National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for octane enhan cer

  1. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Breakout Session 1C-Fostering...

  2. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and...

  3. BiOctane | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformation BeaufortBentMichigan:Greece) Jump to:BhimsahankarBhutan:BiOctane

  4. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization...

  5. A Vehicle Manufacturer’s Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels A Vehicle Manufacturer’s Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels Tom Leone, Technical Expert, Powertrain Evaluation and Analysis, Ford Motor Company

  6. Review of market for octane enhancers: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. Sinor Consultants, Inc.

    2000-06-20

    Crude oil is easily separated into its principal products by simple distillation. However, neither the amounts nor the quality of these natural products matches demand. Today, octane requirements must be achieved by changing the chemical composition of the straight-run gasoline fraction.

  7. The Clean Development Mechanism and CER Price Formation in the Carbon Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    . The first is emission trading. Based on the success of the SOx and NOx markets set up in the US in the 1980sThe Clean Development Mechanism and CER Price Formation in the Carbon Emission Markets Ren such as the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and offset certificates such as CERs generated within

  8. CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-Forming Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-Forming Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax surfaces of land plants. It is composed of a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex and characterization of CER4, a wax bio- synthetic gene from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Arabidopsis cer4

  9. Significance of the Expression of the CER6 Condensing Enzyme for Cuticular Wax Production in Arabidopsis1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    Significance of the Expression of the CER6 Condensing Enzyme for Cuticular Wax Production condensing enzyme in Arabidopsis surface wax production, we determined CER6 transcription domains factors such as light and water deficit, which are known to stimulate wax accumulation, induce CER6

  10. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Anisotropies in Octane Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Haji-Akbari; Pablo G. Debenedetti

    2015-09-25

    Confinement breaks the translational symmetry of materials. Such symmetry breaking can be used to obtain configurations that are not otherwise accessible in the bulk. Here, we explore the effect of substrate-liquid interactions on the induced thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies. We consider n-octane nanofilms that are in contact with substrates with varying degrees of attraction. Complete freezing of octane nanofilms is observed at low temperatures, while at intermediate temperatures, a frozen monolayer emerges at both interfaces. By carefully inspecting the profiles of translational and orientational relaxation times, we confirm that the translational and orientational degrees of freedom are decoupled at these frozen monolayers. At sufficiently high temperatures, however, free interfaces and solid-liquid interfaces close to loose substrates undergo pre-freezing, characterized by mild peaks in several thermodynamic quantities. Two distinct dynamic regimes are observed. The dynamics is accelerated in the vicinity of loose substrates, while sticky substrates decelerate dynamics, sometimes by as much as two orders of magnitude. These two distinct dynamical regimes have been previously by us [JCP 141: 024506, 2014] for a model atomic glass-forming liquid. We also confirm the existence of two correlations proposed in the above-mentioned work in solid-liquid subsurface regions of octane films, i.e., a correlation between density and normal stress, and between atomic translational relaxation time and lateral stress. Finally, we inspect the ability of different regions of a film to explore the potential energy landscape, and observe no noticeable difference between the free surface and the bulk. This is unlike the films of model atomic glass formers that tend to sample their respective landscape more efficiently at free surfaces.

  11. Bio Octane Energias Renov veis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC Jump to:Greece:BajoBelpower SrlHydroelectric Power CorpOctane

  12. High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

  13. Exploring the use of a higher octane gasoline for the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the possible benefits that can be achieved if U.S. oil companies produced and offered a grade of higher-octane gasoline to the consumer market. The octane number of a fuel represents how resistant the ...

  14. Ionization of ethane, butane, and octane in strong laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palaniyappan, Sasi; Mitchell, Rob; Ekanayake, N.; Watts, A. M.; White, S. L.; Sauer, Rob; Howard, L. E.; Videtto, M.; Mancuso, C.; Wells, S. J.; Stanev, T.; Wen, B. L.; Decamp, M. F.; Walker, B. C.

    2010-10-15

    Strong-field photoionization of ethane, butane, and octane are reported at intensities from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. The molecular fragment ions, C{sup +} and C{sup 2+}, are created in an intensity window from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} and have intensity-dependent yields similar to the molecular fragments C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup +} and C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup 2+}. In the case of C{sup +}, the yield is independent of the molecular parent chain length. The ionization of more tightly bound valence electrons in carbon (C{sup 3+} and C{sup 4+}) has at least two contributing mechanisms, one influenced by the parent molecule size and one resulting from the tunneling ionization of the carbon ion.

  15. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.

    1997-02-25

    A method is described for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries. 3 figs.

  16. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries.

  17. CRC program for quantifying performance of knock-sensor-equipped vehicles with varying octane level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    A pilot study was conducted under the auspices of the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. (CRC) to assess the potential effects of gasoline octane quality on acceleration performance, fuel economy and driveability in vehicles equipped with electronic spark control systems (knock sensors). Fourteen vehicles were tested by five participating laboratories on CRC unleaded reference fuels of varying octane quality (78 to 104 RON). The test vehicles included nine naturally-aspirated and five turbocharged models. The results showed that acceleration performance was the parameter most sensitive to octane quality changes, particularly in the turbocharged models.

  18. The CER3 wax biosynthetic gene from Arabidopsis thaliana is allelic to WAX2/YRE/FLP1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    The CER3 wax biosynthetic gene from Arabidopsis thaliana is allelic to WAX2/YRE/FLP1 Owen Rowlanda with waxes. The Arabidopsis CER3 gene is important for cuticular wax biosynthesis and was reported and instead corresponds to WAX2/ YRE/FLP1 (At5g57800), a gene of unknown function required for wax

  19. Michel Grossetti Centre d'tude des rationalits et des savoirs (Cers)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Michel Grossetti Centre d'étude des rationalités et des savoirs (Cers) Université de Toulouse. The scientific histories of the two towns are very similar since the creation of electrical institutes industrial firms with R&D activities are concentrated in the Paris area and in provincial towns. Except

  20. The relation of octane number, compression ratio, and exhaust temperature in the gasoline engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jentsch, Donald George

    1951-01-01

    THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMHER& COMPRESSION RATIO& AND EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE A Tbeaie Donald George Jentsch THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMBER, COMHKSSION RATIO, EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE By Donald George... throttle settings) a. Table VI - Aviation Gasolines 22 26 b. Table VI (a) ? Automotive Gasolines . . . 33 2. Spark set for maximum power at full throttle (Speed 2000 RPH at various throttle settings) a. Table VII ? Aviation Gasolines . . . . . 34 b...

  1. The thermodynamic properties of mixtures of normal octane and branched paraffin hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Edward Kou-Shan

    1975-01-01

    THE THEi%ODYNANIC PROPERTIES Ol' NIXTURES OF NORMAL OCTANE AND BRANCHED PARAFFIN HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by Edward Kou-Shan Liu Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkN University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of NASTER OF SCIENCE December 1975 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MIXTURES OF NORMAL OCTANE AND BRANCHED PARAFFIN HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by EDWARD KOU-SHA N LID Approved as to style and content by: Chairman...

  2. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  3. A study of the physics and chemistry of knock in modern SI engines and their relationship to the octane tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    Avoiding knock is the major design constraint for spark ignition engines because of the unacceptable noise and engine damage associated with it. Hence, the Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) tests were established ...

  4. 61CanCer InformatICs 2014:13(s5) Open Access: Full open access to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geman, Donald

    61CanCer InformatICs 2014:13(s5) Open Access: Full open access to this and thousands of other papers at http://www.la-press.com. Cancer Informatics Supplementary Issue: Network and Pathway Analysis of Cancer Susceptibility (A) Introduction Cellular signaling generates a chain of protein

  5. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; West, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

  6. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance improvement was measured for this vehicle, which achieved near volumetric fuel economy parity on the aggressive US06 drive cycle, demonstrating the potential for improved fuel economy in forthcoming downsized, downsped engines with high-octane fuels.

  7. Solubilities of toluene and n-octane in aqueous protosurfactant and surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The solubilities of toluene and n-octane in aqueous protosurfactant and surfactant solutins were determined at 25/sup 0/C. The protosurfactants studied are sodium salts of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 2,5-diisopropylbenzenesulfonic acid, and 3,5-diisopropyisalicylic acid. Each of them has six alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =6) and does not form micelles in water. The two micelle-forming surfactants used are sodium n-hexanoate with six alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =6) and sodium n-octanoate with eight alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =8). In three-component systems of toluene or n-octane with water and organic salt (either protosurfactant or surfactant), the solubility of the hydrocarbon in the aqueous phase increases as the number of alkyl carbons of the organic salt and as the aqueous concentration of the organic salt increases. However, in this study we found that sodium 3,5-diisopropyisalicylate causes much more pronounced increases in hydrocarbon solubility than these two surfactants. Sodium 2,5-diisopropylbenzenesulfonate, although not as effective in solubilization as the salicylate, has much stronger hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than either of these two surfactants. Sodium cyclohexanoate, with a compact arrangement of the six alkyl carbons, shows a higher hydrotropic effect than sodium n-hexanoate.

  8. Third phase formation in the extraction of phosphotungstic acid by TBP in n-octane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonio, M. R.; Chiarizia, R.; Jaffrennou, F. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2010-08-30

    The solvent extraction of 12-phosphotungstic acid, also known as 12-tungstophosphoric acid-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, the so-called Keggin heteropolyacid - by 0.73 M (20%v/v) tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in n-octane under conditions comparable to those used previously for the extraction of conventional inorganic mineral acids is described. A simplified phase diagram for the pentanary system comprised of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, TBP, and n-octane reveals an extremely low initial concentration of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (1.1 mM) at the LOC (limiting organic concentration) condition, far lower than the most effective third-phase-forming inorganic acid, namely HClO{sub 4}. The results from small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) indicate that the interparticle attraction energy - U(r) calculated through application of the Baxter sticky sphere model to the SANS data at the LOC condition - does not approach the -2 k{sub B} T value associated with phase splitting in previous studies of TBP third-phase formation. The third-phase formation model based on attractive interactions between polar cores of reverse micelles, successfully developed for TBP and other extraction systems does not apply to the extraction of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}. Rather, the separation of a third-phase from the TBP organic phase stems from the limited solubility of the heavy and highly polar H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}-TBP species in the alkane diluent.

  9. Use of a thermodynamic cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled engine and an iso-octane-fuelled engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Dushyant

    2006-04-12

    the engine cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled and an iso-octane-fuelled engine for the same operating conditions and engine specifications. A comprehensive parametric investigation was conducted to examine the effects...

  10. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Primary Reference Fuels for Diesel Cetane Number and Spark-Ignition Octane Number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

    2010-03-03

    For the first time, a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is developed for primary reference fuel mixtures of n-hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane for diesel cetane ratings. The mechanisms are constructed using existing rules for reaction pathways and rate expressions developed previously for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, n-heptane and iso-octane. These reaction mechanisms are validated by comparisons between computed and experimental results for shock tube ignition and for oxidation under jet-stirred reactor conditions. The combined kinetic reaction mechanism contains the submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for diesel cetane ratings and submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, all in one integrated large kinetic reaction mechanism. Representative applications of this mechanism to two test problems are presented, one describing fuel/air autoignition variations with changes in fuel cetane numbers, and the other describing fuel combustion in a jet-stirred reactor environment with the fuel varying from pure 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane (Cetane number of 15) to pure n-hexadecane (Cetane number of 100). The final reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels for diesel fuel and gasoline is available on the web.

  11. SANS study of HC1 extraction by selected neutral organophosphorus compounds in n-octane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiarizia, R.; Stepinski, D.; Antonio, M. R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of HCl by tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), tri-n-octyl phosphate (TOP), and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in n-octane was investigated by liquid-liquid distribution of acid and water and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. No formation of a heavy organic phase (third phase) was observed with TEHP and TOP under the experimental conditions used, whereas for 0.4 M TOPO the HCl limiting organic concentration (LOC) at 23 C was 0.32 M (with 5.1 M HCl in the equilibrium aqueous phase). For higher HCl concentrations in the aqueous phase, the organic phase splits into a light and a heavy layer. For TEHP and TOP, the SANS results, interpreted using the Baxter model for hard spheres with surface adhesion, indicated the formation of only small reverse micelles with little intermicellar attraction. For TOPO, the scattering signals suggested the formation of much larger and strongly interacting micelles. The critical values of the stickiness parameter, {tau}{sup -1}, and the interaction potential energy, U(r), for the LOC sample in the TOPO system were consistent with the model for third-phase formation previously developed for tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). According to this model, organic phase splitting is due to van der Waals interactions between the polar cores of reverse micelles formed by the extractants in the organic phase.

  12. DETAILED CHEMICAL KINETIC MODELING OF ISO-OCTANE SI-HCCI TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havstad, M A; Aceves, S M; McNenly, M J; Piggott, W T; Edwards, K D; Wagner, R M; Daw, C S; Finney, C A

    2009-10-12

    The authors describe a CHEMKIN-based multi-zone model that simulates the expected combustion variations in a single-cylinder engine fueled with iso-octane as the engine transitions from spark-ignited (ST) combustion to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. The model includes a 63-species reaction mechanism and mass and energy balances for the cylinder and the exhaust flow. For this study they assumed that the SI-to-HCCI transition is implemented by means of increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at constant engine speed. This transition scneario is consistent with that implemented in previously reported experimental measurements on an experimental engine equipped with variable valve actuation. They find that the model captures many of the important experimental trends, including stable SI combustion at low EGR ({approx} 0.10), a transition to highly unstable combustion at intermediate EGR, and finally stable HCCI combustion at very high EGR ({approx} 0.75). Remaining differences between the predicted and experimental instability patterns indicate that there is further room for model improvement.

  13. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  14. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for n-Alkane Hydrocarbons From n-Octane to n-Hexadecane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-02-08

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms have been developed to describe the pyrolysis and oxidation of nine n-alkanes larger than n-heptane, including n-octane (n-C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), n-nonane (n-C{sub 9}H{sub 20}), n-decane (n-C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-undecane (n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24}), n-dodecane (n-C{sub 12}H{sub 26}), n-tridecane (n-C{sub 13}H{sub 28}), n-tetradecane (n-C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32}), and n-hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). These mechanisms include both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. The mechanisms are based on our previous mechanisms for the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane, using the reaction class mechanism construction first developed for n-heptane. Individual reaction class rules are as simple as possible in order to focus on the parallelism between all of the n-alkane fuels included in the mechanisms, and these mechanisms will be refined further in the future to incorporate greater levels of accuracy and predictive capability. These mechanisms are validated through extensive comparisons between computed and experimental data from a wide variety of different sources. In addition, numerical experiments are carried out to examine features of n-alkane combustion in which the detailed mechanisms can be used to compare reactivities of different n-alkane fuels. The mechanisms for all of these n-alkanes are presented as a single detailed mechanism, which can be edited to produce efficient mechanisms for any of the n-alkanes included, and the entire mechanism, with supporting thermochemical and transport data, together with an explanatory glossary explaining notations and structural details, will be available for download from our web page.

  15. A complex chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of gasoline surrogate fuels: n heptane, iso octane and toluene - Mechanism development and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Da Cruz, A Pires; Anderlohr, Jörg; Bounaceur, Roda; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    The development and validation against experimental results of a new gasoline surrogate complex kinetic mechanism is presented in this paper. The surrogate fuel is a ternary mixture of n heptane, iso octane and toluene. The full three components mechanism is based on existing n heptane/iso octane (gasoline PRF) and toluene mechanisms which were modified and coupled for the purpose of this work. Mechanism results are compared against available experimental data from the literature. Simulations with the PRF plus toluene mechanism show that its behavior is in agreement with experimental results for most of the tested settings. These include a wide variety of thermodynamic conditions and fuel proportions in experimental configurations such as HCCI engine experiments, rapid compression machines, a shock tube and a jet stirred reactor.

  16. Sans study of reverse micelles formed upon extraction of inorganic acids by TBP in n-octane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiarizia, R.; Briand, A.; Jensen, M. P.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    2008-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data for n-octane solutions of TBP loaded with progressively larger amounts of HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} up to and beyond the LOC (limiting organic concentration of acid) condition, were interpreted using the Baxter model for hard spheres with surface adhesion. The coherent picture of the behavior of the TBP solutions derived from the SANS investigation discussed in this paper confirmed our recently developed model for third phase formation. This model analyses the features of the scattering data in the low Q region as arising from van der Waals interactions between the polar cores of reverse micelles. Our SANS data indicated that the TBP micelles swell when acid and water are extracted into their polar core. The swollen micelles have critical diameters ranging from 15 to 22 {angstrom}, and polar core diameters between 10 and 15 {angstrom}, depending on the specific system. At the respective LOC conditions, the TBP weight-average aggregation numbers are -4 for HClO{sub 4}, -6 for H2SO{sub 4}, -7 for HCl, and -10 for H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The comparison between the behavior of HNO{sub 3}, a non-third phase forming acid, and the other acids provided an explanation of the effect of the water molecules present in the polar core of the micelles on third phase formation. The thickness of the lipophilic shell of the micelles indicated that the butyl groups of TBP lie at an angle of -25 degrees relative to a plane tangent to the micellar core. The critical energy of intermicellar attraction, U(r), was about -2 k{sub B}T for all the acids investigated. This value is the same as that reported in our previous publications on the extraction of metal nitrates by TBP, confirming that the same mechanism and energetics are operative in the formation of a third phase, independent of whether the chemical species extracted are metal nitrate salts or inorganic acids.

  17. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for n-Alkane Hydrocarbons from n-Octane to n-Hexadecane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Herbinet, O; Silke, E J; Curran, H J

    2007-09-25

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms have been developed to describe the pyrolysis and oxidation of the n-alkanes, including n-octane (n-C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), n-nonane (n-C{sub 9}H{sub 20}), n-decane (n-C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-undecane (n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24}), n-dodecane (n-C{sub 12}H{sub 26}), n-tridecane (n-C{sub 13}H{sub 28}), n-tetradecane (n-C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32}), and n-hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). These mechanisms include both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. The mechanisms are based on previous mechanisms for n-heptane, using the same reaction class mechanism construction developed initially for n-heptane. Individual reaction class rules are as simple as possible in order to focus on the parallelism between all of the n-alkane fuels included in the mechanisms, and there is an intent to develop these mechanisms further in the future to incorporate greater levels of accuracy and predictive capability. Several of these areas for improvement are identified and explained in detail. These mechanisms are validated through comparisons between computed and experimental data from as many different sources as possible. In addition, numerical experiments are carried out to examine features of n-alkane combustion in which the detailed mechanisms can be used to compare processes in all of the n-alkane fuels. The mechanisms for all of these n-alkanes are presented as a single detailed mechanism, which can be edited to produce efficient mechanisms for any of the n-alkanes included, and the entire mechanism, with supporting thermochemical and transport data, together with an explanatory glossary explaining notations and structural details, will be available on our web page when the paper is accepted for publication.

  18. A comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for combustion of n-alkane hydrocarbons from n-octane to n-hexadecane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, Charles K.; Pitz, William J.; Herbinet, Olivier; Silke, Emma J.; Curran, Henry J.

    2009-01-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms have been developed to describe the pyrolysis and oxidation of nine n-alkanes larger than n-heptane, including n-octane (n-C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), n-nonane (n-C{sub 9}H{sub 20}), n-decane (n-C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-undecane (n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24}), n-dodecane (n-C{sub 12}H{sub 26}), n-tridecane (n-C{sub 13}H{sub 28}), n-tetradecane (n-C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32}), and n-hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). These mechanisms include both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. The mechanisms are based on previous mechanisms for the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane, using the reaction classes first developed for n-heptane. Individual reaction class rules are as simple as possible in order to focus on the parallelism between all of the n-alkane fuels included in the mechanisms. These mechanisms are validated through extensive comparisons between computed and experimental data from a wide variety of different sources. In addition, numerical experiments are carried out to examine features of n-alkane combustion in which the detailed mechanisms can be used to compare reactivities of different n-alkane fuels. The mechanisms for these n-alkanes are presented as a single detailed mechanism, which can be edited to produce efficient mechanisms for any of the n-alkanes included, and the entire mechanism, with supporting thermochemical and transport data, together with an explanatory glossary explaining notations and structural details, is available for download from our web page. (author)

  19. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to DME, which is subsequently converted via homologation reactions to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon products.

  20. UNLV Center for Energy Research CER | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin Film SolarTown(LECBP) |UNDP/GEF-Cambodia-SustainableOpen

  1. Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining ...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Links Center for Gas Separations Relevant to Clean Energy Technologies (CGS) EFRC New Energy and Fuel External link Green Optimistic External link Twitter External link...

  2. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  3. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat IsHeavy-Duty Waste Hauler

  4. University of California, San Diego UCSD-CER-06-04 Center for Energy Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    (CS) configuration. A gas-cooled divertor is envisaged for the ARIES-CS power plant study physics and engineering optimization a more attractive power plant concept based on a compact stellarator fluid driving a closed Brayton cycle. The study is focused on a commercial long term fusion power plant

  5. University of California, San Diego UCSD-CER-05-07 Center for Energy Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    . S. Harilal, B.O'Shay and F. Najmabadi Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department and the Center. The basic idea is to separate generation and heating processes of the EUV plasma. Cold plasma is first spectrum, angular distribution) will be measured in detail. The physics dominating the role of plasma

  6. University of California, San Diego UCSD-CER-10-01 Center for Energy Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    environment that may disturb their trajectories. As part of the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program, we" Target and Chamber Technologies for Direct-Drive Laser-IFE M. S. TILLACK, A. R. RAFFRAY, F. NAJMABADI of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 Target and Chamber Technologies for Direct

  7. I E L D ESCALATION EVALUATION PROJECT RULISON CER GEONUCLEAR CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1.Reports1E~ S·D3GraniteS T A TI*, m-,qy4

  8. Centro de Energías Renovables (CER) Feed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPIDCavallo EnergyOhio:Elec CoopCentreville,Centro de

  9. Centro de Energías Renovables (CER) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPIDCavallo EnergyOhio:Elec CoopCentreville,Centro

  10. Centro De Energias Renovables (CER): A Major OpenEI Contributor | OpenEI

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla,Thermal Gradient HolesCentral, Hong Kong:

  11. Centro de Energías Renovables (CER) en español | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla,Thermal Gradient HolesCentral, Hong Kong:Centro de Energías

  12. Centro de Energías Renovables (CER) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla,Thermal Gradient HolesCentral, Hong Kong:Centro de

  13. Structures of two isomeric phenylethanolamine analogs containing the benzobicyclo[3.2.1]octane skeleton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunewald, Gary L.; Ye, Qizhuang; Takusagawa, Fusao

    1987-01-01

    for X-ray Crystallography (1974). Vol. IV. Birmingham: Kynoch Press. (Present distributor D. Reidel, Dordrecht.) JOHNSON, C. K. (1976). ORTEPll. Report ORNL-5138. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA. MAIN, P., HULL, S. E., LESSINGER, L... for X-ray Crystallography (1974). Vol. IV. Birmingham: Kynoch Press. (Present distributor D. Reidel, Dordrecht.) JOHNSON, C. K. (1976). ORTEPll. Report ORNL-5138. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA. MAIN, P., HULL, S. E., LESSINGER, L...

  14. Structures of two isomeric phenylethanolamine analogs containing the benzobicyclo[3.2.1]octane skeleton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunewald, Gary L.; Ye, Qizhuang; Takusagawa, Fusao

    1987-01-01

    e/ido-8-Amino-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5,8- methano-5//-benzocyclohepten-9-ol hydrochloride, C1 2H1 6N0+.C1- Mr = 225-72, tetragonal, IAja, a = b = 24-641(3), c= 7-709 (1) A, F = 4681 (1) A3, Z = 16, D x = 1-281 Mgm~3 , ...

  15. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs,Department of Energy The Final 40%:TheThe

  16. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢HelpHighJianDepartment of

  17. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState of Pennsylvania U.S.The FirstEnergy The

  18. CER Technology Fellowship Program 2008 Project Team: Benjamin Schafer, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    , Civil Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering; Kapil Dalwani, Graduate Student, Computer Science and Johns Hopkins will be the initial test schools). In civil engineering education at Hopkins, Whiting School of Engineering Project Title: Online Collaborative Sharing Tool for Structural Engineering

  19. Evaluation of the colossal electroresistance (CER) effect and its application in the non-volatile Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wicaksono, Aulia Tegar

    2009-01-01

    Flash memory, the current leading technology for non-volatile memory (NVM), is projected by many to run obsolete in the face of future miniaturization trend in the semiconductor devices due to some of its technical ...

  20. THe sZ DeVIce for cerVIcal sPIne sTaBIlIsaTIon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mucina, Ladislav

    after decompression, as well as certain degenerative and chronic pain conditions. Dynamic stabilisation is limited due to the size of bone mass and the proximity of nerves and blood vessels. Posterior dynamic of development The device is at the design stage, but will quickly move to prototype and clinical testing

  1. A study of PVT relations for carbon dioxide, n-pentane, and n-octane mixtures using a recombination apparatus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirawan, Januar Fitri Santo

    1993-01-01

    Carbon dioxide flooding is considered to have a multi- contact miscibility displacement mechanism. It changes the reservoir fluid in a complex manner. This type of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technique is very economically ...

  2. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

    1993-07-01

    The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

  3. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Divita, Vincent

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  4. Surface silylated zeolite catalysts, and processes for the preparation, and use of the catalysts in the production of high octane gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cody, I.A.; Hammer, G.P.

    1991-01-15

    This patent describes a process for selectively hydrocracking an aromatic hydrocarbon feed. It comprises: hydrocracking the feed at hydrocracking conditions with a hydrocracking catalyst constituted of a metal hydrogenation component composited with a zeolite which contains, at ambient temperatures, greater than 50 percent NH{sub 4}{sup +} sites, and on its surface a chemisorbed silica-containing species, such that at hydrocracking temperatures ammonia is evolved to convert the zeolite to a surface silylated acid zeolite.

  5. Vibrational Spectra, Theoretical Calculations, and Structures of Cyclic Silanes, 2,4,7-Trioxa(3.3.0)Octane and Botryococcenes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Hye Jin

    2014-12-08

    The vibrational spectra and structures of several cyclic silanes and a bicyclic molecule have been investigated with high-level ab initio and density function theory (DFT) calculations. In addition, the Raman spectra of botryococcene hydrocarbons...

