Sample records for occurring radioactive materials

  1. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to! We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these radionuclides. We will then review some of the industrial sectors affected by TENORM, followed by a brief discussion on regulatory aspects of the issue.

  2. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Cargo at US Borders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Evans, John C.; Hensley, Walter K.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the U.S. and other countries, large numbers of vehicles pass through border crossings each day. The illicit movement of radioactive sources is a concern that has resulted in the installation of radiation detection and identification instruments at border crossing points. This activity is judged to be necessary because of the possibility of an act of terrorism involving a radioactive source that may include any number of dangerous radionuclides. The problem of detecting, identifying, and interdicting illicit radioactive sources is complicated by the fact that many materials present in cargo are somewhat radioactive. Some cargo contains naturally occurring radioactive material or technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material that may trigger radiation portal monitor alarms. Man-made radioactive sources, especially medical isotopes, are also frequently observed and produce alarms. Such nuisance alarms can be an operational limiting factor for screening of cargo at border crossings. Information about the nature of the radioactive materials in cargo that can interfere with the detection of radionuclides of concern is necessary. This paper provides such information for North American cargo, but the information may also be of use to border control officials in other countries. (PIET-43741-TM-361)

  3. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented.

  4. An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

  5. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)] [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Meira Castro, Ana Cristina [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)] [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  6. Characterization of the National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) Site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material(NORM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, G.J; Rood, A.S.

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 site (NPR-3) near Casper, Wyoming is being prepared for transfer to private industry. Remediation of the NPR-3 site has already begun in anticipation of this transfer. This document describes the characterization of the NPR-3 site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Data generated on radionuclide concentrations and radon emanation may be used to determine disposal options and the need for remediation at this site. A preliminary gamma survey of the NPR-3 site was conducted to identify areas of potential NORM contamination. Based on these gamma surveys, two general areas of NORM contamination were found: the North Water Flood area and the BTP-10 produced water discharge steam. A maximum surface exposure rate of 120 {micro}R h{sup -1} was observed in the North Water Flood area, with the highest readings found along the drainage channel from the area. Exposure rates dropped to background quickly with increasing distance from the center of the drainage. The maximum observed exposure rate in the BTP-10 produced water drainage was 40 {micro}R h{sup -1}. Soil and sediment sampling were concentrated in these two areas. All samples were analyzed for concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K. Maximum {sup 226}Ra concentrations observed in the samples collected were 46 pCi g{sup -1} for soil and 78 pCi g{sup -1} for sediment. Concentrations in most samples were considerably lower than these values. Radon emanation fraction was also measured for a randomly selected fraction of the samples. The mean Rn emanation fraction measured was 0.10, indicating that on average only 10 percent of the Rn produced is released from the medium. Based on the results of these analyses, NORM contamination at the NPR-3 site is minimal, and appears to be restricted to the two general areas sampled. Concentrations of NORM radionuclides found soils and sediments in these two locations do not justify remedial actions at present. However, continued discharge of NORM-contaminated produced waters from the BTP-10 area will likely result in the continued accumulation of NORM in sediment. It is therefore recommended that the sediments in the BTP-10 discharge stream be monitored periodically for NORM.

  7. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

  8. Radioactive Materials License Commitments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactive Materials License Commitments for The University of Texas at Austin May 2009 July 2009 in the use of radioactive materials. In July 1963, the State of Texas granted The University of Texas at Austin a broad radioactive materials license for research, development and instruction. While this means

  9. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  10. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual establishes standard transportation practices for the Department of Energy, including National Nuclear Security Administration to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials and waste. The revision reflects ongoing collaboration of DOE and outside organizations on the transportation of radioactive material and waste. Cancels DOE M 460.2-1.

  11. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newman, Darrell F. (Richland, WA); Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  12. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  13. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szulinski, Milton J. (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  14. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  15. Radioactive Mineral Occurences in Nevada | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethodInformationeNevadaRadioactive Mineral Occurences in

  16. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  17. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  18. Radioactive Samples / Materials at the APS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Radioactive Samples Materials at the APS The use of radioactive samples requires additional information for review and approval. All proposed experiments involving...

  19. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

    1980-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

  20. Radioactive Materials Manual Scope and Applicability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    material. Radioactive material covered includes all sealed and unsealed sources. Sealed sources of radioactive material contained within machinery such as liquid scintillation counters, gas chromatographs radioactive material, such as x-ray equipment, electron microscopes, lasers, and radio-frequency generators

  1. Radioactive material package seal tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Radiation Sources and Radioactive Materials (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to persons who receive, transfer, possess, manufacture, use, store, handle, transport or dispose of radioactive materials and/or sources of ionizing radiation. Some...

  3. Radiation Machines and Radioactive Materials (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These chapters describe general provisions and regulatory requirements; registration, licensure, and transportation of radioactive materials; and exposure standards for radiation protection.

  4. Radioactive Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dispersible radioactive material must be placed in rigid, leak- tight inner containers (e.g., durable screw-top sample jars). Non-dispersible radioactive material may...

  5. Central Storage for Unsealed Radioactive Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Central Storage for Unsealed Radioactive Materials Radiation Safety Form PERMIT HOLDER NAME:______________________________ PHONE #: ____________________________ ADDRESS/DEPT.: _______________________________ Storage Location: Refrigerator Freezer Dry Storage List each item being transferred to storage separately: EH&S LAB WIPE SURVEY

  6. Radioactive materials shipping cask anticontamination enclosure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belmonte, Mark S. (Irwin, PA); Davis, James H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Williams, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An anticontamination device for use in storing shipping casks for radioactive materials comprising (1) a seal plate assembly; (2) a double-layer plastic bag; and (3) a water management system or means for water management.

  7. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  8. Radiation Awareness TrainingRadiation Awareness Training Radioactive Material &Radioactive Material &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    · Check all incoming radioactive packages for contamination · Survey all radioactive materials labs) · Sealed sources ­ Nickel-63 (Gas chromatograph) ­ Cesium-137 (Liquid Scintillation Counter) ­ Neutron · CONTAMINATION CONTROL IS THE KEY · Should not leave room until surveyed by ORS #12;Protective Measures ·· Time

  9. RADTRAN3. Radioactive Material Transport Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, M.M.; Taylor, J.M.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Reardon, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RADTRAN3 is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, ingestion, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN3 can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  10. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweitzer, Donald G. (Bayport, NY); Davis, Mary S. (Wading River, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  11. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  12. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  13. Cask for radioactive material and method for preventing release of neutrons from radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaffney, M.F.; Shaffer, P.T.

    1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A cask for radioactive material, such as nuclear reactor fuel or spent nuclear reactor fuel, includes a plurality of associated walled internal compartments for containing such radioactive material, with neutron absorbing material present to absorb neutrons emitted by the radioactive material, and a plurality of thermally conductive members, such as longitudinal copper or aluminum castings, about the compartment and in thermal contact with the compartment walls and with other such thermally conductive members and having thermal contact surfaces between such members extending, preferably radially, from the compartment walls to external surfaces of the thermally conductive members, which surfaces are preferably in the form of a cylinder. The ends of the shipping cask also preferably include a neutron absorber and a conductive metal covering to dissipate heat released by decay of the radioactive material. A preferred neutron absorber utilized is boron carbide, preferably as plasma sprayed with metal powder or as particles in a matrix of phenolic polymer, and the compartment walls are preferably of stainless steel, copper or other corrosion resistant and heat conductive metal or alloy. The invention also relates to shipping casks, storage casks and other containers for radioactive materials in which a plurality of internal compartments for such material, e.g., nuclear reactor fuel rods, are joined together, preferably in modular construction with surrounding heat conductive metal members, and the modules are joined together to form a major part of a finished shipping cask, which is preferably of cylindrical shape. Also within the invention are methods of safely storing radioactive materials which emit neutrons, while dissipating the heat thereof, and of manufacturing the present shipping casks.

  14. RECLAMATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive material packages are withdrawn from use for various reasons; loss of mission, decertification, damage, replacement, etc. While the packages themselves may be decertified, various components may still be able to perform to their required standards and find useful service. The Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems group of the Savannah River National Laboratory has been reducing the cost of producing new Type B Packagings by reclaiming, refurbishing, and returning to service the containment vessels from older decertified packagings. The program and its benefits are presented.

  15. DOE/NNSA Recovers One Millionth Curie of Radioactive Material...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    were part of DOENNSA's global campaign to prevent terrorists from acquiring nuclear and radiological material. The radioactive source that achieved the millionth curie milestone...

  16. Base Technology for Radioactive Material Transportation Packaging Systems

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) policies and responsibilities for coordinating and planning base technology for radioactive material transportation packaging systems.

  17. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, R.; Leduc, D.

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipping containers used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in commerce employ a variety of closure mechanisms. Often, these closure mechanisms require a specific amount of torque be applied to a bolt, nut or other threaded fastener. It is important that the required preload is achieved so that the package testing and analysis is not invalidated for the purpose of protecting the public. Torque compliance is a means of ensuring closure preload, is a major factor in accomplishing the package functions of confinement/containment, sub-criticality, and shielding. This paper will address the importance of applying proper torque to package closures, discuss torque value nomenclature, and present one methodology to ensure torque compliance is achieved.

  18. One million curies of radioactive material recovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Removal Program and OSRP mission includes removal and disposal of excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to national...

  19. Transporting radioactive materials: Q & A to your questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 2 million packages of radioactive materials are shipped each year in the United States. These shipments are carried by trucks, trains, ships, and airplanes every day just like other commodities. Compliance with Federal regulations ensures that radioactive materials are transported safely. Proper packaging is the key to safe shipment. Package designs for radioactive materials must protect the public and the environment even in case of an accident. As the level of radioactivity increases, packaging design requirements become more stringent. Radioactive materials have been shipped in this country for more than 40 years. As with other commodities, vehicles carrying these materials have been involved in accidents. However, no deaths or serious injuries have resulted from exposure to the radioactive contents of these shipments. People are concerned about how radioactive shipments might affect them and the environment. This booklet briefly answers some of the commonly asked questions about the transport of radioactive materials. More detailed information is available from the sources listed at the end of this booklet.

  20. Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2005-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.

  1. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T. [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada)] [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H. [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan); Naghiyev, Jalal A. [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mehdiyeva, Afat A. [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  2. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  4. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  5. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  6. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Burchfield, Larry A. (W. Richland, WA); Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (St. Petersburg, RU)

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  7. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  8. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  9. Working with Radioactive Materials in Clinical Areas -Documentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Working with Radioactive Materials in Clinical Areas - Documentation Procedure: 7.54 Created: 2008 ­ Documentation A. Purpose This SOP summarizes records that must be maintained as required by the Rules. Responsibility Authorized User, approved technologist or lab manager ­ maintain records of receipt, use, spill

  10. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  11. Radioactive Materials Emergencies Course Presentation | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergy Small Team OversightDepartmentofEnergy 5/13/11Energy Materials

  12. Detection of radioactive materials at Astrakhan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantut, L; Dougan, A; Hemberger, P; Kravenchenko, Gromov, A; Martin, D; Pohl, B; Richardson, J H; Williams, H; York, R; Zaitsev, E

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrakhan is the major Russian port on the Caspian Sea. Consequently, it is the node for significant river traffic up the Volga, as well as shipments to and from other seaports on the Caspian Sea. The majority of this latter trade across the Caspian Sea is with Iran. The Second Line of Defense and RF SCC identified Astrakhan as one of the top priorities for upgrading with modern radiation detection equipment. The purpose of the cooperative effort between RF SCC and DOE at Astrakhan is to provide the capability through equipment and training to monitor and detect illegal shipments of nuclear materials through Astrakhan. The first facility was equipped with vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. The second facility was equipped with pedestrian, vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. A second phase of this project will complete the equipping of Astrakhan by providing additional rail and handheld systems, along with completion of video systems. Associated with both phases is the necessary equipment and procedural training to ensure successful operation of the equipment in order to detect and deter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials. The presentation will described this project and its overall relationship to the Second Line of Defense Program.

  13. Use of inelastic design for radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinstein, M.W.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is much interest within the radioactive material transportation container design community in the use of inelastic analysis. In other industries where inelastic analysis is used in design there is typically an improved knowledge of the capacity of the structure and a more efficient use of material. This report describes the results of a program in which the incentives for inelastic analysis for radioactive material transport container design were investigated to determine if there are similar benefits. Detailed are the elastic and inelastic analyses of two containers subjected to impacts onto a rigid target following a thirty-foot free fall in end-on, side-on, and center-of-gravity- over-corner orientations.

  14. Benchmarking of finite element codes for radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increased power of computers and computer codes makes the use of nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses attractive for use as a tool used in the design and certification of radioactive material transportation packages. For this analysis technique to be acceptable it must be demonstrated. The technique has the ability to accurately capture the response of the packages to accident environments required by the regulations. The best method of demonstrating this ability is via a series of benchmark analyses. In this paper three benchmark problems involving significant inelastic deformations will be discussed. One of the problems has been analyzed using many different finite element codes. The other two problems involve comparison of finite element calculations to the results form physical tests. The ability of the finite element method to accurately capture the response in these three problems indicates the method should be acceptable for radioactive material transportation package design and certification.

  15. RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

  16. August 1999 Radiation Safety Manual Section 12 Shipment of Radioactive Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    August 1999 Radiation Safety Manual Section 12 ­ Shipment of Radioactive Materials UW Environmental Health and Safety Page 12-1 Section 12 Shipment of Radioactive Materials Contents A. Shipping Regulations regulations for the safe transportation of radioactive materials. These regulations are adopted from those

  17. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  18. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

    1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  19. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  20. Joining of Advanced Materials: An The revolution which has occurred in materials science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    science and engineering has not been matched by improve- ments in joining science and technology. 1t.materials require ever higher performance, the number of acceptable joining technologies becomes more re- stricted of the material are useless. Unless the shape and properties can be obtained economically, the product has limited

  1. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices encompass both physical security (hardware and engineering) and administrative procedures. Security regimes for these devices and materials typically use a defense-in-depth- or layered-security approach to eliminate single points of failure. The Department of Energy, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, the American Society of Industrial Security (ASIS), the Security Industry Association (SIA) and Underwriters Laboratory (UL) all rovide design guidance and hardware specifications. With a graded approach, a physical-security specialist can tailor an integrated security-management system in the most appropriate cost-effective manner to meet the regulatory and non-regulatory requirements of the licensee or client.

  2. NEW APPROACH TO ADDRESSING GAS GENERATION IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, R; Leduc, D; Askew, N

    2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) document why the transportation of radioactive material is safe in Type A(F) and Type B shipping containers. The content evaluation of certain actinide materials require that the gas generation characteristics be addressed. Most packages used to transport actinides impose extremely restrictive limits on moisture content and oxide stabilization to control or prevent flammable gas generation. These requirements prevent some users from using a shipping container even though the material to be shipped is fully compliant with the remaining content envelope including isotopic distribution. To avoid these restrictions, gas generation issues have to be addressed on a case by case basis rather than a one size fits all approach. In addition, SARP applicants and review groups may not have the knowledge and experience with actinide chemistry and other factors affecting gas generation, which facility experts in actinide material processing have obtained in the last sixty years. This paper will address a proposal to create a Gas Generation Evaluation Committee to evaluate gas generation issues associated with Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging material contents. The committee charter could include reviews of both SARP approved contents and new contents not previously evaluated in a SARP.

  3. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are organized. The RMUS Interview Form with the attached RMUS Process Form(s) provides the radioactive materials survey data by technical area (TA) and building number. The survey data for each release point includes information such as: exhaust stack identification number, room number, radioactive material source type (i.e., potential source or future potential source of air emissions), radionuclide, usage (in curies) and usage basis, physical state (gas, liquid, particulate, solid, or custom), release fraction (from Appendix D to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H), and process descriptions. In addition, the interview form also calculates emissions (in curies), lists mrem/Ci factors, calculates PEDEs, and states the location of the critical receptor for that release point. [The critical receptor is the maximum exposed off-site member of the public, specific to each individual facility.] Each of these data fields is described in this section. The Tier classification of release points, which was first introduced with the 1999 usage survey, is also described in detail in this section. Section 4 includes a brief discussion of the dose estimate methodology, and includes a discussion of several release points of particular interest in the CY 2011 usage survey report. It also includes a table of the calculated PEDEs for each release point at its critical receptor. Section 5 describes ES's approach to Quality Assurance (QA) for the usage survey. Satisfactory completion of the survey requires that team members responsible for Rad-NESHAP (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) compliance accurately collect and process several types of information, including radioactive materials usage data, process information, and supporting information. They must also perform and document the QA reviews outlined in Section 5.2.6 (Process Verification and Peer Review) of ES-RN, 'Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Rad-NESHAP Compliance Project' to verify that all information is complete and correct.

  4. Numerical estimation on free electrons generated by shielded radioactive materials under various gaseous environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D. S. [Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. S.; So, J. H. [Agency for Defence Development (ADD), Daejeon 305-152 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, E. M. [Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report simulation results on generation of free electrons due to the presence of radioactive materials under controlled pressure and gases using a general Monte Carlo transport code (MCNPX). A radioactive material decays to lower atomic number, simultaneously producing high energy gamma rays that can generate free electrons via various scattering mechanisms. This paper shows detailed simulation works for answering how many free electrons can be generated under the existence of shielded radioactive materials as a function of pressure and types of gases.

  5. Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    form · Separate liquid from solid · Radionuclide · Separate all but H3/C14 #12;#12;Radioactive Waste;Radioactive Waste H3/C14 solids Type B (non-incinerable) metal glass hazardous materials #12;#12;Radioactive#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to

  6. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria for radioactive material transportation containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Ludwigsen, J.S.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design criteria currently used in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transportation containers are taken from the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME, 1992). These load-based criteria are ideally suited for pressure vessels where the loading is quasistatic and all stresses are in equilibrium with externally applied loads. For impact events, the use of load-based criteria is less supportable. Impact events tend to be energy controlled, and thus, energy-based acceptance criteria would appear to be more appropriate. Determination of an ideal design criteria depends on what behavior is desired. Currently there is not a design criteria for inelastic analysis for RAM nation packages that is accepted by the regulatory agencies. This lack of acceptance criteria is one of the major factors in limiting the use of inelastic analysis. In this paper inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on stress and strain-energy density will be compared for two stainless steel test units subjected to impacts onto an unyielding target. Two different material models are considered for the inelastic analysis, a bilinear fit of the stress-strain curve and a power law hardening model that very closely follows the stress-strain curve. It is the purpose of this paper to stimulate discussion and research into the area of strain-energy density based inelastic analysis acceptance criteria.

  7. THE NEED FOR A NEW JOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CLOSURE WELDING OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CANNELL GR; HILL BE; GRANT GJ

    2008-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the activities associated with cleanup throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex is packaging radioactive materials into storage containers. Much of this work will be performed in high-radiation environments requiring fully remote operations, for which existing, proven systems do not currently exist. These conditions demand a process that is capable of producing acceptable (defect-free) welds on a consistent basis; the need to perform weld repair, under fully-remote operations, can be extremely costly and time consuming. Current closure welding technology (fusion welding) is not well suited for this application and will present risk to cleanup cost and schedule. To address this risk, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are proposing that a new and emerging joining technology, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), be considered for this work. FSW technology has been demonstrated in other industries (aerospace and marine) to produce near flaw-free welds on a consistent basis. FSW is judged capable of providing the needed performance for fully-remote closure welding of containers for radioactive materials for the following reasons: FSW is a solid-state process; material is not melted. As such, FSW does not produce the type of defects associated with fusion welding, e.g., solidification-induced porosity, cracking, distortion due to weld shrinkage, and residual stress. In addition, because FSW is a low-heat input process, material properties (mechanical, corrosion and environmental) are preserved and not degraded as can occur with 'high-heat' fusion welding processes. When compared to fusion processes, FSW produces extremely high weld quality. FSW is performed using machine-tool technology. The equipment is simple and robust and well-suited for high radiation, fully-remote operations compared to the relatively complex equipment associated with the fusion-welding processes. Additionally, for standard wall thicknesses of radioactive materials containers, the FSW process can perform final closure welding in a single pass (GTAW requires multiple passes) resulting in increased productivity. Together, the performance characteristics associated with FSW, i.e., high weld quality, simple machine-tool equipment and increased welding efficiency, are expected to reduce risk to upcoming DOE radioactive materials packaging campaigns. FSW technology requires some development/adaptation for this application, along with approval from the governing code of construction prior to production operations. This paper addresses the need for a new joining technology, a description of the FSW process and why it is well-suited for this application, and several activities required for commercialization.

  8. In-situ remediation of naturally occurring radioactive materials with high-permeability hydraulic fracturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demarchos, Andronikos Stavros

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the petroleum industry, is the recommended technique. NORM are found throughout subterranean formations. Whenever fluids from petroleum or water reservoirs are produced NORM are present in varying quantities. NORM can only be sensed with radiation detectors...

  9. Characterization of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in Oil and Gas Industry Equipment and Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; White, G.J.

    1999-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This Sampling and Analysis (S and A) Plan was developed for the NORM Characterization Program, and describes the information to be gained through the program, how the required information is to be collected, and the anticipated form and content of the final data. The S and A Plan provides detailed procedures describing the work to be performed, how and why the work will be performed, and who will be responsible for conducting the various aspects of the work. The S and A Plan has been prepared with input from all parties involved with the program. Where appropriate, portions of the procedures described in the S and A Plan will be field tested by personnel of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Grand Junction Project Office (GJPO), as well as representatives of the cosponsor organizations prior to their use in the field.

  10. Radioactive Material Use at the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex The EMSL Radiochemistry Annex, located in the 3410 Material Science and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radioactive material. In order to work within 3410 facility radiological limits, potential users must provide can evaluate whether it will meet our facility limits. Note that while the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex

  11. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  12. Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Listed

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  13. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  14. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

  16. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  17. Shipment of Small Quantities of Unspecified Radioactive Material in Chalfant Packagings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Allen; Abramczyk, Glenn; Nathan, Steven; Bellamy, Steve

    2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the post 6M era, radioactive materials package users are faced with the disciplined operations associated with use of Certified Type B packagings. Many DOE, commercial and academic programs have a requirement to ship and/or store small masses of poorly characterized or unspecified radioactive material. For quantities which are small enough to be fissile exempt and have low radiation levels, the materials could be transported in a package which provides the required containment level. Because their Chalfant type containment vessels meet the highest standard of containment (helium leak-tight), the 9975, 9977, and 9978 are capable of transporting any of these contents. The issues associated with certification of a high-integrity, general purpose package for shipping small quantities of unspecified radioactive material are discussed and certification of the packages for this mission is recommended.

  18. RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE 2/97 2-1 RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE 2/97 2-1 CHAPTER 2 RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS I. AUTHORIZATION TO USE material in research studies, must obtain approval of the Radiation Control Committee. Approval is obtained by submitting a proposal to the Committee through the Radiation Control Office describing such items as: (a

  19. Fast Neutron Radioactivity and Damage Studies on Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, J.; Anderson, S. D.; Wolf, Z.; Volk, J. T.; Pellett, D.; Boussoufi, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pm Superconducting Materials Dy 165 2.33h Current leads, conductors and cavities with minimal Nd 147

  20. Ontario Hydro`s transportation of radioactive material and emergency response plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karmali, N. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Nuclear Operations Branch

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ontario Hydro has been transporting radioactive material for almost 30 years without any exposure to the public or release to the environment. However, there have been three accidents involving Hydro`s shipments of radioactive material. In addition to the quality packaging and shipping program, Ontario Hydro has an Emergency Response Plan and capability to deal with an accident involving a shipment of radioactive material. The Corporation`s ability to respond, to effectively control and contain the situation, site remediation, and to provide emergency public information in the event of a road accident minimizes the risk to the public and the environment. This emphasizes their commitment to worker safety, public safety and impact to the environment. Response capability is mandated under various legislation and regulations in Canada.

  1. Radioactivity measurements of ITER materials using TFTR D-T neutron field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kugel, H.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    TFTR successfully initiated trace tritium plasma experiments in mid-November 1993. During the coming year, the TFTR plasma tritium fraction is scheduled to be increased to at least 50%. The availability of larger amounts of D-T fusion neutrons in the high power D-T plasma phase of TFTR provides an useful opportunity to directly measure D-T neutron induced radioactivity in a realistic tokamak-environment in materials of vital interest to ITER. These measurements are invaluable for characterizing short and long lived radioactivity in various ITER candidate materials, for validating complex neutron transport calculations, and for meeting fusion reactor licensing requirements. The radioactivity measurements at TFTR will involve potential ITER materials that include stainless steel 316, vanadium-alloy, copper, iron, nickel, chromium, vanadium, titanium, manganese, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, niobium, zirconium, tungsten, lead, tin, silicon, etc. Small samples of these materials will be irradiated in varying neutron energy spectra at the vacuum vessel first wall. These irradiated samples will then be counted for {gamma}-radioactivity at different cooling times to get extensive information on as many {gamma}-emitting radioactive products as feasible.

  2. Projected environmental impacts of radioactive material transportation to the first US repository site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Reardon, P.C.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; McNair, G.W.

    1986-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the relative national environmental impacts of transporting nuclear wastes to each of the nine candidate repository sites in the United States. Several of the potential sites are closely clustered and, for the purpose of distance and routing calculations, are treated as a single location. These are: Cypress Creek Dome and Richton Dome in Mississippi (Gulf Interior Region), Deaf Smith County and Swisher County sites in Texas (Permian Basin), and Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon site in Utah (Paradox Basin). The remaining sites are: Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; Yucca Mountain, Nevada; and Hanford Reservation, Washington. For compatibility with both the repository system authorized by the NWPA and with the MRS option, two separate scenarios were analyzed. In belief, they are (1) shipment of spent fuel and high-level wastes (HLW) directly from waste generators to a repository (Reference Case) and (2) shipment of spent fuel to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility and then to a repository. Between 17 and 38 truck accident fatalities, between 1.4 and 7.7 rail accident fatalities, and between 0.22 and 12 radiological health effects can be expected to occur as a result of radioactive material transportation during the 26-year operating period of the first repository. During the same period in the United States, about 65,000 total deaths from truck accidents and about 32,000 total deaths from rail accidents would occur; also an estimated 58,300 cancer fatalities are predicted to occur in the United States during a 26-year period from exposure to background radiation alone (not including medical and other manmade sources). The risks reported here are upper limits and are small by comparison with the "natural background" of risks of the same type. 3 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Elastomeric optical fiber sensors and method for detecting and measuring events occurring in elastic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Capps, Gary J. (Knoxville, TN); Smith, David B. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Clifford P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiber optic sensing means for the detection and measurement of events such as dynamic loadings imposed upon elastic materials including cementitious materials, elastomers, and animal body components and/or the attrition of such elastic materials are provided. One or more optical fibers each having a deformable core and cladding formed of an elastomeric material such as silicone rubber are embedded in the elastic material. Changes in light transmission through any of the optical fibers due the deformation of the optical fiber by the application of dynamic loads such as compression, tension, or bending loadings imposed on the elastic material or by the attrition of the elastic material such as by cracking, deterioration, aggregate break-up, and muscle, tendon, or organ atrophy provide a measurement of the dynamic loadings and attrition. The fiber optic sensors can be embedded in elastomers subject to dynamic loadings and attrition such as commonly used automobiles and in shoes for determining the amount and frequency of the dynamic loadings and the extent of attrition. The fiber optic sensors are also useable in cementitious material for determining the maturation thereof.

  4. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  5. Structural analysis in support of the waterborne transport of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety of the transportation of radioactive materials by road and rail has been well studied and documented. However, the safety of waterborne transportation has received much less attention. Recent highly visible waterborne transportation campaigns have led to DOE and IAEA to focus attention on the safety of this transportation mode. In response, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a program to establish a method to determine the safety of these shipments. As part of that program the mechanics involved in ship-to-ship collisions are being evaluated to determine the loadings imparted to radioactive material transportation packages during these collisions. This paper will report on the results of these evaluations.

  6. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  7. Regulatory compliance in the design of packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raske, D.T.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipments of radioactive materials within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy (DOE) must meet the package design requirements contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, and DOE Order 5480.3. These regulations do not provide design criteria requirements, but only detail the approval standards, structural performance criteria, and package integrity requirements that must be met during transport. The DOE recommended design criterion for high-level Category I radioactive packagings is Section III, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. However, alternative design criteria may be used if all the design requirements are satisfied. The purpose of this paper is to review alternatives to the Code criteria and discuss their applicability to the design of containment vessels in packages for high-level radioactive materials. Issues such as design qualification by physical testing, the use of scale models, and problems encountered using a non-ASME design approach are addressed.

  8. Guidance for use of Radiology Devices and Radioactive Materials in Research Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puglisi, Joseph

    Guidance for use of Radiology Devices and Radioactive Materials in Research Protocols Definition preparation, handling, storage, administration, and waste disposal in sufficient detail to permit a radiological hazards evaluation of the proposal, including potential for radiation dose to other health care

  9. Remediation of a Former USAF Radioactive Material Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D. E.; Cushman, M; Tupyi, B.; Lambert, J.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the remediation of a low-level radiological waste burial site located at the former James Connally Air Force Base in Waco, Texas. Burial activities at the site occurred during the 1950's when the property was under the ownership of the United States Air Force. Included is a discussion of methods and strategies that were used to successfully exhume and characterize the wastes for proper disposal at offsite disposal facilities. Worker and environmental protection measures are also described. Information gained from this project may be used at other similar project sites. A total of nine burial tubes had been identified for excavation, characterization, and removal from the site. The disposal tubes were constructed of 4-ft lengths of concrete pipe buried upright with the upper ends flush with ground surface. Initial ground level observations of the burial tubes indicated that some weathering had occurred; however, the condition of the subsurface portions of the tubes was unknown. Soil excavation occurred in 1-foot lifts in order that the tubes could be inspected and to allow for characterization of the soils at each stage of the excavation. Due to the weight of the concrete pipe and the condition of the piping joints it was determined that special measures would be required to maintain the tubes intact during their removal. Special tube anchoring and handling methods were required to relocate the tubes from their initial positions to a staging area where they could be further characterized. Characterization of the disposal tubes was accomplished using a combination of gamma spectroscopy and activity mapping methods. Important aspects of the project included the use of specialized excavation and disposal tube reinforcement measures to maintain the disposal tubes intact during excavation, removal and subsequent characterization. The non-intrusive gamma spectroscopy and data logging methods allowed for effective characterization of the wastes while minimizing disposal costs. In addition, worker exposures were maintained ALARA as a result of the removal and characterization methods employed.

  10. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Loureiro, C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Chia, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Geology

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  11. AGING PERFORMANCE OF VITON GLT O-RINGS IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skidmore, E; Kerry Dunn, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Elise Fox, E; Kathryn Counts, K

    2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive material packages used for transportation of plutonium-bearing materials often contain multiple O-ring seals for containment. Packages such as the Model 9975 are also being used for interim storage of Pu-bearing materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the seal materials used in such packages is Viton{reg_sign} GLT fluoroelastomer. The aging behavior of containment vessel O-rings based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT at long-term containment term storage conditions is being characterized to assess its performance in such applications. This paper summarizes the program and test results to date.

  12. APPLICATION FO FLOW FORMING FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DESIGNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the development and testing performed to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing containment vessels for use in radioactive material shipping packaging designs. Additionally, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NB compliance along with the benefits compared to typical welding of containment vessels will be discussed. SRNL has completed fabrication development and the testing on flow formed containment vessels to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing a welded 6-inch diameter containment vessel currently used in the 9975 and 9977 radioactive material shipping packaging. Material testing and nondestructive evaluation of the flow formed parts demonstrate compliance to the minimum material requirements specified in applicable parts of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II. Destructive burst testing shows comparable results to that of a welded design. The benefits of flow forming as compared to typical welding of containment vessels are significant: dimensional control is improved due to no weld distortion; less final machining; weld fit-up issues associated with pipes and pipe caps are eliminated; post-weld non-destructive testing (i.e., radiography and die penetrant tests) is not necessary; and less fabrication steps are required. Results presented in this paper indicate some of the benefits in adapting flow forming to design of future radioactive material shipping packages containment vessels.

  13. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers; Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.; Kass, J.N.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys and three copper-based alloys are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The austenitic alloys are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and the high-nickel material Alloy 825. The copper-based alloys are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). Waste in the forms of both spent fuel assemblies from reactors and borosilicate glass will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including undesirable phase transformations due to a lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking; and transgranular stress corrosion cracking. Problems specific to welds, such as hot cracking, may also occur. A survey of the literature has been prepared as part of the process of selecting, from among the candidates, a material that is adequate for repository conditions. The modes of degradation are discussed in detail in the survey to determine which apply to the candidate alloys and the extent to which they may actually occur. The eight volumes of the survey are summarized in Sections 1 through 8 of this overview. The conclusions drawn from the survey are also given in this overview.

  14. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  15. Decay radioactivity induced in plasma-facing materials by deutrium-tritium neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Youssef, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron-induced radioactivity constitutes one of the foremost issues in fusion reactor design. Designers have been using radioactivity codes and associated nuclear data libraries for nucleonic designs of fusion reactors. However, in the past, there was hardly any experimental validation of these codes/libraries. An elaborate, experimental program was initiated in 1988 under a U.S. Department of Energy/Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute collaborative program to validate the radioactivity codes/libraries. As many as 14 neutron energy spectra were covered for a number of materials. The analyses of the isotopic activities of the irradiated materials using the activation cross-section libraries of four leading radioactivity codes, i.e., ACT4/THIDA-1, REAC-3. DKR-ICF; and RACC, have shown large discrepancies among the calculations on one hand and between the calculations and the measurements, on the other. Vanadium, Co, Ni, Zn, Zr, Mo, In, Sn, and W each count the largest number of discrepant isotopic activities. In addition to providing detailed results of the status of predictability of individual isotopic activities using the ACT4, REAC-3, DKR-ICF, and RACC activation cross-section libraries, safety factors cum quality factors characterizing each library are presented and discussed. The related issues of confidence level and associated uncertainty are also highlighted. 37 refs., 112 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. A Strategy for Quantifying Radioactive Material in a Low-Level Waste Incineration Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochel, R.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the methods proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the volume reduction and stabilization of a variety of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) is incineration. Many commercial incinerators are in operation treating both non-hazardous and hazardous wastes. These can obtain volume reductions factors of 50 or more for certain wastes, and produce a waste (ash) that can be easily stabilized if necessary by vitrification or cementation. However, there are few incinerators designed to accommodate radioactive wastes. One has been recently built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC and is burning non-radioactive hazardous waste and radioactive wastes in successive campaigns. The SRS Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is RCRA permitted as a Low Chemical Hazard, Radiological facility as defined by DOE criteria (Ref. 1). Accordingly, the CIF must operate within specified chemical, radionuclide, and fissile material inventory limits (Ref. 2). The radionuclide and fissile material limits are unique to radiological or nuclear facilities, and require special measurement and removal strategies to assure compliance, and the CIF may be required to shut down periodically in order to clean out the radionuclide inventory which builds up in various parts of the facility.

  17. Development and evaluation of measurement devices used to support testing of radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uncapher, W. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Stenberg, D.R.; Bronowski, D. R.; Arviso, M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive material package designers use structural testing to verify and demonstrate package performance. A major part of evaluating structural response is the collection of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has an ongoing program to develop and evaluate measurement devices to support testing of radioactive material packages. Measurement devices developed in support of this activity include evaluation channels, ruggedly constructed linear variable differential transformers, and piezoresistive accelerometers with enhanced measurement capabilities. In addition to developing measurement devices, a method has been derived to evaluate accelerometers and strain gages for measurement repeatability, ruggedness, and manufacturers' calibration data under both laboratory and field conditions. The developed measurement devices and evaluation technique will be discussed and the results of the evaluation will be presented.

  18. Romanian Experience for Enhancing Safety and Security in Transport of Radioactive Material - 12223

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieru, Gheorghe [Institute for Nuclear Research, P.O.BOX 78, 0300 PITESTI (Romania)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport of Dangerous Goods-Class no.7 Radioactive Material (RAM), is an important part of the Romanian Radioactive Material Management. The overall aim of this activity is for enhancing operational safety and security measures during the transport of the radioactive materials, in order to ensure the protection of the people and the environment. The paper will present an overall of the safety and security measures recommended and implemented during transportation of RAM in Romania. Some aspects on the potential threat environment will be also approached with special referring to the low level radioactive material (waste) and NORM transportation either by road or by rail. A special attention is given to the assessment and evaluation of the possible radiological consequences due to RAM transportation. The paper is a part of the IAEA's Vienna Scientific Research Contract on the State Management of Nuclear Security Regime (Framework) concluded with the Institute for Nuclear Research, Romania, where the author is the CSI (Chief Scientific Investigator). The transport of RAM in Romania is a very sensible and complex problem taking into consideration the importance and the need of the security and safety for such activities. The Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body set up strictly regulation and procedures according to the Recommendation of the IAEA Vienna and other international organizations. There were implemented the adequate regulation and procedures in order to keep the environmental impacts and the radiological consequences at the lower possible level and to assure the effectiveness of state nuclear security regime due to possible malicious acts in carrying out these activities including transport and the disposal site at the acceptable international levels. The levels of the estimated doses and risk expectation values for transport and disposal are within the acceptable limits provided by national and international regulations and recommendations but can increase, significantly during potential malicious acts. (authors)

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 11: Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  20. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  1. A Review of Removable Surface Contamination on Radioactive Materials Transportation Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, Jr, W. E.; Watson, E. C.; Murphy, D. W.; Harrer, B. J.; Harty, R.; Aldrich, J. M.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of removable surface contamination on radioactive materials transportation containers. The purpose of the study is to provide information to the NRC during their review of existing regulations. Data was obtained from both industry and literature on three major topics: 1) radiation doses, 2) economic costs, and 3) contamination frequencies. Containers for four categories of radioactive materials are considered including radiopharmaceuticals, industrial sources, nuclear fuel cycle materials, and low-level radioactive waste. Assumptions made in this study use current information to obtain realistic yet conservative estimates of radiation dose and economic costs. Collective and individual radiation doses are presented for each container category on a per container basis. Total doses, to workers and the public, are also presented for spent fuel cask and low-level waste drum decontamination. Estimates of the additional economic costs incurred by lowering current limits by factors of 10 and 100 are presented. Current contamination levels for each category of container are estimated from the data collected. The information contained in this report is designed to be useful to the NRC in preparing their recommendations for new regulations.

  2. A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF/sub 6/ releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger.

  3. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  4. Regulatory and extra-regulatory testing to demonstrate radioactive material packaging safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Packages for the transportation of radioactive material must meet performance criteria to assure safety and environmental protection. The stringency of the performance criteria is based on the degree of hazard of the material being transported. Type B packages are used for transporting large quantities of radioisotopes (in terms of A{sub 2} quantities). These packages have the most stringent performance criteria. Material with less than an A{sub 2} quantity are transported in Type A packages. These packages have less stringent performance criteria. Transportation of LSA and SCO materials must be in {open_quotes}strong-tight{close_quotes} packages. The performance requirements for the latter packages are even less stringent. All of these package types provide a high level of safety for the material being transported. In this paper, regulatory tests that are used to demonstrate this safety will be described. The responses of various packages to these tests will be shown. In addition, the response of packages to extra-regulatory tests will be discussed. The results of these tests will be used to demonstrate the high level of safety provided to workers, the public, and the environment by packages used for the transportation of radioactive material.

  5. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  6. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Wong, James L. (Dublin, CA); Jessup, James L. (Tracy, CA); Bianchini, Greg M. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Wayne O. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  7. Property Valuation and Radioactive Materials Transportation: A Legal, Economic and Public Perception Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, J. A.; Thrower, A. W.; Widmayer, D. A.; Portner, W.

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The shipment of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico raised a serious socioeconomic issue - the potential devaluation of property values due to the transportation of TRU waste from generator sites to the disposal facility. In 1992, the New Mexico Supreme Court held in City of Santa Fe v. Komis that a loss in value from public perception of risk was compensable. This issue has become an extremely important one for the development of the Yucca Mountain repository in Nevada for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much research has been conducted about the potential impacts of transportation of spent fuel and radioactive waste. This paper examines the pertinent studies conducted since the Komis case. It examines how the public debate on radioactive materials transportation continues and is now focused on transportation of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Finally, the paper suggests a path forward DOE can take to address this issue.

  8. CLOSURE WELDING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS CONTAINERS AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) responsibility for the disposition of radioactive materials has given rise to several unique welding applications. Many of these materials require packaging into containers for either Interim or long-term storage. It is not uncommon that final container fabrication, i.e., closure welding, is performed with these materials already placed into the container. Closure welding is typically performed remote to the container, and routine post-weld testing and nondestructive examination (NDE) are often times not feasible. Fluor Hanford has packaged many such materials in recent years as park of the Site's cleanup mission. In lieu of post-weld testing and NDE, the Fluor-Hanford approach has been to establish weld quality through ''upfront'' development and qualification of welding parameters, and then ensure parameter compliance during welding. This approach requires a rigor not usually afforded to typical welding development activities, and may involve statistical analysis and extensive testing, including burst, drop, sensitive leak testing, etc. This paper provides an instructive review of the development and qualification activities associated with the closure of radioactive materials containers, including a brief report on activities for closure welding research reactor, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) overpacks at the Hanford Site.

  9. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  10. Criteria for cesium capsules to be shipped as special form radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to compile all the documentation which defines the criteria for Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium capsules at the IOTECH facility and Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO) to be shipped as special form radioactive material in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask. The capsules were originally approved as special form in 1975, but in 1988 the integrity of the capsules came into question. WHC developed the Pre-shipment Acceptance Test Criteria for capsules to meet in order to be shipped as special form material. The Department of Energy approved the criteria and directed WHC to ship the capsules at IOTECH and ARECO meeting this criteria to WHC as special form material.

  11. ELUCIDATING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ONSITE AND OFFSITE SHIPMENT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B.; Watkins, R.

    2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal regulations stipulate how radioactive materials are transported within the United States. However, the Department of Energy, under Department of Energy Order, has the authority to operate, within the boundaries of their physical site, to other stipulations. In many cases the DOE sites have internal reviews for onsite transfers that rival reviews performed by the regulatory authorities for offsite shipments. Most of the differences are in the level or type of packaging that is required, but in some cases it may be in the amount and type of material that is allowed to be transferred. This paper will describe and discuss those differences and it will discuss ways to effectively align the onsite rules for transferring materials with those for offsite shipment.

  12. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Shpack site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Monette, F.; Jones, L.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Shpack site in Norton, Massachusetts. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Shpack site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following decontamination. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site; the scenarios vary with regard to time spent at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1000 years, provided that the soil concentration of combined uranium (uranium-234 and uranium-238) at the Shpack site does not exceed the following levels: 2500 pCi/g for Scenario A (recreationist: the expected scenario); 1100 pCi/g for Scenario B (industrial worker: a plausible scenario); and 53 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer using a well water as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario). The uranium guidelines derived in this report apply to the combined activity concentration of uranium-234 and uranium-238 and were calculated on the basis of a dose of 100 mrem/yr. In setting the actual uranium guidelines for the Shpack site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors, such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation.

  14. Near-real-time materials accountancy: Use of SITMUF and page's test to detect losses occurring in a complex pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, B.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is probably accepted that near-real-time materials accountancy (NRTMA) can lead to a more timely detection of losses. However, there may be some concern that this timeliness can be gained only at the expense of a power reduction to ultimately detect a loss of a given size. It has been demonstrated the NRTMA, using the standardized independent transformed material unaccounted for (MUF) SITMUF values and Page's test, is superior to conventional accountancy in three ways. Further aspects of the performance of NRTMA using Page's test are investigated. Reference 1 did not consider the case of protracted losses occurring at a variable rate or in an intermittent fashion. Both of these aspects are considered. Another factor that might be expected to affect the behavior of Page's test, namely, the frequency with which balances are taken, is studied. These investigations were all carried out using data from a model with characteristics similar to those expected at the new British Nuclear Fuels Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant.

  15. A workshop on developing risk assessment methods for medical use of radioactive material. Volume 1: Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortorelli, J.P. [ed.] [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains a summary of that workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report. An appendix contains the 8 papers presented at the conference: NRC proposed policy statement on the use of probabilistic risk assessment methods in nuclear regulatory activities; NRC proposed agency-wide implementation plan for probabilistic risk assessment; Risk evaluation of high dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy at a large research/teaching institution; The pros and cons of using human reliability analysis techniques to analyze misadministration events; Review of medical misadministration event summaries and comparison of human error modeling; Preliminary examples of the development of error influences and effects diagrams to analyze medical misadministration events; Brachytherapy risk assessment program plan; and Principles of brachytherapy quality assurance.

  16. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  17. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DRUM TYPE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING ARRAYS IN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N

    2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR 71.[1] In recent years, there has been a greater need to use these packagings to store the excess fissile material, especially plutonium for long term storage. While the design requirements for safe transportation of these packagings are well defined, the requirements for safe long term storage are not well established. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are stored carefully to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals to prevent any leakage and the impact limiter to maintain the package structural integrity. This paper analyzes different storage arrays for a typical 9977 packaging for thermal considerations and makes recommendations for their safe storage under normal operating conditions.

  18. Development of a computer model for calculation of radioactive materials into the atmosphere after an accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schershakov, V. [Federal Information Analytical Centre, Obinski (Russia)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary atmospheric contamination with radioactive dust and chemical species deposited on the ground and resuspended by wind occur very widely. This process is particularly pronounced in case of extensive contamination of soil and under extreme weather conditions, for example, during dust storms. The mechanism of wind dust generation consists in the following. At low wind speed U=2-3 m/s, which is most common in midlatitude, small radioactive dust particles (diameter of hundredth of a micron to 10-20 microns) are lifted from soil surface due to turbulent vortexes. Under the gravitational force the particles of 1-2 micron diameter practically do not settle. Larger dust particles cannot remain in the air for a long time: they are lifted by turbulent vortexes and settle, their motion in the wind flow is jump-wise and the interaction of particles with the flow is called saltation /I/. Saltation is the main mechanism of dust generation up to the wind velocity at which wind erosion starts. The size of dust particles can be as large as 100 pm. When dropping they can be ricocheting from ground or pass the impulse to other particles which begin rolling over and jumping up. The process of dust transport by wind can be compared to a chain reaction. At the velocity of 10 m/s large particles of about 500 pm stop skipping and roll over only, while particles of more than 1 mm remain stationary. Thus, the fine fraction is blown out from the polydispersed soil particles. The intensity of wind resuspension of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized either by a resuspension factor or a resuspension rate.

  19. Knowledge Management Initiatives Used to Maintain Regulatory Expertise in Transportation and Storage of Radioactive Materials - 12177

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Haile; Garcia-Santos, Norma; Saverot, Pierre; Day, Neil; Gambone Rodriguez, Kimberly; Cruz, Luis; Sotomayor-Rivera, Alexis; Vechioli, Lucieann; Vera, John; Pstrak, David [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop EBB-03D-02M, 6003 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established in 1974 with the mission to license and regulate the civilian use of nuclear materials for commercial, industrial, academic, and medical uses in order to protect public health and safety, and the environment, and promote the common defense and security. Currently, approximately half (?49%) of the workforce at the NRC has been with the Agency for less than six years. As part of the Agency's mission, the NRC has partial responsibility for the oversight of the transportation and storage of radioactive materials. The NRC has experienced a significant level of expertise leaving the Agency due to staff attrition. Factors that contribute to this attrition include retirement of the experienced nuclear workforce and mobility of staff within or outside the Agency. Several knowledge management (KM) initiatives have been implemented within the Agency, with one of them including the formation of a Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation (SFST) KM team. The team, which was formed in the fall of 2008, facilitates capturing, transferring, and documenting regulatory knowledge for staff to effectively perform their safety oversight of transportation and storage of radioactive materials, regulated under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 71 and Part 72. In terms of KM, the SFST goal is to share critical information among the staff to reduce the impact from staff's mobility and attrition. KM strategies in place to achieve this goal are: (1) development of communities of practice (CoP) (SFST Qualification Journal and the Packaging and Storing Radioactive Material) in the on-line NRC Knowledge Center (NKC); (2) implementation of a SFST seminar program where the seminars are recorded and placed in the Agency's repository, Agency-wide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS); (3) meeting of technical discipline group programs to share knowledge within specialty areas; (4) development of written guidance to capture 'administrative and technical' knowledge (e.g., office instructions (OIs), generic communications (e.g., bulletins, generic letters, regulatory issue summary), standard review plans (SRPs), interim staff guidance (ISGs)); (5) use of mentoring strategies for experienced staff to train new staff members; (6) use of Microsoft SharePoint portals in capturing, transferring, and documenting knowledge for staff across the Division from Division management and administrative assistants to the project managers, inspectors, and technical reviewers; and (7) development and implementation of a Division KM Plan. A discussion and description of the successes and challenges of implementing these KM strategies at the NRC/SFST will be provided. (authors)

  20. Manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines using RESRAD, Version 5.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J. [and others

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material. It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating doses, risks, and guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Two new pathways, radon inhalation and soil ingestion, have been added to RESRAD. Twenty-seven new radionuclides have also been added, and the cutoff half-life for associated radionuclides has been reduced to six months. Other major improvements to the RESRAD code include the ability to run sensitivity analyses, the addition of graphical output, user-specified dose factors, updated databases, an improved groundwater transport model, optional input of a groundwater concentration and a solubility constant, special models for tritium and carbon-14, calculation of cancer incidence risk, and the use of a mouse with menus.

  1. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES WITHIN CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2008-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles, (Stegobium paniceum (L.) Coleoptera: Anobiidae), were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. Initial indications were that the beetles were feeding on the Celotex{trademark} assemblies within the package. Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is used in numerous radioactive material packages serving as both a thermal insulator and an impact absorber for both normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-63) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex{trademark}. The Savannah River National Laboratory is conducting the investigation with entomological expertise provided by Clemson University. The two empty 9975 shipping packages were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory in the fall of 2007. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation.

  3. High temperature materials for radioactive waste incineration and vitrification. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D F; Ondrejcin, R S; Salley, L

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Incineration or vitrification of radioactive waste subjects equipment to alkaline or acidic fluxing, oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and thermal shock. It is necessary to select appropriate materials of construction and control operating conditions to avoid rapid equipment failure. Nickel- and cobalt-based alloys with high chromium or aluminum content and aluminum oxide/chromium oxide refractories with high chromium oxide content have provided the best service in pilot-scale melter tests. Inconel 690 and Monofrax K-3 are being used for waste vitrification. Haynes 188 and high alumina refractory are undergoing pilot scale tests for incineration equipment. Laboratory tests indicate that alloys and refractories containing still higher concentrations of chromium or chromium oxide, such as Inconel 671 and Monofrax E, may provide superior resistance to attack in glass melter environments.

  4. Development on inelastic analysis acceptance criteria for radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Ludwigsen, J.S.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of radioactive material transportation packages to mechanical accident loadings can be more accurately characterized by non-linear dynamic analysis than by the ``Equivalent dynamic`` static elastic analysis typically used in the design of these packages. This more accurate characterization of the response can lead to improved package safety and design efficiency. For non-linear dynamic analysis to become the preferred method of package design analysis, an acceptance criterion must be established that achieves an equivalent level of safety as the currently used criterion defined in NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6 (NRC 1978). Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting a study of possible acceptance criteria to meet this requirement. In this paper non-linear dynamic analysis acceptance criteria based on stress, strain, and strain-energy-density will be discussed. An example package design will be compared for each of the design criteria, including the approach of NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6.

  5. Demonstration of a computer model for residual radioactive material guidelines, RESRAD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Wallo, A. III (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer model was developed to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This model, called RESRAD, can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputer. Seven potential exposure pathways from contaminated soil are analyzed, including external radiation exposure and internal radiation exposure from inhalation and food digestion. The RESRAD code has been applied to several DOE sites to derive soil cleanup guidelines. The experience gained indicates that a comprehensive set of site-specific hydrogeologic and geochemical input parameters must be used for a realistic pathway analysis. The RESRAD code is a useful tool; it is easy to run and very user-friendly. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials in reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amano, Y.; Tashiro, S.; Uchiyama, G.; Abe, H.; Yamane, Y.; Yoshida, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Kodama, T. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., 4-108 Okitsuke, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori, 039-3212 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The release and transport characteristics of radioactive materials at a boiling accident of the high active liquid waste (HALW) in a reprocessing plant have been studied for improving experimental data of source terms of the boiling accident. In the study, a heating test and a thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test were conducted. In the heating test using a simulated HALW, it was found that ruthenium was mainly released into the air in the form of gas and that non-volatile elements were released into the air in the form of mist. In the TG-DTA test, the rate constants and reaction heat of thermal decomposition of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate were obtained from TG and DTA curves. (authors)

  7. Modular glovebox connector and associated good practices for control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, M.D.; Mewhinney, C.J.; Newton, G.J. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and associated good practices are described for a modular glovebox connector to improve control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials. The connector consists of an anodized aluminum circular port with a mating spacer, gaskets, and retaining rings for joining two parallel ends of commercially available or custom-manufactured glovebox enclosures. Use of the connector allows multiple gloveboxes to be quickly assembled or reconfigured in functional units. Connector dimensions can be scaled to meet operational requirements for access between gloveboxes. Options for construction materials are discussed, along with recommendations for installation of the connector in new or retrofitted systems. Associated good practices include application of surface coatings and caulking, use of disposable glovebags, and proper selection and protection of gasket and glove materials. Use of the connector at an inhalation toxicology research facility has reduced the time and expense required to reconfigure equipment for changing operational requirements, the dispersion of contamination during reconfigurations, and the need for decommissioning and disposal of contaminated enclosures.

  8. IMPACT OF TARGET MATERIAL ACTIVATION ON PERSONNEL EXPOSURE AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khater, H; Epperson, P; Thacker, R; Beale, R; Kohut, T; Brereton, S

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed activation analyses are performed for the different materials under consideration for use in the target capsules and hohlraums used during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility. Results of the target material activation were additionally used to estimate the levels of contamination within the NIF target chamber and the workplace controls necessary for safe operation. The analysis examined the impact of using Be-Cu and Ge-doped CH capsules on the external dose received by workers during maintenance activities. Five days following a 20 MJ shot, dose rates inside the Target Chamber (TC) due to the two proposed capsule materials are small ({approx} 1 {micro}rem/h). Gold and depleted-uranium (DU) are considered as potential hohlraum materials. Following a shot, gold will most probably get deposited on the TC first wall. On the other hand, while noble-gas precursors from the DU are expected to stay in the TC, most of the noble gases are pumped out of the chamber and end up on the cryopumps. The dose rates inside the TC due to activated gold or DU, at 5 days following a 20 MJ shot, are about 1 mrem/h. Dose rates in the vicinity of the cryo-pumps (containing noble 'fission' gases) drop-off to about 1 mrem/h during the first 12 hours following the shot. Contamination from activation of NIF targets will result in the NIF target chamber exceeding DOE surface contamination limits. Objects removed from the TC will need to be managed as radioactive material. However, the results suggest that airborne contamination from resuspension of surface contamination will not be significant and is at levels that can be managed by negative ventilation when accessing the TC attachments.

  9. Background radioactivity of construction materials, raw substance and ready-made CaMoO4 crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busanov, O A; Gavriljuk, Yu M; Gezhaev, A M; Kazalov, V V; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Moseev, P S; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Yakimenko, S P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of measurements of natural radioactive isotopes content in different source materials of natural and enriched composition used for CaMoO4 scintillation crystal growing are presented. The crystals are to be used in the experiment to search for double neutrinoless betas-decay of Mo-100.

  10. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials [Papers presented by Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. (FL)

  11. Correlating Radioactive Material to Sea Surface Temperature off the Coast of Japan: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Correlating Radioactive Material to Sea Surface Temperature off the Coast of Japan: The Fukushima on the island. One of the most devastating results of this was the damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, Fukushima INTRODUCTION On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered a devastating 9.0 Mw earthquake, now known

  12. A HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR DISPOSITION OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eriksson, Leif G.; Dials, George E.; Parker, Frank L.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past 45 years, one of the most challenging scientific, engineering, socio-economic, and political tasks and obligations of our time has been to site and develop technical, politically acceptable, solutions to the safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). However, at the end of the year 2002, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in the United States of America (USA) hosts the world's only operating LLRM-disposal system, which (1) is based on the LLRM-disposal principles recommended by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1957, i.e., deep geological disposal in a ''stable'' salt vault/repository, (2) complies with the nation's ''Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'', and (3) may receive 175,584 cubic meters (m3) of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW)a. Pending the scheduled opening of repositories for once-used nuclear fuel (OUNF) in the USA, Sweden, and Finland in the years 2010, 2015, and 2017, respectively, LLRM-disposal solutions remain the missing link in all national LLRM-disposition programs. Furthermore, for a variety of reasons, many nations with nuclear programs have chosen a ''spectator'' stance in terms of enhancing the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, and have either ''slow-tracked'' or deferred their LLRM-disposal programs to allow time for an informed national consensus to evolve based on LLRM-disposition experiences and solutions gained elsewhere. In the meantime, LLRMs will continue to amass in different types and levels of safeguarded storage facilities around the world. In an attempt to contribute to the enhancement of the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, the authors developed the sample holistic approach for synergistic disposition of LLRMs comprising LLRM-disposition components considered either ''proven'' or ''promising'' by the authors. The fundamental principles of the holistic approach are: (1) Risk minimization; (2) Minimization of the LLRM volume requiring deep geological disposal; and (3) LLRM-disposition flexibility. An integral element of these principles is to allow time for LLRM-disposition solutions to evolve/mature technically, financially, and politically. Furthermore, contingent upon the desired outcome(s), available financial, scientific, and technical resources, and political will, these components may be implemented separately or in combinations by one or a group of nations.

  13. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

  14. IMPROVING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DRUM TYPEPACKAGES BY USING HEAT PIPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a feasibility study to improve thermal loading of existing radioactive material packages by using heat pipes. The concept could be used to channel heat in certain directions and dissipate to the environment. The concept is applied to a drum type package because the drum type packages are stored and transported in an upright position. This orientation is suitable for heat pipe operation that could facilitate the heat pipe implementation in the existing well proven package designs or in new designs where thermal loading is high. In this position, heat pipes utilize gravity very effectively to enhance heat flow in the upward direction Heat pipes have extremely high effective thermal conductivity that is several magnitudes higher than the most heat conducting metals. In addition, heat pipes are highly unidirectional so that the effective conductivity for heat transfer in the reverse direction is greatly reduced. The concept is applied to the 9977 package that is currently going through the DOE certification review. The paper presents computer simulations using typical off-the-shelf heat pipe available configurations and performance data for the 9977 package. A path forward is outlined for implementing the concepts for further study and prototype testing.

  15. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  16. A history of major Hanford facilities and processes involving radioactive material. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hall, R.B.

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established in 1987 to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. Hanford Site operations began in 1944 to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons. This effort included fabricating fuel elements, irradiating the fuel in nuclear reactors, and separating the resulting plutonium from uranium and fission byproducts. To build a foundation for the first step in estimating radiation doses, HEDR staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory compiled and summarized historical information that describes the processes and facilities in which radioactive material was generated or used at the Hanford Site. This document categorizes nuclear operations under six processes: fuel fabrication, reactor operations, fuel separations, plutonium finishing, research and development, and tank farms and waste recovery. Historical emission controls and effluent monitoring are discussed for each process. Because Hanford Site operations used the first large-scale nuclear facilities of their kind, process development and effluent control measures evolved as knowledge about the processes improved. Over the years, facilities were added or modified to improve processes, accelerate production, and better control emissions to the environment. 25 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT REMOVAL FROM WATER USING GRAPHENE OXIDE (GO)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Concklin, Joshua Paul

    2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    and uranium. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are abundant throughout the earth's crust. Human manipulation of NORM for economic ends, such as mining, ore processing, fossil fuel extraction, and commercial aviation, may lead to what is known...

  18. Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

  19. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results.

  20. A workshop on developing risk assessment methods for medical use of radioactive material. Volume 2: Supporting documents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortorelli, J.P. [ed.] [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains presentation material and a transcript of the workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report.

  1. Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

    2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging not exceed the regulatory limits prescribed by 10 CFR 71 for non-exclusive shipments. The mass of each radioisotope presented in this paper is limited by the radiation dose rate on the external surface of the package, which per the regulatory limit should not exceed 200 mrem/hr. The results presented are a compendium of allowable masses of a variety of different isotopes (with varying impurity levels of beryllium in some of the actinide isotopes) that, when loaded in an unshielded packaging, do not result in an external dose rate on the surface of the package that exceeds 190 mrem/hr (190 mrem/hr was chosen to provide 5% conservatism relative to the regulatory limit). These mass limits define the term 'Small Gram Quantity' (SGQ) contents in the context of radioactive material transportation packages. The term SGQ is isotope-specific and pertains to contents in radioactive material transportation packages that do not require shielding and still satisfy the external dose rate requirements. Since these calculated mass limits are for contents without shielding, they are conservative for packaging materials that provide some limited shielding or if the contents are placed into a shielded package. The isotopes presented in this paper were chosen as the isotopes that Department of Energy (DOE) sites most likely need to ship. Other more rarely shipped isotopes, along with industrial and medical isotopes, are planned to be included in subsequent extensions of this work.

  2. Constraint-Based Routing Models for the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Steven K [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a historic programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing, tracking, and transportation risk analysis of radiological materials in the United States. In order to address these program goals, DOE has funded the development of several tools and related systems designed to provide insight to planners and other professionals handling radioactive materials shipments. These systems include the WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System) platform. WebTRAGIS is a browser-based routing application developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focused primarily on the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel from US nuclear reactors via railway, highway, or waterway. It is also used for the transport planning of low-level radiological waste to depositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. One particular feature of WebTRAGIS is its coupling with high-resolution population data from ORNL s LandScan project. This allows users to obtain highly accurate population count and density information for use in route planning and risk analysis. To perform the routing and risk analysis WebTRAGIS incorporates a basic routing model methodology, with the additional application of various constraints designed to mimic US Department of Transportation (DOT), DOE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Aside from the routing models available in WebTRAGIS, the system relies on detailed or specialized modal networks for the route solutions. These include a highly detailed network model of the US railroad system, the inland and coastal waterways, and a specialized highway network that focuses on the US interstate system and the designated hazardous materials and Highway Route Controlled Quantity (HRCQ) -designated roadways. The route constraints in WebTRAGIS rely upon a series of attributes assigned to the various components of the different modal networks. Routes are determined via a constrained shortest-path Dijkstra algorithm that has an assigned impedance factor. The route constraints modify the various impedance weights to bias or prefer particular network characteristics as desired by the user. Both the basic route model and the constrained impedance function calculations are determined by a series of network characteristics and shipment types. The study examines solutions under various constraints modeled by WebTRAGIS including possible routes from select shut-down reactor sites in the US to specific locations in the US. For purposes of illustration, the designated destinations are Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. To the degree that routes express sameness or variety under constraints serves to illustrate either a) the determinism of particular transport modes by either configuration or regulatory compliance, and/or b) the variety of constrained routes that are regulation compliant but may not be operationally feasible.

  3. RESRAD-BUILD: A computer model for analyzing the radiological doses resulting from the remediation and occupancy of buildings contaminated with radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; LePoire, D.J.; Jones, L.G. [and others

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material. The transport of radioactive material inside the building from one compartment to another is calculated with an indoor air quality model. The air quality model considers the transport of radioactive dust particulates and radon progeny due to air exchange, deposition and resuspension, and radioactive decay and ingrowth. A single run of the RESRAD-BUILD code can model a building with up to: three compartments, 10 distinct source geometries, and 10 receptor locations. A shielding material can be specified between each source-receptor pair for external gamma dose calculations. Six exposure pathways are considered in the RESRAD-BUILD code: (1) external exposure directly from the source; (2) external exposure to materials deposited on the floor; (3) external exposure due to air submersion; (4) inhalation of airborne radioactive particulates; (5) inhalation of aerosol indoor radon progeny; and (6) inadvertent ingestion of radioactive material, either directly from the sources or from materials deposited on the surfaces of the building compartments. 4 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Roadmapping the Resolution of Gas Generation Issues in Packages Containing Radioactive Waste/Materials - A Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke, D.E. (INEEL); Hamp, S. (DOE-Albuquerque Operations Office)

    2002-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen, have been an area of concern for the transport and storage of radioactive materials and waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Potentially combustible gases can be generated through a variety of reactions, including chemical reactions and radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen-containing material. Since transportation regulations prohibit shipment of explosives and radioactive materials together, it was decided that hydrogen generation was a problem that warranted the execution of a high-level roadmapping effort. This paper discusses the major gas generation issues within the DOE Complex and the research that has been and is being conducted by the transuranic (TRU) waste, nuclear materials, and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) programs within DOE's Environmental Management (EM) organizations to address gas generation concerns. This paper presents a ''program level'' roadmap that links technology development to program needs and identifies the probability of success in an effort to understand the programmatic risk associated with the issue of gas generation. This paper also presents the status of the roadmap and follow-up activities.

  5. Roadmapping the Resolution of Gas Generation Issues in Packages Containing Radioactive Waste/Materials - A Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Hamp, S.

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen, have been an area of concern for the transport and storage of radioactive materials and waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Potentially combustible gases can be generated through a variety of reactions, including chemical reactions and radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen- containing material. Since transportation regulations prohibit shipment of explosives and radioactive materials together, it was decided that hydrogen generation was a problem that warranted the execution of a high-level roadmapping effort. This paper discusses the major gas generation issues within the DOE Complex and the research that has been and is being conducted by the transuranic (TRU) waste, nuclear materials, and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) programs within DOE’s Environmental Management (EM) organizations to address gas generation concerns. This paper presents a "program level" roadmap that links technology development to program needs and identifies the probability of success in an effort to understand the programmatic risk associated with the issue of gas generation. This paper also presents the status of the roadmap and follow-up activities.

  6. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  7. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  8. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

    2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

  9. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.

  10. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)] [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  11. Measurements and analyses of decay radioactivity induced in simulated deuterium-tritium neutron environments for fusion reactor structural materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Maekawa, F.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Kumar, A.; Youssef, M.Z.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet urgent requirements for data validation, an experimental analysis has been carried out for isotopic radioactivity induced by deuterium-tritium neutron irradiation in structural materials. The primary objective is to examine the adequacy of the activation cross sections implemented in the current activation calculation codes considered for use in fusion reactor nuclear design. Four activation cross-section libraries, namely, JENDL, LIB90, REAC{sup *}63, and REAC{sup *}175 were investigated in this current analysis. The isotopic induced radioactivity calculations using these four libraries are compared with experimental values obtained in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute/U.S. Department of Energy collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics. The nine materials studied are aluminum, silicon, titanium, vanadium, chromium, MnCu alloy, iron, nickel, niobium, and Type 316 stainless steel. The adequacy of the cross sections is investigated through the calculation to experiment analysis. As a result, most of the discrepancies in the calculations from experiments can be explained by inadequate activation cross sections. In addition, uncertainties due to neutron energy groups and neutron transport calculation are considered. The JENDL library gives the best agreement with experiments, followed by REAC{sup *}175, LIB90, and REAC{sup *}63, in this order. 45 refs., 32 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. DOE Partnerships with States, Tribes and Other Federal Programs Help Responders Prepare for Challenges Involving Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsha Keister

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE Partnerships with States, Tribes and Other Federal Programs Help Responders Prepare for Challenges Involving Transport of Radioactive Materials Implementing adequate institutional programs and validating preparedness for emergency response to radiological transportation incidents along or near U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shipping corridors poses unique challenges to transportation operations management. Delayed or insufficient attention to State and Tribal preparedness needs may significantly impact the transportation operations schedule and budget. The DOE Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) has successfully used a cooperative planning process to develop strong partnerships with States, Tribes, Federal agencies and other national programs to support responder preparedness across the United States. DOE TEPP has found that building solid partnerships with key emergency response agencies ensures responders have access to the planning, training, technical expertise and assistance necessary to safely, efficiently and effectively respond to a radiological transportation accident. Through the efforts of TEPP over the past fifteen years, partnerships have resulted in States and Tribal Nations either using significant portions of the TEPP planning resources in their programs and/or adopting the Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation Training (MERRTT) program into their hazardous material training curriculums to prepare their fire departments, law enforcement, hazardous materials response teams, emergency management officials, public information officers and emergency medical technicians for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. In addition, through strong partnerships with Federal Agencies and other national programs TEPP provided technical expertise to support a variety of radiological response initiatives and assisted several programs with integration of the nationally recognized MERRTT program into other training venues, thus ensuring consistency of radiological response curriculums delivered to responders. This presentation will provide an overview of the steps to achieve coordination, to avoid redundancy, and to highlight several of the successful partnerships TEPP has formed with States, Tribes, Federal agencies and other national programs. Events, accident scenarios, and training where TEPP was proven to be integral in building the radiological response capabilities for first responders to actual radiological incidents are also highlighted. Participants will gain an appreciation for the collaborative efforts States and Tribes are engaging in with the DOE to ensure that responders all along the DOE transportation corridors are adequately prepared to respond to shipments of radioactive materials through their communities.

  13. A guide for the ASME code for austenitic stainless steel containment vessels for high-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raske, D.T.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and fabrication criteria recommended by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for high-level radioactive materials containment vessels used in packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code provides material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing specifications for nuclear power plant components. However, many of the requirements listed in the Code are not applicable to containment vessels made from austenitic stainless steel with austenitic or ferritic steel bolting. Most packaging designers, engineers, and fabricators are intimidated by the sheer volume of requirements contained in the Code; consequently, the Code is not always followed and many requirements that do apply are often overlooked during preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that constitutes the basis to evaluate the packaging for certification.

  14. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  15. 4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING In general, building materials contain low levels of radioactivity. For example, the range of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the wastes from uranium mines have been removed from mining sites and used in local and nearby communities4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING MATERIALS In general, building materials contain low levels of radioactivity. For example, the range of natural uranium concentrations may average as low

  16. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  17. Experimental and Computer Simulation Study of Radioactivity of Materials Irradiated by Intermediate Energy Protons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. E. Titarenko; O. V. Shvedov; V. F. Batyaev; E. I. Karpikhin; V. M. Zhivun; R. D. Mulambetov; S. G. Mashnik; R. E. Prael; W. B. Wilson

    1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of measurements and computer simulations of radioactivities and dose rates as functions of decay time are presented for Pb-nat and Bi-209 irradiated by 1.5-GeV protons, Co-59, Cu-63, and Cu-65 irradiated by 0.13- and 1.2-GeV protons, and Th-232 and U-nat irradiated by 0.1- and 0.8-GeV protons. The activities and dose rates are measured by direct high-precision gamma spectrometry. The irradiations were made using external beams extracted from the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron. Simulations made using the LCS and CINDER'90 code systems are compared with measurements.

  18. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized water reactors (PWR-GALE Code). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekaran, T.; Lee, J.Y.; Willis, C.A.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report revises the original issuance of NUREG-0017, ''Calculation of Releases of Radioactive Materials in Gaseous and Liquid Effluents from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR-GALE-Code)'' (April 1976), to incorporate more recent operating data now available as well as the results of a number of in-plant measurement programs at operating pressurized water reactors. The PWR-GALE Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the releases of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents (i.e., the gaseous and liquid source terms). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the PWR-GALE Code to determine conformance with the requirements of Appendix I to 10 CFR Part 50.

  19. Burnup estimation of fuel sourcing radioactive material based on monitored Cs and Pu isotopic activity ratios in Fukushima N. P. S. accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ando, Y. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Toranomon Towers Office, 14F, 4-1-28, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After the severe core damage of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive material leaked from the reactor buildings. As part of monitoring of radioactivity in the site, measurements of radioactivity in soils at three fixed points have been performed for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs with gamma-ray spectrometry and for Pu, Pu, and {sup 240}Pu with {alpha}-ray spectrometry. Correlations of radioactivity ratios of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238}Pu to the sum of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu with fuel burnup were studied by using theoretical burnup calculations and measurements on isotopic inventories, and compared with the Cs and Pu radioactivity rations in the soils. The comparison indicated that the burnup of the fuel sourcing the radioactivity was from 18 to 38 GWd/t, which corresponded to that of the fuel in the highest power and, therefore, the highest decay heat in operating high-burnup fueled BWR cores. (authors)

  20. COGEMA operating experience in the transportation of spent fuel, nuclear materials and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, H. [COGEMA, Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Were a spent fuel transportation accident to occur, no matter how insignificant, the public outcry could jeopardize both reprocessing operations and power plant operations for utilities that have elected to reprocess their spent fuel. Aware of this possibility, COGEMA has become deeply involved in spent fuel transportation to ensure that it is performed according to the highest standards of transportation safety. Spent fuel transportation is a vital link between the reactor site and the reprocessing plant. This paper gives an overview of COGEMA`s experience in the transportation of spent fuel.

  1. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  2. FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA AEROGELS: ADVANCED MATERIALS TO CAPTURE AND IMMOBILIZE RADIOACTIVE IODINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Fryxell, Glen E.; Busche, Brad J.; Wallace, Krys; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the future expansion of nuclear energy, an effective method is needed to capture and safely store radiological iodine-129 released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Various materials have been investigated to capture and immobilize iodine. In most cases, however, the materials that are effective for capturing iodine cannot subsequently be sintered/densified to create a stable composite that could be a viable waste form. We have developed chemically modified, highly porous, silica aerogels that show sorption capacities higher than 440 mg of I2 per gram at 150 C. An iodine uptake test in dry air containing 4.2 ppm of iodine demonstrated no breakthrough after 3.5 h and indicated a decontamination factor in excess of 310. Preliminary densification tests showed that the I2-loaded aerogels retained more than 92 wt% of I2 after thermal sintering with pressure assistance at 1200 C for 30 min. These high capture and retention efficiencies for I2 can be further improved by optimizing the functionalization process and the chemistry as well as the sintering conditions.

  3. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ann M. Beauchesne

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the National Governors Association (NGA) project ``Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; Interstate waste and materials shipments; and Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the period from October 1, 1999 through January 31, 2000, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past three months can be categorized as follows: maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; convened and facilitated the October 6--8 NGA FFCA Task Force Meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and continued to facilitate interactions between the states and DOE to develop a foundation for an ongoing substantive relationship between the Governors of key states and the Department.

  4. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials. Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities. Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex. Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in DOE's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure strategy and contractor integration analysis. Interstate waste and materials shipments. Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from April 30, 1998 through June 30, 1998 under the NGA project. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; and provided ongoing support to state-DOE interactions. maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, DOE's Environmental Management Budget, and DOE's proposed Intersite Discussions.

  5. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  6. Determination of the radioactive material and plutonium holdup in ducts and piping in the 324 Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggard, D.L.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the measurements Performed to determine the radionuclide content and mass of plutonium in exposed ducts, filters, and piping in the 324 Building at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State. This information is needed to characterize facility radiation levels, to verify compliance with criticality safety specifications, and to allow more accurate nuclear material control using nondestructive assay (NDA) methods. Gamma assay techniques typically employed for NDA analysis were used to determine the gamma-emitting isotopes in the ducts, filters, and piping. Passive neutron counting was selected to estimate -the plutonium content because high gamma levels from fission and activation products effectively mask any gamma emissions from plutonium. A high-purity gamma-ray detector Was used to measure the mixed fission and activation radionuclides. A neutron slab detector containing five {sup 3}He proportional counters was used to determine the neutron emission rates and estimate the mass of plutonium present. Both measurement systems followed the methods and procedures routinely used for nuclear waste assay and safeguards measurements.

  7. Regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees were analyzed. The most potentially hazardous accident, by a large margin, was determined to be the sudden rupture of a heated multi-ton cylinder of UF/sub 6/. Acute fatalities offsite are probably not credible. Acute permanent injuries may be possible for many hundreds of meters, and clinically observable transient effects of unknown long term consequences may be possible for distances up to a few miles. These effects would be caused by the chemical toxicity of the UF/sub 6/. Radiation doses would not be significant. The most potentially hazardous accident due to radiation exposure was determined to be a large fire at certain facilities handling large quantities of alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., Po-210, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244) or radioiodines (I-125 and I-131). However, acute fatalities or injuries to people offsite due to accidental releases of these materials do not seem plausible. The only other significant accident was identified as a long-term pulsating criticality at fuel cycle facilities handling high-enriched uranium or plutonium. An important feature of the most serious accidents is that releases are likely to start without prior warning. The releases would usually end within about half an hour. Thus protective actions would have to be taken quickly to be effective. There is not likely to be enough time for dose projections, complicated decisionmaking during the accident, or the participation of personnel not in the immediate vicinity of the site. The appropriate response by the facility is to immediately notify local fire, police, and other emergency personnel and give them a brief predetermined message recommending protective actions. Emergency personnel are generally well qualified to respond effectively to small accidents of these types.

  8. PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

  9. Radioactive Material License.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, DisposalFourthN V O 1 8 7 +NewAugustr* R $ s- 0a \nROGER

  10. Submicro and Nano Structured Porous Materials for the Production of High-Intensity Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ISOLDE, the CERN Isotope Separator On-line DEvice is a unique source of low energy beams of radioactive isotopes - atomic nuclei that have too many or too few neutrons to be stable. The facility is like a small ‘chemical factory’, giving the possibility of changing one element to another, by selecting the atomic mass of the required isotope beam in the mass separator, rather as the ‘alchemists’ once imagined. It produces a total of more than 1000 different isotopes from helium to radium, with half-lives down to milliseconds, by impinging a 1.4 GeV proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) onto special targets, yielding a wide variety of atomic fragments. Different components then extract the nuclei and separate them according to mass. The post-accelerator REX (Radioactive beam EXperiment) at ISOLDE accelerates the radioactive beams up to 3 MeV/u for many experiments. A wide international user radioactive ion beam (RIB) community investigates fundamental aspects of nuclear physics, particle...

  11. MRS (monitored retrievable storage) systems study Task G report: The role and functions of surface storage of radioactive material in the federal waste management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Woodruff, M.G.; Altenhofen, M.K.; MacKay, C.A.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one of nine studies undertaken by contractors to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), to provide a technical basis for re-evaluating the role of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The study investigates the functions that could be performed by surface storage of radioactive material within the federal radioactive waste management system, including enabling acceptance of spent fuel from utility owners, scheduling of waste-preparation processes within the system, enhancement of system operating reliability, and conditioning the thermal (decay heat) characteristics of spent fuel emplaced in a repository. The analysis focuses particularly on the effects of storage capacity and DOE acceptance schedule on power reactors. Figures of merit developed include the storage capacity (in metric tons of uranium (MTU)) required to be added beyond currently estimated maximum spent fuel storage capacities and its associated cost, and the number of years that spent fuel pools would remain open after last discharge (in pool-years) and the cost of this period of operation. 27 refs., 36 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Measurements of D-T neutron induced radioactivity in plasma-facing materials and their role in qualification of activation cross-section libraries and codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Youssef, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    USDOE/JAERI collaborative program on induced radioactivity measurements has been spread over last five years and has covered, among others, a large number of plasma facing materials of interest to D-T fusion reactors, including ITER and DEMO. The experiments have consisted of irradiation of high purity material samples in a range of neutron energy spectra in simulated fusion environments of prototypical blanket assemblies driven by D-T neutrons at FNS/JAERI. A typical sample measured 10 mm in diameter by 1 mm thickness, and the neutron fluence ranged from {approximately}10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} to {approximately}10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}, over an irradiation period of 30 m and 10 h. The irradiated samples were then cooled for varying times, from {approximately}10 m to {approximately}3 weeks, and their activity was derived by counting associated {gamma}-rays with intrinsic germanium detectors.

  13. Airborne radioactive material collection, measurement, and data storage for the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Melody Louise

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES AEC73 AEC Regulatory Guide 8. 2, 1973, "Guide for Administrative Practices in Radiation Monitoring". AEC74 AEC Regulatory Guide 1. 21, Rev. 1, 1974, "Measuring, Evaluating, and Reporting Radioactivity in Solid Wastes, and Releases... System at the Nuclear Science Center (Texas AAM University) 38 VITA 66 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NUMBER Figure 1: FAM//I and FANF3 Sample Probe Orientation, PAGE Figure 2: FAM42, FAMR4, and FAMt6 Sample Probe Location . . 13 Figure 3; FAMF1 and FAM...

  14. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  15. Researchers at Montana State University and Idaho National Lab have developed a process to effectively and efficiently clean natural and man-made porous material of radioactive contamination. The system eliminates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    to effectively and efficiently clean natural and man-made porous material of radioactive contamination. The system eliminates the practice of full demolition and removal of contaminated objects and can address contaminated substrate. Thus, building walls (interior or exterior), floors and ceilings can be remediated

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: radioactive waste solution cleanup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solution cleanup ECIS and UOP (a Honewell Company): CSTs Clean Radioactive Waste in Fukushima and Worldwide On February 14, 2013, in Energy, Materials Science, Nuclear Energy,...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: removing the highly radioactive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    elements ECIS and UOP (a Honewell Company): CSTs Clean Radioactive Waste in Fukushima and Worldwide On February 14, 2013, in Energy, Materials Science, Nuclear Energy,...

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 545 is comprised of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 02-09-01, Mud Disposal Area • 03-08-03, Mud Disposal Site • 03-17-01, Waste Consolidation Site 3B • 03-23-02, Waste Disposal Site • 03-23-05, Europium Disposal Site • 03-99-14, Radioactive Material Disposal Area • 09-23-02, U-9y Drilling Mud Disposal Crater • 20-19-01, Waste Disposal Site While all eight CASs are addressed in this CADD/CR, sufficient information was available for the following three CASs; therefore, a field investigation was not conducted at these sites: • For CAS 03-08-03, though the potential for subsidence of the craters was judged to be extremely unlikely, the data quality objective (DQO) meeting participants agreed that sufficient information existed about disposal and releases at the site and that a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended. Sampling in the craters was not considered necessary. • For CAS 03-23-02, there were no potential releases of hazardous or radioactive contaminants identified. Therefore, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 545 concluded that: “Sufficient information exists to conclude that this CAS does not exist as originally identified. Therefore, there is no environmental concern associated with CAS 03-23-02.” This CAS is closed with no further action. • For CAS 03-23-05, existing information about the two buried sources and lead pig was considered to be sufficient, and safety concerns existed about the stability of the crater component. Therefore, a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended, and sampling at the site was not considered necessary. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation to support the recommendation for closure of CAU 545 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from August 20 through November 02, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 545 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the DQO process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 545 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels established in this CADD/CR. The results of the CAI identified no COCs at the five CASs investigated in CAU 545. As a best management practice, repair of the fence enclosing CAS 03-08-03 has been completed. Therefore, the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office provides the following recommendations: • Close in place COCs at CASs 03-08-03 and 03-23-05 with use restrictions. • No further corrective action for CAU 545. • No Corrective Action Plan. • Corrective Action Unit 545 should be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. • A Notice of Completion to the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 545.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  20. Integrated data base report--1996: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Inventories of most of these materials are reported as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996, which is September 30, 1996. Commercial SNF and commercial uranium mill tailings inventories are reported on an end-of-calendar year (CY) basis. All SNF and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are SNF, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through FY 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  1. 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised for the 2012 edition (pdg.lbl.gov) February 16, 2012 14:08 #12;2 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  2. 33. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 33. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    33. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 33. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised://pdg.lbl.gov) June 18, 2012 16:20 #12;2 33. Radioactivity and radiation protection tissue caused by different radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  3. 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised;2 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection caused by different radiation types R weighted with so radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  4. Radioactive ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  5. Radioactive Material or Multiple Hazardous Materials Decontamination |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - TProcuring SolarNo.Frequency |Department ofDepartment of

  6. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

  7. Microsoft Word - EMSL Rad Materials Use.r2.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dispersible radioactive material must be placed in rigid, leak-tight inner containers (e.g., durable screw-top sample jars). Non-dispersible radioactive material may...

  8. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish policies and guidelines by which the Department of Energy (DOE) manages tis radioactive waste, waste byproducts, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities.

  9. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  10. annual radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  11. activity radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  12. aqueous radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  13. artificial radioactivity levels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  14. acidic radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  15. ambient radioactivity levels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  16. activities radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  17. activity radioactive wastes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  18. alkaline radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material...

  19. Enhancements to System for Tracking Radioactive Waste Shipments...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Multiple Users January 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Transportation Tracking and Communication System users can now track shipments of radioactive materials and access...

  20. Helpful links for materials transport, safety, etc.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helpful links for materials transport, safety, etc. relating to experiment safety at the APS. Internal Reference Material: Transporting Hazardous Materials "Natural" radioactivity...

  1. LANSCE | Materials Test Station

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Facility Training Office Contact Administrative nav background Materials Test Station dotline Testing New Reactor Fuels that Reduce Radioactive Waste Mission Used...

  2. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M. [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)] [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Level Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.

  3. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report.

  4. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section regulates the transportation and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Minnesota, and establishes a Nuclear Waste Council to monitor the federal high-level radioactive waste...

  6. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition | NationalMaterials

  7. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in this report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1997. (Activity is the measure of a material`s radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second.) Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1997. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1997 LLRW reports were received.

  8. Sulfate Retention and Segregation in Simulated Radioactive Waste Borosilicate Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hong; Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.

    2000-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate segregation from processing radioactive waste glasses causes an acceleration of the melter refractory corrosion and partitioning of radionuclides in the segregated layer. A sulfate retention (SR)-composition relationship has been established for various simulated high-level and low-activity waste glass compositions in terms of the relative non-bridging oxygen (NBO) concentration in the melt. Phosphate was found to significantly increase sulfate retention. However, the correlation between SR and NBO could not explain the sulfate segregation tendency. For instance, glasses with a higher ratio of boron to sodium suppress sulfate segreation in the melt in which SR is expected to be lower. As sulfate segregation is a kinetic process, occurring in the batch to glass conversion process, initial reactions of the batch materials are considered to have stronger effects on the sulfate segregation tendency, pointing out the need to study the impact of batch materials on sulfate segregation.

  9. Backfill barriers: the use of engineered barriers based on geologic materials to assure isolation of radioactive wastes in a repository. [Nickel-iron alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.; Cook, N.G.W.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary assessment is made to show that canisters fabricated of nickel-iron alloys, and surrounded by a suitable backfill, may produce an engineered barrier where the canister material is thermodynamically stable with respect to its environment. As similar conditions exist in nature, the performance of such systems as barriers to isolate radionuclides can be predicted over very long periods, of the order of 10/sup 6/ years.

  10. What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

  11. Radioactive and chemotoxic wastes: Only radioactive wastes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eletti, G.F.; Tocci, M. [ENEA DISP, Rome (Italy)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive waste arising from Italian Nuclear Power Plants and Research Centers, classified as 1st and 2nd Category wastes, are managed only as radioactive wastes following the Technical Guide No. 26 issued by the Italian Regulatory Body: ENEA DISP on 1987. A very important Regulatory Regime revision for Italian Nuclear Activities started at the end of 1991. This paper considers the need to develop a new strategy dedicated to mixed waste in line with current international trends.

  12. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  13. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  14. Information Bottleneck for Non Co-Occurence Data Supplementary Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to a trial cluster cx and qcx the corresponding distribution over c. Then one obtains: Hold(Z|C, D) = c ^qold(c)Hold(Z|c, D) Hcx (Z|C, D) = c ^qcx (c)Hcx (Z|c, D) = ^qcx (cx)Hcx (Z|cx, D) + c=cx ^qcx (c)Hcx (Z|c, D) = ^qcx (cx)Hcx (Z|cx, D) + c=cx ^qcx (c)Hold(Z|c, D) = () Since clusters except cx passed no changes. We now

  15. EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation DOE's Radioactive Waste Management Priorities: Continue to manage waste...

  16. Upgrading the Radioactive Waste Management Infrastructure in Azerbaijan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huseynov, A. [Baku Radioactive Waste Site IZOTOP, Baku (Azerbaijan); Batyukhnova, O. [State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ojovan, M. [Sheffield Univ., Immobilisation Science Lab. (United Kingdom); Rowat, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Nuclear Safety and Security, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclide uses in Azerbaijan are limited to peaceful applications in the industry, medicine, agriculture and research. The Baku Radioactive Waste Site (BRWS) 'IZOTOP' is the State agency for radioactive waste management and radioactive materials transport. The radioactive waste processing, storage and disposal facility is operated by IZOTOP since 1963 being significantly upgraded from 1998 to be brought into line with international requirements. The BRWS 'IZOTOP' is currently equipped with state-of-art devices and equipment contributing to the upgrade the radioactive waste management infrastructure in Azerbaijan in line with current internationally accepted practices. The IAEA supports Azerbaijan specialists in preparing syllabus and methodological materials for the Training Centre that is currently being organized on the base of the Azerbaijan BRWS 'IZOTOPE' for education of specialists in the area of safety management of radioactive waste: collection, sorting, processing, conditioning, storage and transportation. (authors)

  17. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  18. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48 RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FBSR TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, C; William Pepper, W

    2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble fractions of the product solids. Radioanalytical measurements were performed on the Tank 48H feed material and on the dissolved products in order to estimate retention of Cs-137 in the process. All aspects of prior crucible scale testing with simulant Tank 48H slurry were demonstrated to be repeatable with the actual radioactive feed. Tetraphenylborate destruction was shown to be >99% and the final solid product is sodium carbonate crystalline material. Less than 10 wt% of the final solid products are insoluble components comprised of Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn containing sludge components and Ti from monosodium titanate present in Tank 48H. REDOX measurements on the radioactive solid products indicate a reducing atmosphere with extremely low oxygen fugacity--evidence that the sealed crucible tests performed in the presence of a reductant (sugar) under constant argon purge were successful in duplicating the pyrolysis reactions occurring with the Tank 48H feed. Soluble anion measurements confirm that using sugar as reductant at 1X stoichiometry was successful in destroying nitrate/nitrite in the Tank 48H feed. Radioanalytical measurements indicate that {approx}75% of the starting Cs-137 is retained in the solid product. No attempts were made to analyze/measure other potential Cs-137 in the process, i.e., as possible volatile components on the inner surface of the alumina crucible/lid or as offgas escaping the sealed crucible. The collective results from these crucible scale tests on radioactive material are in good agreement with simulant testing. Crucible scale processing has been shown to duplicate the complex reactions of an actual fluidized bed steam reformer. Thus this current testing should provide a high degree of confidence that upcoming bench-scale steam reforming with radioactive Tank 48H slurry will be successful in tetraphenylborate destruction and production of sodium carbonate product.

  19. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq)] [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq); Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the Iraqi Decommissioning Directorate (IDD) is responsible for decommissioning activities. The IDD and the RWTMD work together on decommissioning projects. The IDD has developed plans and has completed decommissioning of the GeoPilot Facility in Baghdad and the Active Metallurgical Testing Laboratory (LAMA) in Al-Tuwaitha. Given this experience, the IDD has initiated work on more dangerous facilities. Plans are being developed to characterize, decontaminate and decommission the Tamuz II Research Reactor. The Tammuz Reactor was destroyed by an Israeli air-strike in 1981 and the Tammuz II Reactor was destroyed during the First Gulf War in 1991. In addition to being responsible for managing the decommissioning wastes, the RWTMD is responsible for more than 950 disused sealed radioactive sources, contaminated debris from the first Gulf War and (approximately 900 tons) of naturally-occurring radioactive materials wastes from oil production in Iraq. The RWTMD has trained staff, rehabilitated the Building 39 Radioactive Waste Storage building, rehabilitated portions of the French-built Radioactive Waste Treatment Station, organized and secured thousands of drums of radioactive waste organized and secured the stores of disused sealed radioactive sources. Currently, the IDD and the RWTMD are finalizing plans for the decommissioning of the Tammuz II Research Reactor. (authors)

  20. RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE Paul A. WitherspoonRADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE Paul A. Wither spoona repository site in granite are to evaluate the suitability

  1. TRESS: A Transportable Radioactive Effluent Solidification System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sims, J. [BBN Environmental Management Ltd., Bramhall (United Kingdom). WasteChem Div.; Schneider, K. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an attempt to produce a totally new concept for a transportable plant capable of encapsulating radioactive sludges and ion exchange resins, employing recently developed dewatering and mixing techniques. One of the prime aims of the investigation was to produce a plant which could handle both beta/gamma and alpha-bearing materials.

  2. account radioactive waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Derek 2012-06-07 49 NRC INSPECTION MANUAL FSMEDWMEP INSPECTION PROCEDURE 84900 LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE CiteSeer Summary: To determine whether fuel cycle and materials...

  3. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. The purpose of the Manual is to catalog those procedural requirements and existing practices that ensure that all DOE elements and contractors continue to manage DOE's radioactive waste in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. Does not cancel other directives.

  4. Recovering Radioactive Materials with ORSP Team

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LANL

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered more than 16,000 orphan sources as of 2008.

  5. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  6. One million curies of radioactive material recovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest and Evaluation |quasicrystals |

  7. Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_Cost Estimating35.doc Microsoft WordDepartment of Energy

  8. ETEC - Radioactive Handling Materials Facility (RMHF) Leachfield |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Department ofNotices |Notice The Crystal Cityof Energy

  9. