740 BCF of coalbed gas was produced in the United States, or about 4.2% of the nation`s total gas production. Nearly 96% of this coalbed gas is produced from just two basins, the San Juan (615.7 BCF; gas in place 84 TCF) and Black Warrior (105 BCF; gas in place 20 TCF), and current production represents only a fraction of the nation`s estimated 675 TCF of in-place coalbed gas. Coal beds in the Greater Green River Basin in southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado hold almost half of the gas in place (314 TCF) and are an important source of gas for low-permeability Almond sandstones. Because total gas in place in the Greater Green River Basin is reported to exceed 3,000 TCF (Law et al., 1989), the basin may substantially increase the domestic gas resource base. Therefore, through integrated geologic and hydrologic studies, the coalbed gas potential of the basin was assessed where tectonic, structural, and depositional setting, coal distribution and rank, gas content, coal permeability, and ground-water flow are critical controls on coalbed gas producibility. Synergism between these geologic and hydrologic controls determines gas productivity. High productivity is governed by (1) thick, laterally continuous coals of high thermal maturity, (2) basinward flow of ground water through fractured and permeable coals, down the coal rank gradient toward no-flow boundaries oriented perpendicular to the regional flow direction, and (3) conventional trapping of gas along those boundaries to provide additional sources of gas beyond that sorbed on the coal surface.

  3. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirner, N.P. [Ebasco Environmental, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m{sup 3} to 187 m{sup 3}, depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes.

  4. Greater Biopsy Core Number Is Associated With Improved Biochemical Control in Patients Treated With Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bittner, Nathan [Tacoma/Valley Radiation Oncology Centers, Tacoma, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.or [Schiffler Cancer Center/Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center/Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Standard prostate biopsy schemes underestimate Gleason score in a significant percentage of cases. Extended biopsy improves diagnostic accuracy and provides more reliable prognostic information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that greater biopsy core number should result in improved treatment outcome through better tailoring of therapy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to May 2006, 1,613 prostate cancer patients were treated with permanent brachytherapy. Patients were divided into five groups stratified by the number of prostate biopsy cores ({<=}6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-20, and >20 cores). Biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated as a function of core number. Results: The median patient age was 66 years, and the median preimplant prostate-specific antigen was 6.5 ng/mL. The overall 10-year bPFS, CSS, and OS were 95.6%, 98.3%, and 78.6%, respectively. When bPFS was analyzed as a function of core number, the 10-year bPFS for patients with >20, 13-20, 10-12, 7-9 and {<=}6 cores was 100%, 100%, 98.3%, 95.8%, and 93.0% (p < 0.001), respectively. When evaluated by treatment era (1995-2000 vs. 2001-2006), the number of biopsy cores remained a statistically significant predictor of bPFS. On multivariate analysis, the number of biopsy cores was predictive of bPFS but did not predict for CSS or OS. Conclusion: Greater biopsy core number was associated with a statistically significant improvement in bPFS. Comprehensive regional sampling of the prostate may enhance diagnostic accuracy compared to a standard biopsy scheme, resulting in better tailoring of therapy.

  5. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT (EECBG) - BETTER BUILDINGS NEIGHBORHOOD PROGRAM AT GREATER CINCINNATI ENERGY ALLIANCE Project Title: Home Performance with Energy Star® and Better Buildings Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holzhauser, Andy; Jones, Chris; Faust, Jeremy; Meyer, Chris; Van Divender, Lisa

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (Energy Alliance) is a nonprofit economic development agency dedicated to helping Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky communities reduce energy consumption. The Energy Alliance has launched programs to educate homeowners, commercial property owners, and nonprofit organizations about energy efficiency opportunities they can use to drive energy use reductions and financial savings, while extending significant focus to creating/retaining jobs through these programs. The mission of the Energy Alliance is based on the premise that investment in energy efficiency can lead to transformative economic development in a region. With support from seven municipalities, the Energy Alliance began operation in early 2010 and has been among the fastest growing nonprofit organizations in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area. The Energy Alliance offers two programs endorsed by the Department of Energy: the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Program for homeowners and the Better Buildings Performance Program for commercial entities. Both programs couple expert guidance, project management, and education in energy efficiency best practices with incentives and innovative energy efficiency financing to help building owners effectively invest in the energy efficiency, comfort, health, longevity, and environmental impact of their residential or commercial buildings. The Energy Alliance has raised over $23 million of public and private capital to build a robust market for energy efficiency investment. Of the $23 million, $17 million was a direct grant from the Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The organization’s investments in energy efficiency projects in the residential and commercial sector have led to well over $50 million in direct economic activity and created over 375,000 hours of labor created or retained. In addition, over 250 workers have been trained through the Building Performance Training Center, a program that was developed and funded by the Energy Alliance and housed at Cincinnati State Technical and Community College. Nearly 100 residential and commercial contractors currently participate in the Energy Alliance’s two major programs, which have together served over 2,800 residential and 100 commercial customers. Additionally, the Energy Alliance established loan programs for homeowners, nonprofits and commercial businesses. The GC-HELP program was established to provide up to ten year low interest, unsecured loans to homeowners to cover the energy efficiency products they purchased through the Energy Alliance approved contractor base. To date the Energy Alliance has financed over $1 million in energy efficiency loans for homeowners, without any loans written off. The nonprofit business community is offered five year, fixed-interest rate loans through the Building Communities Loan Fund of $250,000. Additionally, the Energy Alliance has developed GC-PACE, a commercial financing tool that enables buildings owners to finance their energy upgrades through voluntary property assessments deploying low-interest extended-term capital from the bond market. The Energy Alliance and its partners are actively evaluating additional market-based financing solutions.

  6. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-5: Impact of the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Harris, G. [Waste Management Group, Inc., Peekskill, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the effects of concentration averaging practices on the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) generated by the nuclear utility industry and sealed sources. Using estimates of the number of waste components that individually exceed Class C limits, this report calculates the proportion that would be classified as GTCC LLW after applying concentration averaging; this proportion is called the concentration averaging factor. The report uses the guidance outlined in the 1993 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging, as well as waste disposal experience at nuclear utilities, to calculate the concentration averaging factors for nuclear utility wastes. The report uses the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position and the criteria from the Barnwell, South Carolina, LLW disposal site to calculate concentration averaging factors for sealed sources. The report addresses three waste groups: activated metals from light water reactors, process wastes from light-water reactors, and sealed sources. For each waste group, three concentration averaging cases are considered: high, base, and low. The base case, which is the most likely case to occur, assumes using the specific guidance given in the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging. To project future GTCC LLW generation, each waste category is assigned a concentration averaging factor for the high, base, and low cases.

  7. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  8. Upper Great Plains Rates information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancillary Services Rate Data (2.4mb pdf) Transmission and Ancillary Services 2011 Rate True-up Calculation (3.4mb pdf) Power Reporting Miscellaneous Information If you have any...

  9. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  10. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 3, Sealed sources held by general licensees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, G.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third volume in a series of three volumes characterizing the population of sealed sources that may become greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). In this volume, those sources possessed by general licensees are discussed. General-licensed devices may contain sealed sources with significant amounts of radioactive material. However, the devices are designed to be safe to use without special knowledge of radiological safety practices. Devices containing Am-241 or Cm-244 sources are most likely to become GTCC LLW after concentration averaging. This study estimates that there are about 16,000 GTCC devices held by general licensees; 15,000 of these contain Am-241 sources and 1,000 contain Cm-244 sources. Additionally, this study estimates that there are 1,600 GTCC devices sold to general licensees each year. However, due to a lack of available information on general licensees in Agreement States, these estimates are uncertain. This uncertainty is quantified in the low and high case estimates given in this report, which span approximately an order of magnitude.

  11. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 1, Sealed sources held by specific licensees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, G.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sealed sources are small, relatively high-activity radioactive sources typically encapsulated in a metallic container. The activities can range from less than 1 mCi to over 1,000 Ci. They are used in a variety of industries and are commonly available. Many of the sources will be classified as Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) for the purpose of waste disposal. The US Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of this class of low-level radioactive waste. To better understand the scope of the GTCC LLW situation regarding sealed sources and to provide data to a model that projects future quantities of GTCC material, data from a comprehensive 1991 US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) survey and a related 1992 survey of Agreement States were analyzed to estimate the number, volume, and activity of Potential GTCC sealed sources currently available from specific licensees. Potential GTCC sealed sources are sources that exceed the limits stated in 10 CFR 61 when isotope concentrations are averaged over the volume of the capsule. Based on the surveys, the estimated number of existing Potential GTCC sealed sources held by specific licensees is 89,000, with an unpackaged volume of 0.93 m{sup 3} and an activity of 2,300,000 Ci. However, current disposal practices allow concentration averaging over the disposal container, substantially reducing the number of sealed sources which will actually be classified as GTCC LLW.

  12. Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fullmer, K.S.; Fish, L.W.; Fischer, D.K.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This report supports DOE`s investigation of the deep geologic disposal option by comparing the vitrification treatments that are able to convert those GTCC LLWs that are inherently migratory into stable waste forms acceptable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. Eight vitrification treatments that utilize glass, glass ceramic, or basalt waste form matrices are identified. Six of these are discussed in detail, stating the advantages and limitations of each relative to their ability to immobilize GTCC LLW. The report concludes that the waste form most likely to provide the best composite of performance characteristics for GTCC process waste is Iron Enriched Basalt 4 (IEB4).

  13. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW.

  14. Mixing and segregation rates in sheared granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura A. Golick; Karen E. Daniels

    2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The size-segregation of granular materials, a process colloquially known as the Brazil Nut Effect, has generally been thought to proceed faster the greater the size difference of the particles. We experimentally investigate sheared bidisperse granular materials as a function of the size ratio of the two species, and find that the mixing rate at low confining pressure behaves as expected from percolation-based arguments. However, we also observe an anomalous effect for the re-segregation rates, wherein particles of both dissimilar and similar sizes segregate more slowly than intermediate particle size ratios. Combined with the fact that increasing the confining pressure significantly suppresses both mixing and segregation rates of particles of dissimilar size, we propose that the anomalous behavior may be attributed to a species-dependent distribution of forces within the system.

  15. Comparative evapotranspiration rates of thirteen turfgrasses grown under both non-limiting soil moisture and progressive water stress conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ki Sun

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    yield. Only a limited number of references are available concerning ET rate studies on turfgrasses (2, 4, 14, 15, 16, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 35, 41, 47, 51). The general zange reported for ET rates of most turfgrass is 2 to 6 mm (0. 1 to 0. 3... grasses also is greater (4, 15, 22, 23, 32, 40). Shearman and Beard (40, 42) showed that increasing the cutting height f 'P*'ptgbg*(n t pl t gd)f 0. 7 to 2. 5 cm resulted in a 53X greater ET rate and from 2. 5 to 12. 5 cm resulted in a doubling...

  16. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

  17. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  18. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Use of Low Cetane Fuel to Enable Low Temperature Combustion High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control...

  19. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NMPerformance | Department ofEnergyAnDepartment of

  20. Bio Octane Energias Renov veis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative Sources ofBeyondPV CoSandy,Bio CleanBio

  1. Strain rate and temperature dependence of Omori law scaling constants of AE data: Implications for earthquake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -value decreases systematically with increasing deformation rate suggesting a greater proportion of small cracks: Fracture and flow; 5134 Physical Properties of Rocks: Thermal properties. Citation: Ojala, I. O., I. G] of AE events follows a power law, just as it is commonly observed for earthquakes [Frohlich and Davis

  2. Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CRSP Transmission 9162013 WAPA-161 FRN, CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates extension Letter announcing two-year extension to CRSP transmission and ancillary...

  3. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  4. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area. Our si mulations suggest that cool-city strategies can typically reduce local urban air temperature by 0.5-1 degrees C; as more sporadic events, larger decreases (1.5 degrees C, 2.5-2.7 degrees C and 4-6 degrees C) were also simulated. With regard to ozone mixing ratios along the simulated trajectories, the effects of cool-city strategies appear to be on the order of 2 ppb, a typical decrease. The photochemical trajectory model (CIT) also simulates larger decreases (e.g., 4 to 8 ppb), but these are not taken as representative of the potential impacts in this report. A comparison with other simulations suggest very crudely that a decrease of this magnitude corresponds to significant ''equivalent'' decreases in both NOx and VOCs emissions in the region. Our preliminary results suggest that significant UHI control can be achieved with cool-cities strategies in the GTA and is therefore worth further study. We recommend that better input data and more accurate modeling schemes be used to carry out f uture studies in the same direction.

  5. Strain rate sensitive constitutive equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Charles Edward

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Computed Constants For Far'ous . Baterials 47 LIST OF FIGURFS Pace Figure I Comparison of Rate Data For Commercially Pure Aluminum Figure 2 Dynamic Loading Regimes 17 Figure 3 Yield Criteria 32 Figure 4 Uni-axial Stress-Strain Rate...

  6. RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    NATIONAL RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by: Smith, Bucklin and Associates, Inc. Market Research and Statistics Division Chicago, Illinois July 2003 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER #12;BCI RECYCLING RATE STUDY TABLE ....................................................................................................1 II. METHODOLOGY A. Total Pounds of Lead Recycled from Batteries

  7. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  8. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilizeRural PublicRates > Rate Cases > Rates

  9. Proceedings of the 1992 EPRI heat rate improvement conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, R.E. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diverse but compelling forces such as increasing fuel prices, greater power demands, growing competition, and ever more aggressive regulatory incentives are causing utilities to place additional focus on power plant heat rate. The 1992 heat rate improvement conference was a gathering of utility industry experts to share knowledge and concerns on such key issues as on-line measurement of stack gas mass flow rate-increasingly important because of the regulations of the Clean Air Act of 1990. These proceedings present the latest developments by EPRI and the utility industry to improve heat rate. Representatives of utilities, architect/engineering firms, research firms, and manufacturers presented 71 papers, and a panel discussion by the ASME performance test code committee on PTC 46 provided a forum on the overall plant performance test code. These proceedings report on a number of heat rate improvement programs, both in development and in place, including EPRI's Plant Monitoring Workstation (PMW), the State-of-the-Art Power Plant (SOAPP) conceptual design tool, and several developments in boiler performance monitoring, including an on-line system at PEPCO's Morgantown unit 2. Other conference papers describe advances in heat rate improvement through (1) computer software tools modeling boiler cleanliness, heat balance, duct system dynamics, heat rate root cause diagnosis, and conceptual plant design; (2) new instruments and testing systems in the areas of performance testing, heat rate monitoring, circulating water flow measurement, and low-pressure turbine efficiency measurement; and (3) auxiliary equipment improvements such as condensing heat exchangers, macrobiofouling control, condenser in-leakage and air binding control, air heater monitoring, and feedwater heater level control. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  10. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  11. Chemistry and Society December 16, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viola, Ronald

    Chemistry and Society Final Exam December 16, 2011 Answer all multiple choice questions (Part I energy content per gram? A. gasoline B. propane C. hard coal D. hydrogen 3. Which of the following chains 14. A higher octane rating means smoother burning gasoline. Octane rating is increased by: A

  12. Esercitazione no 4 per il corso di Ricerca Operativa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    in their octane rating and sulfur content. The crude oil blends to form gas 1 must have an average octane rating to transform 1 barrel oil into one barrel gas 1 #12;* Max gas to produce 14000 barrel /day Decision variables: Ai = dollars spent daily on advertising gas i (i = 1, 2, 3) Xij = barrel of crude oil i used daily

  13. Supernova rates and stellar populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Mannucci

    2007-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the results about the nature of type Ia Supernovae that can be derived by studying their rates in different stellar populations. While the evolution of SN photometry and spectra can constrain the explosion mechanism, the SN rate depends on the progenitor system. We review the current available data on rates as a function of parent galaxy color, morphology, star formation rate, radio luminosity and environment. By studying the variation of the rates with the color of the parent galaxy, a strong evidence was established that type Ia SNe come from both young and old stars. The dependence of the rates with the radio power of the parent galaxy is best reproduced by a bimodal distribution of delay time between the formation of the progenitor and its explosion as a SN. Cluster early-type galaxies show higher type Ia SN rate with respect to field galaxies, and this effect can be due either to traces of young stars or to differences in the delay time distribution.

  14. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

    1980-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  15. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, James A. (Madison, WI); Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  16. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that ...

  17. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that stock market prices are correlated ...

  18. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    period FY2015 through 2028. Customers have a diversification right to limit the amount of power they purchase at the Load Growth rate in future years with notice provided by...

  19. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  20. Albumin extravasation rates in tissues of anesthetized and unanesthetized rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renkin, E.M.; Joyner, W.L.; Gustafson-Sgro, M.; Plopper, G.; Sibley, L.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with /sup 131/I was injected intravenously in chronically prepared, unanesthetized rats and into pentobarbital-anesthetized rats that had received 2 ml 5% BSA to help sustain plasma volume. Initial uptake rates (clearances) in skin, skeletal muscles, diaphragm, and heart (left ventricle) were measured over 1 h. BSA labeled with /sup 125/I was injected terminally to correct for intravascular /sup 131/I-BSA. Observed clearances were in the following order in both groups of animals: heart much greater than diaphragm approximately equal to skin greater than resting skeletal muscles. Differences between unanesthetized and anesthetized animals were small and inconsistently directed. Our results suggest that the lower albumin clearances reported in the literature for anesthetized rats are not the result of their immobility or any direct effect of anesthesia on albumin transport in these tissues. The lower transport rates appear to result indirectly from changes produced by anesthesia and/or surgery in controllable parameters such as plasma volume and intravascular protein mass.

  1. Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

    "ELECTRIC RATE ALTERNATIVES TO COGENERATION" K. R. SANDBERG, JR. INDUSTRIAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER - TEXAS GULF STATES UTILITIES COMPANY BEAUMONT, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper discusses electric rate slternatives to cogeneration for the industrisl... PERSPECTIVE Gulf States Utilities was incorporated in 1925 and is primarily in the business of generating. transmitting and distributing electricity to 555.000 customers in southeast Texas and south Louisiana. The service area extends 350 miles westward...

  2. EIS-0375: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Department of Energy GTCC-like Waste

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts associated with the proposed development, operation, and long-term management of a disposal facility or facilities for Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste and GTCC-like waste. The Environmental Protection Agency is a cooperating agency in the preparation of this EIS.

  3. Frothy Bloat Mitigation in Grazing Cattle Frothy bloat impacts on cattle production in the United States in 1999 were estimated to be greater than $300 million dollars.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frothy Bloat Mitigation in Grazing Cattle Frothy bloat impacts on cattle production in the United States in 1999 were estimated to be greater than $300 million dollars. Frothy bloat is the major nonpathogenic cause of death loss and depressed weight gains in stocker cattle grazing winter wheat

  4. What is the Eelgrass Stressor Response Project? The Eelgrass Stressor Response Project was established in 2005 to identify causes of eelgrass decline in greater Puget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrington, Emily

    was established in 2005 to identify causes of eelgrass decline in greater Puget Sound. It is closely connected to DNR's long term eelgrass monitoring program. Both projects are part of the Puget Sound Assessment and Monitoring Program (PSAMP), a multi-agency monitoring effort that is coordinated by the Puget Sound

  5. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the greater Green River Basin for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, P.D.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc, of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented tool for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Greater Green River Basin through literature surveys.

  6. Gasoline marketing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzenbaum, H.M.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consumers have the option of purchasing several different grades of unleaded gasoline regular, mid-grade, and premium which are classified according to an octane rating. Because of concern that consumers may be needlessly buying higher priced premium unleaded gasoline for their automobiles when regular unleaded gasoline would meet their needs, this paper determines whether consumers were buying premium gasoline that they may not need, whether the higher retail price of premium gasoline includes a price mark-up added between the refinery and the retail pump which is greater than that included in the retail price for regular gasoline, and possible reasons for the price differences between premium and regular gasoline.

  7. Direct estimation of decoherence rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimír Bužek; Peter Rapcan; Jochen Rau; Mario Ziman

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The decoherence rate is a nonlinear channel parameter that describes quantitatively the decay of the off-diagonal elements of a density operator in the decoherence basis. We address the question of how to experimentally access such a nonlinear parameter directly without the need of complete process tomography. In particular, we design a simple experiment working with two copies of the channel, in which the registered mean value of a two-valued measurement directly determines the value of the average decoherence rate. No prior knowledge of the decoherence basis is required.

  8. Incentive Rates- At What Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaeffer, S. C.

    's impact. In fact, I doubt that one can truly know the exact impact of a rate even after its inclusion in a tariff, assuming of course, that someone uses it. My own judgment is that there are currently examples of both effective and not so effective... tem see a positive impact on their rates from any successes with this tariff, over the expected life of the new facility. We did not count societal benefits like high tax bases for local authorities when reviewing existing ratepayer benefit - only...

  9. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO Overview OCHCODepartmentEnergy April 20138Rate Schedules Rate Schedules

  10. Instability statistics and mixing rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Artuso; Cesar Manchein

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We claim that looking at probability distributions of \\emph{finite time} largest Lyapunov exponents, and more precisely studying their large deviation properties, yields an extremely powerful technique to get quantitative estimates of polynomial decay rates of time correlations and Poincar\\'e recurrences in the -quite delicate- case of dynamical systems with weak chaotic properties.

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix I: Impact of concentration averaging low-level radioactive waste volume projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; O`Kelley, M.; Ely, P.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides a quantitative framework for bounding unpackaged greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste types as a function of concentration averaging. The study defines the three concentration averaging scenarios that lead to base, high, and low volumetric projections; identifies those waste types that could be greater-than-Class C under the high volume, or worst case, concentration averaging scenario; and quantifies the impact of these scenarios on identified waste types relative to the base case scenario. The base volume scenario was assumed to reflect current requirements at the disposal sites as well as the regulatory views. The high volume scenario was assumed to reflect the most conservative criteria as incorporated in some compact host state requirements. The low volume scenario was assumed to reflect the 10 CFR Part 61 criteria as applicable to both shallow land burial facilities and to practices that could be employed to reduce the generation of Class C waste types.

  12. Detrital U-Pb geochronology provenance analyses: case studies in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, and the Book Cliffs, Utah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippert, Peter Gregory

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ! ! Detrital U-Pb geochronology provenance analyses: case studies in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, and the Book Cliffs, Utah By Peter Gregory Lippert Submitted to the graduate degree program in Geology and the Graduate Faculty... i Acceptance Page ii Abstract iii-iv Table of contents v-viii List of figures and tables ix-x Chapter 1. Introduction 11-16 Chapter 2. Geologic History...

  13. Clean Transportation Program | 919-515-3480 | www.cleantransportation.org I www.ncsc.ncsu.edu North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7401, Raleigh, NC 27695 | 919-515-3480 | www.ncsc.ncsu.edu | 3/16/12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at different levels. E10 is a premium high- octane gasoline for cars and E85 (85% ethanol / 15% gasoline% ethanol and 90% gasoline, can be used in any gaso- line vehicle without modification. E85, however, offers, ethanol has a higher octane rating than regular unleaded gasoline, making E85 a premium fuel. Because

  14. Desiccation resistance and root growth rate of St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze 'Floratam') as influenced by potassium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiPaola, J. M

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and turfgrass quality of Floratam St. Augustinegrass were investigated in both field and greenhouse experiments. Both studies evaluated the influence of potassium on root growth and turfgrass quality from the establishment of sod, through an imposed water... in the fall field experiment, while no improvement was noted in the spring greenhouse study. The daily root growth rates were not influenced by potassium in the field study, while increased potassium fertilization rates resulted in greater daily root...

  15. Intraclass Price Elasticity & Electric Rate Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gresham, K. E.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric rate design relies on cost incurrance for pricing and pricing structures. However, as utilities move into a marketing mode, rate design needs to respond more to customer reactions to pricing changes. Intraclass price elasticities aid rate...

  16. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges

  17. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges1

  18. October 2001 - September 2006 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges11

  19. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 - March

  20. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 - March3

  1. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 -

  2. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 -5 -

  3. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gingerich, Andrew J.; Philipp, D. P.; Suski, C. D.

    2010-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  4. High dose rate intraluminal irradiation in recurrent endobronchial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seagren, S.L.; Harrell, J.H.; Horn, R.A.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Palliative therapy for previously irradiated patients with symptomatic recurrent endobronchial malignancy is a difficult problem. We have had the opportunity to treat 20 such patients with high dose rate (50-100 rad/min) endobronchial brachytherapy. Eligible patients had received previous high dose thoracic irradiation (TDF greater than or equal to 90), a performance status of greater than or equal to 50, and symptoms caused by a bronchoscopically defined and implantable lesion. The radiation is produced by a small cobalt-60 source (0.7 Ci) remotely afterloaded by cable control. The source is fed into a 4 mm diameter catheter which is placed with bronchoscopic guidance; it may oscillate if necessary to cover the lesion. A dose of 1,000 rad at 1 cm from the source is delivered. We have performed 22 procedures in 20 patients, four following YAG laser debulking. Most had cough, some with hemoptysis. Eight had dyspnea secondary to obstruction and three had obstructive pneumonitis. In 12, symptoms recurred with a mean time to recurrence of 4.3 months (range 1-9 months). Eighteen patients were followed-up and reexamined via bronchoscope 1-2.5 months following the procedure; two were lost to follow-up. All had at least 50 percent clearance of tumor, and six had complete clearance; most regressions were documented on film or videotape. In six, the palliation was durable. The procedure has been well tolerated with no toxicity. We conclude that palliative endobronchial high dose rate brachytherapy is a useful palliative modality in patients with recurrent endobronchial symptomatic carcinoma.

  5. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Risk Analysis Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), operated on behalf of the ratepayers of the PNW by BPA and other Federal agencies, faces many uncertainties during the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Among these uncertainties, the largest revolve around hydro conditions, market prices and river operations for fish recovery. In order to provide a high probability of making its U.S. Treasury payments, BPA performs a Risk Analysis as part of its rate-making process. In this Risk Analysis, BPA identifies key risks, models their relationships, and then analyzes their impacts on net revenues (total revenues less expenses). BPA subsequently evaluates in the ToolKit Model the Treasury Payment Probability (TPP) resulting from the rates, risks, and risk mitigation measures described here and in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS). If the TPP falls short of BPA's standard, additional risk mitigation revenues, such as PNRR and CRAC revenues are incorporated in the modeling in ToolKit until the TPP standard is met. Increased wholesale market price volatility and six years of drought have significantly changed the profile of risk and uncertainty facing BPA and its stakeholders. These present new challenges for BPA in its effort to keep its power rates as low as possible while fully meeting its obligations to the U.S. Treasury. As a result, the risk BPA faces in not receiving the level of secondary revenues that have been credited to power rates before receiving those funds is greater. In addition to market price volatility, BPA also faces uncertainty around the financial impacts of operations for fish programs in FY 2006 and in the FY 2007-2009 rate period. A new Biological Opinion or possible court-ordered change to river operations in FY 2006 through FY 2009 may reduce BPA's net revenues included Initial Proposal. Finally, the FY 2007-2009 risk analysis includes new operational risks as well as a more comprehensive analysis of non-operating risks. Both the operational and non-operational risks will be described in Section 2.0 of this study. Given these risks, if rates are designed using BPA's traditional approach of only adding Planned Net Revenues for Risk (PNRR), power rates would need to recover a much larger ''risk premium'' to meet BPA's TPP standard. As an alternative to high fixed risk premiums, BPA is proposing a risk mitigation package that combines PNRR with a variable rate mechanism similar to the cost recovery adjustment mechanisms used in the FY 2002-2006 rate period. The proposed risk mitigation package is less expensive on a forecasted basis because the rates can be adjusted on an annual basis to respond to uncertain financial outcomes. BPA is also proposing a Dividend Distribution Clause (DDC) to refund reserves in excess of $800M to customers in the event net revenues in the next rate period exceed current financial forecasts.

  6. a poorer food conversion efficiency and survival rate. The lower survival rate (87~) of this

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rate. 3. Survival and growth rates and food efficien- cies were excellent for trout reared in brackish

  7. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  8. An analysis of international grain freight rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnala, Sneha Latha

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the dependent variable was included in the model as an explanatory variable. The estimated econometric model was designed to explain ocean freight rates for grain. Results indicate rates increase at a decreasing rate with distance and rates decrease at a...

  9. 7, 29612989, 2007 Predicting arene rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    software or computing power. Measured gas-phase rate coefficients for the reaction of aromatic hydrocarbons

  10. Composite Fringe Benefit Rates Nancy R. Lewis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    January 1, 2015 Retirement Eligible FY 2014-15 Rate FY 2015-16 Rate FY 2016-17 Rate B Healthcomp Faculty of Research #12;New Rates · Provided by the Budget Office for use when planning proposal budgets for contract and grants · Effective for use in proposals submitted to sponsors January 1, 2015 and thereafter · Title

  11. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  12. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier6Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerChargeInformation Rate Jump to: navigation,

  13. Population levels and growth rates of scleractinian corals within the Diploria-Montastrea-Porites zones of the East and West Flower Garden Banks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraemer, George Philip

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 3 m depth was significantly greater than that of D. ~ti, th, d pth. Th g th t f th p f kl annularis colony at 25. 9 m in depth was s1gnif1cantly greater than the growth rate of the side of the same colony. A decrease in M. annu- laris accretionary... growth rate with 1ncreasing depth was observed over the 21. 3-27. 4 m range. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I ws sh to express my appreciati on to Dr, Thomas J . Bright, cha1 r- man of my advisory committee, for his acceptance of me as a student, for h1s willingness...

  14. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  15. 2012 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the meaning given such term in section 3.3.5. "COU Parties' PF Rate" means any BPA wholesale power rate for service to COUs' "general requirements" (as defined in section...

  16. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONVERGENCE RATES OF ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q-rates in terms of the di erential properties of v and in terms of the ... schemes of this kind is to assure that they converge at a provably fast rate to a point.

  17. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (AHFC) offers interest rate reductions to home buyers purchasing new and existing homes with 5 Star and 5 Star Plus energy ratings. All homes constructed on...

  18. Fluorescence Assay for Polymerase Arrival Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin

    2003-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  19. Fluorescence assay for polymerase arrival rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  20. Home Energy Ratings and Building Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, J.C.

    climate as they affect the rating score of a proposed or completed structure. The rating is used to determine the most cost effective mechanical systems, building envelope design including window and door types, effect of various roofing materials...

  1. Private Sector Rates (FY 2015) Instrument Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    Source Laser $150 $175 Nanophoton Raman 11 Raman Spectroscopy $150 $175 Newport Solar Simulator Solar Rates for the Material Research Laboratory Facilities Rates for Private Sector companies and researchers

  2. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a challenge for small water systems. They must generate enough revenue to remain solvent, but offer affordable service. This publication describes the various types of rates and explains...

  3. Optimization Online - Faster convergence rates of relaxed ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damek Davis

    2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 19, 2014 ... Faster convergence rates of relaxed Peaceman-Rachford and ADMM under regularity assumptions. Damek Davis (damek ***at*** ...

  4. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  5. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule and General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  6. WAGES, FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES, AND MACROECONOMIC POLICY*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WAGES, FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES, AND MACROECONOMIC POLICY* JEFFREY SACHS In an open economy with a floaLing exchange rate, the efficacy of fiscal and monetary policy depends fundamentally on the wage rate depreciation, while fiscal expansion has no output effect. These results hold only when real wages

  7. Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage Carlos H. Crisosto o David Garner D Katia)at 32*F for 16 weeks. Un- der both storage conditions,large fruit had a slower rate of softening than fruit size and the rate of softening under air and CA conditions will help cold storage managerssafely

  8. AUXILIARY RATE CALCULATION The Budget Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    AUXILIARY RATE CALCULATION The Budget Office #12;AGENDA Guiding Principles Rate Proposal Building Office supplies for budget manager reconciliationOffice supplies for budget manager reconciliation: Equipment Compensated Leave #12;CALCULATING A RATE Budgeted Expenses Budgeted Usage BaseBudgeted Usage Base

  9. West Virginia University -Main Campus Student Retention and Graduation Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    West Virginia University - Main Campus Student Retention and Graduation Rates First-Time, Full ---------------------------------------------------------------------Continuation Rates and Cumulative Graduation Rates

  10. Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation Rate per Floor Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation Rate per Floor Area

  11. FY2015 Standard Recharge Rates 12-30-2014.xls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "***" indicates that these rates have not yet been received and approved. Organizational Unit Direct Portion of Rate Machine Power Rate Total Rate Total BNL Users...

  12. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid loaded nano-insulin has greater potentials of combating arsenic induced hyperglycemia in mice: Some novel findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samadder, Asmita; Das, Jayeeta; Das, Sreemanti; De, Arnab; Saha, Santu Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman, E-mail: prof_arkb@yahoo.co.in

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diabetes is a menacing problem, particularly to inhabitants of groundwater arsenic contaminated areas needing new medical approaches. This study examines if PLGA loaded nano-insulin (NIn), administered either intraperitoneally (i.p.) or through oral route, has a greater cost-effective anti-hyperglycemic potential than that of insulin in chronically arsenite-fed hyperglycemic mice. The particle size, morphology and zeta potential of nano-insulin were determined using dynamic light scattering method, scanning electronic and atomic force microscopies. The ability of the nano-insulin (NIn) to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) was also checked. Circular dichroic spectroscopic (CD) data of insulin and nano-insulin in presence or absence of arsenic were compared. Several diabetic markers in different groups of experimental and control mice were assessed. The mitochondrial functioning through indices like cytochrome c, pyruvate-kinase, glucokinase, ATP/ADP ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell membrane potential and calcium-ion level was also evaluated. Expressions of the relevant marker proteins and mRNAs like insulin, GLUT2, GLUT4, IRS1, IRS2, UCP2, PI3, PPAR?, CYP1A1, Bcl2, caspase3 and p38 for tracking-down the signaling cascade were also analyzed. Results revealed that i.p.-injected nano-encapsulated-insulin showed better results; NIn, due to its smaller size, faster mobility, site-specific release, could cross BBB and showed positive modulation in mitochondrial signaling cascades and other downstream signaling molecules in reducing arsenic-induced-hyperglycemia. CD data indicated that nano-insulin had less distorted secondary structure as compared with that of insulin in presence of arsenic. Thus, overall analyses revealed that PLGA nano-insulin showed better efficacy in combating arsenite-induced-hyperglycemia than that of insulin and therefore, has greater potentials for use in nano-encapsulated form. - Highlights: ? PLGA encapsulated nano-insulin attenuates arsenic-induced diabetes in mice. ? Encapsulated insulin acts effectively at nearly 10 fold lesser dose than insulin. ? Injection route is more effective than oral administration route. ? Nano-insulin can cross blood–brain barrier with added physiological implications. ? Nano-insulin acts mainly through regulation of mitochondrial signaling cascade.

  13. The Exposure Rate Conversion Factor for Nuclear Fallout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spriggs, G D

    2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fallout is comprised of approximately 2000 radionuclides. About 1000 of these radionuclides are either primary fission products or activated fission products that are created during the burn process. The exposure rate one meter above the surface produced by this complex mixture of radionuclides varies rapidly with time since many of the radionuclides are short-lived and decay numerous times before reaching a stable isotope. As a result, the mixture of radionuclides changes rapidly with time. Using a new code developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the mixture of radionuclides at any given point in time can be calculated. The code also calculates the exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for all 3864 individual isotopes contained in its database based on the total gamma energy released per decay. Based on the combination of isotope mixture and individual ECFs, the time-dependent variation of the composite exposure rate conversion factor for nuclear fallout can be easily calculated. As example of this new capability, a simple test case corresponding to a 10 kt, uranium-plutonium fuel has been calculated. The results for the time-dependent, composite ECF for this test case are shown in Figure 1. For comparison, we also calculated the composite exposure rate conversion factor using the conversion factors found in Federal Guidance Report No.12 (FGR-12) published by ORNL, which contains the conversion factors for approximately 1000 isotopes. As can be noted from Figure 1, the two functions agree reasonably well at times greater than about 30 minutes. However, they do not agree at early times since FGR-12 does not include all of the short-lived isotopes that are produced in nuclear fallout. It should also be noted that the composite ECF at one hour is 19.7 R/hr per Ci/m{sup 2}. This corresponds to 3148 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile, which agrees reasonably well with the value of 3000 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile as quoted by Glasstone. We have also tabulated the top 50 contributors to the exposure rate at various points in time following a detonation. These major contributors are given in Table 1.

  14. An atomistic methodology of energy release rate for graphene at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lee, James D., E-mail: jdlee@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, the George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Wang, Xianqiao [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb architecture, serving as a fundamental building block for electric devices. Understanding the fracture mechanism of graphene under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of graphene-based devices at atomic scale. Although most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable in molecular dynamics simulation, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at nanoscale. This work introduces an atomistic simulation methodology, based on the energy release rate, as a tool to unveil the fracture mechanism of graphene at nanoscale. This methodology can be easily extended to any atomistic material system. We have investigated both opening mode and mixed mode at different temperatures. Simulation results show that the critical energy release rate of graphene is independent of initial crack length at low temperature. Graphene with inclined pre-crack possesses higher fracture strength and fracture deformation but smaller critical energy release rate compared with the graphene with vertical pre-crack. Owing to its anisotropy, graphene with armchair chirality always has greater critical energy release rate than graphene with zigzag chirality. The increase of temperature leads to the reduction of fracture strength, fracture deformation, and the critical energy release rate of graphene. Also, higher temperature brings higher randomness of energy release rate of graphene under a variety of predefined crack lengths. The energy release rate is independent of the strain rate as long as the strain rate is small enough.

  15. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste shipping package/container identification and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyacke, M.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies a variety of shipping packages (also referred to as casks) and waste containers currently available or being developed that could be used for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level waste (LLW). Since GTCC LLW varies greatly in size, shape, and activity levels, the casks and waste containers that could be used range in size from small, to accommodate a single sealed radiation source, to very large-capacity casks/canisters used to transport or dry-store highly radioactive spent fuel. In some cases, the waste containers may serve directly as shipping packages, while in other cases, the containers would need to be placed in a transport cask. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed that the generator is responsible for transporting the waste to a Department of Energy (DOE) storage, treatment, or disposal facility. Unless DOE establishes specific acceptance criteria, the receiving facility would need the capability to accept any of the casks and waste containers identified in this report. In identifying potential casks and waste containers, no consideration was given to their adequacy relative to handling, storage, treatment, and disposal. Those considerations must be addressed separately as the capabilities of the receiving facility and the handling requirements and operations are better understood.

  16. Project management plan for low-level mixed wastes and greater-than category 3 waste per Tri-Party Agreement M-91-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOUNINI, L.

    1999-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project management plan is to define the tasks and deliverables that will support the treatment, storage, and disposal of remote-handled and large container contact-handled low-level mixed waste, and the storage of Greater-Than-Category 3 waste. The plan is submitted to fulfill the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-91-10. The plan was developed in four steps: (1) the volumes of the applicable waste streams and the physical, dangerous, and radioactive characteristics were established using existing databases and forecasts; (2) required treatment was identified for each waste stream based on land disposal restriction treatment standards and waste characterization data; (3) alternatives for providing the required treatment were evaluated and the preferred options were selected; and (4) an acquisition plan was developed to establish the techuical, schedule, and cost baselines for providing the required treatment capabilities. The major waste streams are summarized in the table below, along with the required treatment for disposal.

  17. Project management plan for low-level mixed waste and greater-than-category 3 waste per tri-party agreement M-91-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOUNINI, L.

    1999-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project management plan is to define the tasks and deliverables that will support the treatment, storage, and disposal of remote-handled and large container contact-handled low-level mixed waste, and the storage of Greater-thaw category 3 waste. The plan is submitted to fulfill the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-91-10, The plan was developed in four steps: (1) the volumes of the applicable waste streams and the physical, dangerous, and radioactive characteristics were established using existing databases and forecasts; (2) required treatment was identified for each waste stream based on land disposal restriction treatment standards and waste characterization data; (3) alternatives for providing the required treatment were evaluated and the preferred options were selected; (4) an acquisition plan was developed to establish the technical, schedule, and cost baselines for providing the required treatment capabilities. The major waste streams are tabulated, along with the required treatment for disposal.

  18. Stakeholder Engagement on the Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste -12565

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, Christine; Joyce, James; Edelman, Arnold [Office of Environmental Management, Office of Disposal Operations-EM-43 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Disposal Operations is responsible for developing a permanent disposal capability for a small volume, but highly radioactive, class of commercial low-level radioactive waste, known as Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. DOE has issued a draft environmental impact statement (EIS) and will be completing a final EIS under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) that evaluates a range of disposal alternatives. Like other classes of radioactive waste, proposing and evaluating disposal options for GTCC waste is highly controversial, presents local and national impacts, and generates passionate views from stakeholders. Recent national and international events, such as the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain project and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, have heighten stakeholder awareness of everything nuclear, including disposal of radioactive waste. With these challenges, the Office of Disposal Operations recognizes that informed decision-making that will result from stakeholder engagement and participation is critical to the success of the GTCC EIS project. This paper discusses the approach used by the Office of Disposal Operations to engage stakeholders on the GTCC EIS project, provides advice based on our experiences, and proffers some ideas for future engagements in today's open, always connected cyber environment. (authors)

  19. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste transportation regulations and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyacke, M.; Schmitt, R.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to identify the regulations and requirements for transporting greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and to identify planning activities that need to be accomplished in preparation for transporting GTCC LLW. The regulations and requirements for transporting hazardous materials, of which GTCC LLW is included, are complex and include several Federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes. This report is divided into five sections and three appendices. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 identifies and discusses the transportation regulations and requirements. The regulations and requirements are divided into Federal, state, local government, and Indian tribes subsections. This report does not identify the regulations or requirements of specific state, local government, and Indian tribes, since the storage, treatment, and disposal facility locations and transportation routes have not been specifically identified. Section 3 identifies the planning needed to ensure that all transportation activities are in compliance with the regulations and requirements. It is divided into (a) transportation packaging; (b) transportation operations; (c) system safety and risk analysis, (d) route selection; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (f) safeguards and security. This section does not provide actual planning since the details of the Department of Energy (DOE) GTCC LLW Program have not been finalized, e.g., waste characterization and quantity, storage, treatment and disposal facility locations, and acceptance criteria. Sections 4 and 5 provide conclusions and referenced documents, respectively.

  20. An Examination of Harvest Rates and Brood-Take Rates as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Examination of Harvest Rates and Brood-Take Rates as Management Strategies to Assist Recovery of Resource Management Project Number: 546 Title of Project: An Examination of Harvest Rates and Brood-Take Rates as Management Strategies to Assist Recovery of Cowichan River Chinook Salmon Examining Committee

  1. HEART RATE AS A MONITOR FOR METABOLIC RATE IN CAPTIVE JUVENILE STELLER SEA LIONS (EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HEART RATE AS A MONITOR FOR METABOLIC RATE IN CAPTIVE JUVENILE STELLER SEA LIONS (EUMETOPIAS COLUMBIA 0Jan M. Mcl'hee, 2001 #12;ABSTRACT The potential use of heart rate to monitor energy expenditure a relationship exists between heart rate @I) and oxygen consumption ( ~ 0 ~ )in captive sea lions while swimming

  2. The Escape Rate of a Molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Knauf; Markus Krapf

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We show existence and give an implicit formula for the escape rate of the n-centre problem of celestial mechanics for high energies. Furthermore we give precise computable estimates of this rate. This exponential decay rate plays an important role especially in semiclassical scattering theory of n-atomic molecules. Our result shows that the diameter of a molecule is measurable in a (classical) high-energy scattering experiment.

  3. CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Availability:This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency (hereinafter...

  4. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  5. Convergence Rates with Inexact Nonexpansive Operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jingwei Liang

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 18, 2014 ... Abstract: In this paper, we present a convergence rate analysis for the inexact Krasnosel'ski{\\u{\\i}}-Mann iteration built from nonexpansive ...

  6. "EIA-914 Production Weighted Response Rates, Percent"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-914 Production Weighted Response Rates, Percent" "Areas",38353,38384,38412,38443,38473,38504,38534,38565,38596,38626,38657,38687,38718,38749,38777,"application...

  7. Rate Schedule COTP-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COTP-T3 (Supersedes Schedule COTP-T2) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CALIFORNIA-OREGON TRANSMISSION PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR...

  8. Rate Schedule CV-NWT5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NWT5 (Supersedes Schedule CV-NWT4) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR NETWORK INTEGRATION TRANSMISSION...

  9. Rate Schedule CV-SUR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SUR4 (Supersedes Schedule CV-SUR3) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR SUPPLEMENTAL RESERVE SERVICE...

  10. Rate Schedule CV-F13

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F13 (Supersedes Schedule CV-F12) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATES FOR BASE RESOURCE AND FIRST...

  11. Rate Schedule PACI-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PACI-T3 (Supersedes Schedule PACI -T2) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION PACIFIC ALTERNATING CURRENT INTERTIE PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR...

  12. Rate Schedule CV-RFS4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RFS4 (Supersedes Schedule CV-RFS3) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR REGULATION AND FREQUENCY...

  13. Rate Schedule CV-EID4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EID4 (Supersedes Schedule CV-EID3) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR ENERGY IMBALANCE SERVICE...

  14. Rate Schedule CV-SPR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPR4 (Supersedes Schedule CV-SPR3) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR SPINNING RESERVE SERVICE...

  15. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

    1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

  16. Confronting the Graduation Rate Crisis in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Losen, Daniel; Orfield, Gary; Balfanz, Robert

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guide to Graduation Policy and Rates, Editorial Projects inthe Graduation Crisis. Bethesda, MD: Editorial Projects inthe Graduation Crisis. Bethesda, MD: Editorial Projects in

  17. 2006 Texas High Plains Cotton Variety Ratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Average Incidence of Wilt Date of Wilt Rating Earth 0.0 0.0 Sept. 8 Brownfield 5.5 1.8 Aug. 28 Petersburg

  18. Home energy rating systems: Program descriptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vine, E.; Barnes, B.K.; Ritschard, R.

    1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the descriptions of home energy rating and labelling programs (HERS) that were surveyed in January 1986 as part of a national evaluation of HERS.

  19. Phenomena that determine knock onset in spark-ignited engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revier, Bridget M. (Bridget Mary)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were carried out to collect in-cylinder pressure data and microphone signals from a single-cylinder test engine using spark timings before, at, and after knock onset for four different octane-rated toluene ...

  20. Enhanced reaction rates in NDP analysis with neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, R. Gregory, E-mail: gregory.downing@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Chemical Sciences Division, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron depth profiling (NDP) makes accessible quantitative information on a few isotopic concentration profiles ranging from the surface into the sample a few micrometers. Because the candidate analytes for NDP are few, there is little interference encountered. Furthermore, neutrons have no charge so mixed chemical states in the sample are of no direct concern. There are a few nuclides that exhibit large probabilities for neutron scattering. The effect of neutron scattering on NDP measurements has not previously been evaluated as a basis for either enhancing the reaction rates or as a source of measurement error. Hydrogen is a common element exhibiting large neutron scattering probability found in or around sample volumes being analyzed by NDP. A systematic study was conducted to determine the degree of signal change when neutron scattering occurs during analysis. The relative signal perturbation was evaluated for materials of varied neutron scattering probability, concentration, total mass, and geometry. Signal enhancements up to 50% are observed when the hydrogen density is high and in close proximity to the region of analysis with neutron beams of sub thermal energies. Greater signal enhancements for the same neutron number density are reported for thermal neutron beams. Even adhesive tape used to position the sample produces a measureable signal enhancement. Because of the shallow volume, negligible distortion of the NDP measured profile shape is encountered from neutron scattering.

  1. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  2. Theoretical cosmic Type Ia supernova rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Valiante; F. Matteucci; S. Recchi; F. Calura

    2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is the computation of the cosmic Type Ia supernova rates at very high redshifts (z>2). We adopt various progenitor models in order to predict the number of explosions in different scenarios for galaxy formation and to check whether it is possible to select the best delay time distribution model, on the basis of the available observations of Type Ia supernovae. We also computed the Type Ia supernova rate in typical elliptical galaxies of different initial luminous masses and the total amount of iron produced by Type Ia supernovae in each case. It emerges that: it is not easy to select the best delay time distribution scenario from the observational data and this is because the cosmic star formation rate dominates over the distribution function of the delay times; the monolithic collapse scenario predicts an increasing trend of the SN Ia rate at high redshifts whereas the predicted rate in the hierarchical scheme drops dramatically at high redshift; for the elliptical galaxies we note that the predicted maximum of the Type Ia supernova rate depends on the initial galactic mass. The maximum occurs earlier (at about 0.3 Gyr) in the most massive ellipticals, as a consequence of downsizing in star formation. We find that different delay time distributions predict different relations between the Type Ia supernova rate per unit mass at the present time and the color of the parent galaxies and that bluer ellipticals present higher supernova Type Ia rates at the present time.

  3. Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption

  4. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Jensen, Assistant Research Scientist, Texas Water Resources Institute; The Texas A&M University System K Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a daunting challenge for small water systems. The rates must be high enough to re- cover...

  5. Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution Chuan Wu and Baochun Li Department. This paper addresses the optimal rate allocation problem in overlay content distribution for efficient, these scenarios reflect the contrast between elastic and streaming content distribution, with either per

  6. Resonances and the thermonuclear reaction rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Hussein; M. Ueda; A. J. Sargeant; M. P. Pato

    2003-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an approximate analytic expression for thermonuclear reaction rate of charged particles when the cross section contains a single narrow or wide resonance described by a Breit-Wigner shape. The resulting expression is uniformly valid as the effective energy and resonance energy coalesce. We use our expressions to calculate the reaction rate for $^{12}$C(p,$\\gamma$)$^{13}$N.

  7. Nuclear reaction rates and the primordial nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhishek Mishra; D. N. Basu

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical predictions of the primordial abundances of elements in the big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) are dominated by uncertainties in the input nuclear reaction rates. We investigate the effect of modifying these reaction rates on light element abundance yields in BBN by replacing the thirty-five reaction rates out of the existing eighty-eight. We have studied these yields as functions of evolution time or temperature. We find that using these new reaction rates results in only a little increase in helium mass fraction over that obtained previously in BBN calculations. This allows insights into the role of the nuclear reaction rates in the setting of the neutron-to-proton ratio during the BBN epoch. We observe that even with considerable nuclear physics uncertainties, most of these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the standard BBN abundance yields of $^6$Li and $^7$Li.

  8. Atomic multipole relaxation rates near surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Crosse; Stefan Scheel

    2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The spontaneous relaxation rates for an atom in free space and close to an absorbing surface are calculated to various orders of the electromagnetic multipole expansion. The spontaneous decay rates for dipole, quadrupole and octupole transitions are calculated in terms of their respective primitive electric multipole moments and the magnetic relaxation rate is calculated for the dipole and quadrupole transitions in terms of their respective primitive magnetic multipole moments. The theory of electromagnetic field quantization in magnetoelectric materials is used to derive general expressions for the decay rates in terms of the dyadic Green function. We focus on the decay rates in free space and near an infinite half space. For the decay of atoms near to an absorbing dielectric surface we find a hierarchy of scaling laws depending on the atom-surface distance z.

  9. Merger Rates of Dark-Matter Haloes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eyal Neistein; Avishai Dekel

    2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive analytic merger rates for dark-matter haloes within the framework of the Extended Press-Schechter (EPS) formalism. These rates become self-consistent within EPS once we realize that the typical merger in the limit of a small time-step involves more than two progenitors, contrary to the assumption of binary mergers adopted in earlier studies. We present a general method for computing merger rates that span the range of solutions permitted by the EPS conditional mass function, and focus on a specific solution that attempts to match the merger rates in N-body simulations. The corrected EPS merger rates are more accurate than the earlier estimates of Lacey & Cole, by ~20% for major mergers and by up to a factor of ~3 for minor mergers of mass ratio 1:10^4. Based on the revised merger rates, we provide a new algorithm for constructing Monte-Carlo EPS merger trees, that could be useful in Semi-Analytic Modeling. We provide analytic expressions and plot numerical results for several quantities that are very useful in studies of galaxy formation. This includes (a) the rate of mergers of a given mass ratio per given final halo, (b) the fraction of mass added by mergers to a halo, and (c) the rate of mergers per given main progenitor. The creation and destruction rates of haloes serve for a self-consistency check. Our method for computing merger rates can be applied to conditional mass functions beyond EPS, such as those obtained by the ellipsoidal collapse model or extracted from $N$-body simulations.

  10. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  11. Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys Considering Rate-independent and Rate-dependent Irrecoverable Strains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartl, Darren J.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation addresses new developments in the constitutive modeling and structural analysis pertaining to rate-independent and rate-dependent irrecoverable inelasticity in Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs). A new model for fully recoverable SMA...

  12. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) serves two primary purposes. It synthesizes information supplied by the other final studies that comprise the BPA rate proposal and shows the actual calculations for BPA's power rates. In addition, the WPRDS is the primary source for certain information used in establishing the power rates. Information developed in the WPRDS includes rate design (including seasonal and diurnal shapes for energy rates, demand, and load variance rates), the risk mitigation tools (Cost Recovery Adjustment Clause (CRAC), along with the [N]ational Marine Fisheries Service [F]ederal Columbia River Power System [B]iological Opinion (NFB) Adjustment, the Emergency NFB Surcharge, and Dividend Distribution Clause (DDC)), development of the Slice rate, and all discounts and other adjustments that are included in the rate schedules and the General Rate Schedule Provisions. The WPRDS also includes the description of the methodology for the Cost of Service Analysis (COSA), and the various rate design steps necessary to establish BPA's power rates. The WPRDS also shows the calculations for inter-business line revenues and expenses, the revenue forecast and, finally, includes a description of all of the rate schedules. The actual rate schedules are shown in ''Administrator's Final Record of Decision (ROD), Appendix A: 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, WP-07-A-02''. The WPRDS also includes the Partial Resolution of Issues, shown in Attachment 1 of the ROD. The Partial Resolution of Issues affected many of the features described in this study. These are noted where appropriate.

  13. Considerations for How to Rate CPV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.

  14. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  15. Multiverse rate equation including bubble collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael P. Salem

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The volume fractions of vacua in an eternally inflating multiverse are described by a coarse-grain rate equation, which accounts for volume expansion and vacuum transitions via bubble formation. We generalize the rate equation to account for bubble collisions, including the possibility of classical transitions. Classical transitions can modify the details of the hierarchical structure among the volume fractions, with potential implications for the staggering and Boltzmann-brain issues. Whether or not our vacuum is likely to have been established by a classical transition depends on the detailed relationships among transition rates in the landscape.

  16. Smokeless Control of Flare Steam Flow Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agar, J.; Balls, B. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 FLARE GAS FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT "Accurate measurement of the very low flow rates which are normally present is very difficult" 0, p 15-8). "It is generally considered too...-04-91 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 to calibration conditions. Turndown is 40:1 and pressure loss is negligible. APPLICATION FLOW RATE The mass flow meter described has been applied to a wide...

  17. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate > PostsUtility Rate

  18. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate >Utility Rate Home

  19. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate >Utility Rate

  20. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility RateGlobalUtility Rate Home

  1. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility RateGlobalUtility Rate

  2. Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Better Buildings Residential Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating...

  3. Transition Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms around Aqueous Ions . Transition Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms around Aqueous Ions . Abstract: The rates...

  4. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study Documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Documentation for Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) shows the details of the calculation of the proposed rates. It contains the source data, the calculation, and the results. Section 1 contains an overview of the information used and developed in the various models used in the rate development process. Section 2 contains the documentation of the Rate Analysis Model (RAM2007). The RAM2007 is a group of computer applications that performs most of the computations that determine BPA's proposed rates. The output tables of RAM2007 show the source data, calculations (in sequence), and the results (rate charges) of the rate development process. Section 3 provides documentation of revenue forecasts for the 3-year rate test period FY 2007 through FY 2009 at both current and proposed rates and at current rates for the period immediately preceding the rate test period. Section 4 includes supporting data for rate calculations not performed in RAM2007 or revenue analyses. Each section draws data from difference sources and thus tables and/or charts are not always numbered in sequence. For purposes of this document, omitted tables will be listed as such in the Table of Contents.

  5. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study Documentation, Volume 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Documentation for Wholesale Power Rate Development Study shows the details of the calculation of the proposed rates. It contains the source data, the calculation, and the results. There are 2 Volumes, the first containing Sections 1, 2, and 3; the second containing Section 4 and 3 appendices. Section 1 contains an overview of the information used and developed in the various models used in the rate development process. Section 2 contains the documentation of the Rate Analysis Model (RAM2007). The RAM2007 is a group of computer applications that performs most of the computations that determine BPA's proposed rates. The output tables of RAM2007 show the source data, calculations (in sequence), and the results (rate charges) of the rate development process. Section 3 provides documentation of revenue forecasts for the three-year rate test period FY 2007 through FY 2009 at both current and proposed rates and at current rates for the period immediately preceding the rate test period. Section 4 includes supporting data for rate calculations not performed in RAM2007 or revenue analyses.

  6. Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    be glassified by cooling using hyper- quenching techniques (i.e., with rates of the order of 105 K/s [8Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process

  7. 20 Gy Versus 44 Gy of Supplemental External Beam Radiotherapy With Palladium-103 for Patients With Greater Risk Disease: Results of a Prospective Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center/Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center/Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology Inc, Mountain View, CA (United States); Orio, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States)

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The necessity of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as a supplement to prostate brachytherapy remains unknown. We report brachytherapy outcomes for patients with higher risk features randomized to substantially different supplemental EBRT regimens. Methods and Materials: Between December 1999 and June 2004, 247 patients were randomized to 20 Gy vs. 44 Gy EBRT followed by a palladium-103 boost (115 Gy vs. 90 Gy). The eligibility criteria included clinically organ-confined disease with Gleason score 7-10 and/or pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level 10-20 ng/mL. The median follow-up period was 9.0 years. Biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) was defined as a PSA level of {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. The median day 0 prescribed dose covering 90% of the target volume was 125.7%; 80 men received androgen deprivation therapy (median, 4 months). Multiple parameters were evaluated for their effect on bPFS. Results: For the entire cohort, the cause-specific survival, bPFS, and overall survival rates were 97.7%, 93.2%, and 80.8% at 8 years and 96.9%, 93.2%, and 75.4% at 10 years, respectively. The bPFS rate was 93.1% and 93.4% for the 20-Gy and 44-Gy arms, respectively (p = .994). However, no statistically significant differences were found in cause-specific survival or overall survival were identified. When stratified by PSA level of {<=}10 ng/mL vs. >10 ng/mL, Gleason score, or androgen deprivation therapy, no statistically significant differences in bPFS were discerned between the two EBRT regimens. On multivariate analysis, bPFS was most closely related to the preimplant PSA and clinical stage. For patients with biochemically controlled disease, the median PSA level was <0.02 ng/mL. Conclusion: The results of the present trial strongly suggest that two markedly different supplemental EBRT regimens result in equivalent cause-specific survival, bPFS, and overall survival. It is probable that the lack of benefit for a higher supplemental EBRT dose is the result of the high-quality brachytherapy dose distributions.

  8. Nuclear relaxation rates at copper and oxygen sites in YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, P.C.; Takigawa, M.; Heffner, R.H.; Fisk, Z.; Ott, K.C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report NMR measurements of the nuclear relaxation rate at all copper and oxygen sites in magnetically aligned powder samples of YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/. There is no peak in the oxygen relaxation rate below T/sub c/ at any oxygen site supporting the possibility that d-wave pairs are formed in the superconducting state. Comparison of the oxygen and copper rates in the planes reveals a characteristic temperature greater than T/sub c/. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Extratropical Lapse Rates in Very Hot Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zamora, Ryan Alexander

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    are neutral with respect to moist convection, and large where lapse rates are stable. Using P* allows us to examine convective motions arising from both gravitational accelerations as well as symmetric instabilities. We assess the ability of current models...

  10. Negotiating Rates and Contracts for Qualifying Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, S. E.

    The implementation of a cogeneration project or other qualifying facility (QF) requires the development of contractual relationships with one or more electric utilities. The relationships may involve the application of existing rates and contracts...

  11. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  12. Rate Schedule CV-TPT7

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TPT7 (Supersedes Schedule CV-TPT6) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR TRANSMISSION OF WESTERN POWER BY...

  13. Rainfall-induced Landslide Hazard Rating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yi-Ting, Civ. E., Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research develops a Landslide Hazard Rating System for the rainfall-induced landslides in the Chenyulan River basin area in central Taiwan. This system is designed to provide a simplified and quick evaluation of the ...

  14. Reducing Your Leak Rate Without Repairing Leaks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, C.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As plant personnel know, repairing compressed air leaks can be an expensive, labor intensive and never-ending process. This article discusses ways plant personnel can reduce and maintain their leak rate at a lower level ...

  15. Extratropical Lapse Rates in Very Hot Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zamora, Ryan Alexander

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    are neutral with respect to moist convection, and large where lapse rates are stable. Using P* allows us to examine convective motions arising from both gravitational accelerations as well as symmetric instabilities. We assess the ability of current models...

  16. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  17. Historical river flow rates for dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1991-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS`s, EID`S, SAR`S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants.

  18. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Green Building Rate Discount

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This discounted rate is available to commercial customers whose building meets the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification or equivalent. To...

  19. Data Fusion for Improved Respiration Rate Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemati, Shamim

    We present an application of a modified Kalman-Filter (KF) framework for data fusion to the estimation of respiratory rate from multiple physiological sources which is robust to background noise. A novel index of the ...

  20. Rating of Solar Energy Devices (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Public Utility Commission has regulatory authority over solar energy devices installed and used in the state of Texas. The Commission can choose to adopt standards pertaining to the rating of...

  1. Rating of Mixed Split Residential Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domanski, P. A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology is presented for rating the performance of mixed, split residential air conditioners. The method accounts for the impact on system performance of the indoor evaporator, expansion device and fan; three major components that are likely...

  2. High Rate Physics at Neutrino Factories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce J. King

    1999-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Both muon colliders and non-colliding muon storage rings using muon collider technology have the potential to become the first true ``neutrino factories'', with uniquely intense and precisely characterized neutrino beams that could usher in a new era of high rate and long baseline neutrino physics studies at accelerators. This paper gives an overview of the predicted capabilities of neutrino factories for high rate neutrino physics analyses that will use huge event samples collected with novel, high performance neutrino detectors.

  3. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  4. Relation Between Heart Rate and Problem Behaviors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Rachel L.; Horner, Robert H.; Reichle, Joe

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1999, Vol. 104, No. 4, 330-345 Relation Between Heart Rate and Problem Behaviors Rachel L. Freeman and Robert H. Horner University of Oregon Joe Reichle University of Minnesota A new... methodological approach for understanding self-injury, aggression, and property destruction exhibited by individuals with severe developmental disabilities was evaluated in this descriptive study. Measures of heart-rate changes before, during, and after...

  5. Solar Models and NACRE thermonuclear reaction rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Morel; B. Pichon; J. Provost; G. Berthomieu

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the most recent updated physics, calibrated solar models have been computed with the new thermonuclear reaction rates of NACRE, the recently available European compilation. Comparisons with models computed with the reaction rates of Caughlan & Fowler (\\cite{cf88}) and of Adelberger et al. (\\cite{a98}) are made for global structure, expected neutrinos fluxes, chemical composition and sound speed profiles, helioseismological properties of p-modes and g-modes.

  6. Short GRBs: Rates and luminosity function implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dafne Guetta

    2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the luminosity function and rate inferred from the BATSE short hard bursts (SHBs) peak flux distribution with the redshift and luminosity distributions of SHBs observed by Swift/HETE II. The Swift/HETE II SHB sample is incompatible with SHB population that follows the star formation rate. However, it is compatible with a distribution of delay times after the SFR. This would be the case if SHBs are associated with the mergers of double neutron star (DNS) systems. DNS may be ``primordial'' or can form dynamically by binary exchange interaction in globular clusters during core collapse. The implied SHB rates that we find range from \\sim 8 to \\sim 30h_(70)^3 Gpc^(-3)yr^(-1). This rate is a much higher than what was previously estimated and, when beaming is taken into account, it is comparable to the rate of neutron star mergers estimated from statistics of binary pulsars. If GRBs are produced in mergers the implied rate practically guarantees detection by LIGO II and possibly even by LIGO I.

  7. FITCH RATES PORT OF MORROW (OR) TRANSMISSION FACILITIES REV BONDS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FITCH RATES PORT OF MORROW (OR) TRANSMISSION FACILITIES REV BONDS 'AA'; OUTLOOK STABLE Fitch Ratings-Austin-24 November 2014: Fitch Ratings assigns 'AA' ratings to the Port of...

  8. Relativistic QRPA calculation of muon capture rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Marketin; N. Paar; T. Niksic; D. Vretenar

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (PN-RQRPA) is applied in the calculation of total muon capture rates on a large set of nuclei from $^{12}$C to $^{244}$Pu, for which experimental values are available. The microscopic theoretical framework is based on the Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) model for the nuclear ground state, and transitions to excited states are calculated using the PN-RQRPA. The calculation is fully consistent, i.e., the same interactions are used both in the RHB equations that determine the quasiparticle basis, and in the matrix equations of the PN-RQRPA. The calculated capture rates are sensitive to the in-medium quenching of the axial-vector coupling constant. By reducing this constant from its free-nucleon value $g_A = 1.262$ by 10% for all multipole transitions, the calculation reproduces the experimental muon capture rates to better than 10% accuracy.

  9. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  10. Achievable Qubit Rates for Quantum Information Wires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulya Yadsan-Appleby; Tobias J. Osborne

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Suppose Alice and Bob have access to two separated regions, respectively, of a system of electrons moving in the presence of a regular one-dimensional lattice of binding atoms. We consider the problem of communicating as much quantum information, as measured by the qubit rate, through this quantum information wire as possible. We describe a protocol whereby Alice and Bob can achieve a qubit rate for these systems which is proportional to N^(-1/3) qubits per unit time, where N is the number of lattice sites. Our protocol also functions equally in the presence of interactions modelled via the t-J and Hubbard models.

  11. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term

  12. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by

  13. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts byUtility

  14. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts

  15. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate > PostsUtility

  16. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate >

  17. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate >Utility

  18. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate >Utilitycommercial

  19. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate

  20. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility RateGlobal Atlas Type Term

  1. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility RateGlobal Atlas Type

  2. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility RateGlobal Atlas

  3. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility RateGlobal AtlasUtility

  4. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility RateGlobal

  5. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility RateGlobalUtility

  6. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility RateGlobalUtilityUtility

  7. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > UtilityUtility Rate Home >

  8. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > UtilityUtility Rate Home

  9. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > UtilityUtility Rate HomeUtility

  10. Power Function Review (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnical Information STIP Map DocumentRates > Rates

  11. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right Rate?" call slides and discussion summary, December 1, 2011. Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents...

  12. Intergenerational transfers and the social discount rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational asset transfers and the choice of the discount rate for use in cost-benefit analysis in a model of a competitive overlapping generations economy constrained by a socially managed exhaustible resource. Provided that there are no distortions in capital markets and that all agents hold perfect foresight, cost-benefit techniques will result in a Pareto efficient resource allocation if the discount rate is set equal to the market rate of interest. But since the path of the interest rate depends on the level of intergenerational transfers, cost-benefit techniques do not ensure a socially desirable distribution of welfare between generations; a social optimum will result only if intergenerational transfers are properly chosen and enforced. Decentralized private altruism may result in intergenerational transfers that both present and future individuals would agree are too small if members of the present generation attach positive weight to the general welfare of future generations, not simply their personal descendants. In a world where intergenerational transfers are non-optimal, second-best policy-making may imply a constrained optimum that is inefficient. Together, these findings suggest that cost-benefit analysis is at best a partial criterion to policy formulation that should be used only in conjunction with ethical principles that define the proper distribution of welfare between present and future generations.

  13. Implications of Strong-Rate-Weakening Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Julia R.

    Implications of Strong-Rate- Weakening Friction for the Length-Scale Dependence of the Strength · Rapid transitions between high static friction and very low dynamic friction · Leads to slip-pulse rupture · Slip pulses are extremely localized and have strong positive feedback between friction and slip

  14. Electric germs Source: scenta Rate this item

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Electric germs Source: scenta Rate this item People in remote areas could benefit from fuel cells that contain bacteria that grows prolifically on the graphite anodes of fuel cells and can conduct electricity that isolating a bacterium generated pow er in fuel cells efficiently. Geobacter sulfurreducens is bacteria

  15. RATE DECLINE ANALYSIS FOR NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    RATE DECLINE ANALYSIS FOR NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT analylsiis for constant pressure production in a naturally fractured reservoir is presented. The solution, the Warren and Root model which assumes fracturing is perfectly unifom, provides an upper bound of reservoir

  16. Heart Physiology Lab Part 1: Pulse Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loughry, Jim

    Heart Physiology Lab Part 1: Pulse Rate Measure your pulse in each of the following conditions (in in the class. You may use Table 1 in the Heart Physiology Worksheet for this, if you wish. Once you have all of the class averages for each measurement. You may use Graph 1 in the Heart Physiology Worksheet for this

  17. Prediction of Thermonuclear Reaction Rates in Astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Rauscher

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent improvements and remaining problems in the prediction of thermonuclear rates are reviewed. The main emphasis is on statistical model calculations, but the challenge to include direct reactions close to the driplines is also briefly addressed. Further theoretical as well as experimental investigations are motivated.

  18. Commercial ethanol production and marketing on a large scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuenkel, A.E.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol use has advanced because of its ability to increase gasoline octane ratings. The recent oil glut, and price decline, will affect the ethanol industry. Yet the country needs the ethanol industry to complement current efforts to eliminate projected grain surpluses. State incentives must be standardized, to provide marketing consistency. At present, ethanol is the only octane enhancer not commanding its true value. Ethanol is more effective than MTBE, Toluene, or TBA, and must take its place beside these enhancers on the market.

  19. A New Series of Rate Decline Relations Based on the Diagnosis of Rate-Time Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boulis, Anastasios

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    point for their derivation is given by the definitions of the "loss ratio" and the "derivative of the loss ratio", where the "loss ratio" is the ratio of rate data to derivative of rate data, and the "derivative of the loss ratio" is the "b...

  20. The relationship of metabolic rate to rate of gain in young beef cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Kenneth Harold

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and growt? rate, and l7-keto steriods against growth rates, but when the two were combined a very signifi- cant correlation was reported. PROCEI3UBE The first trial was conducted during the spring of 1951 on young beef bulls which were the get of sires...

  1. A Rate-Adaptive Multimedia Multicasting Mechanism. . . 23 A Rate-Adaptive Multimedia Multicasting Mechanism in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Rate-Adaptive Multimedia Multicasting Mechanism. . . 23 A Rate-Adaptive Multimedia Multicasting and Multimedia Department ENST Bretagne, 2, rue de la Chataigneraie - CS 17607 35576 Cesson Sevigne Cedex rapidly. One of the major driving factors of WLANs is multimedia services such as VOD or HDTV delivered

  2. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley; Darghouth, Naim R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate.

  3. Muon capture rates within the projected QRPA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danilo Sande Santos; Arturo R. Samana; Francisco Krmpoti?; Alejandro J. Dimarco

    2012-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The conservation of the number of particles within the QRPA plays an important role in the evaluation muon capture rates in all light nuclei with A \\precsim 30 . The violation of the CVC by the Coulomb field in this mass region is of minor importance, but this effect could be quite relevant for medium and heavy nuclei studied previously. The extreme sensitivity of the muon capture rates on the 'pp' coupling strength in nuclei with large neutron excess when described within the QRPA is pointed out. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are much more robust for such a purpose.

  4. Thermal dilepton rates from quenched lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. -T. Ding; A. Francis; O. Kaczmarek; F. Karsch; E. Laermann; S. Mukherjee; M. Müller; W. Soeldner

    2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new lattice results on the continuum extrapolation of the vector current correlation function. Lattice calculations have been carried out in the deconfined phase at a temperature of 1.1 Tc, extending our previous results at 1.45 Tc, utilizing quenched non-perturbatively clover-improved Wilson fermions and light quark masses. A systematic analysis on multiple lattice spacings allows to perform the continuum limit of the correlation function and to extract spectral properties in the continuum limit. Our current analysis suggests the results for the electrical conductivity are proportional to the temperature and the thermal dilepton rates in the quark gluon plasma are comparable for both temperatures. Preliminary results of the continuum extrapolated correlation function at finite momenta, which relates to thermal photon rates, are also presented.

  5. Feed rate measuring method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Wiczer, James J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are provided for establishing the feed rate of a workpiece along a feed path with respect to a machine device. First and second sensors each having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece are positioned above, and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece along a feed path. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of each sensor and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of the contour of the workpiece. First and second image signals representative of the contour of the workpiece along the feed path are developed by an image processor. The time delay between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals are then used to determine the feed rate based upon the separation of the first and second sensors and the amount of time between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals.

  6. Intraclass Price Elasticity & Electric Rate Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gresham, K. E.

    INTRACLASS PRICE ELASTICITY &ELECTRIC RATE DESIGN KEVIN E. GRESHAM Senior Research Analyst Houston Lighting & Power Company Houston, Texas ABSTRACT PRICE ELASTICITY Electric ~ate design relies on cost incur rance for pricing and pricing... industries are already affecting electric utilities. Cogeneration is one example of competition which effects electric utilities. Utilities now have a competing source of generation which often causes load and revenue losses. Competition has specifically...

  7. Decoherence rates for Galilean covariant dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeremy Clark

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a measure of decoherence for a class of density operators. For Gaussian density operators in dimension one it coincides with an index used by Morikawa (1990). Spatial decoherence rates are derived for three large classes of the Galilean covariant quantum semigroups introduced by Holevo. We also characterize the relaxation to a Gaussian state for these dynamics and give a theorem for the convergence of the Wigner function to the probability distribution of the classical analog of the process.

  8. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  9. Dynamic Phase Transition, Enhanced Reaction Rate, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rikvold, Per Arne

    is a CO, they react [CO + O CO2(g)] These dynamical rules fully define the model. Its properties on a crystal surface by Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism: CO(g)+S CO(a) O2 + 2S 2O(a) CO(a) + O(a) CO2(g) + 2S been observed experimentally for high enough temperatures. Add CO desorption rate k to mimic

  10. Heating Rate Profiles in Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward C. D. Pope; Georgi Pavlovski; Christian R. Kaiser; Hans Fangohr

    2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years evidence has accumulated suggesting that the gas in galaxy clusters is heated by non-gravitational processes. Here we calculate the heating rates required to maintain a physically motived mass flow rate, in a sample of seven galaxy clusters. We employ the spectroscopic mass deposition rates as an observational input along with temperature and density data for each cluster. On energetic grounds we find that thermal conduction could provide the necessary heating for A2199, Perseus, A1795 and A478. However, the suppression factor, of the clasical Spitzer value, is a different function of radius for each cluster. Based on the observations of plasma bubbles we also calculate the duty cycles for each AGN, in the absence of thermal conduction, which can provide the required energy input. With the exception of Hydra-A it appears that each of the other AGNs in our sample require duty cycles of roughly $10^{6}-10^{7}$ yrs to provide their steady-state heating requirements. If these duty cycles are unrealistic, this may imply that many galaxy clusters must be heated by very powerful Hydra-A type events interspersed between more frequent smaller-scale outbursts. The suppression factors for the thermal conductivity required for combined heating by AGN and thermal conduction are generally acceptable. However, these suppression factors still require `fine-tuning` of the thermal conductivity as a function of radius. As a consequence of this work we present the AGN duty cycle as a cooling flow diagnostic.

  11. Rates and Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William Michael Wood-Vasey

    2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, SNe Ia exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in SNe Ia. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) has been designed to discover hundreds of SNe Ia in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of SNe Ia. This dissertation presents a new method for analyzing the true sensitivity of a multi-epoch supernova search and finds a SN Ia rate from $z\\sim0.01$--0.1 of $r_V = 4.26 (+1.39 -1.93) (+0.10 - 0.10)$ SNe Ia/yr/Mpc$^3$ from a preliminary analysis of a subsample of the SNfactory prototype search. Several unusual supernovae were found in the course of the SNfactory prototype search. One in particular, SN 2002ic, was the first SN Ia to exhibit convincing evidence for a circumstellar medium and offers valuable insight into the progenitors of SNe Ia.

  12. STELLAR ENCOUNTER RATE IN GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Gladstone, Jeanette C., E-mail: bahramia@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB, T5K 1V4 (Canada)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high stellar densities in the cores of globular clusters cause significant stellar interactions. These stellar interactions can produce close binary mass-transferring systems involving compact objects and their progeny, such as X-ray binaries and radio millisecond pulsars. Comparing the numbers of these systems and interaction rates in different clusters drives our understanding of how cluster parameters affect the production of close binaries. In this paper we estimate stellar encounter rates ({Gamma}) for 124 Galactic globular clusters based on observational data as opposed to the methods previously employed, which assumed 'King-model' profiles for all clusters. By deprojecting cluster surface brightness profiles to estimate luminosity density profiles, we treat 'King-model' and 'core-collapsed' clusters in the same way. In addition, we use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the effects of uncertainties in various observational parameters (distance, reddening, surface brightness) on {Gamma}, producing the first catalog of globular cluster stellar encounter rates with estimated errors. Comparing our results with published observations of likely products of stellar interactions (numbers of X-ray binaries, numbers of radio millisecond pulsars, and {gamma}-ray luminosity) we find both clear correlations and some differences with published results.

  13. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) calculates BPA proposed rates based on information either developed in the WPRDS or supplied by the other studies that comprise the BPA rate proposal. All of these studies, and accompanying documentation, provide the details of computations and assumptions. In general, information about loads and resources is provided by the Load Resource Study (LRS), WP-07-E-BPA-01, and the LRS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-01A. Revenue requirements information, as well as the Planned Net Revenues for Risk (PNNR), is provided in the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-E-BPA-02, and its accompanying Revenue Requirement Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-02A and WP-07-E-BPA-02B. The Market Price Forecast Study (MPFS), WP-07-E-BPA-03, and the MPFS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-03A, provide the WPRDS with information regarding seasonal and diurnal differentiation of energy rates, as well information regarding monthly market prices for Demand Rates. In addition, this study provides information for the pricing of unbundled power products. The Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-E-BPA-04, and the Risk Analysis Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-04A, provide short-term balancing purchases as well as secondary energy sales and revenue. The Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study, WP-07-E-BPA-06, and the Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-06A, implement Section 7(b)(2) of the Northwest Power Act to ensure that BPA preference customers firm power rates applied to their general requirements are no higher than rates calculated using specific assumptions in the Northwest Power Act.

  14. NFC Academic Access and Equipment Rates valid 7/1/13 to 6/30/14 RATES SUBJECT TO CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    NFC Academic Access and Equipment Rates valid 7/1/13 to 6/30/14 RATES SUBJECT TO CHANGE ACCESS/USE UNITS RATE ACCESS FEE monthly fee $29.20 LAB USAGE FEE per lab session $24.44 LAB USAGE MAX PER MONTH per month $224.72 EQUIPMENT INCLUDED EQUIPMENT UNITS RATE 50% Rate Reduction After 500 min

  15. GTA TRIP GENERATION RATES, 1986 -1996 Eric J. Miller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    GTA TRIP GENERATION RATES, 1986 - 1996 by Eric J. Miller Department of Civil Engineering University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. CHANGES IN GTA TRIP GENERATION RATES, 1986-96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Time Female Labour Force Participation Rate

  16. Data Bias in Rate Transient Analysis of Shale Gas Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnia, Ammar Khalifa Mohammed

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    functions involve rate as essential constituent, the superposition time is affected greatly with rate issues. Production data of shale gas wells are usually subjected to operating issues that yield noise and outliers. Whenever the rate data is noisy...

  17. electricity rates for military bases | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electricity rates for military bases Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi, I was hoping to find rates for military bases, but have been unable to find anything. Are they just charged as...

  18. Santee-3-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Santee-3-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Santee-3-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: None System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina This rate schedule shall be available to public...

  19. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Krishnan, K. M., E-mail: kannanmk@uw.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Ferguson, R. M. [LodeSpin Labs, P.O. Box 95632, Seattle, Washington 98145 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25?kHz and 20?mT/?{sub 0} excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (H{sub o}) and frequency (?). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2?kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52?mT/?{sub 0}. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (?H{sub o}) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories.

  20. Western-UGP Transmission and Ancillary Services Rates Customer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    changes noted in the following sections: Proposed Formula Rate for Scheduling, System Control and Dispatch Service, Proposed Rate for Regulation and Frequency Response Service,...

  1. Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Conversion Rates Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates Better Buildings Residential Network Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Contractor...

  2. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related...

  3. Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption from sediments. Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption from sediments. Abstract: A...

  4. DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups with Primary Stakeholders in Seattle -- Final Report DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups...

  5. DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rating Program Focus Groups with Primary Stakeholders in Seattle -- Final Report DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups with Primary Stakeholders in...

  6. High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using Nickel Electrocatal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using Nickel Electrocatalysts with Seven-Membered Diphosphine Ligands Containing High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using...

  7. Attachment 3: Hourly Labor Rate Proposal, attachment 3, RFP RHT...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hourly Labor Rate Proposal RFP RHT-5-52358 Basic Period - Execution through 12 Months Labor Category Base Rate Hourly Labor Overhead % Fringe Benefits % General & Admin. Exp. %...

  8. Auto/Steel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS Joining AutoSteel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS...

  9. Auto/Steel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization AutoSteel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual...

  10. The Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the Economics of Photovoltaic Systems The Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on...

  11. Workshop on Thermonuclear Reaction Rates for Astrophysics Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Workshop on Thermonuclear Reaction Rates for Astrophysics Applications 24-25 November 2011, Athensrd and final circular for the Workshop on Thermonuclear Reaction Rates for Astrophysics Applications

  12. Utility-Based Wireless Resource Allocation for Variable Rate Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Ng, Chun Sum

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For most wireless services with variable rate transmission, both average rate and rate oscillation are important performance metrics. The traditional performance criterion, utility of average transmission rate, boosts the average rate but also results in high rate oscillations. We introduce a utility function of instantaneous transmission rates. It is capable of facilitating the resource allocation with flexible combinations of average rate and rate oscillation. Based on the new utility, we consider the time and power allocation in a time-shared wireless network. Two adaptation policies are developed, namely, time sharing (TS) and joint time sharing and power control (JTPC). An extension to quantized time sharing with limited channel feedback (QTSL) for practical systems is also discussed. Simulation results show that by controlling the concavity of the utility function, a tradeoff between the average rate and rate oscillation can be easily made.

  13. High Octane Selling Coffee Shop Strategy That Gets the Job Done

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, Richard L.

    people work from a home office, so many offices have open plan seating, and so many people work flexible to a younger crowd. While on the road, many business people still work in their cars between appointments Bank College of Business, Northern Kentucky University Sales people may not recognize why things change

  14. The thermodynamic properties of mixtures of normal octane and branched paraffin hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Edward Kou-Shan

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    static equilibrium flasks and associated mercury manometer 12 2: Diagram of static vapor pressure apparatus . , 13 Schematic diagram of the auxiliary apparatus . 14 4: Static equilibrium flasks and parts of the apparatus 5: Activity coefficients... vapor pressure 0 0 o apparatus. Barker's least square method was employed to calcu- late equilibrium vapor compositions, activity coefficients, and excess thermodynamic functions such as G , H , and TS . The correlation of thermodynamic properties...

  15. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcelin, G.

    1992-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: addition of i-butylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H[sub 2] during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; addition of i-butylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the seventh quarter we continued the shake down experiments for the SBCR and conducted an initial aborted run. We have also re-started experiments on Scheme 1, i.e., the addition of iso-butylene during CO hydrogenation. Using a dual bed arrangement, we have demonstrated the synthesis of MTBE from syngas and iso-butylene.

  16. Structures of two isomeric phenylethanolamine analogs containing the benzobicyclo[3.2.1]octane skeleton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunewald, Gary L.; Ye, Qizhuang; Takusagawa, Fusao

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .) JOHNSON, C . K. (1971). ORTEPll. Report ORNL-3794, revised. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA. KORNIS, G . , MARKS, P . J . & CHIDESTER, C . G . (1980) . J. Org Chem. 4 5 , 4 8 6 0 - 4 8 6 3 . LAMBARDINO, J . G . (1978) . Annual Reports...-0(2) C(3)-C(4)-C(4a)-C(5) 176-7(2) 178-0 (2) C(4a)-C(5)-C(10)-C(8) 66-9 (2) 67-4 (2) N—C (8)—C (10)—C (5) 163-1 (2) 163-3 (2) C (3)—C (4)—C (4a)—C (9a) -0-4 (3) -0-2 (3) C(6)-C(5)~C(10)-C(8) -49-5 (2) -48-8(2) C(7)—C(8)—C(10)—C(5) 42-2 (2) 40-8 (2) C(4)-C...

  17. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic| DepartmentDepartmentTheEnergy TheCleanThe

  18. Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining | U.S. DOE

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurTheBrookhaven National LaboratoryJeffrey L KrauseEarthJulyFermiOffice of Science

  19. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh EfficiencyMetalcost

  20. Reverse Engineering of Proteasomal Translocation Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Goldobin; M. Mishto; K. Textoris-Taube; P. M. Kloetzel; A. Zaikin

    2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the problem of proteasomal protein translocation and introduce a new stochastic model of the proteasomal digestion (cleavage) of proteins. In this model we account for the protein translocation and the positioning of cleavage sites of a proteasome from first principles. We show by test examples and by processing experimental data that our model allows reconstruction of the translocation and cleavage rates from mass spectroscopy data on digestion patterns and can be used to investigate the properties of transport in different experimental set-ups. Detailed investigation with this model will enable theoretical quantitative prediction of the proteasomal activity.

  1. Tunneling decay rate in quantum cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mithani, Audrey T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In canonical quantum cosmology, the wave function of the universe lacks explicit time dependence. However, time evolution may be present implicitly through the semiclassical superspace variables, which themselves depend on time in classical dynamics. In this paper, we apply this approach to an oscillating universe model recently introduced by Graham et al. By extending the model to include a massless, minimally coupled scalar field $\\phi$ which has little effect on the dynamics but can play the role of a "clock", we determine the decay rate of the oscillating universe.

  2. Tunneling decay rate in quantum cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Audrey T. Mithani; Alexander Vilenkin

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In canonical quantum cosmology, the wave function of the universe lacks explicit time dependence. However, time evolution may be present implicitly through the semiclassical superspace variables, which themselves depend on time in classical dynamics. In this paper, we apply this approach to an oscillating universe model recently introduced by Graham et al. By extending the model to include a massless, minimally coupled scalar field $\\phi$ which has little effect on the dynamics but can play the role of a "clock", we determine the decay rate of the oscillating universe.

  3. Binary Capture Rates for Massive Protostars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nickolas Moeckel; John Bally

    2007-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The high multiplicity of massive stars in dense, young clusters is established early in their evolution. The mechanism behind this remains unresolved. Recent results suggest that massive protostars may capture companions through disk interactions with much higher efficiency than their solar mass counterparts. However, this conclusion is based on analytic determinations of capture rates and estimates of the robustness of the resulting binaries. We present the results of coupled n-body and SPH simulations of star-disk encounters to further test the idea that disk-captured binaries contribute to the observed multiplicity of massive stars.

  4. Blazar Flaring Rates Measured with GLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. Dermer; B. L. Dingus

    2003-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the minimum observing time scales to detect a blazar at a given flux level with the LAT on GLAST in the scanning and pointing modes. Based upon Phase 1 observations with EGRET, we predict the GLAST detection rate of blazar flares at different flux levels. With some uncertainty given the poor statistics of bright blazars, we predict that a blazar flare with integral flux >~ 200e-8 ph(> 100 MeV) cm^{-2} s^{-1}, which are the best candidates for Target of Opportunity pointings and extensive temporal and spectral studies, should occur every few days.

  5. Innovations in high rate condensate polishing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, M. [Graver Water Division, Union, NJ (United States)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test work is being conducted at two major east coast utilities to evaluate flow distribution in high flow rate condensate polishing service vessels. The work includes core sample data used to map the flow distribution in vessels as originally manufactured. Underdrain modifications for improved flow distribution are discussed with data that indicates performance increases of the service vessel following the modifications. The test work is on going, with preliminary data indicating that significant improvements in cycle run length are possible with underdrain modifications. The economic benefits of the above modifications are discussed.

  6. Blazar Flaring Rates Measured with GLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dermer, C D

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the minimum observing time scales to detect a blazar at a given flux level with the LAT on GLAST in the scanning and pointing modes. Based upon Phase 1 observations with EGRET, we predict the GLAST detection rate of blazar flares at different flux levels. With some uncertainty given the poor statistics of bright blazars, we predict that a blazar flare with integral flux >~ 200e-8 ph(> 100 MeV) cm^{-2} s^{-1}, which are the best candidates for Target of Opportunity pointings and extensive temporal and spectral studies, should occur every few days.

  7. Building Energy Rating and Disclosure Policies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Future ofHydronicBuildingDepartmentDavidDepartmentRating and

  8. Fixed Rate Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Departmentof OhioFirst Annual PostSmart Grid Progress |Fixed Rate

  9. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility

  10. ARM - Lesson Plans: Rate of Coral Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, Alaska OutreachMakingPast SeaRate of Coral

  11. Attachments Energy Ratings Council | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource HeatEnergy2).pdfAttachments Energy Ratings

  12. BPA Power Rates (pbl/main)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BES UserDOE -BPA GenerationRates

  13. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmwelt Management AGUser page EditUsinasourceUtility Rate

  14. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmwelt Management AGUser page EditUsinasourceUtility RateUtility

  15. Property:HeatRate | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid Jump to:DocketFlowGpmGrossGen JumpRating Jump

  16. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Direct Testimony.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of our testimony is to sponsor the rate design portions of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS), WP-07-E-BPA-05, and associated portions of the Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and GRSPs (WP-07-E-BPA-07). Our testimony is organized in eight sections. The first section outlines the purpose of our testimony. Section 2 describes BPA's Demand Rates, including subsections on the definition of the Demand Rate, the method for computing the Demand Rates, and differences from the currently effective WP-02 Demand Rate. Section 3 describes BPA's Load Variance Rate, with subsections on the definition and purpose of the Load Variance Rate, application of the Load Variance Rate, how the Load Variance Rate is calculated, and the differences from the WP-02 Load Variance Rate. Section 4 describes the steps involved in developing BPA's energy rates and differences from the WP-02 rate case. Section 5 discusses discontinuation of the Stepped Up Multi-Year Block Rate. Section 6 describes a minor change to the Unauthorized Increase Rates and the Excess Factoring Rates. Section 7 describes the Targeted Adjustment Charge. Section 8 addresses the Operating Reserves Credit.

  17. Greater Rochester Nursing Home Quality Consortium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Agenda 08:15 Registration; Continental Breakfast; Lean Six Sigma Teams' Posters 09:00 Welcome the Impact of Transforming Elder Care 10:15 Lean Six Sigma Team Project Presentations Melissa Allmaier, RN, Six Sigma Master Black Belt John Biuso, BSIE, Six Sigma Black Belt, CPIM Project Team leaders

  18. Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the module includes training on the Idaho site commitment to safety and safety programs, quality assurance and environmental protection and the right to a safe and healthful...

  19. Ecology and Greater Prairie-Chicken

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    of Mortality and Competition _______________ 5 Wind Power Generation ___________________________ 5 Habitat

  20. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  1. Greater Boston Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI ReferenceJump to: navigation,II Wind FarmGratiotLakesWind

  2. Clean Cities: Greater Indiana Clean Cities coalition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma0 12Denver Metro CleanGenesee RegionIndiana

  3. On the Annihilation Rate of WIMPs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Baumgart; Ira Z. Rothstein; Varun Vaidya

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the WIMP annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. For the case of Majorana WIMPs transforming in the adjoint representation of SU(2), we present the result for the resummed rate at leading double log accuracy in terms of two initial state partial wave matrix elements and one hard matching coefficient. For a given model, one may calculate the cross section by calculating the tree level matching coefficient and determining the value of a local four fermion operator. We find that the effects of resummation can be as large as 100% for a 20 TeV WIMP. The generalization of the formalism to other types of WIMPs is discussed.

  4. Measuring OutdoorAir Intake Rates Using Electronic Velocity Sensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow Straighteners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100percent, and were often greater than 25percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  5. On Rate Control of Wireless Multicasting Jie Luo, Anthony Ephremides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On Rate Control of Wireless Multicasting Jie Luo, Anthony Ephremides ECE Dept. Univ. of Maryland the effective multicast communication rate is termed rate control. By modeling the channel from the transmitter only by the channel distributions. Key words multicast, rate control 1 Introduction In the layered

  6. Choosing a sample rate for prime mover digital control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schade, J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explains the reasons and consequences of sample rate selection for gas turbine and steam turbine controls. Sample rate theory is important because there is often confusion about how to select the sample rate for different applications. Full-load rejection offspeeds, a common prime mover performance issue, will be used as an example. The effect of different sample rates will be shown.

  7. Workshop on Thermonuclear Reaction Rates for Astrophysics Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Workshop on Thermonuclear Reaction Rates for Astrophysics Applications 24-25 November 2011, Athens circular for the Workshop on Thermonuclear Reaction Rates for Astrophysics Applications, to be held of thermonuclear reaction rates. The topics of the workshop, in relation with thermonuclear reaction rates

  8. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil -- A rate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.Y.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three rate equations, a modified Monod equation and two mass transfer rate equations, were used to calculate the biodegradation rate, oxygen transfer rate and oil transfer rate during a bioremediation process of oil-contaminated soil. Based on experimental rate constants, these three rates were calculated and compared. It was found the bioremediation rate of oil-contaminated soil could be controlled by the mass transfer process of oil into aqueous solution (0.12 mg BOD/(1-h)). When the oil transfer rate is enhanced by at least 10 times, the oxygen transfer process (0.1--1.0 mg BOD/(1-h)) becomes the rate-controlling step. For most of the cases, the biodegradation of oil in aqueous solution is not the limiting step unless the microbial population in the aqueous solution is less than 100 mg VSS/1.

  9. Adjustable flow rate controller for polymer solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Kenneth M. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An adjustable device for controlling the flow rate of polymer solutions which results in only little shearing of the polymer molecules, said device comprising an inlet manifold, an outlet manifold, a plurality of tubes capable of providing communication between said inlet and outlet manifolds, said tubes each having an internal diameter that is smaller than that of the inlet manifold and large enough to insure that viscosity of the polymer solution passing through each said tube will not be reduced more than about 25 percent, and a valve associated with each tube, said valve being capable of opening or closing communication in that tube between the inlet and outlet manifolds, each said valve when fully open having a diameter that is substantially at least as great as that of the tube with which it is associated.

  10. Implementation of home energy rating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vine, E.; Barnes, B.K.; Ritschard, R.

    1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the findings of a national survey of home energy rating and labelling programs (HERS). We discuss the nature of different implementation problems and the kinds of strategies that have been used to deal with them to ensure the effective penetration of HERS to all HERS-users. Of further special interest to us has been the nature of different delivery systems. We examined 34 HERS, located in 28 states: 13 of these were located in the southeast, 8 in the midwest, 5 in the northeast, 4 in the Pacific/mountain region, and 3 in the southwest. Although our survey does not represent a scientific sampling of HERS, we believe that the final distribution accurately reflects the distribution of HERS through the country and the full range of likely implementation and delivery programs.

  11. NFC Industrial Access and Equipment Rates valid 7/1/13 to 6/30/14 RATES SUBJECT TO CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    NFC Industrial Access and Equipment Rates valid 7/1/13 to 6/30/14 RATES SUBJECT TO CHANGE ACCESS/USE UNITS RATE ACCESS FEE monthly fee $91.00 LAB USAGE FEE per lab session $67.50 LAB USAGE MAX PER MONTH per month $631.00 EQUIPMENT INCLUDED EQUIPMENT UNITS RATE ALDATOMIC LAYER DEP ALD Savannah 200 minute

  12. Metabolic Rate Constants for Hydroquinone in F344 Rat and Human Liver Isolated Hepatocytes: Application to a PBPK model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poet, Torka S.; Wu, Hong; English, J C.; Corley, Rick A.

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is an important industrial chemical that also occurs naturally in foods and in the leaves and bark of a number of plant species. Exposure of laboratory animals to HQ may result in a species-, sex-, and strain-specific nephrotoxicity. The sensitivity of male F344 vs. female F344 and Sprague-Dawley rats or B6C3F1 mice appears to be related to differences in the rates of formation and further metabolism of key nephrotoxic metabolites. Metabolic rate constants for the conversion of HQ through several metabolic steps to the mono-glutathione conjugate and subsequent detoxification via mercapturic acid were measured in suspension cultures of hepatocytes isolated from male F344 rats and humans. An in vitro mathematic kinetic model was used to analyze each metabolic step by simultaneously fitting the disappearance of each substrate and the appearance of subsequent metabolites. An iterative, nested approach was used whereby downstream metabolites were considered first and the model was constrained by the requirement that rate constants determined during analysis of individual metabolic steps must also satisfy the complete, integrated metabolism scheme, including competitive pathways. The results from this study indicated that the overall capacity for metabolism of HQ and its mono-glutathione conjugate is greater in hepatocytes from humans than those isolated from rats, suggesting a greater capacity for detoxification of the glutathione conjugates. Metabolic rate constants were applied to an existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the model was used to predict total glutathione metabolites produced in the liver. The results showed that body burdens of these metabolites will be much higher in rats than humans.

  13. Rates for Color Shifted Microlensing Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Buchalter; Marc Kamionkowski; R. Michael Rich

    1995-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    If the objects responsible for gravitational microlensing (ML) of Galactic-bulge stars are faint dwarfs, then blended light from the lens will distort the shape of the ML light curve and shift the color of the observed star during the event. The resolution in current surveys is not accurate enough to observe this effect, but it should be detected with frequent and precise followup observations. We calculate the expected rates for ML events where the shape distortions will be observable by such followup observations, assuming that the lenses are ordinary main-sequence stars in a bar and in the disk. We study the dependence of the rates for color-shifted (CS) events on the frequency of followup observations and on the precision of the photometry for a variety of waveband pairings. We find that for hourly observations in $B$ and $K$ with typical photometric errors of 0.01 mag, 28\\% of the events where a main-sequence bulge star is lensed, and 7\\% of the events where the source is a bulge giant, will give rise to a measurable CS at the 95\\% confidence level. For observations in $V$ and $I$, the fractions become 18\\% and 5\\%, respectively, but may be increased to 40\\% and 13\\% by improved photometric accuracy and increased sampling frequency. We outline how the mass, distance, and transverse speed of the lens can be obtained, giving examples of typical errors. We discuss how CS events can be distinguished from events where the source is blended with a binary companion.

  14. Rate constants from the reaction path Hamiltonian. I. Reactive flux simulations for dynamically correct rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    As ab initio electronic structure calculations become more accurate, inherent sources of error, facilitate reactive flux calculations. As an example we compute the dynamically corrected rate constant on which the reaction occurs. A large number of electronic structure theo- ries are available

  15. MHz repetition rate solid-state driver for high current induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooksby, C; Caporaso, G; Goerz, D; Hanks, R; Hickman, B; Kirbie, H; Lee, B; Saethre, R

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel Nevada Corporation is developing an all solid-state power source for high current induction accelerators. The original power system design, developed for heavy-ion fusion accelerators, is based on the simple idea of using an array of field effect transistors to switch energy from a pre-charged capacitor bank to an induction accelerator cell. Recently, that idea has been expanded to accommodate the greater power needs of a new class of high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography. For this purpose, we developed a 3-stage induction adder that uses over 4,000 field effect transistors to switch peak voltages of 45 kV at currents up to 4.8 kA with pulse repetition rates of up to 2 MHz. This radically advanced power system can generate a burst of five or more pulses that vary from 200 ns to 2 µs at a duty cycle of up to 25%. Our new source is precise, robust, flexible, and exceeds all previous drivers for induction machines by a factor of 400 in repetition rate and a factor of 1000 in duty cycle.

  16. Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

  17. High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

  18. On the Expansion Rate, Age, and Distance of the Supernova Remnant G266.2-1.2 (Vela Jr.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, G E; DeLaney, T; Filipovic, M D; Houck, J C; Pannuti, T G; Stage, M D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of Chandra ACIS data for two relatively bright and narrow portions of the northwestern rim of G266.2-1.2 (a.k.a. RX J0852.0-4622 or Vela Jr.) reveal evidence of a radial displacement of 2.40 +/- 0.56 arcsec between 2003 and 2008. The corresponding expansion rate (0.42 +/- 0.10 arcsec/yr or 13.6 +/- 4.2%/kyr) is about half the rate reported for an analysis of XMM-Newton data from a similar, but not identical, portion of the rim over a similar, but not identical, time interval (0.84 +/- 0.23 arcsec/yr, Katsuda et al. 2008a). If the Chandra rate is representative of the remnant as a whole, then the results of a hydrodynamic analysis suggest that G266.2-1.2 is between 2.4 and 5.1 kyr old if it is expanding into a uniform ambient medium (whether or not it was produced by a Type Ia or Type II event). If the remnant is expanding into the material shed by a steady stellar wind, then the age could be as much as 50% higher. The Chandra expansion rate and a requirement that the shock speed be greater than or...

  19. Estimated effective dose rates from radon exposure in workplaces and residences within Los Alamos county in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcnaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many millions of office workers are exposed to radon while at work and at home. Though there has been a multitude of studies reporting the measurements of radon concentrations and potential lung and effective doses associated with radon and progeny exposure in homes, similar studies on the concentrations and subsequent effective dose rates in the workplace are lacking. The purposes of this study were to measure radon concentrations in office and residential spaces in the same county and explore the radiation dose implications. Sixty-five track-etch detectors were deployed in office spaces and 47 were deployed in residences, all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, USA. The sampling periods for these measurements were generally about three months. The measured concentrations were then used to calculate and compare effective dose rates resulting from exposure while at work and at home. Results showed that full-time office workers receive on average about nine times greater exposure at home than while in the office (691 mrem yr{sup -1} versus 78 mrem yr{sup -1}). The estimated effective dose rate for a more homebound person was 896 mrem yr{sup -1}. These effective dose rates are contrasted against the 100 mrem yr{sup -1} threshold for regulation of a 'radiological worker' defined in the Department of Energy regulations occupational exposure and the 10 mrem yr{sup -1} air pathway effective public dose limit regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  20. Inflation targeting in emerging countries: the exchange rate issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes Altamirano, Javier Arturo

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The current discussion of Inflation Targeting (IT) in emerging economies deals with the effects that nominal exchange rate movements have on the overall inflation rate. The literature has focused in the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages...

  1. Utility Rate Design Revision - A Frisbee Full of Boomerangs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dannenmaier, J. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rising electricity prices have prompted investigation of utility rates and proposals for changed in their design. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current design of electric rates, changes proposed, actual trends, and predictable results...

  2. Microsoft Word - News Release -- Rates Initial Proposal Dec ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    utilities, the Bonneville Power Administration today proposed a 6.7 percent average wholesale power rate increase for the fiscal year 2016-2017 rate period. BPA is also proposing...

  3. From: Sent: Subject: Attachments: SNR-Rates, SNR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SNR - Rates From: Sent: Subject: Attachments: SNR-Rates, SNR Friday, August 22, 2014 3:03 PM 2015 Initial Power Restoration Fund Obligation FY 2015 Initial Restoration Fund Letter...

  4. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Power Sales Rate History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Power Sales Rate History Updated: 9112013 Rate Schedule Effective Dates Energy (MillskWh) Capacity (kW-mo.) Combined (MillskWh) 1...

  5. Apply: Increase Residential Energy Code Compliance Rates (DE...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Apply: Increase Residential Energy Code Compliance Rates (DE-FOA-0000953) Apply: Increase Residential Energy Code Compliance Rates (DE-FOA-0000953) April 21, 2014 - 12:32pm Addthis...

  6. Heart rate variability in mice with coronary heart disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zapanta, Laurence (Laurence F.)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuation of the heart rate, is a non-invasive test that measures the autonomic regulation of the heart. Assessment of HRV has been shown to predict the risk of mortality ...

  7. How predictable : modeling rates of change in individuals and populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumme, Katherine

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops methodologies to measure rates of change in individual human behavior, and to capture statistical regularities in change at the population level, in three pieces: i) a model of individual rate of change ...

  8. act transportation rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rates are calculated and compared. The ortho- isomer has a very small rate of transport. 1999 Ferreira, Mrcia M. C. 89 2008 James L. Oberstar Forum on Transportation Policy...

  9. Energy Productivity Via Time-of-Day Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael, R. S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prompted by a combination of PURPA and a national concern about electricity price and supply, many utilities now have in place industrial time-of-day electric rates. When properly designed, these rates present an opportunity for energy...

  10. Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: History, Rates, and Consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gottgens, Hans

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: History, Rates, and Consequences PHILIP M. FEARNSIDE Instituto of deforestation began with the inauguration of the Transamazon Highway in 1970. Amazonian deforestation rates have that make deforestation profitable. Forest degradation results from logging, ground fires (facilitated

  11. Enhancing the Lithiation Rate of Silicon Nanowires by the Inclusion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhancing the Lithiation Rate of Silicon Nanowires by the Inclusion of Tin. Enhancing the Lithiation Rate of Silicon Nanowires by the Inclusion of Tin. Abstract: Silicon (Si) has a...

  12. Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Stocking Rate and Grazing Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Charles R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2001-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains how stocking rates and grazing management decisions can help a ranch survive a drought. To deal with drought, a rancher must monitor forage supply and demand; use a conservative stocking rate and keep it flexible...

  13. Strategic Rate Design: The Role of Industrial Tariffs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenblum, J. I.; House, R.

    STRA TEGIC RA TE DESIGN: THE ROLE OF INDUSTRIAL TARIFFS Jeffrey 1. Rosenblum Rate Design Section Public Utility Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Strategic rate design refers to the use of deliberate pricing strategies... occurred in cogeneration capacity in Texas. The utilities use their rate tariffs strategically to influence the growth of self-generation. This paper will discuss several aspects of strategic rate design to influence industrial energy sales (measured...

  14. Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Module data from NREL's CPV test bed is used to examine methods for calculating outdoor CPV power ratings. IEC 62670 and ASTM E2527 are used as a starting point for determining a module power rating on a monthly basis. Monthly power ratings vary by more than desired using existing methods. The presentation examines modifications to existing methods as well as spectral corrections to reduce variation in monthly module power ratings.

  15. Exports and exchange rate : a firm-level investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Exports and exchange rate : a firm-level investigation N° 2008-02 Février 2008 Sarah Guillou OFCE-DRIC hal-00973044,version1-3Apr2014 #12;Exports and exchange rate: a firm-level investigation Sarah Guillou February 2008 Abstract This paper investigates the relation between export behaviour and the exchange rate

  16. Housing Rates for Summer 2014 Anderson & Wilder Summer Housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    Housing Rates for Summer 2014 Anderson & Wilder Summer Housing Revised 3/28/14 Please note: For Summer 2014 only, there will be one standard housing rate, regardless of assignment to a single or double for summer housing. For summer 2015, we will return to our standard pricing ­ separate rates for singles

  17. STATE OF CALIFORNIA MAXIMUM RATED TOTAL COOLING CAPACITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the installed space conditioning system must have a cooling capacity rating at ARI conditions that is equal Total Cooling Capacity of the installed system (Btu/hr) 3b Sum of the ARI Rated Total Cooling Capacities, then the sum of ARI Rated Cooling Capacities of the installed cooling systems must be calculated and entered

  18. EIS-0093: Bonneville Power Administration's 1982 Rate Proposal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Bonneville Power Administration prepared this statement to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with an increase in wholesale power rates for calendar year 1982, including the effects of rate hikes in that year, the cumulative effects of rate hikes from 1979-1985, as well as alternative revenue scenarios.

  19. EIS-0102: Bonneville Power Administration's 1983 Wholesale Power Rate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Bonneville Power Administration prepared this EIS to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with an increase in wholesale power rates that would become effective on November 1, 1983, including the effects of rate hikes in that year and the cumulative effects of previous rate hikes.

  20. Modeling of strain rate effects on clay in simple shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Byoung Chan

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of strain rate on clays in simple shear conditions. The response of clay soils is highly dependent on the rate of strain for both effective stress path and stress-strain behavior. The undrained shear strength is strongly influenced by strain rate both...

  1. Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

  2. Rate Control Management of Atrial Fibrillation: May a Mathematical Model Suggest an Ideal Heart Rate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anselmino, Matteo; Camporeale, Carlo; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background. Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF), clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR) to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation. Methods. The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively. Results. Left ventricular pressure increased by 56.7%, from 33.92+-37.56 mmHg to 53.15+-47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27.4%, from 82.66+-14.04 mmHg to 105.29+-7.63 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45+-8.5 to 39.09+-8.08 mL), ejection fraction (from 61.1+-4.4 to 39.32+-5.42%) and stroke work (SW, from 0.88+-0.04 to 0.58+-0.09 J) decreased by 49.5, 35.6 and 34.2%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen co...

  3. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Two Different Fractionation Schemes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaprealian, Tania [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Biostatistics and Computational Biology Core, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Speight, Joycelyn L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Gottschalk, Alexander R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Hsu, I.-Chow, E-mail: IHsu@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This is a retrospective study comparing our experience with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer, using two different fractionation schemes, 600 cGy Multiplication-Sign 3 fractions (patient group 1) and 950 cGy Multiplication-Sign 2 fractions (patient group 2). Methods and Materials: A total of 165 patients were treated for prostate cancer using external beam radiation therapy up to a dose of 45 Gy, followed by an HDR brachytherapy prostate radiation boost. Between July 1997 and Nov 1999, 64 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 600 cGy Multiplication-Sign 3 fractions; and between June 2000 and Nov 2005, 101 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 950 cGy Multiplication-Sign 2 fractions. All but 9 patients had at least one of the following risk features: pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >10, a Gleason score {>=}7, and/or clinical stage T3 disease. Results: Median follow-up was 105 months for group 1 and 43 months for group 2. Patients in group 2 had a greater number of high-risk features than group 1 (p = 0.02). Adjusted for comparable follow-up, there was no difference in biochemical no-evidence-of-disease (bNED) rate between the two fractionation scheme approaches, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 93.5% in group 1 and 87.3% in group 2 (p = 0.19). The 5-year estimates of progression-free survival were 86% for group 1 and 83% for group 2 (p = 0.53). Among high-risk patients, there were no differences in bNED or PFS rate due to fractionation. Conclusions: Results were excellent for both groups. Adjusted for comparable follow-up, no differences were found between groups.

  4. Detailed microscopic calculation of stellar electron and positron capture rates on $^{24}$Mg for O+Ne+Mg core simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jameel-Un Nabi

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Few white dwarfs, located in binary systems, may acquire sufficiently high mass accretion rates resulting in the burning of carbon and oxygen under nondegenerate conditions forming a O+Ne+Mg core. These O+Ne+Mg cores are gravitationally less bound than more massive progenitor stars and can release more energy due to the nuclear burning. They are also amongst the probable candidates for low entropy r-process sites. Recent observations of subluminous Type II-P supernovae (e.g., 2005cs, 2003gd, 1999br, 1997D) were able to rekindle the interest in 8 -- 10 M$_{\\odot}$ which develop O+Ne+Mg cores. Microscopic calculations of capture rates on $^{24}$Mg, which may contribute significantly to the collapse of O+Ne+Mg cores, using shell model and proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory, were performed earlier and comparisons made. Simulators, however, may require these capture rates on a fine scale. For the first time a detailed microscopic calculation of the electron and positron capture rates on $^{24}$Mg on an extensive temperature-density scale is presented here. This type of scale is more appropriate for interpolation purposes and of greater utility for simulation codes. The calculations are done using the pn-QRPA theory using a separable interaction. The deformation parameter, believed to be a key parameter in QRPA calculations, is adopted from experimental data to further increase the reliability of the QRPA results. The resulting calculated rates are up to a factor of 14 or more enhanced as compared to shell model rates and may lead to some interesting scenario for core collapse simulators.

  5. Optimization of well rates under gas coning conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urbanczyk, Christopher Henry

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production rates under gas caning conditions. This new method applies to an oil reservoir overlain by a large gas cap containing multiple wells. The cases consider have a limit on the maximum field production rate for both oil and gas. It was found... that the optimal p~ion rates are achieved when Eq. 1 is satisfied for any pair of wells i and j: ) I = constant i = 1, . . . , n dqo This condition minimizes the f ield gas production rate when the maximum field production rate for oil is met, and maximizes...

  6. Effects of lime rate, lime ECCE, and B rate on rose clover and coastal bermudagrass dry matter yields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villavicencio Batres, Rodolfo

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and is frequently observed in Al-treated plants (Alam and Adams, 1979). Plant P concentration was greater in the roots but lower in tops of AI-treated plants (0. 2 and 0. 6 mM of AI2(SO4)3) than the control. The roots of Al-treated plants were thick and brown...

  7. ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR FIRE BEHAVIOR For many years now in America we have used the National Fire Danger Rating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danger Rating System (Deeming, et al, 1978) adjective ratings to describe the "fire danger" for a given of descriptive advice of the "danger" of having an ignition based on historic weather data for what kind of fire these ratings meant regarding potential fire behavior. Furthermore, they described "fire danger" which

  8. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many â?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability weâ??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDDâ??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detectorâ??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

  9. The heritability of daily ranges in rectal temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate in lactating cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega C., Eduardo Humberto

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the data were oolleoted. K. ghly significant oorrelations of temperature with stags of lactation and of respiration with stage of lactation were found among Jerseys, among Holsteins highly significant correlations were found as follows: temperature... in rectal temperature can be expla. 'mod on '. hs basis of the regression of this variable on stage of lactation~ while 10. 5T of the variation in the daily range in respiration rate ca; be explain. d on the basis of the regress'. i n of dai&~ range...

  10. WP-96/TR-96 & TC-96 Power and Transmission Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE Awards ContractRebuttalCase InitialRates

  11. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier6Sell | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerChargeInformation Rate Jump to:

  12. Greater solubility usually = greater toxicity Chromium (Cr) Six oxidation states, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruns, Tom

    (depleted uranium) · 4 oxidation states (+4, +6 most common) · U(VI) water-soluble, U(IV) in-soluble Metals Uranium ­ heaviest natural element - 17 isotopes · Natural form % = U-238 (99.27), U-235 (0.72), U-234 (0 in nuclear fuel ­ U-235 (readily fissionable) · Used in nuclear and conventional weapons · Uranium enrichment

  13. Integrated loading rate determination for wastewater infiltration system sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenssen, P.D. (Norges Landbrukshoegskole, Aas (Norway). Centre for Soil and Environmental Research); Siegrist, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal parameters used in wastewater system design is the hydraulic loading rate. Historically the determination of the loading rate has been a straight forward process involving selection of a rate based on soil texture or water percolation rate. Research and experience over the past decade has provided additional insight into the complex processes occurring within wastewater-amended soil systems and has suggested the fallacy of this approach. A mean grain size vs. sorting (MESO) diagram constitutes a new basis for soil classification for wastewater infiltration system design. Crude characterization of the soil hydraulic properties is possible according to the MESO Diagram and loading rate as well as certain purification aspects can be assessed from the diagram. In this paper, an approach is described based on the MESO Diagram that integrates soil properties and wastewater pretreatment to yield a loading rate. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented at the 7th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV-7), 4-6 April 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada. The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

  15. Electrochemical Corrosion Rate Sensors for Waste Incineration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Matthes, S.A.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.A. (Honeywell Intercorr)

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical corrosion rate sensors work in high temperature waste incineration applications where ash is deposited. The ash serves as the electrolyte for electrochemical measurements, such as liner polarization resistance, electrochemical noise, and harmonic distortion analyses. Results to date have shown that these types of sensors respond qualitatively to changes in temperature, gas composition, alloy composition, and type of ash. Several years of research have shown that high temperature corrosion rate probes need to be better understood before corrosion rate can be used as a process variable by power plant operators. More recent research has shown that electrochemical corrosion probes typically measure lower corrosion rates than those measured by standard mass loss techniques. While still useful for monitoring changes in corrosion rates, absolute probe corrosion rates will need a calibration factor to be useful. Ideas for research that may help resolve these issues are presented.

  16. Colorado State University Mail Services DOMESTIC & INTERNATIONAL POSTAGE RATES January 26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado State University ­ Mail Services DOMESTIC & INTERNATIONAL POSTAGE RATES January 26 th Flat Rate Envelope $5.60 Legal Flat Rate Envelope $5.75 Padded Flat Rate Envelope $5.95 Small Flat Rate Box $5.80 Medium Flat Rate Box $12.35 Large Flat Rate Box $17.45 APO/FPO Large Flat Rate Box $15

  17. Experiences with leak rate calculations methods for LBB application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grebner, H.; Kastner, W.; Hoefler, A.; Maussner, G. [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, three leak rate computer programs for the application of leak before break analysis are described and compared. The programs are compared to each other and to results of an HDR Reactor experiment and two real crack cases. The programs analyzed are PIPELEAK, FLORA, and PICEP. Generally, the different leak rate models are in agreement. To obtain reasonable agreement between measured and calculated leak rates, it was necessary to also use data from detailed crack investigations.

  18. Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friend, P.J. [Urenco, Capenhurst (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

  19. Cost Bases for Incentive Rates Applicable to Industrial Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, C. N.

    great deal of attention and increased acceptance. This represents a substantial change in attitude, particularly on the part of the regulatory commissions; a few years ago any proposal related to an incentive type rate would not have been... in rate discrimination as between customer classes. Over the last few years many utilities have experienced changes that have resulted in increased interest in incentive rates by the utility, by its customer, and by the regulatory commission. In most...

  20. The instantaneous radial growth rate of stellar discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzulli, Gabriele; Boissier, Samuel; Muńoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new and simple method to measure the instantaneous mass and radial growth rates of the stellar discs of spiral galaxies, based on their star formation rate surface density (SFRD) profiles. Under the hypothesis that discs are exponential with time-varying scalelengths, we derive a universal theoretical profile for the SFRD, with a linear dependence on two parameters: the specific mass growth rate $\

  1. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: III. Nuclear Physics Input

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Iliadis; Richard Longland; Art Champagne; Alain Coc

    2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear physics input used to compute the Monte Carlo reaction rates and probability density functions that are tabulated in the second paper of this series (Paper II) is presented. Specifically, we publish the input files to the Monte Carlo reaction rate code RatesMC, which is based on the formalism presented in the first paper of this series (Paper I). This data base contains overwhelmingly experimental nuclear physics information. The survey of literature for this review was concluded in November 2009.

  2. Home energy ratings systems: Actual usage may vary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Home energy ratings (HERS) attempt to predict typical energy costs for a given residence and estimate the savings potentials of various energy retrofits. This article discusses where the ratings could be improved to more accurately predict the actual energy consumption. Topics covered include the following: is HERS on target (scores, energy predictions, recommended energy improvements); why HERS aren`t perfect; improvements in HERS; the possibility that home energy ratings systems will become market driven. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Assessment of crack opening area for leak rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharples, J.K.; Bouchard, P.J.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines the background to recommended crack opening area solutions given in a proposed revision to leak before break guidance for the R6 procedure. Comparisons with experimental and analytical results are given for some selected cases of circumferential cracks in cylinders. It is shown that elastic models can provide satisfactory estimations of crack opening displacement (and area) but they become increasingly conservative for values of L{sub r} greater than approximately 0.4. The Dugdale small scale yielding model gives conservative estimates of crack opening displacement with increasing enhancement for L{sub r} values greater than 0.4. Further validation of the elastic-plastic reference stress method for up to L{sub r} values of about 1.0 is presented by experimental and analytical comparisons. Although a more detailed method, its application gives a best estimate of crack opening displacement which may be substantially greater than small scale plasticity models. It is also shown that the local boundary conditions in pipework need to be carefully considered when evaluating crack opening area for through-wall bending stresses resulting from welding residual stresses or geometry discontinuities.

  4. Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses control strategies for centrifugal pumps with variable flow rate requirements in pumping systems and includes installation considerations. PUMPING SYSTEMS...

  5. Construction, Qualification, and Low Rate Production Start-up...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Facility with Capacity to Support 100,000 Electric Drive Vehicles Construction, Qualification, and Low Rate Production Start-up of a DC Bus Capacitor High Volume...

  6. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Miettinen (1995). "Ventilation rate in office buildings2005). Outdoor air ventilation and work- related symptoms inand Q. H. Lei (2006). "Ventilation and performance in office

  7. Certification and Rating of Attachments for Fenestration Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rate fenestration attachment energy performance and provide accurate and useful product comparison criteria, allowing end users in residential and commercial markets to assess...

  8. agitation rating scale: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    observations by combining two concepts: the impact of cell sizes on metabolic rate and fractal-like (hierarchical) organization. The proposed model both theoretically and...

  9. Convergence of speech rate in conversation predicts cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    refer to this measure as positive person perception (PPP).results incorporating PPP, separate analyses using warmthPerson Perception Higher PPP ratings were marginally

  10. Calculation of tunneling rates across a barrier with continuous potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sina Khorasani

    2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, approximate, but accurate expressions for calculation of wavefunctions and tunneling rates are obtained using the method of uniform asymptotic expansion.

  11. Gradient methods for convex minimization: better rates under ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui Zhang

    2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Gradient methods for convex minimization: better rates under weaker conditions. Hui Zhang(hhuuii.zhang ***at*** gmail.com)

  12. Merger and Ring Galaxy Formation Rates at z<=2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. D'Onghia; M. Mapelli; B. Moore

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the observed merger rate of galaxies over cosmic time and the frequency of collisional ring galaxies (CRGs), with analytic models and halo merger and collision rates from a large cosmological simulation. In the Lambda cold dark matter (LCDM) model we find that the cosmic {\\it merger fraction} does not evolve strongly between 0.2rate since z~1 might not be tied to a disappearing population of major mergers. Halos hosting massive galaxies undergo on average ~2 mergers from z~2 up to present day, reflecting the late assembly time for the massive systems and the related downsizing problem. The cosmic {\\it merger rate} declines with redshift: at the present time it is a factor of 10 lower than at z~2, in reasonable agreement with the current available data. The rate of CRG formation derived from the interactions between halo progenitors up to z=2 is found to be a good tracer of the cosmic merger rate. In the LCDM model the rate of CRGs as well as the merger rate do not scale as (1+z)^m, as suggested by previous models. Our predictions of cosmic merger and CRG rates may be applied to forthcoming surveys such as GOODS and zCOSMOS.

  13. Tomography increases key rates of quantum-key-distribution protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shun Watanabe; Ryutaroh Matsumoto; Tomohiko Uyematsu

    2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a practically implementable classical processing for the BB84 protocol and the six-state protocol that fully utilizes the accurate channel estimation method, which is also known as the quantum tomography. Our proposed processing yields at least as high key rate as the standard processing by Shor and Preskill. We show two examples of quantum channels over which the key rate of our proposed processing is strictly higher than the standard processing. In the second example, the BB84 protocol with our proposed processing yields a positive key rate even though the so-called error rate is higher than the 25% limit.

  14. Rate controlling model for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.Y.; Annamali, S.N.; Hopper, J.R. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model of bio-remediation of hydrocarbons in a soil matrix has been developed to predict the rate controlling step and the remediation rate during the bioremediation of a contaminated soil. The model is based on mass transfer of oxygen and oil into the aqueous solution in the soil matrix and the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons in the aqueous solution. Monod's equation was used to describe the biodegradation rate in aqueous solution while the mass transfer equations were used to describe the mass transfer rates of oxygen and oil in the soil matrix. Results from model calculations indicate that the bio-remediation rate increases and approaches a limiting value when one of the rates becomes controlling. When the parameters of the site soil samples are measured and the solubilities of oxygen and oil in aqueous solution are obtained, the bioremediation rate can be predicted by this model. The rate controlling step of the bioremediation site may be identified quickly and steps to improve the bioremediation rate can be recommended. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Scaling of the magnetic reconnection rate with symmetric shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassak, P. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Otto, A. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska-Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775 (United States)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The scaling of the reconnection rate during (fast) Hall magnetic reconnection in the presence of an oppositely directed bulk shear flow parallel to the reconnecting magnetic field is studied using two-dimensional numerical simulations of Hall reconnection with two different codes. Previous studies noted that the reconnection rate falls with increasing flow speed and shuts off entirely for super-Alfvenic flow, but no quantitative expression for the reconnection rate in sub-Alfvenic shear flows is known. An expression for the scaling of the reconnection rate is presented.

  16. Microsoft Word - Notice - Rate Order Signed.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ancillary Services and Transmission Service Penalty for Unreserved Use Formula Rates into effect on an interim basis on January 1, 2010. The Federal Register notice...

  17. Optimization Online - Convergence rate analysis of the forward ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damek Davis

    2014-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 9, 2014 ... Convergence rate analysis of the forward-Douglas-Rachford splitting scheme. Damek Davis (Damek ***at*** math.ucla.edu). Abstract: Operator ...

  18. air change rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rydhof 2 Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study MIT - DSpace Summary: Abstract Background While air pollution...

  19. air change rates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rydhof 2 Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study MIT - DSpace Summary: Abstract Background While air pollution...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: wind turbines produce rated power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wind turbines produce rated power Increasing the Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility's Power Production On April 7, 2014, in Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership,...