  6. Premium Gasoline Overbuying in the U.S.: Consumer-Based Choice Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setiawan, Winardi; Sperling, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    1990), Economics gasoline pool octane of growth, U.S.sensitive to modest is gasoline price shifts. Theprimary1991b), Effect of gasoline octane quality on vehicle

  7. Premium Gasoline Overbuying in the U.S.: Consumer-Based Choice Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setiawan, Winardi; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    1990), Economics gasoline pool octane of growth, U.S.sensitive to modest is gasoline price shifts. Theprimary1991b), Effect of gasoline octane quality on vehicle

  8. This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012 Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41, 81638178 8163 Cite this: Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41, 81638178

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frenkel, Anatoly

    /Al2O3 petroleum reforming catalyst significantly enhances its catalytic activity, increases the octane

  9. 379ISSN 2042-630510.2217/CER.13.41 2013 Future Medicine Ltd 2(4), 379381 (2013) Evaluation of: Henderson C, Knapp M, Fernndez J-L et al. Cost effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    -term investigations [1]. Most economic evaluations have not been in accordance with standard evaluation techniques [2. The paper reviewed here describes an economic evaluation of telehealth in the routine management in England) Evaluation of: Henderson C, Knapp M, Fernández J-L et al. Cost effectiveness of telehealth for patients

  10. Reliability symposium............2 TERRA events, fact sheet......3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    of Minnesota September 2010 Inside Transitway continued on page 2 CERS continued on page 3 CERS Summer-rail line connecting down- town Minneapolis to the southern suburbs has increased the values of nearby

  11. The role of Id2 and Id3 in memory CD8? T cells differentiation and natural killer T cell homeostasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Cliff Yang

    2012-01-01

    of NK1.1 + TCR? + or CD1d tetramer + NKT cells for indicatedof ?GalCer-loaded CD1d tetramer + NKT cells for indicated?GalCer-loaded CD1d tetramer, then examined for expression

  12. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, William I.

    2009-01-01

    and China Shape a New World Order? ”, CER RWP, June: 5–27.Marie (2004), A New World Order. Princeton, NJ: Princetonand China Shape a New World Order? ”, CER RWP, June: 60–104.

  13. Elastic-plastic analysis of the transition divertor joint for high performance divertor target plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navaei, Dara

    2011-01-01

    CER) 8. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a

  14. MISSION CLIMAT WORKING PAPER N 2010 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ............................................................ 7 2.1. EUAs and CERs contracts 7 2.2. Price development 8 3.Cointegration Analysis

  15. The authors are solely responsible for the content of this technical presentation. The technical presentation does not necessarily reflect the official position of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE), and its printing and distribution do

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    and is still marketed in the Midwest. More recently, the oxygenated and octane enhancing benefits of ethanol additive used to enhance octane and also reduce CO emissions. MTBE has been shown to be highly toxic even

  16. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 20692076 PLANAR LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE IMAGING OF CREVICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Marshall B.

    with lower octane ratings were shown to enhance flame penetration due to their increased reactivity-induced fluorescence (PLIF) from iso-octane/n-heptane fuel blends doped with 3-pentanone. The fluorescence was imaged

  17. UMass scientists tackle gas spills Underground microbesseenas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    spills of the gasoline additive MTBE. First added to gasoline to enhance octane, and later in much larger

  18. ~Copyright 1988by The Humana Press Inc. All rights of any nature whatsoever reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    production. In addition, ethanol can be blended with gasoline as an octane enhancer and fuel extender or used

  19. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  20. Administrative Business Assistant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Center Marketing Raider Welcome Tech Activities Board Town & Gown BUSINESS OFFICE Associate Director Station Chief Financial O cer & Vice President for Administration and Finance (Clark) Interim Assistant

  1. COSO Geothermal Exploratory Hole No. 1, CGEH No. 1. Completion...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    operation. Authors CER Corp., Las Vegas and NV (USA) Published DOE Information Bridge, 311978 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Citation...

  2. Federal / State Legislative & Regulatory Changes Required for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Required for Introduction of E15 More Documents & Publications Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of...

  3. Agricultural and Resource Economics Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    ming model of gasoline blending. As a blending component,premium high-octane gasoline. line, blending ethanol is notindicating blending would not be profitable if gasoline was

  4. Related Papers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... Methods for the Enhancement and Compression of Digitized Mammograms ..... of spectral overlap (including benzene/acetone and n-heptane/n-octane) are ...

  5. Prsente Universit du Maine U. F. R des Sciences et Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    de prélithiation DABCO 1,4-diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane DIEA Diisopropyléthylamine DME 1-méthyl-2-pyrrolidinone NOE Nuclear Overhauser Effect NOESY Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy

  6. Sandia Energy - Computations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    edge flames, and laminar jet flames, with hydrocarbon fuels such as methane, propane, n-heptane, and iso-octane. Moreover, CRF researchers have developed a flexible...

  7. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    engines to improve compatibility when operated with high-octane biofuel blends The market impact of increasing the consumption of biofuels in the small engine market Mechanisms...

  8. Supercomputers Help a Catalyst Reach its Full Potential

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that currently consumes about one percent of the world's energy. To produce higher-octane gasoline, petroleum companies will remove hydrogen from hydrocarbon molecules during the...

  9. APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS: Admission Applica on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    basis. An interview may be required. MS Educa onal Technology Program: A state issued teaching cer: State issued teaching cer ficate. Three years of professional experience as a teacher:_____________ ­ __________ ­ ________________ Sex: Male Female Street Address Town or City County State Zip Code Home Telephone

  10. Administrative Business Assistant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Marketing Raider Welcome Tech Activities Board Town & Gown BUSINESS OFFICE Associate Director for Business Legal Services University ID Center University Police SUB Station Interim Chief Financial O cer & Vice IT Student Assistant (2) Interim Chief Financial O cer & Vice President for Administration and Finance (Sloan

  11. Michel Grossetti Universit de Toulouse-le-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Michel Grossetti CERS Université de Toulouse-le- Mirail, 5, Allées A. Machado, 31058 Toulouse : 05 57 57 19 72 mail : Philippe.Losego@lapsac.u- bordeaux2.fr Béatrice Milard CERS Université de and towns and the study of scientific publications. This allow us to evaluate the effects

  12. 1143_sensor_Ho.ppt International Containment & Remediation Technology Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    long-term monitoring to ensure public safety · Over two million underground storage tanks containing tanks and associated piping #12;4143_sensor_Ho.ppt Problem · Current monitoring methods are costly, time_results.qpc NormalizedIso-OctaneConcentration Time (hours) L = 20 cm L = 40 cm L = 60 cm ­ Placed iso-octane boundary

  13. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE By Michael J. Moran, Mike J. Halde, Rick M. Clawges and John S. Zogorski U in the United States as an octane enhancer and oxygenate in gasoline. Octane enhancement began in the late 1970's with the phase-out of tetraethyl lead from gasoline. The use of oxygenates was expanded

  14. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 259 (2003) 244253 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trikalitis, Pantelis N.

    2003-01-01

    via CTAB­butanol­octane­nitrate salt microemulsions in the reverse and bicontinuous states A, a spinel, ZnAl2O4, and a typical perovskite, LaMnO3, have been prepared via CTAB­1-butanol­n-octane­nitrate studied include cadmium sulfides CdS [2], cadmium selenides CdSe [3] for electronic applica- tions

  15. Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR in homogeneous mixtures of methane + hexane, ethane + hexane, methane + octane, ethane + octan, methane + decane, ethane + decane, and methane + hexane + benzene over the whole concentration range, at 303.2 K and 333

  16. SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawlowski, Alexander; Splitter, Derek A

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number. However, over the last 15 years the sales weighted averages of compression ratios, specific output, and fuel economy have increased, while the fuel octane number requirement has remained largely unchanged. Using the developed correlations, 10-year-out projections of engine performance, design, and fuel economy are estimated for various fuel octane numbers, both with and without turbocharging. The 10-year-out projection shows that only by keeping power neutral while using 105 RON fuel will allow the vehicle fleet to meet CAFE targets if only the engine is relied upon to decrease fuel consumption. If 98 RON fuel is used, a power neutral fleet will have to reduce vehicle weight by 5%.

  17. Esercitazione no 4 per il corso di Ricerca Operativa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    oil (crude 1, crude 2, crude 3). The sales prices per barrel of gasoline are as follows: Sales price Sunco can purchase up to 5000 barrels of each type of crude oil. The three types of gasoline differ in their octane rating and sulfur content. The crude oil blends to form gas 1 must have an average octane rating

  18. An Integrated Approach for Creating Model Diesel Fuels Ioannis P. Androulakis, Mark D. Weisel, Chang S. Hsu, Kuangnan Qian,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

    algorithm to formulate well-characterized diesel fuel blends and an analytical method to characterize diesel for different parts of the drive cycle. For example, highly aromatic, high-octane fuels have been shown-aromatic, lower-octane fuels are optimal under low-load, stratified operation.1 Understanding the effects of fuel

  19. Synthesis and hydrogen adsorption properties of internally polarized 2,6-azulenedicarboxylate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ¼ 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane] and MOF-650 [Zn4O(2,6-azd)3], have been synthesized polarized units into the MOF backbone would lead to enhancement of the polari- zation potential via-650: Zn4O(2,6-azd)3, dabco ¼ 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane]. More specically, we report the details

  20. Integrated Transport Property Program for Key Systems: Data, Models, and Simulation M. Huber, A. Laesecke, and R. Perkins (838)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    alkanes n-octane, n-nonane, n-decane, and n-dodecane. These are the first such models for the heavier and extrapolate in a physically meaningful manner. Our models for n-octane, n- nonane, n-decane, and n enhancement similar to that known for the thermal conductivity, but extending much farther

  1. RAPID COMMUNICATION Acetophenone as an Anti-attractant for the Western Pine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erbilgin, Nadir

    , thus enhancing their tree killing ability (Wood 1982). WPB releases exo-brevocomin ((+)-exo-7-ethyl-5- methyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1] octane), (-)-frontalin ((-)-1,5-dimethyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo [3.2.1]octane

  2. Effects of Carborane-Containing Liquid Crystals on the Stability of Smectic Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaszynski, Piotr

    containing 1,10- dicarbadecaborane, 1,12-dicarbadodecaborane (carboranes), or bicyclo[2.2.2]octane.2.2]octane compound (BO1). The thermal stabilities of the smectic phases for BO1 are generally reduced by addition of the carborane analogues except for the smectic C phase, the stability of which is enhanced

  3. Products from the Oxidation of Linear Isomers of Frdrique BattinLeclerc1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to the changes in the possible reaction pathways when the double bond is displaced. An enhanced, unsaturated hydroperoxides. hal-01022632,version1-10Jul2014 #12;3 Introduction Octane numbers of linear alkenes: research octane number is 76.4, 92.7 and 94, for 1hexene, 2hexene and 3hexene

  4. Microstructure of Gas Diffusion Layers for PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres. William J.

    reactants to the catalyst layer, have low electronic resistance, have a surface that enhances good is that the injected fluids are wetting (octane or water) and non-wetting (mercury), respectively. The MIP technique pressures may deform or damage the sample. In the MSP technique, octane, which is wetting to typical GDL

  5. This article was published in an Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    ://www.elsevier.com/copyright #12;Author's personal copy Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending components to high-octane components for use in high-per- formance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has an important function as the producer of hydrogen

  6. Direct Determination of the Ionization Energies of PtC, PtO, and PtO2 with VUV Murat Citir and Ricardo B. Metz*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    energies and bond dissociation energies for catalytically interesting species such as metal oxides in catalytic processes such as the oxidation of CH4 and CO. Platinum is also extensively used in the petroleum. This reformation process produces high-octane gasoline from low-octane feedstock.1-5 In the gas phase, neutral

  7. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 72097222, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/7209/2011/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    : formaldehyde, formate, glycine, pheny- lalanine, benzoic acid, octanol, octanal, octanoic acid, oc- tanedioic with the organic species forms HOOH). Yields of HOOH, defined as the rate of HOOH production divided by the rate of q OH production, ranged from essentially zero (glycine) to 0.24 (octanal), with an average of 0

  8. Dynamic hydrocarbon separation in high-temperature, high-pressure, liquid n-alkane water vapor systems by steam distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlierboom, Casper-Maarten

    1987-01-01

    of 345 'F and 126 psia 78 43. Rate Effect on the n-Octane Distribution for a n-Hexane- n-Heptane ? n-Octane Ternary Mixture at Saturated Steam Conditions of 345 F and 126 psia 79 44. Comparison of Experimental and Calculated K-values for a n... Conditions of 345 'F and 126 psia 88 xv1 LIST OF FIGURES (Cont. ) Fig. Page 48. Comparison of n-Hexane K-value for a n-Hexane - n-Heptane- n-Octane Ternary Mixture at Saturated Steam Conditions of 345 'F and 126 psia 49. Comparison of n-Heptane K-value...

  9. An analytical investigation of the effects of water injection on combustion products and detonation in spark ignition engines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, William Charles

    1979-01-01

    compression ratio or a lower octane fuel can be used. ACKNCWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to extend his sincere appreciation to Professor Stan H. Lowy f' or his patience and understanding as well as his technical guidence, and to the members... and Equilibrium Compositions for Combustion of 81 Octane with Air at a Constant Volume 16/1 Air/Fuel Ratio, and Compression Ratio of 6/1. TABLE 4. 4O Adiabatic Flame Temperatures and Equilibrium Compositions for Combustion of 81 Octane with Air at a...

  10. How much do cancer-related symptoms contribute to health-related quality of life in lung and colorectal cancer patients? A report from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) Consortium.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Cancer Society’s studies of cancer survivors. Can- cer.palliative care provider. Cancer J. 2013;19: 31. Catalanoof par- ticipants in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and

  11. ACCESS Magazine Spring 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Robert Cer vero High-Speed Rail and Economic Development:Assessment of California High Speed Rail Mikhail Chester andand Harry A. Dwyer High-Speed Rail Comes to London Sir Peter

  12. ACCESS Magazine Fall 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    A LMANAC Planning for High Speed Rail M A R T I N WA C H SRobert Cer vero High-Speed Rail and Economic Development:Assessment of California High Speed Rail Mikhail Chester and

  13. Ecophysiology of forest and savanna vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd, J.; Goulden, M. L.; Ometto, J. P.; Patino, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Quesada, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluxes of carbon, water and energy over Brazilian cer- rado,on surface carbon, energy and water vapour fluxes over campoFluxes of water vapour, carbon dioxide and energy over a C4

  14. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chemical oxygen demand CPKO crude palm kernel oil CPO crude palm oil EFB empty fruit bunch EPA U demand CDM clean development mechanism CER Certified Emission Reduction CF counterfactual CIRCLE Capacity

  15. Copyright by SIAM. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. SIAM REVIEW c 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howison, Sam

    , the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). The proposed structural model is positioned between in other Kyoto countries. Like CERs, these units can be used to meet Kyoto targets. 3. Emissions Trading

  16. Operationalizing Anticipatory Governance: Steering Emerging Technologies Towards Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philbrick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    AM ARPA ARPA-E ARRA ATP BNN CAA CBA CBD CEQ CERs CERCLA CFCsin which benefit-cost analysis (CBA) of potential regulationWhile the hegemony of CBA has come under increasing fire in

  17. MAY 2004 1267W A N G A N D H U A N G 2004 American Meteorological Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Rui Xin

    circulation, ei- ther theoretically or numerically, has been based on cer- tain arbitrary choices of vertical energy (GPE hereinafter) from geothermal heat- ing is small, about 0.05 TW (Huang 1999, 2002

  18. From strategy to action: 20112013 A summary of key initiatives and performance indicators for UC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Carr Deputy Vice-Chancellor Professor Ian Town Registrar Jeff Field Chief Financial Officer Dr Yvonne. (SS&I, CER, PVCs, AVC(A)) 2. RETAIN: Support student success through better monitoring

  19. Link to MMU Hello and welcome to our applicant newsle er for 2010. By now most of you

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by `City/Town' for `Crewe' Campus designated as a Pre-Games Training Games Training Camp for the 2012 Academy. This includes: Bri sh Canoe Union's UKCC (UK Coaching Cer ficate) at levels 1 and 2, Personal

  20. Maintenance expo................... 3 Georgia visitors....................... 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    . This was the second time that Keith Knapp, research manag- er for the Center for Excellence in Rural Safety (CERS passing through small towns The current law defining the federal role for the nation's surface

  1. From the Acting NIH Director--On Tuesday, February 17, 2009, President Barack Obama signed the American

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushman, Frederic

    economies in their towns, cities, and states. The purpose of the ARRA is to: (1) preserve and create jobs purpose of the Act -$400 million for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) Many types of funding

  2. Felix Hausdorff and the Hausdorff edition Erhard Scholz, (Wuppertal, Germany)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholz, Erhard

    adapting to the values of the Wilhelminean offi- cer corps. At the time it was quite successful. It had about 300 perfor- mances between 1904 and 1930 at about 40 towns, among them Berlin, Budapest, Prag

  3. Acta rerum naturalium 8: 5960, 2010 ISSN 1803-1587 Neobvykl lokalita chruplavnku rolnho (Polycnemum arvense)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Role?ek, Jan

    of the town of Náms nad Oslavou. It is one of few recent sites of the species in the Bohemian samo- statný druh pod jménem P. verrucosum). Novou lokalitu chruplavníku rolního jsem nasel 11. cer

  4. Handbookfor International Students at ETH Zurich Please note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    experience. Studying away from home requires some preparation, and cer- tain matters must be taken care: formerly an industrial town, the city's focus has shifted to commerce and knowledge-intensive enter- prise

  5. Wildcats howl Crimson men's soc-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inside &ONLINE Wildcats howl Crimson men's soc- cer breaks the UNH unbeaten streak in a well roots in the small north-central Massachusetts town of Petersham. That's where you'll find the woods

  6. Today's Web bonus >> Thom Browne Fall-Winter collection debut. http://bit.ly/LQx6jo COMING SOON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorin, Eric J.

    - cerned about diabetes than can- cer since "we have more of a pro- pensity for it" and "because suggested, the city's neighbor- hood council system or town halls could help parents get involved. He also

  7. Selected References on the History of Marine Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    history from that of oceanography, limnology, chem istry, or economics, let alone from cer tain freshwater libraries, old newspapers or magazines and related files, books on the history of towns connected

  8. E D I T O R I A L New European Union fisheries regulations could benefit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penteriani, Vincenzo

    , Claremont, South Africa 9 Animal Demography Unit 2010, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town operators as it is the largest importer, and one of the world's main produ- cers and exporters, of fish

  9. NSTX Weekly Report (May 21, 2010) FY 2010 NSTX plasma operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    the town meeting are downloadable from: http://cer.ucsd.edu/ATMPMI2010/program.shtml (J. Menard. Stratton, R. Kaita) Jon Menard and Rajesh Maingi (ORNL) participated in the ARIES Town Meeting on "Edge

  10. IEEESPECTRUMOctober2002 ith over 200 000 new cases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taflove, Allen

    miss up to 15 percent of can- cers. It's also uncomfortable, requiring each breast to be compressed Institute of Technology in her home town of Terre Haute, Ind., began encouraging her talent in math. He per

  11. Journal of Data Science 6(2008), 135-154 A Statistical Approach for Dating Archaeological Contexts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2008-01-01

    sets), but also as a help to answer cer- tain archaeological and historical questions. The data set of contexts, but never on the scale of a whole town ((Djindjian, 1991); (Tyers and Orton, 1991); (Baxter, 1994

  12. The COSI Framework -Carbon Offsets with SD Impacts (COSI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cape Town, South Africa Karen Holm Olsen, PhD UNEP Risø Centre #12;Outline of Presentation · Policy and a high quantity of CERs (trade-offs) · A common conclusion across different assessment methodologies

  13. MONDAY,AUGUST 3,2009 BY ROBERT FOX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    be done in the patient's home town. For the minimum equipment for a consulta- tion, it costs upwards disease, can- cer or diabetes. However, if left untreated, they are among the most disabling

  14. From Strategy to Action: 2011-2013 A summary of key initiatives and performance indicators for UC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reale, Marco

    Deputy Vice-Chancellor Professor Ian Town Registrar Jeff Field Chief Financial Officer Dr Yvonne Shanahan & effective processes, focused programmes, targeted & integrated communications. (SS&I, CER,PVCs, AVC (A),) 2

  15. agir au Sud avec le Sud et

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    « moins avancés », tels que le Mozambique, l'Éthiopie et l'Angola. Cer- tains d'entre eux ont connu une Africa (Afrique du Sud, Cap Town); · LBMV, Laboratoire de biotechnologie microbienne et végétale (Maroc

  16. Focaal -European Journal of Anthropology no. 40, 2002: pp. 67-81 67 In1992twomultinationalcompanieswithcom-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    built next to it. With the inauguration of the quarry, Cer- tovy Schody (Devils Steps), the rural village of Tman took on the characteristics of a small socialist town, with a lavish townhall and multi

  17. ROBERT POLLACK by HARVEY SIMON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollack, Robert

    - ally and professionally, almost since the day in 1957 when he trav- eled across town, from Coney Island. It was a household absent of doubt, a household of great cer-

  18. 1.5 Triqonometric Functions and the Unit Circle 1.3 Rational and ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An anthropologist can use cer- tain linear functions to estimate the height of a ... The population of a town is P. After a growth of 2%, its new population is N. 66.

  19. Pomics: A Computer-aided Storytelling System with Automatic Picture-to-Comics Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    herself in a small, friendly town because she took a wrong train. Upon arriving home, she could not wait of these popular strategies have cer- tain limitations: · Expressiveness: Illustrated text is obviously the best

  20. ASTUCE Dcembre 2010 (Ambiances Sonores, Transports Urbains, Coeur de ville et Environnement)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Urban Transport, Centre Town and Environmental Quality) Vers l'élaboration d'un guide méthodologique à collectivités locales, des pouvoirs publics et du grand public et les aide à finan- cer des projets dans cinq

  1. CARTOGRAPHICA, VOLUME 34, #4, WINTER 1997 Revision 2 SEPTEMBER 9, 1998 7:24 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeman, Timothy

    , train, and subway routes and street maps of the towns and cities where we live, to weather charts's scale factors is an important key to understanding cer- tain properties of projections

  2. 2012 Landes Bioscience. Do not distribute.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemminki, Akseli

    of medical school when I realized that the biggest unmet clini- cal need in medicine is metastatic can- cer devious imaginable enemy and oncolytic viruses the unlikely young hero from out of town. The hero Portrait

  3. Elk River Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to receive rebates for appliances, rebate application must be jointly filled out with appliance dealer. Installation of central A/C and heat pumps must be done by a pre-approved HVAC-cer...

  4. Application of conditional sampling for measuring ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide exchange in coastal wetlands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobos, Douglas Russell

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange rate (CER) is an indicator of an ecosystem's response to changing environmental conditions. Long-term measurements of CO? exchange between coastal wetlands and the atmosphere will improve our understanding of daily...

  5. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Ultra-Rapid Sensory Responses in the Human Frontal Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbeau, Emmanuel J.

    ´geois-Chauvel3 1Universite´ de Toulouse, Universite´ Paul Sabatier, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition (Cer lesions (Schiller and Chou, 2000), and sim- ple visual detections are not impaired after FEF reversible

  6. A role for transcriptional regulator Id2 in natural killer T cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monticelli, Laurel Anne

    2008-01-01

    in providing the CD1d tetramer and advice on the NKT cellbe identified using CD1d tetramers loaded with ?GalCer. NKT+ TCR? - NK cells, and CD1d tetramer + NK1.1 + TCR? + mature

  7. Briefly Noted Linguistic and Computational Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and METAL. Neither of the authors were involved in the develop- ment of any of these software projects. The effort, thus, has actually been duplicated to a significant extent, casting cer- tain doubt on any

  8. Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction in an Array of Femtoliter Polydimethylsiloxane Microreactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yanyi

    ,26 absolute quantitative detection of rare mutations in can- cers,27-29 genetically modified food of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, United States *S Supporting

  9. A multi-data comparison of shortwave climate forcing changes E. Palle,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to Earth's reflectance, in order to assess the observational constraints on the models. We find) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CER; accepted 2 September 2005; published 2 November 2005. [1] Traditionally the Earth's reflectance has been

  10. How the Drudgery of Getting Water Shapes Women's Lives in Low-income Urban Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, Ben D; McPike, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Organization and Gender in Water Management: A Case StudyOdaba, Project Of?cer, Kenya Water for Health (KWAHO) on 15Talk about Their Needs for Water and Sanitation. Environment

  11. A novel patient-derived intra-femoral xenograft model of bone metastatic prostate cancer that recapitulates mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    cancer [4,17-19]. Direct injection of prostate can- cer4,20,21]. However, direct injection models into the bone-24]. Page 2 of 13 Direct bone-injection murine xenograft

  12. Beatty Wind Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurt, Rick

    2009-06-01

    The UNLV Center for Energy Research (CER) and Valley Electric Association (VEA) worked with Kitty Shubert of the Beatty Economic Redevelopment Corporation (BERC) to install two wind monitoring stations outside the town of Beatty, Nevada. The following is a description of the two sites. The information for a proposed third site is also shown. The sites were selected from previous work by the BERC and Idaho National Laboratory. The equipment was provided by the BERC and installed by researchers from the UNLV CER.

  13. Petroleum Refining Energy Use in Relation to Fuel Products Made 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, J. R.; Marshall, J. F.; Shoemaker, G. L.; Smith, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    that reduce the energy effects of changing octane levels. These changes have been incorporated in the linear program representation of a modern 'fuels' refinery. The total flow of crude oil to products and the corresponding energy use are included...

  14. Reduced Description of Complex Dynamics in Reactive Systems Zhuyin Ren* and Stephen B. Pope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ]2 through calculations of the oxidation of a CO/H2 mixture in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR reference fuels (iso-octane/n-heptane mixtures)4 contains 1034 species which participate in 4326 elementary

  15. Novel anisole mixture and gasoline containing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singerman, Gary M. (Monroeville, PA)

    1982-01-26

    A novel anisole mixture containing anisole and a mixture of alkyl anisoles and liquid hydrocarbon fuels containing said novel anisole mixture in an amount sufficient to increase the octane number of said liquid fuel composition.

  16. Detailed kinetic models for the low-temperature auto ignition of gasoline surrogates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bounaceur, Roda; Fournet, René; Warth, Valérie; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the search for gasoline surrogates for kinetic modeling purpose, this paper describes a new model for the low-temperature auto-ignition of n-heptane/iso-octane/hexene/toluene blends for the different linear isomers of hexene. The model simulates satisfactory experimental results obtained in a rapid compression machine for temperatures ranging from 650 to 850 K in the case of binary and ternary mixtures including iso octane, 1-hexene and toluene. Predictive simulations have also been performed for the autoignition of n heptane/iso octane/hexene/toluene quaternary mixtures: the predicted reactivity is close to that of pure iso octane with a retarding effect when going from 1- to 3-alkene.

  17. Laminar burning velocities of propeneair mixtures at elevated temperatures and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as an intermediate in the combustion of higher alkanes, such as propane, butane, heptane and isooctane, Glassman1 higher alkanes, such as propane, butane, heptane and iso-octane as these hydrocarbon compounds constitute

  18. Underground Storage Tanks: New Fuels and Compatibility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels Underground Storage Tanks: New Fuels and Compatibility Ryan Haerer, Program Analyst, Alternative Fuels, Office of Underground Storage Tanks, Environmental Protection Agency

  19. Cellulase for commodity products from cellulosic biomass Michael E Himmel*?, Mark F Ruth*1 and Charles E Wymans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    dramatically over the past two decades, to the point where the fuel is now competitive for blending with gasoline to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, enhance octane, extend the gasoline supply, and promote more

  20. A comparison of smectic phase induction in a series of isostructural two-ring esters by tail fluorination and tail elongation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaszynski, Piotr

    length doubling in suppressing nematic phases in favour of smectic phases in bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (1B exclusively nematic phases. However, the SmA phase of 1C was significantly enhanced and a smectic B (Sm

  1. Accelerated Publications Potassium and Sodium Binding to the Outer Mouth of the K+ Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    of neighboring subunits, not detected in the X-ray structure, enhanced the stability of the tetrameric structure In this report we describe MD simulations performed with a KcsA channel embedded in a layer of n-octane

  2. Wafer-Scale Assembly of Highly Ordered Semiconductor Nanowire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    down to the molecular regime with enhanced performances2-7,10,11 while enabling new functionalities reported dry transfer method,13 is the use of octane and mineral oil (2:1, v:v) mixture as a lubricant

  3. SCIRun Haptic Display for Scientific Visualization Lisa J K Durbeck, Nicholas J Macias, David M Weinstein, Chris R Johnson, John M Hollerbach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Weinstein, Chris R Johnson, John M Hollerbach Introduction The overall goal of this research is to enhance are displayed on an SGI Octane. The user has a haptic display registered to a graphic display. She directs both

  4. 200 The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. 1 Micro gas preconcentrator made of a film of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    for achieving a concentration factor as high as 16000 for 2 ppm octane. This concentration factor value to enhance the concentration factor, the preconcentrator requires sorbent materials having higher sorption

  5. To appear in Computer and Graphics, Vol.23, No. 5, 1999 OpenGL-assisted Occlusion Culling for Large Polygonal Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartz, Dirk

    , we propose a small addition to the OpenGL ren- dering pipeline to enhance the framebuffer's ability workstations, we performed all measurements on an SGI O2/R10000 and an SGI Octane/MXE graphics workstation

  6. A new continuous-flow process for catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive: Catalyst screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wensheng

    in acetone/glycerol molar ratio or a decrease in WHSV enhanced the glycerol conversion as expected promoter as the addition of ketals and ethers in gasoline engines improve the octane number, cold flow

  7. As the Recession Door Opens, Who Will Step Out --the Lady or the Tiger? At long last, economists agree the United States economy entered recession in March 2001,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    provide high-octane propellant for the economy's booster rockets. On the monetary side of the ledger and enhanced security measures and another $15 billion toward grant and loan guarantees for the airline

  8. TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE FORMATION OF SHORT-CHAIN ACIDS IN COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to simulate a flame of propane doped by toluene and to show, as it was experimentally observed, an enhancement (temperatures below 1100 K) in an HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine alimented by a n-heptane/iso-octane

  9. Michael-Stork Addition of Cyclopentyl Enamine to Allenyl Ketones and Esters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lepore, Salvatore D.

    -oxobicyclo[3.2.1]octane formation, providing evidence for the in situ formation of an enamine intermedi- ate reaction (Table 1). Proton NMR experiments of products 3 and 4 involving NOE enhancement were used

  10. SCIRun Haptic Display for Scientific Visualization Lisa J. K. Durbeck, Nicholas J. Macias, David M. Weinstein, Chris R. Johnson,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollerbach, John M.

    of this research is to enhance scientific visualization by the use of haptic feedback. We have chosen to approach on an SGI Octane. The user has a haptic display registered to a graphic display. She directs both displays

  11. A tunable colloidal quantum dot photo field-effect transistor Subir Ghosh, Sjoerd Hoogland, Vlad Sukhovatkin, Larissa Levina, and Edward H. Sargenta)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -accepting channel. We employ no conductivity-enhancing treatments to the CQD films--instead of employing in octane, were spin-cast onto the AZO covered substrate and then removed on and near the con- tact pads

  12. Alexander Kenneth Raub Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    . Three immersion liquids were examined: deionized water, cyclo-octane, and Krytox® a Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) oil. These liquids showed compatibility with the 193-nm resist. A resolution enhancement factor

  13. Contact: Clifford K. Ho, (505) 844-2384, ckho@sandia.gov 1 Updated 6/21/2002 Sandia National Laboratories--LDRD Fact Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    -concentrator for enhanced detection capabilities. · Develop robust packaging system that allows the sensor to operate in wet), aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., hexane, octane), alcohols, ketones. Manual soil sampling, such as this hand

  14. Triplet Acetylenes as Synthetic Equivalents of 1,2-Bicarbenes: Phantom n,* State Controls Reactivity in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alabugin, Igor

    [3.3.0.02,8 .04,6 ]octanes (homoquadricyclanes). In the case of pyrazinyl acetylenes, the primary acetylene: PET). Dramatically enhanced ISC between -* S1 state and "phantom" n,* triplet excited state

  15. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUEI V ColloqueC4, supplCment auJournalde Physique111, Volume 4, a d 1 9 9 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in 70% ethanol. It was also enhanced after in situ amplificationwith polymerase chain reaction (PCR cell nuclei and 2.3% (wlv) 1,4-diazobicyclo- (2,2,2)-octane (DABCO)as an anti-fading. Jnsitu aenomic

  16. Subscriber access provided by Penn State | University Libraries Analytical Chemistry is published by the American Chemical Society. 1155

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zbigniew, Postawa

    of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 SXH, United Kingdom The early stages of C60 bombardment of octane and octatetraene be deposited to the sample in the near-surface region where it will contribute to an enhanced yield and also

  17. Conserved small protein associates with the multidrug efflux pump AcrB and differentially

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storz, Gisela

    transported by AcrAB­TolC. This differential antibi- otic sensitivity suggests that AcrZ may enhance, hexane, heptane, octane, and nonane, as well as detergents like SDS, bile salts, and Triton X-100. Genes

  18. Heat transfer from nanoparticles: a corresponding state analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for gold particles suspended in octane and in water. As already reported in experiments, very high heat- tothermal correlation spectroscopy [5]. Applications include e.g. the enhancement of cooling from structured

  19. Rhenium-Catalyzed Didehydroxylation of Vicinal Diols to Alkenes Using a Simple Alcohol as a Reducing Agent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reducing agent. During preliminary experiments, we observed that heating (4S*,4S*)- octane-4,5-diol (1-nonanol (7a)6 (9 equiv), the yield of the alkene was enhanced to over 80%

  20. Monolayer Resist for Patterned Contact Printing of Aligned Nanowire Arrays Toshitake Takahashi, Kuniharu Takei, Johnny C. Ho, Yu-Lun Chueh, Zhiyong Fan, and Ali Javey*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    ) on top of the receiver substrate. A lubricant (octane: mineral oil, 2:1 v/v) is applied between the two substrates to minimize the mechanical interactions, enhancing the dominant role of the well

  1. Tiled Hardware-Accelerated Texture Advection for Unsteady Flow Visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Gordon

    at one frame/sec. on an SGI Octane with EMXI graphics. These animations are based on a multidomain quality is achieved by careful attention to edge effects, noise frequency, and image enhancement. We

  2. No calculators, cell phones, PDAs, or other personal electronic equipment is allowed during exams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Paul L.

    and Sampling Theory (Appendix A) Practical Electronics (Chapters 2-4) Signal to Noise Enhancement Techniques of MTBE, Octane, and BTEX in Gasoline by GC/MS *in addition to the handout prior to coming to lab

  3. 11. Standard Abbreviations and Acronyms R observed optical rotation in degrees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charette, André

    ,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dansyl 5-(dimethylamino)-1-naphthalenesulfonyl DBN 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone DEAD diethyl azodicarboxylate DEPT distortionless enhancement

  4. Effects of support composition and pretreatment on the activity and selectivity of carbon-supported PdCunClx catalysts for the synthesis of diethyl carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis

    retaining similar blending octane properties [1,2]. Commercial production of DEC and other alkyl carbonates, and alkali hydroxides) [7,13]. While it has been established that the promoters enhance catalyst activity

  5. Phenomena that determine knock onset in spark-ignited engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revier, Bridget M. (Bridget Mary)

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to collect in-cylinder pressure data and microphone signals from a single-cylinder test engine using spark timings before, at, and after knock onset for four different octane-rated toluene ...

  6. DOE 2014 Biomass Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels DOE 2014 Biomass Conference Jim Williams, Senior Manager, American Petroleum Institute

  7. Three-phase K-values for n-alkanes co-existing with water at high temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forero Reyes, Helber Alfonso

    1992-01-01

    . Model. Heptane in all Billman's Runs. . Three-phase K-value vs. Pressure. Semiempirical Model. Heptane in all Billman's Runs. . Three-phase K-value vs. Temperature. Model. Octane in all Billman's Runs. Three-phase K-value vs. Pressure. Semiempirical... Model. Octane in all Billman's Runs. Three-phase K-value vs. Temperature. Model. Nonane in all Billman's Runs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-phase K-value vs. Pressure. Semiempirical Model, Nonane in all Billman's Runs. . Three...

  8. The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy comprised of 200

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serianni, Anthony S.

    n-octane (2.25), and thus when equal amounts of both are combusted, CH4 produces more heat per;Thermodynamics of Fossil Fuel Combustion For methane !Go = -801 kJ/mol !Ho = -802 kJ/mol !So = -5 J/K/mol 802 kJ/mol/carbon For propane (LPG) !Go = -2074 kJ/mol !Ho = -2044 kJ/mol !So = +101 J/K/mol 681 kJ/mol/carbon For octane

  9. Process Engineering Thermodynamics RZ 424304 E (4 sp) 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    the condenser (kW). The molar heat capacities for liquid n-hexane and n-octane are 189.0 J/(mol.K) and 275,5 J stream of 1 mol/s composed of 45 mol-% n-hexane (A) and n-octane (B) is heated, at elevated pressures, up for O2 and N2 are -183°C = 90K and -196°C = 77K, respectively, with specific condensation heats 213 k

  10. Estimate product quality with ANNs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brambilla, A. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); Trivella, F. [Adicon Advanced Distillation Control SrL, Pisa (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied to predict catalytic reformer octane number (ON) and gasoline splitter product qualities. Results show that ANNs are a valuable tool to derive fast and accurate product quality measurements, and offer a low-cost alternative to online analyzers or rigorous mathematical models. The paper describes product quality measurements, artificial neural networks, ANN structure, estimating gasoline octane numbers, and estimating naphtha splitter product qualities.

  11. Swing: From Time to Torque (Dance Floor Democracy at the Hollywood Canteen)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Sherrie

    2013-10-08

    childhood growing up in a small segregated Texas town, a career as an actor spent moving through predomi- nantly white crowds in a racially marked body, basic training with other black recruits under white of½cers at Montford Point, a furlough spent trying... of segregated and unequal condi- tions for black Marines. Montford Point also had a pool, he tells me, but black Marines couldn’t use it, only the white of½cers.28 The proximity and restrictions from swimming pools and movie stars at Mont- ford Point mirror his...

  12. Process and catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, V. Udaya S. (Monroeville, PA); Gormley, Robert J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis gas containing CO and H.sub.2 is converted to a high-octane hydrocarbon liquid in the gasoline boiling point range by bringing the gas into contact with a heterogeneous catalyst including, in physical mixture, a zeolite molecular sieve, cobalt at 6-20% by weight, and thoria at 0.5-3.9% by weight. The contacting occurs at a temperature of 250.degree.-300.degree. C., and a pressure of 10-30 atmospheres. The conditions can be selected to form a major portion of the hydrocarbon product in the gasoline boiling range with a research octane of more than 80 and less than 10% by weight aromatics.

  13. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  14. The Paragon process: A new hydrocracking concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Rear, D.J. (Chevron Research Co., Richmond, CA (USA))

    1987-04-01

    Conventional hydrocracking is coupled with catalytic dewaxing to improve the utilization of paraffins in a VGO. When compared to conventional hydrocracking, Paragon: increases the octane number of the light naphtha; reduces hydrogen consumption; permits the manufacture of full range jet and diesel fuel from waxy stocks; improves the quality of the feed to the reformer; provides a new source of high purity olefins which can be used to make a variety of high octane blend stocks. Experimental results are presented along with an analysis of a simplified refinery.

  15. Development of a partition function for polymer systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver-Labra, Pedro Aurelio

    1967-01-01

    of the Reduced Pressure, Reduced Temperature, and Calculated Reduced Vol- ume i'or Mixtures of Heptane and Butyl Rubber 19 III. Values for Mixtures of Octane and Butyl Rubber 19 IV. Values for Mixtures of Nonane and Butyl Rubber 20 V. Values for Mixtures... of Decane and Butyl Rubber 20 VI. Values Obtained Using the Formulation Derived in this Thesis for Heptane and Butyl Rubber 23 VII. Values for Mixtures of Octane and Butyl Rubber 23 VIII. Values for Mixtures of Nonane and Butyl Rubber 24 IX. Values...

  16. Diffusion in associated and non-associated homologous series 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhamid, Khalid A.

    1990-01-01

    , and carbon dioxide and of the alkanes n-octane, n ? decane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, and n-hexadecane in the solvents n ? heptane, n-dodecane, and n-hexadecane. Values of Vn and P for each solute-solvent pair were determined. For the dissolved gases, Vn... Akgerman The infinite dilution diffusion coefficients of the homologous series of primary alcohols methanol, ethanol, 1 ? propanol, 1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-decanol, and 1-tetradecanol have been measured in the solvents n-octane and 1 ? octanol...

  17. Separable nonlinear programming 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bunton, Wiley Ray

    1963-01-01

    and motor fuel 8 at $2. 85 per bbl. All raw stocks not blended into motor fuel with an octane number of 90 or more are sold for use in aviation gaso- lines at $2. 75 per bbl, and those of octane number 85 or less are sold at $1. 25 per bbl for use in fuel... it is desirable to get a basic understanding of a linear program- ming problem; hence?an example is given below. A small Gulf Coast refinery blends five raw stocks to produce two grades of motor fuel, . A and 8. The number of barrels per day of each raw stock...

  18. Using Proteins In Unusual Environments: Water-Reduced & Water-Free Examples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taralp, Alpay

    University #12;Example I: Rate comparisons in octane Enzyme kcat/Km (M-1s-1) Rate (kENZ) Rate(kNONENZ) Enhancement Chymotrypsin 0.7 1.1 x 10-11 6.4 x 1010 Subtilisin 1.8 1.1 x 10-11 1.6 x 1010 N-Ac-L-Phe-OEt + amyl alcohol N-Ac-L-Phe-OAmyl + EtOH in octane NOTE ­ Reactions in water are much faster! The new view

  19. Protein Properties in Water-Reduced & Water-Free Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taralp, Alpay

    University #12;Example I: Rate comparisons in octane Enzyme kcat/Km (M-1s-1) Rate (kENZ) Rate(kNONENZ) Enhancement Chymotrypsin 0.7 1.1 x 10-11 6.4 x 1010 Subtilisin 1.8 1.1 x 10-11 1.6 x 1010 N-Ac-L-Phe-OEt + amyl alcohol N-Ac-L-Phe-OAmyl + EtOH in octane NOTE ­ Reactions in water are much faster! The new view

  20. Distributed ignition method and apparatus for a combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willi, Martin L.; Bailey, Brett M.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Gong, Weidong

    2006-03-07

    A method and apparatus for operating an internal combustion engine is provided. The method comprises the steps of introducing a primary fuel into a main combustion chamber of the engine, introducing a pilot fuel into the main combustion chamber of the engine, determining an operating load of the engine, determining a desired spark plug ignition timing based on the engine operating load, and igniting the primary fuel and pilot fuel with a spark plug at the desired spark plug ignition timing. The method is characterized in that the octane number of the pilot fuel is lower than the octane number of the primary fuel.

  1. Multi-cylinder axial stratified charging studied

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Charge stratification can be obtained inside a noncylindrical combustion chamber of a fuel injected multi-cylinder engine by properly timing the injection event, directing the fuel spray into the inlet port, and imparting swirl to the inlet charge. A production 1.8-liter engine modified to operate as an axially stratified-charge engine showed 50% improvement in combustion stability, 3.5% lower fuel consumption, five research octane number lower octane requirement, and increased tolerance to dilute mixtures when compared with an unmodified engine.

  2. C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kaiser C enter Parking G arage NERSC Kaiser C enter P arking G arage 300 L akeside D rive Oakland, C A 9 4612 Daily: 15 D ailyaCer 9 am 21Hourly: 8 NaJonal E nergy R...

  3. Original article Germination of Pinus pinaster, P. radiata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . The treatments chosen were three solutions of ash in water (0.5,1 and 5 g L-1) which were used to periodically water the seeds of each species, and a treatment in which a cer- tain amount of ash was applied directly to the amount of ash produced in forest fires Otilia Reyes* Mercedes Casal Area de Ecología, Departamento de

  4. NUEVOS DATOS SOBRE UN ENDEMISMO HALLADO HACE POCOS ANOS Trit6n del Montseny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carranza, Salvador

    NUEVOS DATOS SOBRE UN ENDEMISMO HALLADO HACE POCOS ANOS Trit6n del Montseny: el anfibio mas conservacion de su habitat, un tercero de crfa ex situ y un cuarto para esclare- cer su origen, evolucion y ecologicas. Es mas, cada uno de esos nucleos 10 ocupan ejem- plares morfologicamente diferentes en base a su

  5. TENSOR PRODUCTS OF OPERATOR SYSTEMS ALI KAVRUK, VERN I. PAULSEN, IVAN G. TODOROV, AND MARK TOMFORDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TENSOR PRODUCTS OF OPERATOR SYSTEMS ALI KAVRUK, VERN I. PAULSEN, IVAN G. TODOROV, AND MARK TOMFORDE Abstract. The purpose of the present paper is to study tensor prod- ucts of operator systems. After giving induced by a cer- tain canonical inclusion of an operator space into an operator system. We examine

  6. A Core Subunit of the RNA-Processing/Degrading Exosome Specifically Influences Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    A Core Subunit of the RNA-Processing/Degrading Exosome Specifically Influences Cuticular Wax is an extracellular matrix composed of cutin polyester and waxes that covers aerial organs of land plants and protects them from environmental stresses. The Arabidopsis thaliana cer7 mutant exhibits reduced cuticular wax

  7. CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION STUDIES Texas Tech University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    year. A BBC Special on Low-Dose radiation effects focused on their work, #12;resulting in a one of the Center for Environmental Radiation Studies (CERS) is to promote research on the dispersion and biologicalCENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION STUDIES Texas Tech University MISSION / PURPOSE: The mission

  8. Purification and characterization of a 50 kDa glycoprotein in cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jianling

    1994-01-01

    Glycoproteins of S. mansoni were purified using concanavalin A affinity chromatography. A dominant 50 kDa glycoprotein (gp5O) was found to be unique to ConA-purified cercarial antigens (ConA-Cer), but absent in ConA-SEA ...

  9. Guiding Medical Needles Using Single-Point Tissue Manipulation Meysam Torabi1, Kris Hauser2, Ron Alterovitz3, Vincent Duindam2, and Ken Goldberg4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ken

    tissues simulated with a mass-spring model, including a simulation of a prostate brachytherapy procedure of a needle insertion procedure with tissue manip- ulation in a prostate cancer brachytherapy application primary motivation is an application to prostate can- cer brachytherapy (see Fig. 1). In low dose rate

  10. Designs of Cell Edge Routers in the Optical Cell Switching (OCS) Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Jonathan

    01@utopia.poly.edu, chao@poly.edu Abstract--Optical cell switching (OCS) is a new flexible all complexity and highly scalable switch architecture for the OCX with several high performance scheduling architectures and corresponding efficient scheduling algorithms for ingress and egress CERs accordingly. We show

  11. Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavassiliou, Christos

    ?' In most applications, the differences between current feedback (CFB) and voltage feedback (VFB) are not apparent. Today's CFB and VFB amplifiers have comparable performance, but there are cer- tain unique Performance · Feedback Freedom Aside from the well-known attribute of CFB amplifiers, gain

  12. Requirements for Web Service Composition Babak Esfandiari, Vladimir Tosic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Requirements for Web Service Composition Management Babak Esfandiari, Vladimir Tosic { babak Language) Web services [Cer02] can be used for providing services to end users, the true power of Web Service technologies is leveraged through compositions (orchestrations and choreographies [Pel03]) of Web

  13. Inverse Problem Techniques for the Design of Photonic Crystals Martin Burger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    as for optical wavelengths. These new structures are inspired by the 3-D geome- try of both natural crystals, Quan- tum Optics, Nano-structures, Materials Science, and now Applied Mathematics. Essentially this field has concerned itself with arti- ficial engineering of 3-D structures that achieve a cer- tain goal

  14. Lessons Learned Quarterly Report, June 2005

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Welcome to the 43rd quarterly report on lessons learned in the NEPA process. In this issue we take a look at our hard-working NEPA Compliance Of?cers, who share bits of wisdom (and a little humor) gained from their lessons learned implementing NEPA. Countless thanks to all NCOs for their dedication, ?exibility, and perseverance.

  15. Un interviu cu Brian Kernighan Mihai Budiu ---mailto:mihaib+@cs.cmu.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budiu, Mihai

    . Townes au inventat â??in 1958 Laserul, Claude Shannon a fundamentat teoria informat¸iei â??in 1948, Ken­am ``aventurat'' sâ??a cer autorilor câ??art¸ii care descrie limbajul C, Dennis Ritchie ¸si Brian Kernighan, un

  16. Department of the Treasury Internal RevenueS e ~ l ~ e

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravikumar, B.

    Gross recelpts $ 2,483,379. H(a) IS this a group return F Name and addressof ar~nciaaloff1cer:MR. PETER% of its assets. Clty or town, state or country,and ZIP + 4 ROHERT PARK, CA 94928 1'Part:ll ( Signature

  17. SPECTROSCOPIE DES ONDES DE 1 A 5 mm (1) Par WALTER GORDY,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    'effectua,it la transition dont j'ai parlé plus haut, Loubser et Townes [3] détectèrent le rayon- nement des'atténuation de cer- taines substances à des fréquences bien déterminées. Le klystron a beaucoup d'avantages sur

  18. 56 BOSTONIA Fall 2014 Invisible Beasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    other firefly species." How love- ly it would be if some (but most cer- tainly not all) of these beasts resentful, year-round folks. A question about who owned the town and who merely used it." Miller provides in the nearby town of Jefferson held the community in terror. Miller says she is drawn repeat- edly

  19. The BosTon College ChroniclemarCh 1, 2007-vol. 15 no. 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    of the most lethal types of can- cer in adults and is the second leading cause of cancer death in children on to Aberdeen, a town of less than 4,000 located about 100 miles east of Charlotte. For the coming week, from urban centers to rural coal mining towns, Cleveland to Biloxi, Miss. More BC students will spend

  20. vaux laisse quelque obscurit quant au sens de donnes comme celles prsentes ici.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    des niveaux d'énergie ainsi calculés depuis que le travail original de Schawlow ét ,Townes [10. Soc., I953, 66A, 333. [10] SCHAWLOW A. L. et TOWNES C. H. - Science, I952, 115, 284. L'HYPOTHÈSE DE LA portant (1) dans (2) et en transformant cer- taines intégrales de volume en intégrales de surface

  1. Are there other programs? Yes! This advising guide is a good place to start, but

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAdam, Keith

    of Global Studies Document your preparedness to live and work in a global community with the Cer- tificate to Intercul- tural Communication. University of Cape Town (Arcadia) Cape Town, South Africa Language Req: None of Cape Town, one of Africa's leading universities, offers courses in Film & Media Studies and other areas

  2. 3194 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 59, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2014 Efficient Computations of a Security Index for False

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Control and Data Ac- quisition (SCADA) systems for electric power networks for cer- tain cyber security, SCADA systems, smart grids. I. INTRODUCTION OUR society depends heavily on the proper operation (SCADA) systems. For instance, Manuscript received February 15, 2013; revised December 4, 2013; accepted

  3. In: Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, August 1995. Efficient DecisionTheoretic Planning: Techniques and Empirical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doan, AnHai

    with probabilities; and the plan­ ner's goals, as well as tradeoffs among them, are rep­ resented with a utility plan. Finding the optimal plan requires comparing the expected utilities of all pos­ sible plans. Doing, 6 ] or by planning with goal­directed utility functions but under complete cer­ tainty [ 13

  4. DEMIDS: A Misuse Detection System for Database Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    information stored in database systems DBS, existing security models are insu cient to prevent misuseDEMIDS: A Misuse Detection System for Database Systems Christina Yip Chung, Michael Gertz, Karl the information stored in the database system against misuse, they are seldom used by security o cers because

  5. Dear Editor of I was an NCI C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Scholar Aw nvited Profess tegrative Tox rics/Human D uman Medici fety Toxicolo ate University g, Michigan 48 the bio TPA inhibited D It turned out th eld of DNA dam is failed experi cer research at rdle Laboratory y Summary for JAMES E. TROSKO, PH.D. After receiving a Ph.D. in radiation genetics, Dr. Trosko did

  6. Combined effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms TP53R72P and MDM2SNP309, and p53 expression on survival of breast cancer patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Tommiska, Johanna; Broeks, Annegien; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Easton, Douglas F.; Shah, Mitul; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Dork, Thilo; Reincke, Scarlett A.; Fagerholm, Rainer; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2009-12-18

    Association Consortium: Commonly Studied Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer: Results From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. J Natl Can- cer Inst 2006, 98:1382-1396. 12. Goode E, Dunning A, Kuschel B, Healey C, Day N, Ponder B, Eas- ton...

  7. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD --SENATES9468 September 19, 2001 Meanwhile, it is likely that there could be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Daniel

    Currently, supply does not seem to be an issue. There is a downward trend in the price of distillates, likely due to the glut of jet fuel. Gasoline is moving upward but cer- tainly not abnormally. If there is a move from air travel to travel by car, that would seem to encourage an increase in gasoline. If however

  8. HAPPENING THIS WEEK NEWSLETTER FOR NOVEMBER 6th-NOVEMBER 13th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    OUTDOOR LIGHTING LAB, OR DOLL FOR SHORT, THE STREET- LIGHTS ARE ANYTHING BUT ORDINARY. FROM BRIGHTENING BY A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT AS WELL AS SWITCHING TO RENEWABLE SOURCES. KIM BROSTROM, CHIEF TECHNICAL OFFI- CER AT DOLL LIVING LAB, IS qUOTED IN THE VIDEO AS SAYING THAT THE TECHNOLOGIES AT DOLL COULD HELP REDUCE EMISSIONS

  9. 90 Los Alamos Science Number 23 1995 Number 23 1995 Los Alamos Science 91

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, Thomas N.

    in the photo at left graphically portray the rate of can- cer mortality in the United States. On average, one. The purple cir- cles represent excess cancer deaths above the normal rate. The job of the radiation epidemiologist is to determine the number of ex- cess cancer deaths among a group that has been exposed

  10. FITTING WEIBULL AND LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS TO MEDIUM-DENSITY FIBERBOARD FIBER AND WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dimension and morphology on cer- tain mechanical properties (e.g., bending strength and internal bonding strength) of wood fiber-based products such as paper, paper board, insulation board, medium in the pulp and paper industry. Compared with other automated techniques, im- age analyzers have high accuracy

  11. The Power of Networks: Building a Learning Healthcare System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    · Define PracticeBased Research Networks (PBRNs) · Examine types of research that can be embedded research results Types of Research Conducted in PBRNs · Descriptive · Observational · Experimental ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- · PCT Pragmatic Clinical Trials Types of T2 T3 T4 Research Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER

  12. The Discrete Operator Approach to the Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Discrete Operator Approach to the Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations James C that performs a cer- tain calculation on a field. A field corresponds to any scalar or vector variable required = Discrete gradient operator I = Discrete integral operator L = Generic operator R = Discrete interpolant

  13. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  14. Noah D. Manring Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manring, Noah D.

    with an odd number of pistons. In the industry, where axial-piston pumps are designed, a cer- tain amount, MO 65211 The Discharge Flow Ripple of an Axial-Piston Swash-Plate Type Hydrostatic Pump This research examines the idealized and actual flow-ripple of an axial-piston swash- plate type hydrostatic pump

  15. recently suffered a loss in the family. And although this loss came in the form of a furry, four-legged friend, I had depended on those four legs for a decade. But

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starks, Philip

    that the weather would be perfect, and that the location of his final rest- ing place would be ideal stopped crying. Knowing this did not make it any easier. Walking back home, I asked myself "why?" Not why lives. Phil's Peace By Phil starks We have many words for cer- emony, such as rituals, or rites

  16. A FUNCTIONALLY GRADED PARTICULATE COMPOSITE: PREPARATION, MEASUREMENTS AND FAILURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

    planes. Such materials have been developed using dierent processes including slip casting [1], centrifugal casting [2], laser alloying and cladding [3], and plasma-spray forming [4]. The FGMs pose new and examined crack growth resistance behavior using the rule of mixtures. Functionally graded metal/cer- a

  17. TEXT-MESS: Mineria de Textos Inteligente, Interactiva y Multilingue basada en Tecnologia del Lenguaje Humano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pla, Ferran

    , Tecnolog´ias del Lenguaje Humano (TLH), Re- cursos de TLH, Recuperaci´on de Informaci´on, B´usqueda deTEXT-MESS: Miner´ia de Textos Inteligente, Interactiva y Multiling¨ue basada en Tecnolog´ia del tecnolog´ias ofre- cer´an servicios e interfaces especializadas seg´un el dominio y el tipo de necesidad de

  18. THE CENTER FOR HEALTH AND THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, S. Murray

    16 KM1 CER 20 CCTS 22 HRSA FAMILY MEDICINE 24 RESEARCH 26 FINDING ANSWERS 29 HEALTH STATISTICS 31 is to support and promote innovation and excellence in research, scholarship, training, and collaboration. CHe on topics ranging from new drug discovery and regulation to legal and policy issues around national health

  19. Original article Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption in Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus in the flooded forest, causes high fluctuations of water level and increases bioavailability of cer- tain the variability of the test species response (nutrient con- tent and resorption) to the soil and flood water

  20. Towards Survivability of Application-Level Multicast Gal Badishi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keidar, Idit

    sessions, users frequently join and leave [1]. Rapid joining and leaving, also called churn, may multicast tree. We begin by examining gossip, since it has no single points of failure, overcomes churn overlay that deals with churn with low overhead, and overcomes random failures of a cer- tain percentage

  1. Testing for Chaos in Deterministic Systems with Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gottwald, Georg A.

    Testing for Chaos in Deterministic Systems with Noise Georg A. Gottwald School of Maths and Stats Guildford GU2 7XH, UK 24 November, 2004 Abstract Recently, we introduced a new test for distinguishing regular from chaotic dynamics in deterministic dynamical systems and argued that the test had cer- tain

  2. Aging and Complexity in Equilibrium Dynamics K. Ehrenberger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svozil, Karl

    Aging and Complexity in Equilibrium Dynamics K. Ehrenberger ENT Department, University of Vienna W age, the fractal dimension of the graph of postural stability decreases. From the many aspects of aging, the possible loss of complexity of cer- tain physiological functions and processes is seldomly

  3. Aging and Complexity in Equilibrium Dynamics K. Ehrenberger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svozil, Karl

    Aging and Complexity in Equilibrium Dynamics K. Ehrenberger ENT Department, University of Vienna W With increasing age, the fractal dimension of the graph of postural stability decreases. From the many aspects of aging, the possible loss of complexity of cer­ tain physiological functions and processes is seldomly

  4. Prediction of Breast Cancer Biopsy Outcomes Using a Distributed Genetic Programming Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Simone

    Prediction of Breast Cancer Biopsy Outcomes Using a Distributed Genetic Programming Approach Simone@cs.usask.ca ABSTRACT Worldwide, breast cancer is the second most common type of can- cer after lung cancer and the fifth most common cause of cancer death. In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide

  5. NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret purchases crude oil at a price of £11 per barrel. Each day to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

  6. A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galvin, David

    A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which takes in crude oil, up to a maximum of 650,000 barrels per day (bbl/day) and produces **" means "**% octane".) Once crude oil enters the system, it goes fully through the process. The refinery

  7. The University of Sheeld SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    manufactures two types of petrol (types 1 and 2). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (1, 2 and 3). Let xij be the amount of type j petrol produced from type i crude oil. The three types of crude oil dier in their octane rating and sulphur content. The crude oil blended to form petrol 1 must

  8. fter a year of relentless work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    a taste of Indy Racing May 19, coaxing its mini Indy style Car #19 through four days of grueling events horsepower revving engines, the smell of 100 octane fuel, and the colors of 134 college racing teams from all with head-to- head racing, an acceleration event, and a timed autocross event. Cars raced against the clock

  9. Nonlinear effects of stretch on the flame front propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halter, F.; Tahtouh, T.; Mounaim-Rousselle, C. [Institut PRISME, Universite d'Orleans, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2010-10-15

    In all experimental configurations, the flames are affected by stretch (curvature and/or strain rate). To obtain the unstretched flame speed, independent of the experimental configuration, the measured flame speed needs to be corrected. Usually, a linear relationship linking the flame speed to stretch is used. However, this linear relation is the result of several assumptions, which may be incorrected. The present study aims at evaluating the error in the laminar burning speed evaluation induced by using the traditional linear methodology. Experiments were performed in a closed vessel at atmospheric pressure for two different mixtures: methane/air and iso-octane/air. The initial temperatures were respectively 300 K and 400 K for methane and iso-octane. Both methodologies (linear and nonlinear) are applied and results in terms of laminar speed and burned gas Markstein length are compared. Methane and iso-octane were chosen because they present opposite evolutions in their Markstein length when the equivalence ratio is increased. The error induced by the linear methodology is evaluated, taking the nonlinear methodology as the reference. It is observed that the use of the linear methodology starts to induce substantial errors after an equivalence ratio of 1.1 for methane/air mixtures and before an equivalence ratio of 1 for iso-octane/air mixtures. One solution to increase the accuracy of the linear methodology for these critical cases consists in reducing the number of points used in the linear methodology by increasing the initial flame radius used. (author)

  10. Course alpha, number, title file:///W|/me/NEW-drupal-web/Undergraduate-%20Current/Syllabi/ME445.htm[9/11/2013 3:02:01 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeny, Brian

    real world intake and exhaust systems. Modeling combustion and heat transfer. Knock and octane effects: Richard Stone Class/Lab schedule: Total Credits: 3 Lecture/Laboratory/Discussion Hours: 3/0/0 Topics-One-Dimensional Modeling theory and application. ­ learn and apply a commercial CAE code to optimize IC engine tuning

  11. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    MEX 1 . Compound C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butanen-Butane i-Pentane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-OctaneEthyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butane 1-Butene + i-Butene

  12. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    MEX 1 . Compound C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butanen-Butane i-Pentane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-OctaneEthyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butane 1-Butene + i-Butene

  13. This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013 Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 2995--2997 2995 Cite this: Chem. Commun., 2013,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­catecholate groups were evaluated for their ability to remove airborne ammonia, cyanogen chloride, sulphur dioxide, and octane by micro-breakthrough analysis. For ammonia, the metal­catecholate materials showed remarkable for a wide range of applications such as gas storage,1­6 chemical separations,7­10 chemical sensing,11

  14. Standard version Advanced version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    Standard version Advanced version Xpress case study: Margaret Oil 26 June 2014 NATCOR Case study #12;Standard version Advanced version Margaret Oil - basic (1) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be: Gasoline Jet fuel Heating oil

  15. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Hydrocarbon conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koepke, J.W.; Abdo, S.F.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a hydrocracking process. It comprises: catalyzing a hydrocracking reaction by contacting a hydrocarbon feedstock with a hydrocracking catalyst under hydrocracking conditions to produce a product hydrocarbon having an increased octane number than the hydrocarbon feedstock. The hydrocracking catalyst consists essentially of at least one niobium component, at least one Group VIII metal component and at least one cracking component.

  17. Regeneration of Hydrotreating and FCC Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Frye, John G.; Bowman, Lawrence E.; Fulton, John L.; Silva, Laura J.; Wai, Chien M.

    1999-09-30

    Hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts are important components of petroleum refining processes. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts are used to improve the yield of high-quality light oil fractions from heavier crude oil and petroleum feedstocks containing high levels of impurities. FCC catalysts improve the yield of higher octane gasoline from crude oil.

  18. Sunlight to Gas Pump Michael Bobek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    hydrocarbon fuel: methane (natural gas), butane (lighter fluid), propane(Grill gas), and octane (gasoline, motivated yet?! So now why do we want to convert the sunlight into fuel? The reason is that fuel is much to convert to fuels is that the structure of society already has a strong backbone supporting them, gas

  19. NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4.5 for heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret can purchase two types of crude oil: crude 1 (at £12 per

  20. Clean Transportation Program | 919-515-3480 | www.cleantransportation.org North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7409, Raleigh, NC 27695 | 919-515-3480 | www.ncsc.ncsu.edu | 8/15/13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with gasoline at different levels. E10 (10% ethanol /90% gasoline) is blended in almost all regular 87 octane such as corn, grains, and sugarcane, as well as crop and forestry waste materials. Ethanol is usually blended gasoline where as E85 (85% ethanol / 15% gasoline) is an alternative fuel for flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs

  1. Clean Transportation Program | 919-515-3480 | www.cleantransportation.org I www.ncsc.ncsu.edu North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7401, Raleigh, NC 27695 | 919-515-3480 | www.ncsc.ncsu.edu | 3/16/12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    corn, grains, and crop and forestry waste materials. Ethanol is usually blended with gasoline on either E85 or gasoline, of any blend in between allow vehicle operators the ability to obtain fuel at different levels. E10 is a premium high- octane gasoline for cars and E85 (85% ethanol / 15% gasoline

  2. Clean Transportation | www.nccleantech.ncsu.edu North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7409, Raleigh, NC 27695 | 919-515-3480 | www.nccleantech.ncsu.edu | 3/13/14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and sugarcane, as well as crop and forestry waste materials. Ethanol is usually blended with gasoline at different levels. E10 (10% ethanol /90% gasoline) is blended in almost all regular 87 octane gasoline where as E85 (85% ethanol / 15% gasoline) is an alternative fuel for flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) . What

  3. Stat 511 Exam 1 February 24, 2003 Prof. Vardeman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    y . For example, y might be an octane rating for a gasoline blended from r "pure" components like, "true" values x are known and produce experimental readings y on the instrument. Suppose that we are willing to assume that the mean value of y is proportional to x , so that i i iy x = + where for ( )1 2

  4. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , hexane and performance enhancing additives. A brief description of various petroleum hydrocarbon classes and performance-enhancing additives for its use as a fuel. The petroleum compounds are categorized as either, hexane and octane. Aromatic compounds are composed of carbon molecular ring structures. These compounds

  5. An Experimental Evaluation of Tiling and Shackling for Memory Hierarchy Induprakas Kodukula, Keshav Pingali Robert Cox, Dror Maydan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pingali, Keshav K.

    the impact of memory latency, the restructuring compiler community has developed locality- enhancing program. Recently, we proposed an alternative approach to locality enhancement called data shackling. Data shackling a sophisticated implementation of tiling. Our experiments on the SGI Octane workstation with dense numerical

  6. Hardware-Accelerated Texture Advection For Unsteady Flow Visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Gordon

    animations of over 65,000 particles at 2 frames/sec on an SGI Octane with EMXI graphics. High image quality is achieved by careful attention to edge effects, noise frequency, and image enhancement. We provide not possible before [9], an enhancement not previously possible. In this paper, we propose a hardware

  7. Tensor Components in Three Pulse Vibrational Echoes of a Rigid Dipeptide Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2003, Vol. 24, No. 8 1091 Tensor Components in Three Pulse Vibrational Echoes of a Rigid Dipeptide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukamel, Shaul

    2,5-diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane-3,6-dione. An anharmonic vibrational Hamiltonian is constructed to various Liouville space pathways. Enhancement and elimination of specific peaks in two- dimensional spectra using double-resonance5,6 as well as heterodyned7-9 techniques. Resolution enhancement

  8. Calculation of Phase Coexistence Properties and Surface Tensions of n-Alkanes with Grand-Canonical Transition-Matrix Monte Carlo Simulation and Finite-Size Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jayant K.

    densities and vapor pressures of select n-alkanes. Surface tension values for butane, hexane, and octane Carlo method (GEMC) by Panagiotopolous1 greatly enhanced our ability to predict the phase behavior energy is enhanced, and the likelihood of molecules overlapping is reduced. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo

  9. Figure A1 Time-series of N1 fan speed (% of maximum) and exhaust gas temperature for experiments conducted (a) 4% load, (b) 7% (c) 30% and (d) 85% engine loads. Warm-up and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    characterization period. Particle number enhancement ratio is defined as ratio between particle number.3 a 2-methylheptane 7.1 a 4-methylheptane 5.6 1.8 3-methylheptane 5.7 2.9 octane 7.5 0.9 nonane 36

  10. This article was downloaded by:[Vanderbilt University] On: 20 June 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaszynski, Piotr

    a narrow range nematic phase in 1F. In contrast, fluorination of the benzene and bicyclo[2.2.2]octane analogues, 2H and 3H, eliminated their nematic behaviour, enhanced their respective SmC and SmA phases of alkyl chains in mesogenic compounds significantly enhances or induces smectogenic proper- ties, whereas

  11. Data-centric Transformations for Locality Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pingali, Keshav K.

    -centric transformations for locality enhancement. We present experimental results on the SGI Octane compar- ingData-centric Transformations for Locality Enhancement Induprakas Kodukula Keshav Pingali September community has developed locality-enhancing program transformations such as loop permutation and tiling

  12. HYDROGEN STORAGE IN CARBON NANOTUBES JOHN E. FISCHER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOTIONS * BINDING SITES AND ENERGIES * PROCESSING TO ENHANCE CAPACITY: EX: ELECTROCHEMICAL Li INSERTION surface channels or "groove sites" INCLUSION COMPOUNDS OF CARBON HOST MATERIALS #12;OCTANE: C8H18 - 15.2 @ 10 min LiC3 @ L = 0.5 mm ENHANCED Li STORAGE BY OPENING AND CUTTING Purified/annealed PLV tubes: well

  13. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 339 (2009) 4859 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol cosolvents Ultra-low interfacial tension Enhanced oil recovery a b s t r a c t We examine hereN/m or less versus n-octane. Our laboratory tests confirmed these APG formulations can provide useful IFT% IOIP. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction 1.1. Background Surfactant enhanced oil

  14. Tufts University Department of Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLachlan, Scott

    refineries. They sell a range of refined products that can be grouped into gasolines (of various octanes convert the crude into various "base products" that are blended into finished products and sold in six), present your linear program in the form of equations (be sure to pick identifying variable names

  15. Regio-and Enantioselective Alkane Hydroxylation with Engineered Cytochromes P450 BM-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    Regio- and Enantioselective Alkane Hydroxylation with Engineered Cytochromes P450 BM-3 Matthew W was engineered using a combination of directed evolution and site-directed mutagenesis to hydroxylate linear hydroxylates octane at the 2-position to form S-2-octanol (40% ee). Another variant, 1-12G, also hydroxylates

  16. Thirty years later: Reflections on the past and future of biomass utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    , and gas separation industries. ORNL develops membranes to speed the biomass conversion process-oils · Advanced membranes for separation · Demonstration & Market Transformation · High octane renewable super;7 Biofuel TSSS The same HiPAS membrane can repel water while absorbing ethanol. The tunability

  17. H A&S 222a: Introduction to Energy and Environment (Life Under the Pale Sun) Problem Set 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . To compare the solar input (power per unit area) and the northward heat flow (power) you need to know and 200 N. · If the solar input averages 600 watts/m2 in that tropical band, draw a sketch showing photons of light were used to create 1 mole of octane? Assume maximum efficiency in the plant. 8CO2 + 9H2O

  18. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving 35 pseudo compo- nents. They claimed that the simplified-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high

  19. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Chemical Reactions 1 Chemical Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Chemical Reactions 1 Chemical Reactions When analyzing reacting systemsHm. For example octane is C8H18. Combustion: is a chemical reaction during which a fuel is oxidized and a large.28 #12;M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Chemical Reactions 2 Where N is the number of moles and M is the molar

  20. USGS Mineral Resources Program Platinum-Group Elements--So Many Excellent Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as jewelry and as an investment commodity, the major applications of PGE are industrial. Their leading use industry, platinum-supported catalysts are needed to refine crude oil and to produce high-octane gasoline alloys an ideal choice for jewelry. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium are used for investment in the form

  1. CERFACS Scientific Activity Report Jan. 2000 Dec. 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CERFACS Scientific Activity Report Jan. 2000 ­ Dec. 2001 Centre Europ´een de Recherche et de . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.3 Energy fall-off and side area contribution radius for the best PhD work of 2000. . . . . 48 2.1 DNS of stratified octane/air combustion: heat release. Left

  2. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 28, 2000/pp. 20292037 EXTINCTION AND AUTOIGNITION OF n-HEPTANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitsch, Heinz

    . J. CURRAN2 1 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California at San reactors, and concentration histories of a number of species in plug-flow and jet-stirred reactors for octane rating in internal combustion engines. It has a cetane number of ap- proximately 56, which

  3. | FLORIDA GROWER | NOVEMBER 2006 | 37 D r. L a r r y P a r s o n s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etxeberria, Edgardo

    is great, and Florida is already moving toward some ethanol production. Besides high gasoline prices additive, ethanol can increase octane levels in gasoline. In some cases, ethanol is replacing Methyl tert- ing ground-water contamination. Demand On The Rise Several speakers from petroleum companies talked

  4. Variability in the carbon isotopic composition of foliage carbon pools (soluble carbohydrates, waxes) and respiration fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    , waxes) and respiration fluxes in southeastern U.S. pine forests Behzad Mortazavi,1,2,3 Maureen H. ConteCSC), and waxes (dCW)) and respiratory carbon (foliage (dCFR), soil (dCSR) and ecosystem 13 CO2 (dCER)) for two-alkanoic acid wax molecular cluster was twice that observed for dCOM and the predominant C22­26 compound cluster

  5. Join the facebook group: `Oxford L.G.B.T.Q. History Month 2012'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    Join the facebook group: `Oxford L.G.B.T.Q. History Month 2012' Email: lgbtqof cer@ousu.org 3rd of town and gown. Queer Studies Circle Saturday (2nd Feb), 8pm Old Law Library, Magdalen 4thWeek OU Town Hall 7thWeek OU LGBTQsoc: Drinks Tuesday (26th Feb), 8pm Location TBC Social event for LGBTQ

  6. Understanding Hospital Admissions Close to the End of Life (ACE) Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Zoë S; Fyfe, Miranda; Momen, Natalie; Hoare, Sarah; Barclay, Stephen

    2013-03-11

    - istrative areas, with different demographic profiles rele- vant to place of death, including access to services. The first area is largely rural, with a university city and larger towns and areas of significant social deprivation and af- fluence. The second... Pulmonary Disease, or cancer who die within 72 hours of admission to of the two hospitals. Patients will be identified retrospectively with help from the hospitals’ Bereavement Services. These Ser- vices receive the hospital notes and organise the death cer...

  7. Animal representations and animal remains at Çatalhöyük

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Nerissa; Meece, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    (Level VII). Volcano above town plan, leopard skin above geometric design, or other representations? Level VI paintings lack fully convinc­ ing animal depictions. A patch of painting on the east wall of building VIA.66 includes a number of geomet­ ric... the centrepieces of the north walls of two rather similar buildings. In a sense they parallel the situation in the faunal assemblage, where cattle are not terribly common, but figure prominently in cer­ emonial consumption (see Russell & Martin, Volume 4...

  8. Additive Gaussian Processes David Duvenaud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -4 -2 0 2 4 -1 0 1 2 3 4 -4 -2 0 2 4 -4 -2 0 2 4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 f1(x1) f2(x2) f1(x1) + f2(x2) f(x1, xAdditive Gaussian Processes David Duvenaud Department of Engineering Cambridge University dkd23@cam Department of Engineering Cambridge University cer54@cam.ac.uk Abstract We introduce a Gaussian process model

  9. A Cost Benefit Analysis of a V2G-Capable Electric School Bus Compared to a Traditional Diesel School Bus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Average Electricity Carbon Emission Rate 1.18 lbs/kWh Cdr Diesel Carbon Emission Rate 22.2 lbs/kWh D Miles $0.106/kWh PR Regulation Price for V2G Revenue $28/MWh R Range of Battery 100 miles rd Discount Rate of Replacement Battery $300/kWh CD Seating Capacity of Diesel Bus 32 CE Seating Capacity of Electric Bus 24 Cer

  10. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design.

  11. Rates of acidic hydrolysis of diptych boroxazolidines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psarras, Theodore George

    1961-01-01

    -hater 10, hpU by UollUllc. Q. o L. u s. oies . 'o igounrl)no Le hi, '1 14 41oetxeeetyio Titzetioa ot BySxoohlorio i'+id by B, BeB'oBe-tetra (B~roxgbutyl} ~thyleaekimdno in metoae NaCer 109 JqO by Volaao ~SLl~~SBBek %lola 801 0, 000 Oo860 0. 416...

  12. High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2011-03-01

    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

  13. Estimation of 3-phase separation K-value using laboratory 3-phase separation tests 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billman, Albert Leo

    1989-01-01

    Mixtures Using n-Heptane. 8. Three-Phase K-Values for the Pressure Range From 0 psig to 1, 000 psig for 5 Component Mixtures Using n-Heptane. 9. Three-Phase K-Values for the Temperature Range From 25D F to 5DD F for All Mixtures Using n-Octane. 33 34... 35 X1 LIST OF FIGURES (Cont. ) F&g. Page 10. Three-Phase K-Values for the Pressure Range From 0 psig to 1, 000 psig for All Mixtures Using n-Octane. 36 11. Three-Phase K-Values for the Temperature Range From 250 F to 500 F for All Mixtures...

  14. Nitrided iron catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in the eighties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the preparation and structure of nitrided iron catalysts and their activity, selectivity, and stability for the reaction of synthesis gas in comparison with iron catalysts pretreated by various other methods, as measured in laboratory reactors; a comparison of product distributions obtained in fluidized-bed, slurry, and oil-circulation fixed bed pilot plants with nitrided catalysts and by the Kellogg entrained catalyst process SASOL, which uses a reduced iron catalyst; and possible methods for refining the Fischer-Tropsch products from nitrided iron catalysts for producing gasoline, including bauxite treatment, the Mobil process for converting oxygenates to high-octane gasoline and C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins, and an alkylation-polymerization process for converting the C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ fraction to high-octane blending stocks.

  15. Effects of oxygenate concentration on species mole fractions in premixed n-heptane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    -heptane/oxygenate mixtures were 2.7 and 3.4. Three different fuel oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, methanol, and ethanol) were tested in these emissions is the improvement in motor vehicle fuel properties. Fuel oxygenates were first used as an octane.e. oxygenates) such as alcohols (e.g. methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol) and ethers (e.g. methyl

  16. A new comprehensive semiempirical approach to calculate three-phase water/hydrocarbons equilibria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tandia, Bagus Krisna

    1995-01-01

    -exist with hydrocarbons. Water is most often used in enhanced oil recovery processes such as waterflooding, steam flooding, WAG (water alternating gas) processes and CO2 flooding. ' Steamflooding is the most common enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process for improving oil... only on light hydrocarbon components (octane and lighter components). Forero developed a semiempirical computer model using the Peng-Robinson 10 equation of state (PR-EOS) to study the data of Billman' and calculate the three-phase K...

  17. Increasing Biofuel Deployment and Utilization through Development of Renewable Super Premium: Infrastructure Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Kass, M.; Theiss, T.

    2014-11-01

    A high octane fuel and specialized vehicle are under consideration as a market opportunity to meet federal requirements for renewable fuel use and fuel economy. Infrastructure is often cited as a barrier for the introduction of a new fuel. This report assesses infrastructure readiness for E25 (25% ethanol; 75% gasoline) and E25+ (more than 25% ethanol). Both above-ground and below-ground equipment are considered as are the current state of stations, codes and regulations, and materials compatibility.

  18. Heterogeneous Catalysis DOI: 10.1002/anie.200900541

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    ) is a valuable fuel additive with a research octane number of 112. It can be produced with high selectivity from methanol (or dimethyl ether (DME)) using solutions of Zn[1­4] or In[5,6] halides at approximately 473 K triptane molecule formed per ZnI2.[2] Acid-catalyzed homologation of meth- anol/DME also occurs on zeolites

  19. The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

  20. Reforming using erionite catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liers, J.; Meusinger, J.; Moesch, A. (Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)); Reschetilowski, W. (Karl Winnacker Inst. of DECHEMA, Frankfurt (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    The advantage of reforming on erionite catalysts is a product with high octane numbers and low amounts of aromatics. This advantage seems to be slight at reaction pressures lower than 25 bar. But it is possible to compensate for the influence of pressure by varying the erionite content within the catalyst and the reaction temperature. When reforming on Pt/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts, the following reactions take place: dehydrocyclization of paraffins to naphthenes, dehydrogenation of naphthenes to aromatics, isomerication of normal paraffins remains in the product, lowering its octane number. By using a Ni/H-erionite catalyst, the octane rating can be increased by 3 to 7 numbers through selective hydrocracking of n-alkanes in the reformate. Erionite catalysts favor shape-selective hydrocracking of normal paraffins and the formation of cyclopentane derivatives lowering the content of aromatics during reforming reactions. Reducing the reaction pressure decreases hydrocracking activity and cyclopentane formation. These results can be interpreted in terms of thermodynamic restrictions and deactivation.

  1. Beckmann rearrangement and reduction of the E isomer of 1,5,5-trimethylbicyclo(2. 2. 1)heptan-2-one oxime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlov, N.G.; Popova, L.A.

    1987-10-10

    In the Beckmann rearrangement of the E isomer of 1,5,5-trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1)-heptan-2-one (isofenchone)oxime 1,6,6-trimethyl-2-azabicyclo(3.2.1)octan-3-one was obtained as a result of stereospecific migration of the C/sup 2/ carbon atom situated in the anti position to the hydroxime hydroxyl group. Reduction of the product with lithium aluminum hydride led to 1,6,6-trimethyl-2-azabicyclo(3.2.1)-octane. Reduction of isofenchone oxime with lithium aluminum hydride in THF leads to the formation of a mixture of 1,5,5-trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-yl-endo-amine, the corresponding exo-amine, and 1,6,6-trimethyl-2-aza- and 1,6,6-trimethyl-3-azabicyclo(3.2.1)octanes in ratios of 45:10:5:40. The /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectra were measured on a Bruker WM-360 spectrometer at 360 MHz for /sup 1/H and 90 MHz for /sup 13/C. The compounds were prepared for the spectra in the form of 10% solutions in deuterochloroform.

  2. FCC Tail Gas olefins conversion to gasoline via catalytic distillation with aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partin, E.E. (Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1988-01-01

    The goal of every refiner is to continually improve profitability by such means as increasing gasoline production, increasing gasoline octane pool and in cases where fuel balance becomes a problem, decreasing refinery fuel gas production. A new refinery process is currently being developed which accomplish these goals. Chemical Research and Licensing Company (CR and L) developed Catalytic Distillation technology in 1978 to produce MTBE. They have since used the Catalytic Distillation technique to produce cumene. CR and L has further developed this technology to convert olefin gases currently consumed as refinery fuel, to high octane gasoline components. The process, known as CATSTILL, alkylates olefin gases such as ethylene, propylene and butylene, present in FCC Tail Gas with light aromatics such as benzene, toluene and xylene, present in reformate, to produce additional quantities of high octane gasoline components. A portable CATSTILL demonstration plant has been constructed by Brown and Root U.S.A., under an agreement with CR and L, for placement in a refinery to further develop data necessary to design commercial plants. This paper presents current data relative to the CATSTILL development.

  3. Holographic backgrounds from D-brane probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micha Moskovic

    2015-01-09

    This thesis focuses on the derivation of holographic backgrounds from the field theory side, without using any supergravity equations of motion. Instead, we rely on the addition of probe D-branes to the stack of D-branes generating the background. From the field theory description of the probe branes, one can compute an effective action for the probes (in a suitable low-energy/near-horizon limit) by integrating out the background branes. Comparing this action with the generic probe D-brane action then allows to determine the holographic background dual to the considered field theory vacuum. In the first part, the required pre-requisites of field and string theory are recalled and this strategy to derive holographic backgrounds is explained in more detail on the basic case of D3-branes in flat space probed by a small number of D-instantons. The second part contains our original results, which have already appeared in arXiv:1301.3738, arXiv:1301.7062 and arXiv:1312.0621. We first derive the duals to three continuous deformations (Coulomb branch, $\\beta$ and non-commutative deformations) of N=4 super-Yang-Mills. We then derive the enhan\\c{c}on mechanism in a simple N=2 quiver gauge theory setup by using a fractional D-instanton as a probe and exploiting recent exact results on the Coulomb branch of N=2 quivers. Finally, we obtain the near-horizon D4-brane geometry by probing the D4-branes with a small number of D0-branes.

  4. VelociTap: Investigating Fast Mobile Text Entry using Sentence-Based Decoding of Touchscreen Keyboard Input

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertanen, Keith; Memmi, Haythem; Emge, Justin; Reyal, Shyam; Kristensson, Per Ola

    2015-04-18

    decoded with no recognition errors. A good language model was critical for decoding. Simply using the key closest to each tap resulted in a high average CER of 20.2%. As shown in Figure 2, each participant operated at different points in the error... to classify a partic- ipant’s strategy using the following rules: SWIPE if a user averaged more than two right swipes per sentence, SPACE if a user averaged more than two space taps per sentence, and NOSPACE if both measures were less than 0.5. Table 8 shows...

  5. Commercial Fertilizers in 1915-16. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1916-01-01

    , potatoes, onions, and cer- n other truck crops, grown on light sandy soils, may give favorable urns for potash. On heavier soils they may, or may not, give re- turns for the potash. A great deal depends upon the possible yield, as the greater.... There have been, in the p~?~t, nlastes of potash. The present prices of pot as!^ are inuch tor; high to n~arrailt its use as a fertilizer. HOME MIXING. It is often possihle fo~ consumers of fertilize]-s to F'aye money by pur- ' chasing acid phospbatc...

  6. Millimeter Wave Study of N¹?O? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Albert C

    1960-01-01

    XITm Wee Saey Or I 90' Llbott C KQolclo Appteoo4 as te style an4 content byi Chairaan of Coaalttoo ~C. Ca. ~~ Iaa4 of 5opartaont Nay, 1960 1 weald like to enpress np sincere appreciation to Sr. dlhert M. Jacks Cer his gnidance thronthont Chit.... 16 18 LIST OF ILLUSTRhTIONS Figure 4 rdiliwter weve spectrometer wes nso4 to loeete en4 nessnre fr~iu of observation lines of 1l Og in regions predicted by thooriee developed by lda snd 'dird. These obsorwod velnes will be nse4 to test end...

  7. Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 21 Number 3 : Full issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

    is an established mkhan. The forms of abbreviation are, therefore, numerous; but on the availahle evidence the most common system is (I), i.e. 1habs + mkhan. Th~ existence of a 'us mying abbreviation, however, make', it impossible to say with cer­ tainty whether... ; but evidence IS not conclusive. 20 INDIA IN .tDZAM-GLING RGYAS-BSHAD -Lama Sherab Rbaldi However if one may describe simply and briefly a few of the main sacred objects, structures and holy places (in India). As mentioned above l , there is a town, known...

  8. Regmi Research Series ,Year 21, January, 1989

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regmi, Mahesh C

    1989-01-01

    ;L Durbar do no~ eppaar to~ke any r;,e.p,~Jrs. - , . " , , (2) " There are but two usu al modes of conveyil;1g goods. ' naDialy, by garis and p"ck-anim:::.ls, tha latter chiefly ponies. TraderS from .British terri toriBS CEr..n ot expect to find means... granted t o the common people (lata­ &l8.~) of Gorkha town . The matte r has been represented t o us . "we hereby order that the Chumewan tax be collected fro~ homesteads and rice-fields in that area at the same rates as t hose s.t which it had been...

  9. The Buddhist princess and the woolly turban: non-Buddhist others in a 15th century biography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diemberger, Hildegard

    2008-01-01

    of Magadha leave the Buddha in the dwelling of the Anath?pin-dikavih?ra and worship the heretical Jain teachers in the town of Buram shing phel. The princess said, “We can’t stand this! Chase them away throwing stones!” Her retinue did accordingly... mdzad pas spyan cer gzigs par gyur ba na/ slar de dag gis blta bar ma yod de kha cig na re bag ma ni rnam pa ‘char dbu ‘phang mtho zhes gleng par byed cing/. 11 de nas rgyal mo’i khang bzangs su phyogs te bon pos lha ‘dogs bgyid par ‘dod pa na/ kho...

  10. Read: Entrancing Enchantment: How Harry Cast a Spell Over Hip Nepali Readers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fineprint Bookclub

    2007-01-01

    bookstores were probably sekuwa pasals. Today, if a kid cannot find the Harry Potter edition that he wants at one bookstore, he can scoot around town and try his luck elsewhere. Harry Potter books also probably do well in Nepal because the books fill a... hundred seventy-fi ve students from different schools in the region, 1026 households, and offi cers from ten offi ces have become members of the library Each household, depending on its economic status, is charged from a minimum of 25 rupees to a...

  11. Evaluation of the role of location and distance in recruitment in respondent-driven sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCreesh, Nicky; Johnston, Lisa G; Copas, Andrew; Sonnenberg, Pam; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard J; Frost, Simon DW; White, Richard G

    2011-10-18

    that little or no recruitment occurred in cer- tain parts of the target study areas [7-9]. Despite this, to our knowledge no other RDS studies have looked in detail at how the locations of recruits’ residencies affected recruitment, perhaps due... potentially reduce this problem. Our study was carried out in a rural area where the majority of people work as farmers. This is in contrast to many RDS studies which are carried out in towns or cities. In these settings, travel times using available transport...

  12. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  13. MINISTRIO DA EDUCAO UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paraná, Universidade Federal do

    aquecimento e um de ventilação; resistência em cerâmica; termostato; luz indicadora de funcionamento; potência. MONDIAL 60 R$155,99 Hislei Stancki da Luz Orchel - ME C N P J: 16.517.972/0001-98 Endereço: Rua Antônio de Stancki da Luz Orchel E-mail: hg2comercio@hotmail.com 3 Aquecedor halogênio. Características mínimas: 3

  14. The use of acetylene and 1,3-butadiene as tracers for vehicular combustion in urban air and the estimation of the contributions of vehicular emissions to benzene, and alkane concentrations in the Edmonton industrial area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, R. [Environment Canada, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Prairie and Northern Region; Wong, R. [Alberta Environmental Protection, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Dann, T.; Wang, D. [Environment Canada, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada). Environmental Protection Service

    1998-12-31

    Acetylene, propylene and 1,3-butadiene concentrations at two downtown urban sites in Alberta, Canada were used to characterize an area dominated by vehicular emissions. The relationship of acetylene with 1,3-butadiene at the Edmonton industrial site was similar to that observed for the two downtown sites. This suggesting that these volatile organic compounds, VOCs, can be used as tracers for vehicular emissions for the Edmonton industrial area. The tracer VOCs were found to correlate with benzene, n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, iso-pentane, n-heptane and n-octane concentrations for the two Alberta downtown sites. The best fit lines from the downtown sites were used to predict daily concentrations of benzene and alkanes at the Edmonton industrial site. During the winter, when benzene levels are predicted to reach a maximum of 4.5 to 6.5 m g/m{sup 3}, it is estimated that industrial sources contribute < 1 m g/m{sup 3} to ambient levels at the Edmonton industrial site. During the summer, when predicted benzene levels are at a minimum of 1 to 2 m g/m{sup 3}, industrial area sources dominate the ambient benzene levels at the Edmonton industrial site, and can contribute up to 6 m g/m{sup 3}. For alkanes, such as butane and pentane, industrial area sources or evaporative storage tank emissions dominate throughout the year. This dominance of industrial sources is also observed for n-heptane and n-octane during summer months. During the winter when predicted n-heptane and n-octane concentrations reach a maximum, 11 to 100% of ambient daily levels can be attributed to vehicular emissions.

  15. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, Paul T. (Arlington Heights, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A process is provided for the production of branched C.sub.4+ oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  16. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, P.T.

    1996-09-24

    A process is provided for the production of branched C{sub x} oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  17. Isolation, identification and quantitation of deoxycorticosterone and 21-hydroxy-5 ?-pregnane-3, 20-dione in the prepartum and postpartum mare 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, Ethel Lynn

    1977-01-01

    -pregnen-3, 20-dione deoxycorticosterone DOC 21-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3, 20-dione acetate deoxycorticosterone DOCA acetate 2l-hydroxy-5o-pregnane-3, 20-diane 21-hydroxy-5o-pregnane-3, 20-dione acetate 17-hydroxy-5a-pregnane-3, 20-dione Su, 21 OH P 5u... eluted solvent 1 - 3. 5 4-10 3. 5 7. 0 discard O. SX 5a, 21 OH P 0. 5% The material that was insoluble in 0. 5% ethyl acetate in isooctane was applied to the column with 250 ul (2x) of 5l ethyl acetate in iso- octane. The following elution procedure...

  18. Producing a trimethylpentanoic acid using hybrid polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of producing the trimethylpentanoic acid, comprising: providing a host cell of the present invention, and culturing said host cell in a suitable culture medium such that the trimethylpentanoic acid is produced, optionally isolating the trimethylpentanoic acid, and optionally, reducing the isolated trimethylpentanoic acid into a trimethylpentanol or an iso-octane.

  19. Interpretation of engine cycle-to-cycle variation by chaotic time series analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C.S.; Kahl, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we summarize preliminary results from applying a new mathematical technique -- chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) -- to cylinder pressure data from a spark-ignition (SI) four-stroke engine fueled with both methanol and iso-octane. Our objective is to look for the presence of deterministic chaos'' dynamics in peak pressure variations and to investigate the potential usefulness of CTSA as a diagnostic tool. Our results suggest that sequential peak cylinder pressures exhibit some characteristic features of deterministic chaos and that CTSA can extract previously unrecognized information from such data. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Selective hydrocracking of raffinates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipikin, V.V.; Georgievskii, V.Yu.

    1987-05-01

    The most acceptable method for processing raffinates to improve their antiknock properties is selective hydrocracking. As a result of selective cracking of the straight-chain paraffinic hydrocarbons present in raffinates, an octane number gain of 15-20 may be achieved. The authors list certain process indexes for selective hydrocracking of 62-105/sup 0/C cut (benzene-toluene) and 105-140/sup 0/C cut (xylene). It is shown that the improvement of the antiknock properties of raffinates by selective hydrocracking may change the structure of automotive gasoline production quite substantially.

  1. How to implement a gasoline pool lead phase-down

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Mutaz, I.S. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-02-01

    Some operational changes can be made for immediate reduction of lead concentration of gasoline that require no capital investment. For a further lead reduction, installing new refinery units and/or modifications to existing ones are required. The production of unleaded gasoline in the Riyadh refinery required improvement of the clear research octane number (RON) of light naphtha, light isomerate and reformate. However, only a once-through isomerization unit is needed if MTBE blending is planned. The paper describes how the Riyadh refinery in Saudi Arabia phased lead from their gasoline production.

  2. 6. Atomic and nuclear properties of materials 1 6. ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at STP. Boiling points are at 1 atm. Refractive indices n are evaluated at the sodium D line blend (589.2 nm); values 1 in brackets are for (n - 1) × 106 (gases). Material Z A Z/A Nucl.coll. length T {g cm-2.59497 55.5 77.1 45.23 (2.278) (2.489) 134.9 272.6 Octane (C8H18) 0.57778 55.8 77.8 45.00 2.123 0.703 214

  3. The effects of phosphorous donor ligand substitution on the reactivity of anionic group 6 transition metal carbonyl hydrides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lusk, Richard Jay

    1986-01-01

    in THP, followed by protonation with methanol, gave rise to a new group of chromium and tungsten hydrides, 7 HM(CO) P . The importance of the P-substituted hydr ides is enhanced 4 reactivity as well as the possibility of selective hydride transfer... reduction products were thus benzyl alcohol and octane. Initial GC runs were undertaken using THF solutions of benzyl alcohol of three different concentrations, corresponding to yields of 25, 100, and 150$. Each of the three also contained an equivalent...

  4. The oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane with nitrous oxide by molybdenum oxide supported on silica gel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Tsong-Jen

    1979-01-01

    or indirectly from 02, thus tne difference between the two oxidants becomes less sig- nificant. Both rates of formation for C2H4 and C0 were enhanced in the presence of a very small amount of oxygen in the mixture of C2B& and N 0. A radical mechanism... process because of the large and expanding demand for alkenes and dialkenes which are used in the manufacture of various chemical prod- ucts such as detergents, plastics, synthetic rubber, anc high octane gasoline. One example of this type of reaction...

  5. The effects of solvent mixtures on the gel permeation chromatography of alkanes, fatty acids, and fatty acid esters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolton, Patrick Lee

    1985-01-01

    with mixtures of 1:1 methanol-chloroform, 1:4 hexane- methylene chloride, 3:2 methylene chloride-acetone, 1:4 methylene chloride-acetone. Improved separation was observed because of enhanced partitioning and adsorption effects that occur with changing...- gold label o-dichlorohenzene- red label eicosane- 99% red label eicosanoic acid- 99% red label hexanoic acid- gold label octadecane- 97+% red label octane- 99+0 gold label octanoic acid- gold label sodium carbonate- gold label A. C. S...

  6. Miscibility, solubility and retrograde prediction of methane in liquids. Liquid storage of natural gas (LSNG) for vehicle fuel. Annual report, July 15, 1992-July 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansoori, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The primary focus of this project is to investigate the concept of liquid storage of natural gas (LSNG) for potential natural gas vehicle (NGV) application. The research work consists of developing accurate techniques for modeling of interfacial properties, miscibility and solubility of methane in liquids. By implementing this project it will be possible: To use natural gas as the fuel for internal combustion engines; To increase the gas tank capacity about 200% more over the compressed natural gas (CNG) scheme; To increase the octane-number of low quality liquid fuels through blending them with natural gas.

  7. Characterization of Microexplosion Phenomena of Methanol-Glycerol Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Ge-Yi

    2014-07-17

    Constant mass of the object [kg] K Microexplosion strength M Total mass of droplet including oil and water [kg] J Bubble nucleation rate [1/m3s1] R0 Initial radius of emulsion droplet [m] R1 Radius of emulsion kernel when oil membrane is formed [m... and decreases air pollutions on a per mass basis. Mikami et al. [9] studied the probability of microexplosion occurrence of miscible fuel mixtures. Droplets made of n-alkane (heptane, hexane, pentane and octane) and n- hexadecane mixture were injected...

  8. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  9. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutron Computed TomographyHigh-Octane

  10. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutron Computed TomographyHigh-OctaneHigh-Order

  11. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  12. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  13. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  14. Economic contribution of lignins to ethanol production from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H.L.; Parker, S.K.; Feinberg, D.A.; Wright, J.D.; Rice, P.A.; Sinclair, S.A.; Glasser, W.G.

    1985-05-01

    Lignin, one of the three major polymeric components of biomass (16% to 33% by weight in wood), has the highest specific heat content. Therefore, it can be burned for process fuel. Compared to coal, its fuel value is 2.2 cents/lb. This report investigates markets for lignin utilization of higher value. After lignin isolation from the process, purchase of replacement fuel (coal was analyzed), lignin sale for the manufacture of solid materials or higher value octane enhancers was evaluated. Polymeric applications evaluated were: surfactants, asphalt, carbon black, adhesives, and lignin plastics; agricultural applications were briefly reviewed. These lignins would generate coproduct credits of 25 cents to 150 cents/gallon of ethanol respectively for 7.5 cents to 60 cents/lb lignin value (isolation and eventual modification costs were taken into account). Overall markets for these polymeric applications were projected at 11 billion lb/year by the year 2000. These projections are intensities of demand and not actual shipments of lignins. In addition, this report investigates the possibility of converting lignins into mixtures of methyls aryl ethers and methyl substituted-aryl ethers which are high value octane enhancers, fully compatible with gasoline. The report intends to show that if fuel ethanol production in the billions of gallons scale occurs lignin markets would not be saturated. 10 refs., 14 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

  16. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  17. Vapor Sensing Using Conjugated Molecule-Linked Au Nanoparticles in a Silica Matrix

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Howell, Stephen W.; Price, B. Katherine; Fan, Hongyou; Washburn, Cody; Wheeler, David R.; Tour, James M.; Whiting, Joshua; Simonson, R. Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Cross-linked assemblies of nanoparticles are of great value as chemiresistor-type sensors. Herein, we report a simple method to fabricate a chemiresistor-type sensor that minimizes the swelling transduction mechanism while optimizing the change in dielectric response. Sensors prepared with this methodology showed enhanced chemoselectivity for phosphonates which are useful surrogates for chemical weapons. Chemoselective sensors were fabricated using an aqueous solution of gold nanoparticles that were then cross-linked in the presence of the silica precursor, tetraethyl orthosilicate with the ? -, ? -dithiolate (which is derived from the in situ deprotection of 1,4-di(Phenylethynyl- 4more »? , 4 ? -diacetylthio)-benzene ( 1 ) with wet triethylamine). The cross-linked nanoparticles and silica matrix were drop coated onto interdigitated electrodes having 8? ? m spacing. Samples were exposed to a series of analytes including dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), octane, and toluene. A limit of detection was obtained for each analyte. Sensors assembled in this fashion were more sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate than to octane by a factor of 1000. « less

  18. DME-to-oxygenates process studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

  19. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  20. Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effets on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekoto, Dr Isaac; Peterson, Dr. Brian; Szybist, James P; Northrop, Dr. William

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate. Gas sampling at the end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus, with detailed sample speciation by in-house gas chromatography. The balance of NVO-period input and output energy flows was calculated in terms of fuel energy, work, heat loss, and change in sensible energy. Experiment results were complemented by detailed chemistry single-zone reactor simulations performed at relevant mixing and thermodynamic conditions, with results used to evaluate ignition behavior and expected energy recovery yields. For the intermediate bulk-gas temperatures present during the NVO period (900-1100 K), weak negative temperature coefficient behavior with iso-octane fueling significantly lengthened ignition delays relative to similar ethanol fueled conditions. Faster ethanol ignition chemistry led to lower recovered fuel intermediate yields relative to similar iso-octane fueled conditions due to more complete fuel oxidation. From the energy analysis it was found that increased NVO-period global equivalence ratio, either from lower NVOperiod oxygen concentrations or higher fueling rates, in general led to a greater fraction of net recovered fuel energy and work as heat losses were minimized. These observations were supported by complementary single-zone reactor model results, which further indicated that kinetic time-scales favor chemical energy-consuming exothermic oxidation over slower endothermic reformation. Nonetheless, fuel energy recovery close to the thermodynamic equilibrium solution was achieved for baseline conditions that featured 4% NVO-period oxygen concentration.

  1. The pathogenesis of the anemia of anaplasmosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foote, Lon E

    1961-01-01

    nil%on exythrocytes ysr cu. xxs. cf blooi uithln a gb~ yeriod seldca shoo icterus at necrcgsqr. Za a stadt' ct fntected erptl)rocLAes cail)added in usthacxTlate sn4 vsstopal) "ghost cells" which cassfsted at little xaxre than lfpoaas- brsnes were... 31 12. 0 l3eO 11. 6 ilk l2 0 11 0 Oe27 o 35 sera 8 HQQROKDOICAL, HAHA OF CON R4 8 Habrccdaw ~ yesrsr Iureralesad cer 8-17-60. 1$$ a4 lUrghaha Hakex' 1 gleedar 'A A neae (crau, rer) 8-2 7. 8S 8-S 8. VS ?7 V 3S7 ?8 6. 6' 8-19 6. 7VS 6...

  2. A refined deflected gradient search program for solving nonlinear maximization problems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Raymond Earl

    1972-01-01

    '!"'6SEI!T STATUS QE SE'"lh'SI" TECH;I[IILiES I5 i3r". ". ' . . b J pr'ob le, ", s . '0 . in I I; hP. I ~ con cinua I ly 5oo!Ping so I 0 Lions . ' ', '. b '': r, oi oi I on, l?rIPr soIOP. 0!"I t'=5'I 3 of goodncs !Io!3erally the object of r ar... ) T ! 1 a is e act ly i'be salrle as (1!1) . F1etcher anoI I'or;, all f6] piesent an 1ri!uct1!re prooi tbat 'lie vcr. toes '. X. are 1! iiear1y 1:Ide;&erident eIaervectors of II g ', ll c;:rr r-c; o. II!e ! !1 . c'er! era, ''ierII 'e " ', iree '', e...

  3. Ogmios 07

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostler, Nicholas D M

    1998-01-01

    se , as it a accr e lar e e ts. (b) tt li ne r ts. s t l tt r t t r t. r l s f r, t t l tt r l r i t e sletter. als istri te a raft f a letter i te e f r er ia a t rities c cer i alle ati s f s ressi f t e l a ia... at least not impose it on others. However, in the same town, there was one traditional Akha village where it was all going o n orderly, much cloth was being made in traditional I e sletter of oundation for ndangered anguages # 7 page 5 la a e. e c...

  4. Variable precision arithmetic of integers for internally programmed medium-sized digital computers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Albert George

    1961-01-01

    7109 39SN7 7112 10 3941 P' 7113 7109 3137 CC/CU REMARKS CELL 3120 3121 3122 312) 3125 3126 312/ 3129 3130 3131 3132 313 313( 3135 3136 313 313( 3139 S SP OP 64 (5 75 12 64 4 30 75 2 12 64 74 12 20 66 30 CODE... i'ES 5or Err c Oi Ii1 f rt C(ER) E0 L $ 8 ~ ?f f I to o (c lo "'o 5 ltf oooof E Eol Erfo Mv r ffo SN Fr 85 E 555 ZS BR' =o f(o DEC REM f E BR 5REf oq r, r 85 4lo 5 Sor ' ~ r f E 5 ~ rO S m SPEC. 4 4 ' ~ 4 4 l4 L STDRP 5...

  5. Refined coconut oil as a source of dietary fat in a milk replacer for dairy calves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barsales, Petronilo Bringuel

    1964-01-01

    SR OLINF OalFOO Fattoallo O, Oataalaa ayFtooat aa to ac@la aad aesaaa tFs Chairoas of Ooeaalttao / i ~( Member Member : K I&i' &. . why P. " ~ w '~m . ~JHLF lt 'I s ~, I 'I I . jI :4:& ~+ 1 The eriCer ?iohoo te estese hio oisooeo... ~ SL OQgt Nl OWLO40lg ~ stet ~ 0 ~ Otteaosoo Sl QNN400 OLCOTT ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ Iet otto ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ Ita ~ $4 y Ayd A Iy-h I I) 'IAA ' 4 44IAI. P' , t. , M-'i~'h Ig". i; 'j + $g ?':8 + W ?gled? - '?", 'P 'A4 '* A A I" ~ I I Ih 7 . ( t I A A A...

  6. Electro-autotrophic synthesis of higher alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liao, James C.; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-10-06

    The disclosure provides a process that converts CO.sub.2 to higher alcohols (e.g. isobutanol) using electricity as the energy source. This process stores electricity (e.g. from solar energy, nuclear energy, and the like) in liquid fuels that can be used as high octane number gasoline substitutes. Instead of deriving reducing power from photosynthesis, this process derives reducing power from electrically generated mediators, either H.sub.2 or formate. H.sub.2 can be derived from electrolysis of water. Formate can be generated by electrochemical reduction of CO.sub.2. After delivering the reducing power in the cell, formate becomes CO.sub.2 and recycles back. Therefore, the biological CO.sub.2 fixation process can occur in the dark.

  7. Formation of dl-limonene in used tire vacuum pyrolysis oils. [dipentene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakdel, H.; Roy, C.; Aubin, H.; Jean, G. ); Coulombe, S. )

    1991-09-01

    Tire recycling has become an important environmental issue recently due to the huge piles of tires that threaten the environment. Thermal decomposition of tire, a synthetic rubber material, enables the recovery of carbon black and liquid hydrocarbon oils. Both have potential economic values. Pyrolysis oils obtained under vacuum conditions contain a significant portion of a volatile, naptha-like fraction with an octane number similar to petroleum naphtha fraction, in addition, contains approximately 15% limonene. Potential applications of vacuum pyrolysis oil and carbon black have been investigated. However, the process economics is greatly influenced by the quality of the oil and carbon black products. This paper discusses limonene formation during used tire vacuum pyrolysis and its postulated reaction mechanism. The limonene separation method from pyrolysis oil, as well as its purification in laboratory scale, and structural characterization are discussed. Large-scale limonene separation and purification is under investigation.

  8. Ethanol from biomass: A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, R.

    1996-12-31

    Programmatic and technical activities of SWAN Biomass, a company formed by Amoco Corporation and Stone & Webster, to convert non-grain biomass material to ethanol, are highlighted in this presentation. The potential ethanol markets identified are: (1) fuel oxygenate and octane additive, and (2) waste reduction in the agricultural and forestry industries and in municipal waste streams. Differences in the SWAN process from that used in corn-based ethanol facilities include more intense pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, different enzymes, hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar polymers is performed in the same vessel, and a typical solid residue of lignin. The major market and technical risks have been assessed as being manageable. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n-butane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, T.K.; D`Itri, J.L.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental concerns are leading to the replacement of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline with high-octane-number branched paraffins and oxygenated compounds such as methyl t-butyl ether, which is produced from methanol and isobutylene. The latter can be formed from n-butane by isomerization followed by dehydrogenation. To meet the need for improved catalysts for isomerization of n-butane and other paraffins, researchers identified solid acids that are noncorrosive and active at low temperatures. Sulfated zirconia catalyzes the isomerization of n-butane even at 25{degrees}C, and the addition of Fe and Mn promoters increases its activity by three orders of magnitude. Little is known about this new catalyst. Here the authors provide evidence of its performance for n-butane conversion, demonstrating that isomerization is accompanied by disproportionation and other, less well understood, acid-catalyzed reactions and undergoes rapid deactivation associated with deposition of carbonaceous material. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Vehicular fuels and additives for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Interest in automotive fuel is resurging. Automobile fuels must increasingly deal with clean air regulations and ozone problems. Furthermore, feedstocks become heavier,as refinery production changes, as more unleaded is produced, and as an increasing number of pollution regulations must be satisfied greater attention will be paid to better mixtures, solvents, additives, and neat methanol. BCC report analyzes developments technologies, markets, players and the political/regulations aspects of this important market. Study also assesses the advantages and drawbacks of methanol, ethanol, MTBE and other additives which have their place as octane enhancers and fuel substitutes-all now deeply involved in the gasoline modification battle. Other issues addressed are subsidies, farm lobbying, imports, pricing, economics, Detroit's response, neat fuel testing projects, volatility problems vs. fewer ozone-forming hydrocarbon species, and emission ratings.

  11. MAK-LCO: MAK light cycle oil upgrading to premium products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pappal, D.A.; Lee, C.K. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States); Goebel, K.W. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States); Asim, M.Y. [Akzo-Nobel Chemicals, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    MAK Light Cycle Oil Upgrading is a moderate-pressure, single-stage hydrocracking process licensed jointly by Mobil, Akzo Nobel/Nippon Ketjen and The M.W. Kellogg Company to upgrade low-value light cycle oil to high-octane gasoline and a high-quality diesel blending component. The new process provides an economic alternative disposition of light cycle oil which is commonly used as a blending component for heavy fuel oils. This paper will present how the process works, including a discussion of process chemistry, pilot plant testing and catalyst development, and how the process can be integrated within an existing refinery configuration. The process configuration will be compared to other LCO processing options such as hydrotreating and high-pressure hydrocracking followed by catalytic reforming.

  12. Single-event rate parameters for paraffin hydrocracking on a Pt/US-Y zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svoboda, G.D.; Vynckier, E.; Debrabandere, B.; Froment, G.F. [Univ. Gent (Belgium). Lab. voor Petrochemische Techniek

    1995-11-01

    A single-event kinetic model is applied to octane hydrocracking on a Pt/US-Y zeolite over a wide range of experimental conditions (T = 200--260 C; P = 10--50 bar). The single-event kinetic approach used in this paper draws on the chemical knowledge of the elementary steps occurring on the catalyst surface, retaining the full detail of the reaction network. The hundreds of rate coefficients of the elementary steps in the reaction network are expressed in terms of a practical number of single-event rate coefficients. Rate equations are developed for the paraffins and the olefin and carbenium ion surface intermediates based on this network. Finally, single-event rate coefficients are estimated for both isomerization and cracking reactions.

  13. Mild hydrocracking for middle distillate production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tippett, T.W.; Ward, J.W.

    1985-03-01

    Twenty years ago the first Unicracking plant was installed at Union Oil Company's Los Angeles Refinery. Since that time, 58 Unicracking plants have been installed, converted from other technologies, or are in engineering. The Unicracking process installed at Los Angeles Refinery was pioneering in a number of ways. In particular, it was the first hydrocracking process to use molecular sieve based catalysts. It was also the first hydrocracking process to use integral process technology, namely, the total hydrofined product from the hydrotreater passed without separation into the cracking reactor. The original process was primarily designed to produce high yields of high octane gasoline. Since that time, there have been many changes in the requirements of refinery upgrading units due to changes in and availability of feedstocks, and due to changing product distribution slates. In response to these changing objectives, many modifications have occurred in the Unicracking process and catalysts. Some of the process and catalyst innovations recently implemented are discussed in this paper.

  14. Evaluate reformer performance at a glance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nag, A. [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Gujarat (India)

    1996-02-01

    Catalytic reforming is becoming increasingly important in replacing octane lost as the removal of lead from worldwide gasoline pools continues. A method has been developed that can quickly evaluate the performance of any catalytic reformer. The catalytic naphtha reforming process primarily involves three well-known reactions. These are aromatization of naphthenes, cyclization of paraffins and hydrocracking of paraffins. Hydrogen is produced in the process of aromatization and dehydrocyclization of paraffins. Reformer performance is normally evaluated with a reformate analysis (PONA) and yield of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate. This method of quick evaluation of reformer performance is based upon the main assumption that the increase in hydrocarbon moles in the process is equal to the number of C{single_bond}C bond ruptures and one mole of hydrogen is absorbed to saturate the same. This new method calculates aromatization efficiency, paraffin conversion, aromatic selectivity and finally the paraffin, naphthene and aromatic content of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate.

  15. Experience in operating L-35-5 selective hydrocracking unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bortov, V.Y.; Georgievskii, V.Y.; Semenov, V.F.; Shafranskii, E.L.; Shipikin, V.V.; Vasil'eva, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes how the L-35-11 unit at the Kuibyshev refinery was converted to the process of selective hydrocracking, using a mixture of raffinates and hexane cut as the feed which enabled high-octane automotive gasolines to be obtained in this refinery. Basic process indices were determined when two fixed runs were made on feed consisting of a mixture of raffinates and hexane cuts in different ratios. The feed for run I was a mixture of benzenetoulene and xylene raffinates, and the feed for run II was a mixture of benzene-toulene raffinate and hexane cut. The principal results from these runs are presented. Poisoning of the catalyst by the sulfur-containing feed was eliminated by treating the catalyst for 4 h in hydrogen-rich gas at the operating temperature. This also restored the catalyst activity almost completely.

  16. Vortex flow in the technology of radiation wave cracking (RWC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Tsoy; V. N. Kolushov; A. G. Komarov; A. N. Tsoy

    2012-09-16

    This article examines the theory of vortex flows in relation to the processes occurring in the radiation-wave cracking of crude oil, when the crude oil is sprayed into the gas stream in the form of a mist and then is fed into the reactor, where it is treated by the accelerated electrons and the UHF radiation. The output of this process are the products with the specified parameters (high-octane petroleum products). This process operates at the ambient pressure and temperature, which makes the process safer for industrial purposes. Besides the process itself, the authors described the equipment used in this process, as well as the parameters of the optimal process.

  17. Novel strategies for the synthesis of methane adsorbents with controlled porosity and high surface area. Annual report, January 1, 1994-December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ventura, S.C.; Kumar, S.K.; Yokoi, S.I.

    1995-04-01

    Natural gas is an attractive alternative to gasoline as fuel for cars because of its desirable emission characteristics, good cold starting characteristics, and high octane number. A major factor that limits widespread use of NGV`s is the low energy density of natural gas. The authors have developed low-cost gel precursors that are excellent binders of high surface area carbon and produce monoliths with piece density of 0.64 g/mL, carbon packing density of 0.62 g/mL and methane volumetric storage capacity of 140 V/V (based on volume of gas delivered) at 500 psia. The authors` preliminary experiments show that piece density may be further increased under suitable processing conditions and that even higher methane volumetric capacities will be attainable.

  18. Photoimageable composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simison, Kelby Liv; Dentinger, Paul

    2003-11-11

    The use of selected buffering amines in a photoimageable composition prevents process bias which with conventional photoresists causes designed features to be distorted, especially in corners and high resolution features. It is believed that the amines react with the catalysts, e.g., photoacids, generated to create an inert salt. The presence of the amines also increases resolution. Suitable photoimageable compositions includes: (a) a multifunctional polymeric epoxy resin that is dissolved in an organic solvent wherein the epoxy resin comprises oligomers of bisphenol A that is quantitatively protected by glycidyl ether and wherein the oligomers have an average functionality that ranges from about 3 to 12; (b) a photoactive compound; and (c) an amine that is selected from the group consisting of triisobutylamine, 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (also known as PROTON SPONGET.TM.), 2,2'-diazabicyclo[2.2.2] octane and mixtures thereof. The photoimageable composition is particularly suited for producing high aspect ratio metal microstructures.

  19. Increasing the rate of hydrogen oxidation without increasing the overpotential: A bio-inspired iron molecular electrocatalyst with an outer coordination sphere proton relay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Kumar, Neeraj; Hulley, Elliott B.; Weiss, Charles J.; Raugei, Simone; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2015-03-05

    Oxidation of hydrogen (H?) to protons and electrons for energy production in fuel cells is catalyzed by platinum, but its low abundance and high cost present drawbacks to widespread adoption. Precisely controlled proton delivery and removal is critical in hydrogenase enzymes in nature that catalyze H? oxidation using earth-abundant metals (iron and nickel). Here we report a synthetic iron complex, (CpC5F4N)Fe(PEtN(CH2)3NMe2PEt)(Cl), that serves as a precatalyst for the oxidation of H?, with turnover frequencies of 290 s?¹ in fluorobenzene, under 1 atm of H? using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as the exogenous base. The cooperative effect of the primary, secondary and outermore »coordination spheres for moving protons in this remarkably fast catalyst emphasizes the key role of pendant amines in mimicking the functionality of the proton pathway in the hydrogenase enzymes.« less

  20. Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Jeffery K; Pawel, Steven J; Wilson, Dane F

    2013-01-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  1. Fuel-tolerance tests with the Ford PROCO engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choma, M.A.; Havstad, P.H.; Simko, A.O.; Stockhausen, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of fuel tolerance tests were conducted utilizing Ford's PROCO engine, a direct fuel injection stratified charge engine developed for light duty vehicles. These engine tests were run on the dynamometer and in vehicles. Data indicate an 89 RON octane requirement, relatively low sensitivity to volatility characteristics and good fuel economy, emission control and operability on a certain range of petroleum fuel and alcohol mixes including 100% methanol. Fuels such as JP-4 and Diesel fuel are not at present suitable for this engine. There were no engine modifications tested that might improve the match between the engine and a particular fuel. The 100% methanol test was conducted with a modified fuel injection pump. Durability aspects including compatibility of various fuels with the materials in the fuel system were not addressed.

  2. An engine concept for a viable transition into the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eng, K.D.

    1982-11-01

    Syncrudes and synfuels will be introduced in the future to supplement or replace petroleum based transportation fuels. Initial synfuels may have qualities considerably different from present fuels and may cause operational problems in engines. Instead of further treating the synfuels to meet current fuel specifications, thus increasing the production costs, it is entirely viable to introduce an engine which has the capability of operating on a broad range of fuels. This type of engine, with its ability to run on petroleum based fuels and synfuels, could provide a smooth transition into the future. The Texaco Controlled-Combustion System (TCCS) is a direct-injection, stratified-charge, engine concept. It has demonstrated the ability to run on a broad range of fuels including gasoline, diesel, broadcut fuels, low octane shale derived gasoline and alcohols. Performance of an engine modified to employ the TCCS concept, operating on different fuels, is discussed in this paper.

  3. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steve; Moore, D.

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  4. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K

    2008-05-29

    Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the basis of computational results.

  5. Fuel Composition Effects at Constant RON and MON in an HCCI Engine Operated with Negative Valve Overlap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G; Farrell, John T

    2006-01-01

    The effects of fuel properties on gasoline HCCI operation have been investigated in a single cylinder, 500 cc, 11.3 CR port fuel injected research engine, operated at lambda=1 and equipped with hydraulic valve actuation. HCCI is promoted by early exhaust valve closing to retain hot exhaust in the cylinder, thereby increasing the cylinder gas temperature. Test fuels were formulated with pure components to have the same RON, MON, and octane sensitivity as an indolene reference fuel, but with a wide range of fuel composition differences. Experiments have been carried out to determine if fuel composition plays a role in HCCI combustion properties, independent of octane numbers. Fuel economy, emissions, and combustion parameters have been measured at several fixed speed/load conditions over a range of exhaust valve closing angles. When the data are compared at constant combustion phasing, fuel effects on emissions and other combustion properties are small. However, when compared at constant exhaust valve closing angle, fuel composition effects are more pronounced, specifically regarding ignition. Operability range differences are also related to fuel composition. An all-paraffinic (normal, iso, and cycloparaffins) fuel exhibited distinctly earlier combustion phasing, increased rate of cylinder pressure rise, and increased rate of maximum heat release compared to the indolene reference fuel. Conversely, olefin-containing fuels exhibited retarded combustion phasing. The fuels with the most advanced ignition showed a wider operating range in terms of engine speed and load, irrespective of exhaust closing angle. These ignition differences reflect contributions from both fuel and EGR kinetics, the effects of which are discussed. The fuel composition variables are somewhat inter-correlated, which makes the experimental separation their effects imprecise with this small set of fuels, though clear trends are evident. The overall effects of fuel composition on engine performance and emissions are small. However, the results suggest that the effects on combustion phasing and engine operability range may need to be considered in the practical implementation of HCCI for fuels with large compositional variations.

  6. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  7. Numerical investigation of spontaneous flame propagation under RCCI conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhagatwala, Ankit V; Sankaran, Ramanan; Kokjohn, Sage; Chen, Jacqueline H

    2015-06-30

    This paper presents results from one and two-dimensional direct numerical simulations under Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) conditions of a primary reference fuel (PRF) mixture consisting of n-heptane and iso-octane. RCCI uses in-cylinder blending of two fuels with different autoignition characteristics to control combustion phasing and the rate of heat release. These simulations employ an improved model of compression heating through mass source/sink terms developed in a previous work by Bhagatwala et al. (2014), which incorporates feedback from the flow to follow a predetermined experimental pressure trace. Two-dimensional simulations explored parametric variations with respect to temperature stratification, pressure profiles andmore »n-heptane concentration. Furthermore, statistics derived from analysis of diffusion/reaction balances locally normal to the flame surface were used to elucidate combustion characteristics for the different cases. Both deflagration and spontaneous ignition fronts were observed to co-exist, however it was found that higher n-heptane concentration provided a greater degree of flame propagation, whereas lower n-heptane concentration (higher fraction of iso-octane) resulted in more spontaneous ignition fronts. A significant finding was that simulations initialized with a uniform initial temperature and a stratified n-heptane concentration field, resulted in a large fraction of combustion occurring through flame propagation. The proportion of spontaneous ignition fronts increased at higher pressures due to shorter ignition delay when other factors were held constant. For the same pressure and fuel concentration, the contribution of flame propagation to the overall combustion was found to depend on the level of thermal stratification, with higher initial temperature gradients resulting in more deflagration and lower gradients generating more ignition fronts. Statistics of ignition delay are computed to assess the Zel’dovich (1980) theory for the mode of combustion propagation based on ignition delay gradients.« less

  8. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jun, Ji Hyun

    2011-11-30

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 ?m) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 ?m was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial distribution of targeted metabolites, mainly waxes and flavonoids, was systematically explored on various organs, including flowers, leaves, stems, and roots at high spatial resolution of ~ 12-50 ?m and the changes in the abundance level of these metabolites were monitored on the cer1 mutant with respect to the wild-type. This study revealed the metabolic biology of CER1 gene on each individual organ level with very detailed high spatial resolution. The separate MS images of isobaric metabolites, i.e. C29 alkane vs. C28 aldehyde could be constructed on both genotypes from MS imaging at high mass resolution. This allows tracking of abundance changes for those compounds along with the genetic mutation, which is not achievable with low mass resolution mass spectrometry. This study supported previous hypothesis of molecular function of CER1 gene as aldehyde decarbonylase, especially by displaying hyper accumulation of aldehydes and C30 fatty acid and decrease in abundance of alkanes and ketones in several plant organs of cer1 mutant. The scope of analytes was further directed toward internal cell metabolites from the surface metabolites of the plant. MS profiling and imaging of internal cell metabolites were performed on the vibratome section of Arabidopsis leaf. Vibratome sectioning of the leaf was first conducted to remove the surface cuticle layer and it was followed by enzymatic treatment of the section to induce the digestion of primary cell walls, middle lamella, and expose the internal cells underneath to the surface for detection with the laser by LDI-MS. The subsequent MS imaging onto the enzymatically treated vibratome section allowed us to map the distribution of the metabolites in the internal cell layers, linolenic acid (C18:3 FA) and linoleic acid (C18:2 FA). The development of an assay for relative quantification of analytes at the single subcellular/organelle level by LDI-MS imaging was attempted and both plausibility and significant obstacles were seen. As a test system, native plant organelle, chloroplasts isolated from the spinach leaves were used

  9. Saturn's inner satellites: Orbits, masses, and the chaotic motion of atlas from new Cassini imaging observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, N. J.; Murray, C. D.; Renner, S.; Evans, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    We present numerically derived orbits and mass estimates for the inner Saturnian satellites, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, and Epimetheus from a fit to 2580 new Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem astrometric observations spanning 2004 February to 2013 August. The observations are provided as machine-readable and Virtual Observatory tables. We estimate GM{sub Atlas} = (0.384 ± 0.001) × 10{sup ?3} km{sup 3} s{sup ?2}, a value 13% smaller than the previously published estimate but with an order of magnitude reduction in the uncertainty. We also find GM{sub Prometheus} = (10.677 ± 0.006) × 10{sup ?3} km{sup 3} s{sup ?2}, GM{sub Pandora} = (9.133 ± 0.009) × 10{sup ?3} km{sup 3} s{sup ?2}, GM{sub Janus} = (126.51 ± 0.03) × 10{sup ?3} km{sup 3} s{sup ?2}, and GM{sub Epimetheus} = (35.110 ± 0.009) × 10{sup ?3} km{sup 3} s{sup ?2}, consistent with previously published values, but also with significant reductions in uncertainties. We show that Atlas is currently librating in both the 54:53 co-rotation-eccentricity resonance (CER) and the 54:53 inner Lindblad (ILR) resonance with Prometheus, making it the latest example of a coupled CER-ILR system, in common with the Saturnian satellites Anthe, Aegaeon, and Methone, and possibly Neptune's ring arcs. We further demonstrate that Atlas's orbit is chaotic, with a Lyapunov time of ?10 years, and show that its chaotic behavior is a direct consequence of the coupled resonant interaction with Prometheus, rather than being an indirect effect of the known chaotic interaction between Prometheus and Pandora. We provide an updated analysis of the second-order resonant perturbations involving Prometheus, Pandora, and Epimetheus based on the new observations, showing that these resonant arguments are librating only when Epimetheus is the innermost of the co-orbital pair, Janus and Epimetheus. We also find evidence that the known chaotic changes in the orbits of Prometheus and Pandora are not confined to times of apse anti-alignment.

  10. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  11. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket contract for the supply of foundry services in quarter-micron CMOS technology for the LHC experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket contract for the supply of foundry services in quarter-micron CMOS technology for the LHC experiments. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of an amendment to the blanket contract for the supply of foundry services in quarter-micron CMOS technology with the company IBM TECHNOLOGY GROUP (CH), formerly IBM ITALIA (IT), for an extension of the period of validity from five to eight years and for an amount exceeding the previously authorised amount of 8 500 000 US dollars by up to 6 500 000 US dollars, not subject to revision, bringing the total contract amount to a maximum amount of 15 000 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, the total amended amount of the blanket contract is equivalent to approximately 19 800 000 Swiss francs. This requirement will be financed by the collaborating institutes of the LHC experiments and by CER...

  12. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education: A guide to record series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-17

    This guide describes record series that pertain to epidemiologic and health-related studies at the Center for Epidemiologic Research (CER) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). These records document the health and safety monitoring of employees and contract employees of the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of the DOE and its epidemiologic research program, and the history of the Oak Ridge Reservation and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. It also furnishes information on the procedures that HAI sued to select, inventory, and describe pertinent records; the methodology used to produce the guide; the arrangement of the record series descriptions; the location of the records; and procedures for accessing records repositories.

  13. Hope or Hype? What is Next for Biofuels? (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Keasling, Jay; Bristow, Jim; Tringe, Susannah Green

    2011-04-28

    Science at the Theater: From the sun to your gas tank: A new breed of biofuels may help solve the global energy challenge and reduce the impact of fossil fuels on global warming. KTVU Channel 2 health and science editor John Fowler will moderate a panel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists who are developing ways to convert the solar energy stored in plants into liquid fuels. Jay Keasling is one of the foremost authorities in the ?eld of synthetic biology. He is applying this research toward the production of advanced carbon-neutral biofuels that can replace gasoline on a gallon-for-gallon basis. Keasling is Berkeley Labs Acting Deputy Director and the Chief Executive Of?cer of the U.S. Department of Energys Joint BioEnergy Institute. Jim Bristow is deputy director of programs for the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI), a national user facility in Walnut Creek, CA. He developed and implemented JGIs Community Sequencing Program, which provides large-scale DNA sequencing and analysis to advance genomics related to bioenergy and environmental characterization and cleanup. Susanna Green Tringe is a computational biologist with the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). She helped pioneer the ?eld of metagenomics, a new strategy for isolating, sequencing, and characterizing DNA extracted directly from environmental samples, such as the contents of the termite gut, which yielded enzymes responsible for breakdown of wood into fuel.

  14. Splitting a C-O bond in dialkylethers with bis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl) cerium-hydride does not occur by a sigma-bond metathesis pathway: a combined experimental and DFT computational study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werkema, Evan; Yahia, Ahmed; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile; Andersen, Richard

    2010-04-06

    Addition of diethylether to [1,2,4(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH, abbreviated Cp'2CeH, gives Cp'2CeOEt and ethane. Similarly, di-n-propyl- or di-n-butylether gives Cp'2Ce(O-n-Pr) and propane or Cp'2Ce(O-n-Bu) and butane, respectively. Using Cp'2CeD, the propane and butane contain deuterium predominantly in their methyl groups. Mechanisms, formulated on the basis of DFT computational studies, show that the reactions begin by an alpha or beta-CH activation with comparable activation barriers but only the beta-CH activation intermediate evolves into the alkoxide product and an olefin. The olefin then inserts into the Ce-H bond forming the alkyl derivative, Cp'2CeR, that eliminates alkane. The alpha-CH activation intermediate is in equilibrium with the starting reagents, Cp'2CeH and the ether, which accounts for the deuterium label in the methyl groups of the alkane. The one-step sigma-bond metathesis mechanism has a much higher activation barrier than either of the two-step mechanisms.

  15. Diet, nutrition and forage requirements of javelina in South Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallagher, James Francis

    1981-01-01

    Cer n 4 84. 440. 8 sb* 60 48 85. 8io. g ab 72. 5c 88. 820. 8 ab 76. 6c 77. 931. 5 ab S. ge 21. 9d 5. 06 81. 3il, S 75. 3i1. 4 a a 87. 1i2. 4 ab 9. Dc 89. 6A0. 9 ab 72. 3c 51. 4i3. 0 sb 35. 6c Nat Spring n 5 56. 8de 64. 9d 69. 28... 29. 2d 41. 1c -142. 9c 119. 7a 48. 28 30. 6c Nat. guesser n 4 49. Ie 49, 3e S2. 3e 56. 2c 61. 2b 24. 96 65. 5b 12. 3e 9. 1d Nat. Autunn fl 2 71. 6c 78. 0bc 81. 4bc 6(i. 3bc 72. 3ab 23. 38 73. 8ab 59. 68 44. 5bc values vithin colunns folloiied...

  16. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Jones

    2004-10-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

  17. Fuel, lubricant and additive effects in combustion chamber deposit formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Homan, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    CCD causes octane requirement increase (ORI) and can potentially contributes to exhaust emissions and combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI). Experiments were conducted to identify the separate fuel, lubricant and additive contributions to the amount and composition of CCD. CCD originates from multiple sources. Gasoline hydrocarbon components, gasoline additives, engine lubricant, and atmospheric nitrogen contribute to CCD in different ways. With some fuels the engine lubricant is the main contributor to CCD and this is shown by the high ash level in the CCD. For other fuels CCD is predominantly organic. Significant amounts of nitrogen were found in the CCD even when the fuel and lubricant were nitrogen free. The pyrolysis reactivity of different CCDs was studied to gain an understanding about the transformations that potentially happen over longer times and lower temperatures on the combustion chamber walls. In all cases during mild pyrolysis (375{degrees}C) there was a substantial increase in the level of aromatic carbon and a decrease in the level of organic oxygen. The largest increases in the amount of aromatic carbon occurred for CCDs that were the least aromatic.

  18. Synthesis and Rietveld refinement of the small-pore zeolite SSZ-16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobo, R.F.; Zones, S.I.; Medrud, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    Recent research efforts invested in the synthesis of new high-silica zeolites have yielded several novel materials with medium ({approximately}5.6 {Angstrom}) and large ({approximately}7.2 {Angstrom}) pores. Examples include new zeolites with intersecting 10 and 12 member rings-i.e., pores bounded by 10 and 12 tetrahedral (T) atoms respectively-like SSZ-26, NU-87, SSZ-37, SSZ-25, MCM-22, CIT-1 (CON), and the aluminophosphate-based DAF-1 (DFO). However, except for the zeolites SSZ-28 (DDR) and SSZ-13 (CHA), no new high-silica zeolites with small pores have been reported. High-silica small-pore zeolites could be potentially useful for several catalytic reactions including the synthesis of dimethylamine, the reduction of NO{sub x} from combustion gases and the dewaxing of fuels for octane upgrading. The authors present here the synthesis and structural characterization using Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data of the zeolite SSZ-16. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Apparatus and method for comparing corresponding acoustic resonances in liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Almos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method for comparing corresponding acoustic resonances in liquids. The present invention permits the measurement of certain characteristics of liquids which affect the speed of sound therein. For example, a direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the speed of sound in a gasoline sample has been experimentally observed. Therefore, changes in the speed of sound therein can be utilized as a sensitive parameter for determining changes in composition of a liquid sample. The present apparatus establishes interference patterns inside of a liquid without requiring the use of very thin, rigorously parallel ceramic discs, but rather uses readily available piezoelectric transducers attached to the outside surface of the usual container for the liquid and located on the same side thereof in the vicinity of one another. That is, various receptacle geometries may be employed, and the driving and receiving transducers may be located on the same side of the receptacle. The cell may also be constructed of any material that is inert to the liquid under investigation. A single-transducer embodiment, where the same transducer provides the excitation to the sample container and receives signals impressed therein, is also described.

  20. Apparatus and method for comparing corresponding acoustic resonances in liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.

    1999-03-23

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for comparing corresponding acoustic resonances in liquids. The present invention permits the measurement of certain characteristics of liquids which affect the speed of sound therein. For example, a direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the speed of sound in a gasoline sample has been experimentally observed. Therefore, changes in the speed of sound therein can be utilized as a sensitive parameter for determining changes in composition of a liquid sample. The present apparatus establishes interference patterns inside of a liquid without requiring the use of very thin, rigorously parallel ceramic discs, but rather uses readily available piezoelectric transducers attached to the outside surface of the usual container for the liquid and located on the same side thereof in the vicinity of one another. That is, various receptacle geometries may be employed, and the driving and receiving transducers may be located on the same side of the receptacle. The cell may also be constructed of any material that is inert to the liquid under investigation. A single-transducer embodiment, where the same transducer provides the excitation to the sample container and receives signals impressed therein, is also described. 5 figs.

  1. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  2. The Autoignition of iso-Cetane: Shock Tube Experiments and Kinetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oehlschlaeger, M A; Steinberg, J; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J

    2009-02-25

    Iso-cetane (2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, C{sub 16}H{sub 34}) is a highly branched alkane reference compound for determining cetane ratings. It is also a candidate branched alkane representative in surrogate mixtures for diesel and jet fuels. Here new experiments and kinetic modeling results are presented for the autoignition of iso-cetane at elevated temperatures and pressures relevant to combustion in internal combustion engines. Ignition delay time measurements were made in reflected shock experiments in a heated shock tube for {Phi} = 0.5 and 1.0 iso-cetane/air mixtures at temperatures ranging from 953 to 1347 K and pressures from 8 to 47 atm. Ignition delay times were measured using electronically excited OH emission, monitored through the shock tube end wall, and piezoelectric pressure transducer measurements, made at side wall locations. A new kinetic mechanism for the description of the oxidation of iso-cetane is presented that is developed based on a previous mechanism for iso-octane. Computed results from the mechanism are found in good agreement with the experimental measurements. To our knowledge, the ignition time measurements and detailed kinetic mechanism for isocetane presented here are the first of their kind.

  3. A Rapid Compression Machine Modelling Study of the Heptane Isomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silke, E J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2005-05-10

    Previously we have reported on the combustion behavior of all nine isomers of heptane in a rapid compression machine (RCM) with stoichiometric fuel and ''air'' mixtures at a compressed gas pressure of 15 atm. The dependence of autoignition delay times on molecular structure was illustrated. Here, we report some additional experimental work that was performed in order to address unusual results regarding significant differences in the ignition delay times recorded at the same fuel and oxygen composition, but with different fractions of nitrogen and argon diluent gases. Moreover, we have begun to simulate these experiments with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms. These mechanisms are based on previous studies of other alkane molecules, in particular, n-heptane and iso-octane. We have focused our attention on n-heptane in order to systematically redevelop the chemistry and thermochemistry for this C{sub 7} isomer with the intention of extending our greater knowledge gained to the other eight isomers. The addition of new reaction types, that were not included previously, has had a significant impact on the simulations, particularly at low temperatures.

  4. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  5. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  6. Characterization and catalytic properties of hydrothermally dealuminated MCM-22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meriaudeau, P.; Tuan, V.A.; Nghiem, V.T.; Ha, V.T. [IRC/NCRS, Villeurbanne (France)] [IRC/NCRS, Villeurbanne (France); Lefevbre, F. [Univ. Claude Bernard, Villeurbanne (France)] [Univ. Claude Bernard, Villeurbanne (France)

    1999-07-25

    Zeolite MCM-22 was recently patented as a useful catalyst for alkylation and isomerization reactions and for conversion of methanol or olefins to hydrocarbons. MCM-22 has been synthesized and dealuminated by hydrothermal treatments. The resulting solids were characterized by different techniques in order to know how the acid properties of the dealuminated solids were modified. It appears that the number of acid sites was decreased by hydrothermal treatments but the acid strength was not modified. Nondealuminated and dealuminated solids were used in the n-octane hydroconversion. Results suggested that for both types of solids the hydroisomerization is mainly occurring in the 10-membered ring (MR) channels whereas the hydrocracking is mainly coming from acid sites located in 12-membered ring channels. According to the observed distribution of monobranched isomers, MCM-22 shows some ``shape-selective`` character typical of the pentasil family, whereas, according to the absolute yield of isopentane in the hydrocracked products at low hydrocracking conversions, MCM-22 behaves more like a 12 MR zeolite.

  7. Selective hydrocracking of heavy straight run naphtha bottoms for T90 reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsing, L.H.; Nelson, R.G. [Texaco Research and Development, Port Arthur, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Refiners are being presented with a major challenge to meet proposed stringent specifications for reformulated gasoline to lower auto exhaustive emissions. Among the specifications proposed to be regulated by EPA, the T90 boiling point of gasoline is found to have a great influence on hydrocarbon emissions. T90 reduction of naphtha streams by hydrocracking has been identified as a processing scheme to upgrade the heavy naphtha fraction before blending with other refining streams. In this paper, a commercially available catalyst was evaluated for the T90 reduction of the heavy fraction of heavy straight run naphtha with an ASTM D-86 boiling range of 275-386F (HSRN). The catalyst was found to be effective in lowering the T90 of HSRN from 344F to 300F under reaction conditions of 2 LHSV/1000 psig/650 F or 4 LHSV/1000 psig/695 F. The product yield shift by hydrocracking was from C9-C11 hydrocarbons to C4-C6 components, particularly C4 and C5 isoparaffins. Both RON and MON of the liquid products were increased significantly from 36 and 42 up to 78 and 74, respectively. The increase of octane numbers is a function of hydrocracking severity. The liquid product yield was about 75 vol% with a T90 of 300F. The liquid product sulfur and nitrogen contents were less than 30 and 0.15 wppm, respectively.

  8. Conversion of light naphthas over sulfided nickle erionite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heck, R.H.; Chen, Nai Y. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States). Central Research Laboratory)

    1993-06-01

    A natural erionite ore has been exchanged with ammonium and nickel salts to yield a Ni/H erionite catalyst that is active and stable for selectively hydrocracking only the n-paraffins from light straight-run naphthas. The primary product is a C[sup 5+] liquid that is 15-20 octane numbers higher than the feed and a propane- and butane-rich gas by-product. Results from a 110-day pilot plant run demonstrated that a catalyst life of more than 1 year should be possible. Naphthenes, aromatics, and isoparaffins are neither produced nor consumed in this process, resulting in a C[sup 5+] liquid product that is lower in benzene and total aromatics than attainable by catalytic reforming of these feeds. Although no further work is planned with this catalyst, a naphtha-upgrading process based on shape-selective zeolitic hydrocracking could provide an attractive alternative to catalytic reforming or isomerization for these hard to upgrade naphthas. It should be particularly attractive in areas where the by-product propane and butane have good value.

  9. Vacuum pyrolysis of used tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, C.; Darmstadt, H.; Benallal, B.; Chaala, A.; Schwerdtfeger, A.E.

    1995-11-01

    The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires enables the recovery of useful products, such as pyrolytic oil and pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). The light part of the pyrolytic oil contains dl-limonene which has a high price on the market. The naphtha fraction can be used as a high octane number component for gasoline. The middle distillate demonstrated mechanical and lubricating properties similar to those of the commercial aromatic oil Dutrex R 729. The heavy oil was tested as a feedstock for the production of needle coke. It was found that the surface morphology of CB{sub P} produced by vacuum pyrolysis resembles that of commercial carbon black. The CB{sub P} contains a higher concentration of inorganic compounds (especially ZnO and S) than commercial carbon black. The pyrolysis process feasibility looks promising. One old tire can generate upon vacuum pyrolysis, incomes of at least $2.25 US with a potential of up to $4.83 US/tire upon further product improvement. The process has been licensed to McDermott Marketing Servicing Inc. (Houston) for its exploitation in the US.

  10. Duality of the Interfacial Thermal Conductance in Graphene-based Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ying [Clemson University] [Clemson University; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL] [ORNL; Yang, Bao [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL] [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [Clemson University] [Clemson University

    2014-01-01

    The thermal conductance of graphene-matrix interfaces plays a key role in controlling the thermal transport properties of graphene-based nanocomposites. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we found that the interfacial thermal conductance depends strongly on the mode of heat transfer at the graphene-matrix interfaces: if heat enters graphene from one side of its basal plane and immediately leaves the graphene through the other side, the corresponding interfacial thermal conductance, G(across), is large; if heat enters graphene from both sides of its basal plane and leaves the graphene at a position far away on its basal plane, the corresponding interfacial thermal conductance, G(non-across), is small. For a single-layer graphene immersed in liquid octane, G(across) is ~150 MW/m2K while Gnon-across is ~5 MW/m2K. G(across) decreases with increasing multi-layer graphene thickness (i.e., number of layers in graphene) and approaches an asymptotic value of 100 MW/m2K for 7-layer graphenes. G(non-across) increases only marginally as the graphene sheet thickness increases. Such a duality of the interface thermal conductance for different probing methods and its dependence on graphene sheet thickness can be traced ultimately to the unique physical and chemical structure of graphene materials. The ramifications of these results in areas such as experimental measurement of thermal conductivity of graphene and the design of graphene-based thermal nanocomposites are discussed.

  11. Ethyl`s MMT ready to hit the road

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringer, J.

    1996-01-03

    After spending two decades and about $30 million on the fight to sell the fuel octane booster methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), Ethyl has started marketing the product. Ethyl president and chief operating officer Thomas Gottwald says he expects a profit from MMT from the outset. {open_quotes}MMT is a gangbuster new product,{close_quotes} says Paul Raman, an analyst with S.G. Warburg (New York), {open_quotes}and it will be very profitable for Ethyl.{close_quotes} Ethyl`s effort to bring MMT to market faced pressure from EPA and automakers. EPA says MMT should not be marketed until more research is done on health effects of the manganese-based additive. US automakers oppose MMT, fearing it will damage catalytic converters. Last October Ethyl won a federal appeals court decision compelling EPA to approve MMT use. Gottwald says the MMT fight has been well worth it: {open_quotes}We fought with our eye on the bottom line.{close_quotes}

  12. Tertiary recycling of PVC-containing plastic waste by copyrolysis with cattle manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duangchan, Apinya [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Paholyotin Road, Ladyao Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: fengapd@ku.ac.th; Samart, Chanatip [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Paholyotin Road, Ladyao Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    The corrosion from pyrolysis of PVC in plastic waste was reduced by copyrolysis of PVC with cattle manure. The optimization of pyrolysis conditions between PVC and cattle manure was studied via a statistical method, the Box-Behnken model. The pyrolysis reaction was operated in a tubular reactor. Heating rate, reaction temperature and the PVC:cattle manure ratio were optimized in the range of 1-5 deg. C/min, 250-450 deg. C and the ratio of 1:1-1:5, respectively. The suitable conditions which provided the highest HCl reduction efficiency were the lowest heating rate of 1 deg. C/min, the highest reaction temperature of 450 deg. C, and the PVC:cattle manure ratio of 1:5, with reliability of more than 90%. The copyrolysis of the mixture of PVC-containing plastic and cattle manure was operated at optimized conditions and the synergistic effect was studied on product yields. The presence of manure decreased the oil yield by about 17%. The distillation fractions of oil at various boiling points from both the presence and absence of manure were comparable. The BTX concentration decreased rapidly when manure was present and the chlorinated hydrocarbon was reduced by 45%. However, the octane number of the gasoline fraction was not affected by manure and was in the range of 99-100.

  13. Study of optimal sequences and energy requirements of integrated processing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Enezi, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The increased demand for high quality unleaded gasoline produced from a refinery has caused an increased in developing processing alternatives for producing high-octane gasoline components. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is currently considered one of the most practical alternatives. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is based mainly on the availability of light hydrocarbons as a feed, such as isobutane from a refinery. The availability of isobutane is increased by isomerization of normal butanes. Even though distillation processes are widely used to separate mixtures of light hydrocarbons, they are highly energy intensive. A steady-state design of several configurations of distillation columns were studied for separating light hydrocarbon mixtures. A number of energy conservation alternatives were evaluated for the distillation process integrated with an isomerization unit. A modified form of the Complex Method of Box was used for optimizing the design and operating conditions of these energy conservation alternatives. The use of vapor recompression with distillation columns was evaluated as one of the alternatives. Despite the more complex processing scheme required, this alternative used only about 30% of the external energy required in a conventional distillation process for the same separation. The operating conditions of the multi-effect distillation columns were optimized as another alternative. Reduction in energy consumption for this case was about 40% compared to conventional distillation columns.

  14. Relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kashiwabara, Kimito [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujisawa, Norihiro; Matsubara, Michiro

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between MBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100 C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio ({lambda}) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated. The results indicate that the new DI worsen when heavy reformate containing large amounts of aromatics or MTBE, an oxygen-containing compound, is used for the octane improver, leaving the balance of the volatility out of consideration.

  15. Use of ethyl-t-butyl ether (ETBE) as a gasoline blending component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiblom, C.M.; Schoonveld, G.A.; Riley, R.K.; Pahl, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Treasury Department recently ruled that the ethanol blenders tax credit applies to ethanol used to make ETBE for blending with gasoline. As a result, ETBE may soon become a popular gasoline blending component. Like MTBE ETBE adds oxygen to the fuel while contributing to other performance properties of the gasoline. Phillips Petroleum Company has completed limited driveability and material compatibility studies on gasolines containing ETBE and has determined the effect on various performance parameters such as octane, volatility, and distillation of ETBE in gasoline. Levels of ETBE ranging from 0.0 to 23.5 volume percent (3.7 weight percent oxygen) in gasoline were included in the investigation. Use in gasoline is currently limited to only 12.7 volume percent (2.0 weight percent oxygen) by the gasoline substantially similar rule. No detrimental effects of the ETBE on metal or elastomeric parts common to gasoline delivery and fueling system were found. Also, several favorable blending properties of eTBE in gasoline are apparent as compared to either MTBE or ethanol. This paper presents details of these results.

  16. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes: Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biscardi, J.; Bowden, P.T.; Durante, V.A.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Gray, H.B.; Gorbey, R.G.; Hayes, R.C.; Hodge, J.; Hughes, M.; Langdale, W.A.; Lyons, J.E.; Marcus, B.; Messick, D.; Merrill, R.A.; Moore, F.A.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Seitzer, W.H.; Shaikh, S.N.; Tsao, W.H.; Wagner, R.W.; Warren, R.W.; Wijesekera, T.P.

    1997-05-01

    The first Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between January 1. 1992 and March 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products which can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient porphryinic macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE III).

  17. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.M.

    1992-05-19

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products' laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively benign'' system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE's program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

  18. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas. Quarterly status report No. 6, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.M.

    1992-05-19

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products` laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively ``benign`` system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE`s program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

  19. Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.

  20. Direct Measurement and Chemical Speciation of Top Ring Zone Liquid During Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Burrows, Barry Clay; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The present manuscript consists of proof of concept experiments involving direct measurements and detailed chemical speciation from the top ring zone of a running engine. The work uses a naturally aspirated single cylinder utility engine that has been modified to allow direct liquid sample acquisition from behind the top ring. Samples were analyzed and spectated using gas chromatographic techniques. Results show that the liquid mixture in the top ring zone is neither neat lubricant nor fuel but a combination of the two with unique chemical properties. At the tested steady state no-load operating condition, the chemical species of the top ring zone liquid were found to be highly dependent on boiling point, where both low reactivity higher boiling point fuel species and lubricant are observed to be the dominant constituents. The results show that at least for the tested condition, approximately 25% of the top ring zone is comprised of gasoline fuel like molecules, which are dominated by high octane number aromatic species, while the remainder of the liquid is comprised of lubricant like species.

  1. Environmental fate of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, A.W.; Wolfe, N.L.; Swank, R.R. Jr.; Cipollone, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) has been proposed as an octane booster for unleaded gasoline; such use could result in ecological and human exposure through surface water and groundwater ecosystems. To evaluate the environmental risks from MMT, its environmental fate constants and transformation pathways must be known. Constants for physical parameters that would likely influence MMT fate were collected from the literature or calculated; the compound`s octanol/water partition coefficient and water solubility were determined in the laboratory. Experiments were designed to screen MMT for transformation pathways that are significant over environmentally short time frames. The MMT was found to be fairly stable in the dark in aquifer materials and sediments at various Eh levels; half-lives ranged from 0.2 to 1.5 years in aquifer materials at 25 C. (These matrices were not optimized for biodegradation.) On the other hand, MMT photolyzes rapidly in distilled water; its half-life in midday sunlight in water is approximately 1 min and the disappearance quantum yield is 0.13. Photodegradation products were identified as cyclopentadiene, methyl cyclopentadiene, carbon monoxide, and a manganese carbonyl that readily oxidized to trimanganese tetroxide.

  2. Combustion control technologies for direct injection SI engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kume, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Iida, K.; Murakami, M.; Akishino, K.; Ando, H.

    1996-09-01

    Novel combustion control technologies for the direct injection SI engine have been developed. By adopting upright straight intake ports to generate air tumble, an electromagnetic swirl injector to realize optimized spray dispersion and atomization and a compact piston cavity to maintain charge stratification, it has become possible to achieve super-lean stratified combustion for higher thermal efficiency under partial loads as well as homogeneous combustion to realize higher performance at full loads. At partial loads, fuel is injected into the piston cavity during the later stage of the compression stroke. Any fuel spray impinging on the cavity wall is directed to the spark plug. Tumbling air flow in the cavity also assists the conservation of the rich mixture zone around the spark plug. Stable combustion can be realized under a air fuel ratio exceeding 40. At higher loads, fuel is injected during the early stage of the intake stroke. Since air cooling by the latent heat of vaporization increases volumetric efficiency and reduces the octane number requirement, a high compression ratio of 12 to 1 can be adopted. As a result, engines utilizing these types of control technologies show a 10% increase in improved performance over conventional port injection engines.

  3. Advanced development of rotary stratified charge 750 and 1500 HP military multi-fuel engines at Curtiss-Wright

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.

    1984-01-01

    During the period from 1977 to 1982, two and four rotor naturally aspirated Stratified Charge Rotary Combustion engines were under development for the U.S. Marine Corps. These engines are described and highlights of work conducted under the government ''Advanced Development'' contracts are discussed. The basic direct injected and spark ignited stratified charge technology was defined during 1973-1976 for automotive engine applications. It was then demonstrated that the unthrottled naturally aspirated Rotary could match indirect injected diesel fuel consumption, without regard to fuel cetane or octane rating. This same technology was scaled from the 60''/sup 3//rotor automotive engine module to the 350''/sup 3//rotor military engine size. In addition, parallel company-sponsored research efforts were undertaken to explore growth directions. Tests showed significant thermal efficiency improvement at lean air-fuel ratios. When turbocharged, high exhaust energy recovery of this ported engine provided induction airflow sufficient for increased output plus excess for operation at the lean mixture strengths of best combustion efficiency. With additive improvements in mechanical efficiency accruing to higher BMEP operation, the potential for fuel economy in the same range as direct injected diesels was demonstrated. These lightweight, compact, multi-fuel engines are believed to open new possiblities for lightweight, reliable, highly mobile and agile military fighting vehicles of the future.

  4. Increasing the rate of hydrogen oxidation without increasing the overpotential: A bio-inspired iron molecular electrocatalyst with an outer coordination sphere proton relay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmon, Jonathan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kumar, Neeraj [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hulley, Elliott B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiss, Charles J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Raugei, Simone [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bullock, R. Morris [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Helm, Monte L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation of hydrogen (H?) to protons and electrons for energy production in fuel cells is catalyzed by platinum, but its low abundance and high cost present drawbacks to widespread adoption. Precisely controlled proton delivery and removal is critical in hydrogenase enzymes in nature that catalyze H? oxidation using earth-abundant metals (iron and nickel). Here we report a synthetic iron complex, (CpC5F4N)Fe(PEtN(CH2)3NMe2PEt)(Cl), that serves as a precatalyst for the oxidation of H?, with turnover frequencies of 290 s?¹ in fluorobenzene, under 1 atm of H? using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as the exogenous base. The cooperative effect of the primary, secondary and outer coordination spheres for moving protons in this remarkably fast catalyst emphasizes the key role of pendant amines in mimicking the functionality of the proton pathway in the hydrogenase enzymes. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  6. Modeling of autoignition and NO sensitization for the oxidation of IC engine surrogate fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderlohr, J.M. |; Bounaceur, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F.; Pires Da Cruz, A.

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents an approach for modeling with one single kinetic mechanism the chemistry of the autoignition and combustion processes inside an internal combustion engine, as well as the chemical kinetics governing the postoxidation of unburned hydrocarbons in engine exhaust gases. Therefore a new kinetic model was developed, valid over a wide range of temperatures including the negative temperature coefficient regime. The model simulates the autoignition and the oxidation of engine surrogate fuels composed of n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene, which are sensitized by the presence of nitric oxides. The new model was obtained from previously published mechanisms for the oxidation of alkanes and toluene where the coupling reactions describing interactions between hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} were added. The mechanism was validated against a wide range of experimental data obtained in jet-stirred reactors, rapid compression machines, shock tubes, and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Flow rate and sensitivity analysis were performed in order to explain the low temperature chemical kinetics, especially the impact of NO{sub x} on hydrocarbon oxidation. (author)

  7. Synthesis of oxygenates from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas and use as fuel additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, R.G.; Klier, K.; Feeley, O.C.

    1994-12-31

    Alternative processes for synthesizing fuel-grade oxygenates are centered on conversion of synthesis gas into C{sub 1}-C{sub 8} alcohols and ethers. Over Cs/Cu/ZnO-based catalysts, mixtures of methanol/isobutanol are predominantly formed. It has been found that these alcohols can be directly coupled over certain strong acid organic-based catalysts to form unsymmetric C{sub 5} ethers, mainly the kinetically favored methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) with some of the thermodynamically favored methyl tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE), the symmetric ethers of dimethylether (DME) and diisobutylether (DIBE), or selectively dehydrated to form isobutene over sulfated zirconia. Based on these reactions, a 2-stage, dual catalyst configuration can be utilized to give MTBE as the dominant ether product. The octane numbers and cetane ratings of the oxygenates have been determined and are compared, e.g. adding 10 vol% MIBE and MTBE to 82.3 MON gasoline altered the MON of the gasoline by -1.5 and +1.4 units, respectively, and MIBE has a high cetane number of 53, compared to 42 for typical U.S. diesel fuel.

  8. Wide range modeling study of dimethyl ether oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, W.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Westbrook, C.K.; Dagaut, P.; Boettner, J-C; Cathonnet, M.

    1997-04-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model has been used to study dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation over a wide range of conditions. Experimental results obtained in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at I and 10 atm, 0.2 < 0 < 2.5, and 800 < T < 1300 K were modeled, in addition to those generated in a shock tube at 13 and 40 bar, 0 = 1.0 and 650 :5 T :5 1300 K. The JSR results are particularly valuable as they include concentration profiles of reactants, intermediates and products pertinent to the oxidation of DME. These data test the Idnetic model severely, as it must be able to predict the correct distribution and concentrations of intermediate and final products formed in the oxidation process. Additionally, the shock tube results are very useful, as they were taken at low temperatures and at high pressures, and thus undergo negative temperature dependence (NTC) behavior. This behavior is characteristic of the oxidation of saturated hydrocarbon fuels, (e.g. the primary reference fuels, n-heptane and iso- octane) under similar conditions. The numerical model consists of 78 chemical species and 336 chemical reactions. The thermodynamic properties of unknown species pertaining to DME oxidation were calculated using THERM.

  9. Solar Technology Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Bob

    2011-04-27

    The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

  10. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL00-0605: Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihl, Josh A; West, Brian H; Toops, Todd J; Adelman, Brad; Derybowski, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT), also known as NOx adsorber catalyst regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Under full-load, rated speed conditions, injection of fuel upstream of the DOC reduced the fuel penalty for a given level of NOx reduction by 10-20%. GC-MS showed that fuel compounds were 'cracked' into smaller hydrocarbon species over the DOC, particularly light alkenes. GC-MS analysis of HC species entering and exiting the LNT showed high utilization of light alkenes, followed by mono-aromatics; branched alkanes passed through the LNT largely unreacted. Follow-on experiments at a 'road load' condition were conducted, revealing that the NOx reduction was better without the DOC at lower temperatures. The improved performance was attributed to the large swings in the NOx adsorber core temperature. Split-injection experiments were conducted with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and three pure HC compounds: 1-pentene, toluene, and iso-octane. The pure compound experiments confirmed the previous results regarding hydrocarbon reactivity: 1-pentene was the most efficient LNT reductant, followed by toluene. Injection location had minimal impact on the reactivity of these two compounds. Iso-octane was an ineffective LNT reductant, requiring high doses (resulting in high HC emissions) to achieve reasonable NOx conversions. Diesel fuel reactivity was sensitive to injection location, with the best performance achieved through fuel injection downstream of the DOC. This configuration generated large LNT temperature excursions, which probably improved the efficiency of the NOx storage/reduction process, but also resulted in very high HC emissions. The ORNL team demonstrated an LNT desulfation under 'road load' conditions using throttling, EGR, and in-pipe injection of diesel fuel. Flow reactor characterization of core samples cut from the front and rear of the engine-aged LNT revealed complex spatially dependent degradation mechanisms. The front of the catalyst contained residual sulfates, which impacted NOx storage and conversion efficiencies at high temperatures. The rear of the catalyst showed significant sintering of the washcoat and precious metal particles, resulting in lower NOx conversion efficiencies at low temperatures. Further flow reactor characterization of engine-aged LNT core samples established that low temperature performance was limited by slow release and reduction of stored NOx during regeneration. Carbon monoxide was only effective at regenerating the LNT at temperatures above 200 C; propene was unreactive even at 250 C. Low temperature operation also resulted in unselective NOx reduction, resulting in high emissions of both N{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3}. During the latter years of the CRADA, the focus was shifted from LNTs to other aftertreatment devices. Two years of the CRADA were spent developing detailed ammonia SCR device models with sufficient accuracy and computational efficiency to be used in development of model-based ammonia injection control algorithms.ORNL, working closely with partners at Navistar and Mi

  11. Raman Scattering Sensor for Control of the Acid Alkylation Process in Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uibel, Rory, H.; Smith, Lee M.; Benner, Robert, E.

    2006-04-19

    Gasoline refineries utilize a process called acid alkylation to increase the octane rating of blended gasoline, and this is the single most expensive process in the refinery. For process efficiency and safety reasons, the sulfuric acid can only be used while it is in the concentration range of 98 to 86 %. The conventional technique to monitor the acid concentration is time consuming and is typically conducted only a few times per day. This results in running higher acid concentrations than they would like to ensure that the process proceeds uninterrupted. Maintaining an excessively high acid concentration costs the refineries millions of dollars each year. Using SBIR funding, Process Instruments Inc. has developed an inline sensor for real time monitoring of acid concentrations in gasoline refinery alkylation units. Real time data was then collected over time from the instrument and its responses were matched up with the laboratory analysis. A model was then developed to correlate the laboratory acid values to the Raman signal that is transmitted back to the instrument from the process stream. The instrument was then used to demonstrate that it could create real-time predictions of the acid concentrations. The results from this test showed that the instrument could accurately predict the acid concentrations to within ~0.15% acid strength, and this level of prediction proved to be similar or better then the laboratory analysis. By utilizing a sensor for process monitoring the most economic acid concentrations can be maintained. A single smaller refinery (50,000 barrels/day) estimates that they should save over $120,000/year, with larger refineries saving considerably more.

  12. Fundamental and semi-global kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon combustion. Final report, March 1977-October 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dryer, F L; Glassman, I; Brezinsky, K

    1981-03-01

    Over the past three and one half years, substantial research efforts of the Princeton Fuels Research Group have been directed towards the development of simplified mechanisms which would accurately describe the oxidation of hydrocarbons fuels. The objectives of this combustion research included the study of semi-empirical modeling (that is an overall description) of the chemical kinetic mechanisms of simple hydrocarbon fuels. Such fuels include the alkanes: ethane, propane, butane, hexane and octane as well as the critically important alkenes: ethene, propene and butene. As an extension to this work, the study of the detailed radical species characteristics of combustion systems was initiated as another major aspect of the program, with emphasis on the role of the OH and HO/sub 2/ radicals. Finally, the studies of important alternative fuel problems linked the program to longer range approaches to the energy supply question. Studies of alternative fuels composed the major elements of this area of the program. The efforts on methanol research were completed, and while the aromatics aspects of the DOE work have been a direct extension of efforts supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, they represented a significant part of the overall research effort. The emphasis in the proposed program is to provide further fundamental understanding of the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels which will be useful in guiding engineering approaches. Although the scope of program ranges from the fundamentals of chemical kinetics to that of alternative fuel combustion, the objective in mind is to provide insight and guidance to the understanding of practical combustion environments. The key to our approach has been our understanding of the fundamental combustion chemistry and its relation to the important practical combustion problems which exist in implementing energy efficient, alternate fuels technologies.

  13. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  14. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  15. Explosion bomb measurements of ethanol-air laminar gaseous flame characteristics at pressures up to 1.4 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.; Lawes, M.; Mansour, M.S. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The principal burning characteristics of a laminar flame comprise the fuel vapour pressure, the laminar burning velocity, ignition delay times, Markstein numbers for strain rate and curvature, the stretch rates for the onset of flame instabilities and of flame extinction for different mixtures. With the exception of ignition delay times, measurements of these are reported and discussed for ethanol-air mixtures. The measurements were in a spherical explosion bomb, with central ignition, in the regime of a developed stable, flame between that of an under or over-driven ignition and that of an unstable flame. Pressures ranged from 0.1 to 1.4 MPa, temperatures from 300 to 393 K, and equivalence ratios were between 0.7 and 1.5. It was important to ensure the relatively large volume of ethanol in rich mixtures at high pressures was fully evaporated. The maximum pressure for the measurements was the highest compatible with the maximum safe working pressure of the bomb. Many of the flames soon became unstable, due to Darrieus-Landau and thermo-diffusive instabilities. This effect increased with pressure and the flame wrinkling arising from the instabilities enhanced the flame speed. Both the critical Peclet number and the, more rational, associated critical Karlovitz stretch factor were evaluated at the onset of the instability. With increasing pressure, the onset of flame instability occurred earlier. The measured values of burning velocity are expressed in terms of their variations with temperature and pressure, and these are compared with those obtained by other researchers. Some comparisons are made with the corresponding properties for iso-octane-air mixtures. (author)

  16. Proposed plant will turn wood residues into synfuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    A group of entrepreneurs plan to have a plant operating in Burney, CA. The projected facility will produce an estimated 21,000 gallons of oil per day, converting about 300 tons of raw material. Converting cellulose into synthetic fuel is superior to alcohol production. The process yields approximately 84 gallons of synthetic fuel per ton of raw material. The entire LHG (liquid hydrogen gas) patented facility is self-sufficient and releases only carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Synfuel production is a three-phase process. First, butyl alcohol (butanol) and acetone are produced from a portion of the raw material. This is facilitated by adding to the raw material a bacteria culture. The planned facility in Burney will have thirty-five 2100 gallon fermentation tanks and will produce 1.25 million gallons of butanol. Next, organic material is blended with water and is pumped into patented LHG catalytic converters, charged with carbon monoxide gas as a catalyst and then heated to 350 degrees C at 2000 to 5000 psi. Here, the organic material is converted to No. 4 oil with bituminous tar as a residue. A patented gasifier system produces the carbon monoxide catalyst plus COH (carbon hydroxide) gas. The COH is used to power a gas turbine driving a 100 kW generator and a central hydraulic pump. The facility, which will be energy self-sufficient, will have approximately 50 kW of excess power to sell to the local utility power grid. Finally, the No. 4 oil, butanol and liquified COH gas are blended to produce any grade fuel oil or a gasoline substitute of very high octane.

  17. Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. DOE PETC third quarterly report, February 25, 1994--May 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental concerns are leading to the replacement of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline by high-octane-number branched paraffins and oxygenated compounds such as methyl t-butyl ether. The ether is produced from methanol and isobutylene, and the latter can be formed from n-butane by isomerization followed by dehydrogenation. Paraffin isomerization reactions are catalyzed by very strong acids such as aluminum chloride supported on alumina. The aluminum chloride-containing catalysts are corrosive, and their disposal is expensive. Alternatively, hydroisomerization is catalyzed by zeolite-supported metals at high temperatures, but high temperatures do not favor branched products at equilibrium. Thus there is a need for improved catalysts and processes for the isomerization of n-butane and other straight-chain paraffins. Consequently, researchers have sought for solid acids that are noncorrosive and active enough to catalyze isomerization of paraffins at low temperatures. For example, sulfated zirconia catalyzes isomerization of n-butane at temperatures as low as 25{degrees}C. The addition of iron and manganese promoters has been reported to increase the activity of sulfated zirconia for n-butane isomerization by three orders of magnitude. Although the high activity of this catalyst is now established, the reaction network is not known, and the mechanism has not been investigated. The goal of this work is to investigate low-temperature reactions of light paraffins catalyzed by solid superacids of the sulfated zirconia type. The present report is concerned with catalysis of n-butane conversion catalyzed by the Fe- and Mn- promoted sulfated zirconia described in the previous report in this series.

  18. Emissions and performance evaluation of a dedicated compressed natural gas saturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, J.W.; Taylor, J.D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a transportation fuel has been identified as one strategy that can help ameliorate some problems, which include a growing dependence on imported oil (and all its ramifications) and the persistent contributions that mobile sources make to urban air pollution, associated with the use of conventional petroleum fuels. The attributes and limitations of CNG as a fuel for spark-ignition engines have been presented by others. The attributes are associated with its high octane rating, low cost relative to other alternative fuels, its availability, the absence of running and diurnal evaporative emissions, and its demonstrated potential for producing extremely low exhaust emissions-particularly if the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted are expressed in terms of reactivity adjusted non-methane organic gases (RANMOG). The limitations associated with the use of CNG include its limited refueling infrastructure, the cost of refueling facilities, the cost of on-board fuel storage tanks, and its relatively low energy density. Because one impediment to CNG use is the cost associated with producing a CNG-powered vehicle, a study was initiated at the University of Tennessee under sponsorship by the Saturn Corporation to determine how a CNG vehicle (specifically, a 1991 Saturn SL1) could be engineered so it could be produced with a minimal impact on the production of the base vehicle. The present study was undertaken to further investigate the emissions reduction potential of the Saturn CNG vehicle. In the previous study the role of exhaust gas recirculation was not thoroughly investigated. Those involved in the study agreed that the NO{sub x} levels could be brought down well below California ULEV levels without increasing either the non-methane organic gases or the CO levels.

  19. Short-time Evolution of Alkane-in-Water Nanoemulsions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    German Urbina-Villalba; Kareem Rahn-Chique

    2013-03-06

    The stability of alkane-in-water nanoemulsions during the sub-stationary regime is studied by means of Emulsion Stability Simulations (ESS). The effects of Ostwald ripening, flocculation, coalescence, gravity, and hydration forc- es are considered. According to these calculations flocculation and coalescence are predominant during the first few seconds after the preparation of the emulsion. This favors the generation of a right-skewed Drop Size Distribu- tion (DSD). As the system evolves, the drops grow larger and more repulsive causing a slow down of the flocculation process. In the case of dodecane (C12) and hexadecane (C16) the referred phenomena, reinforce the ripening trend to subvert the initial DSD variation, producing a meta-stable distribution which is preserved during several minutes. After this time, Ostwald ripening dominates: the skirt of the distribution changes progressively from right-skewed to left-skewed. Consistent with these changes, the cube average radius of the emulsion increases rapidly at first, but progressively diminishes generating a concave-downward curve that stabilizes asymptotically. In the case of dodecane and hexadecane the complete dissolution of the drops promoted by ripening is prevented at all times due to coalescence. In the case of octane (C8) a substantial amount of drops is lost by dissolution, forbidding the attain- ment of a stable DSD. In all cases the molecular exchange only favors a decrease of the average radius as a function of time. It is the elimination of drops either by dissolution or coalescence which causes an increase of the average radius of the emulsion.

  20. Research and development of rapid hydrogenation for coal conversion to synthetic motor fuels (riser cracking of coal). Final report, April 1, 1976-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D. A.; Beeson, J. L.; Oberle, R. D.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of the program described was to develop a noncatalytic process for the hydropyrolysis of lignite and coal to produce high-octane blending gasoline constituents, methane, ethane, and carbon oxides. The process would operate in a balanced plant mode, using spent char to generate process hydrogen by steam-oxygen gasification. The technical program included the construction and operating of a bench-scale unit (5-10 lb/hr), the design, construction, and operation of a process development unit (PDU) (100 lb/hr), and a final technical and economic assessment of the process, called Riser Cracking of Coal. In the bench-scale unit program, 143 runs were made investigating the effects of pressure, temperature, heating rate, residence time, and particle size, processing North Dakota lignite in hydrogen. Some runs were made in which the hydrogen was preheated to pyrolysis temperatures prior to contact with the coal, and, also, in which steam was substituted for half of the hydrogen. Attempts to operate the bench-scale unit at 1200 psig and 1475/sup 0/F were not successful. Depth of carbon conversion was found to be influenced by hydrogen pressure, hydrogen-to-coal ratio, and the severity of the thermal treatment. The composition of hydrocarbon liquids produced was found to change with severity. At low severity, the liquids contained sizable fractions of phenols and cresols. At high severity, the fraction of phenols and cresols was much reduced, with an attendant increase in BTX. In operating the PDU, it was necessary to use more oxygen than was planned to achieve pyrolysis temperatures because of heat losses, and portions of hydrocarbon products were lost through combustion with a large increase in carbon oxide yields. Economic studies, however, showed that selling prices for gasoline blending stock, fuel oil, and fuel gas are competitive in current markets, so that the process is held to warrant further development.

  1. The Effects of Fuel Characteristics on Stoichiometric Spark-Assisted HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of fuel lean HCCI operation using a variety of fuels are well known and have been demonstrated using different engine concepts in the past. In contrast, stoichiometric operation of HCCI is less well documented. Recent studies have highlighted the benefits of operating at a stoichiometric condition in terms of load expansion combined with the applicability of three way catalyst technology to reduce NOx emissions. In this study the characterization of stoichiometric HCCI using gasoline-like fuels was undertaken. The fuels investigated are gasoline, a 50 vol% blend of iso-butanol and gasoline (IB50), and an 85% vol blend of ethanol and gasoline (E85). A single cylinder engine operating with direct injection and spark assist combined with a fully variable hydraulic valve actuation system allowed a wide range of operating parameters to be studied. This included the effects of negative valve overlap duration, intake valve closing and valve lift. Furthermore, the interaction between fuel injection timing and spark and how they can affect the required valve timing to achieve stoichiometric HCCI combustion are also studied. A comprehensive combustion and emissions analysis is conducted using gasoline, IB50 and E85 at an engine speed of 2000rpm over a range of operating loads. The resultant fuel properties which differed in terms of octane rating, fuel oxygenation and heat of vaporization show that stoichiometric HCCI is possible using a range of fuels but that these fuel characteristics do have some effect on the combustion characteristics. How these fuel properties can enable an increased engine operating envelope to be achieved, in comparison with both fuel lean HCCI and conventional spark ignited combustion, is then discussed.

  2. Lean-burn hydrogen spark-ignited engines: the mechanical equivalent to the fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fuel cells are considered as the ideal power source for future vehicles, due to their high efficiency and low emissions. However, extensive use of fuel cells in light-duty vehicles is likely to be years away, due to their high manufacturing cost. Hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited, homogeneous-charge engines offer a near-term alternative to fuel cells. Hydrogen in a spark-ignited engine can be burned at very low equivalence ratios, so that NO[sub x] emissions can be reduced to less than 10 ppm without catalyst. HC and CO emissions may result from oxidation of engine oil, but by proper design are negligible (a few ppm). Lean operation also results in increased indicated efficiency due to the thermodynamic properties of the gaseous mixture contained in the cylinder. The high effective octane number of hydrogen allows the use of a high compression ratio, further increasing engine efficiency. In this paper, a simplified engine model is used for predicting hydrogen engine efficiency and emissions. The model uses basic thermodynamic equations for the compression and expansion processes, along with an empirical correlation for heat transfer, to predict engine indicated efficiency. A friction correlation and a supercharger/turbocharger model are then used to calculate brake thermal efficiency. The model is validated with many 1345 experimental points obtained in a recent evaluation of a hydrogen research engine. The experimental data are used to adjust the empirical constants in the heat release rate and heat transfer correlation. The adjusted engine model predicts pressure traces, indicated efficiency and NO,, emissions with good accuracy over the range of speed, equivalence ratio and manifold pressure experimentally covered.

  3. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  4. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  5. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  6. Regeneration of Hydrotreating and FCC Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CM Wai; JG Frye; JL Fulton; LE Bowman; LJ Silva; MA Gerber

    1999-09-30

    Hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts are important components of petroleum refining processes. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts are used to improve the yield of high-quality light oil fractions from heavier crude oil and petroleum feedstocks containing high levels of impurities. FCC catalysts improve the yield of higher octane gasoline from crude oil. Residuum hydrotreating and cracking catalysts are susceptible to irreversible deactivation caused by adsorption of sulfur and by metals impurities, such as vanadium and nickel. The gradual buildup of these impurities in a hydrotreating catalyst eventually plugs the pores and deactivates it. Nickel and vanadium adversely affect the behavior of cracking catalysts, reducing product yield and quality. Replacing deactivated catalysts represents a significant cost in petroleum refining. Equally important are the costs and potential liabilities associated with treating and disposing spent catalysts. For example, recent US Environmental Protection Agency rulings have listed spent hydrotreating and hydrorefining catalysts as hazardous wastes. FCC catalysts, though more easily disposed of as road-base or as filler in asphalt and cement, are still an economic concern mainly because of the large volumes of spent catalysts generated. New processes are being considered to increase the useful life of catalysts or for meeting more stringent disposal requirements for spent catalysts containing metals. This report discusses a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Phillips Petroleum, Inc., to identify promising chemical processes for removing metals adhered to spent hydrodesulfurization (HDS, a type of hydrotreating catalyst) and FCC catalysts. This study, conducted by PNNL, was funded by the US Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. Fresh and spent catalysts were provided by Phillips Petroleum. The FCC catalyst was a rare-earth exchanged Y zeolite in a silica-alumina matrix. X-ray fluorescence analyses showed that the rare earths used in preparing the catalysts were a mixture of lanthanum and cerium. Antimony found in the spent catalyst was added during operation of the FCC unit as a way to suppress the adverse effects of deposited nickel. The fresh HDS samples consisted of sulfided nickel and molybdenum on an alumina support. The spent catalyst showed nearly 10% vanadium on the catalyst and a modest increase in nickel and sulfur on the catalyst as a result of operations. Hydrocracking catalysts were not available for this study.

  7. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

  8. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of the vehicle. Propane tanks add weight to a vehicle and can slightly increase the consumption of fuel. On a gallon-to-gallon basis, the energy content of propane is 73% that of gasoline, thus requiring more propane fuel to travel an equivalent distance, even in an optimized engine (EERE 2009b).

  9. E85 Optimized Engine through Boosting, Spray-Optimized DIG, VCR and Variable Valvetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Confer; Harry Husted

    2011-05-31

    The use of biofuels for internal combustion engines has several well published advantages. The biofuels, made from biological sources such as corn or sugar cane, are renewable resources that reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Fuels from agricultural sources can therefore reduce a countries energy dependency on other nations. Biofuels also have been shown to reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere compared to traditional fossil based fuels. Because of these benefits several countries have set targets for the use of biofuels, especially ethanol, in their transportation fuels. Small percentages of ethanol are common place in gasoline but are typically limited to 5 to 8% by volume. Greater benefits are possible from higher concentrations and some countries such as the US and Sweden have encouraged the production of vehicles capable of operating on E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline). E85 capable vehicles are normally equipped to run the higher levels of ethanol by employing modified fuel delivery systems that can withstand the highly corrosive nature of the alcohol. These vehicles are not however equipped to take full advantage of ethanol's properties during the combustion process. Ethanol has a much higher blend research octane number than gasoline. This allows the use of higher engine compression ratios and spark advance which result in more efficient engine operation. Ethanol's latent heat of vaporization is also much higher that gasoline. This higher heat of vaporization cools the engine intake charge which also allows the engine compression ratio to be increased even further. An engine that is optimized for operation on high concentrations of ethanol therefore will have compression ratios that are too high to avoid spark knock (pre-ignition) if run on gasoline or a gasoline/ethanol blend that has a low percentage alcohol. An engine was developed during this project to leverage the improved evaporative cooling and high octane of E85 to improve fuel economy and offset E85's lower energy content. A 2.0 L production Direct Injection gasoline, (DIg) engine employing Dual Independent Cam Phasing, (DICP) and turbo charging was used as the base engine. Modified pistons were used to increase the geometric compression ratio from 9.2:1 to 11.85:1 by modifying the pistons and adding advanced valvetrain to proved control of displacement and effective compression ratio through valve timing control. The advanced valvetrain utilized Delphi's two step valvetrain hardware and intake cam phaser with increased phasing authority of 80 crank angle degrees. Using this hardware the engine was capable of operating knock free on all fuels tested from E0-E85 by controlling effective compression ratio using a Late Intake Valve Closing, (LIVC) strategy. The LIVC strategy results in changes in the trapped displacement such that knock limited torque for gasoline is significantly lower than E85. The use of spark retard to control knock enables higher peak torque for knock limited fuels, however a loss in efficiency results. For gasoline and E10 fuels, full effective displacement could not be reached before spark retard produced a net loss in torque. The use of an Early Intake Valve Closing, (EIVC) strategy resulted in an improvement of engine efficiency at low to mid loads for all fuels tested from E0- E85. Further the use of valve deactivation, to a single intake valve, improved combustion stability and enabled throttle-less operation down to less than 2 bar BMEP. Slight throttling to trap internal residual provided additional reductions in fuel consumption. To fully leverage the benefits of E85, or ethanol blends above E10, would require a vehicle level approach that would take advantage of the improved low end torque that is possible with E85. Operating the engine at reduced speeds and using advanced transmissions (6 speeds or higher) would provide a responsive efficient driving experience to the customer. The vehicle shift and torque converter lockup points for high ethanol blends could take advantage of the significant efficiency ad

  10. QER- Comment of Brian West

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hello, Thanks for the invitation to the QER workshop. Here are a couple of comments that I was probably unable to fully articulate in the main session, although I did try to make some of these points in the breakout session: When considering alternatives and policy that drives alternative fuel use, it is important to learn from Policy successes and failures. Policy drivers put in place in Thailand, Brazil, and Sweden have been successful in transitions to greater alternative fuel use. US policy for Flex Fuel Vehicles has been largely unsuccessful at encouraging alternative fuel use. The fuel economy credit for the OEMs to build FFVs was generous but encouraged only modest production; nonetheless there are over 15M FFVs on the road. However, they use very little ethanol fuel due to cost ($/mile), range, etc. Natural Gas has a very real value proposition (lower $/gge) so fleet owners have good financial incentive to make the switch, even if investments are required. One participant commented that infrastructure costs are small compared to costs of imported oil. I agree with this statement. One presenter mentioned (a city?) with a law that requires infrastructure to support future EV charging be installed in any new parking garage. Great idea. (Better to have and not need than need and not have, especially when cost differential is small on the front end and very large on the back end). In the US we install about 20,000-40,000 new fuel dispensers per year (according to Gilbarco/Wayne). It would be a horrible missed opportunity to not put policy in place that encourages/requires E25 or E85-compatible dispensers. With a successful policy driver, in the next five years the nation could have over 100,000 ethanol-compatible dispensers in place, ready for a new High Octane Fuel (that could very likely contain more than 10 or 15% ethanol). Thanks Brian H. West Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory http://www.ornl.gov/ http://feerc.ornl.gov/ http://www.fueleconomy.gov/ From: Tillemann, Levi Sent: Thursday, July 03, 2014 3:52 PM To: West, Brian H. Subject: AMR/QER Technical Workshop Dear Brian: On behalf of the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis (EPSA) I want to thank you for your participation at the June 20th AMR/QER Alternative Transportation Refueling Infrastructure technical workshop. Your contribution in the breakout sessions and general discussion sessions provided valuable insight that will help inform EPSA during the QER process going forward. During the course of the workshop, detailed notes were taken. These have been anonymized and will be made publically available to you and the general public in the coming weeks. Once they are posted, we will provide you with a link for accessing them online. We encourage you to submit additional comments regarding infrastructure for transmission, storage or distribution of alternative transportation fuels to qercomments@hq.doe.gov. For more information about the QER's stakeholder meeting locations, areas of analysis and public comments you can visit the QER website at: http://energy.gov/epsa/initiatives/quadrennial-energy-review-qer. Please feel free to contact me or Sallie Gilbert (sallie.gilbert@hq.doe.gov) if you have additional questions. I will be leaving the DOE August 1, thereafter you may contact Renee Picket (adonica.pickett@hq.doe.gov) or Carla Frisch (carla.frisch@hq.doe.gov) with questions or comments. Thank you again for making the workshop a great success. I look forward to working together with all of you on these issues in the future. Best regards, Levi Tillemann, Ph.D. Special Advisor, EPSA US Department of Energy

  11. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

  12. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  13. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The RFS specifies targets for the amount of renewable fuel to be blended into petroleum based transportation fuels. The goal is to blend 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels into transportation fuels by 2022 (9 billion gallons were blended in 2008). The RFS also requires that the renewable fuels emit fewer greenhouse gasses than the petroleum fuels replaced. Thus the goal of the EPA is to have a more fuel efficient national fleet, less dependent on petroleum based fuels. The limit to the implementation of certain technologies employed was the requirement to run the developed powertrain on gasoline with minimal performance degradation. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuels improves the fuels octane rating and increases the fuels evaporative cooling. Both of these fuel property enhancements make gasoline / ethanol blends more suitable than straight gasoline for use in downsized engines or engines with increased compression ratio. The use of engine downsizing and high compression ratios as well as direct injection (DI), dual independent cam phasing, external EGR, and downspeeding were fundamental to the fuel economy improvements targeted in this project. The developed powertrain specification utilized the MAHLE DI3 gasoline downsizing research engine. It was a turbocharged, intercooled, DI engine with dual independent cam phasing utilizing a compression ratio of 11.25 : 1 and a 15% reduction in final drive ratio. When compared to a gasoline fuelled 2.2L Ecotec engine in a Chevrolet HHR, vehicle drive cycle predictions indicate that the optimized powertrain operating on E85 would result in a reduced volume based drive cycle fuel economy penalty of 6% compared to an approximately 30% penalty for current technology engines.

  14. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  15. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two

  16. Rate constants for OH with selected large alkanes : shock-tube measurements and an improved group scheme.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-04-30

    High-temperature rate constant experiments on OH with the five large (C{sub 5}-C{sub 8}) saturated hydrocarbons n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (2,2,3,3-TMB), n-pentane, n-hexane, and 2,3-dimethylbutane (2,3-DMB) were performed with the reflected-shock-tube technique using multipass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. Single-point determinations at {approx}1200 K on n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-TMB, n-hexane, and 2,3-DMB were previously reported by Cohen and co-workers; however, the present work substantially extends the database to both lower and higher temperature. The present experiments span a wide temperature range, 789-1308 K, and represent the first direct measurements of rate constants at T > 800 K for n-pentane. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length of {approx}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high OH concentration detection sensitivity permitted pseudo-first-order analyses for unambiguously measuring rate constants. The experimental results can be expressed in Arrhenius form in units of cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} as follows: K{sub OH+n-heptane} = (2.48 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1927 {+-} 69 K)/T] (838-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = (8.26 {+-} 0.89) x 10{sup -11} exp[(-1337 {+-} 94 K)/T] (789-1061 K); K{sub OH+n-pentane} = (1.60 {+-} 0.25) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1903 {+-} 146 K)/T] (823-1308 K); K{sub OH+n-hexane} = (2.79 {+-} 0.39) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-2301 {+-} 134 K)/T] (798-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = (1.27 {+-} 0.16) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1617 {+-} 118 K)/T] (843-1292 K). The available experimental data, along with lower-T determinations, were used to obtain evaluations of the experimental rate constants over the temperature range from {approx}230 to 1300 K for most of the title reactions. These extended-temperature-range evaluations, given as three-parameter fits, are as follows: k{sub OH+n-heptane} = 2.059 x 10{sup -5}T{sup 1.401} exp(33 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (241-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = 6.835 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.886} exp(-365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (290-1180 K); k{sub OH+n-pentane} = 2.495 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.649} exp(80 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (224-1308 K); k{sub OH+n-hexane} = 3.959 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.218} exp(443 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (292-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = 2.287 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.958} exp(365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (220-1292 K). The experimental data and the evaluations obtained for these five larger alkanes in the present work were used along with prior data/evaluations obtained in this laboratory for H abstractions by OH from a series of smaller alkanes (C{sub 3}?C{sub 5}) to devise rate rules for abstractions from various types of primary, secondary, and tertiary H atoms. Specifically, the current scheme was applied with good success to H abstractions by OH from a series of n-alkanes (n-octane through n-hexadecane). The total rate constants using this group scheme for reactions of OH with selected large alkanes are given as three-parameter fits in this article. The rate constants for the various abstraction channels in any large n-alkane can also be obtained using the groups listed in this article. The present group scheme serves to reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for OH + alkane reactions.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced from any one of a variety of sources (including coal) for the production of a spectrum of alternative fuels (hydrocarbons and oxygenate fuels), octane enhancers, and chemicals and chemical intermediates. In particular, the data from the 1995 LPMEOH{trademark} campaign provided confirmation of assumptions used in the design of the catalyst reduction system at the Kingsport LPMEOH{trademark} Commercial Demonstration Project, and the alternate methanol catalyst has been in use there since late 1998. The kinetic model was also expanded to allow for more accurate prediction of methanol production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) conversion, and more accurate modeling of by-product formation for the alternate methanol catalyst. The outstanding performance results of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process at Kingsport can be attributed in large part to the body of work performed since 1981 in collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products. In addition, a pilot-plant-tested LPDME{trademark} Process has been demonstrated, and the product cost of DME from coal-derived syngas can be competitive in certain locations and applications. The need for liquid fuels will continue to be a critical concern for this nation in the 21st century. Efforts are needed to ensure the development and demonstration of economically competitive, efficient, environmentally responsible technologies that produce clean fuels and chemicals from coal under DOE's Vision 21 concept. These liquids will be a component of the fuel mix that will provide the transition from the current reliance on carbon-based fuels to the ultimate use of H{sub 2} as a means of energy transport. Indirect liquefaction, which converts the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) produced by the gasification of coal to sulfur- and nitrogen-free liquid products, is a key component of the Vision 21 initiative. The results from this current program provide continued support to the objectives for the conversion of domestic coal to electric power and co-produced clean liquid fuels and chemicals in an environmentally superior manner.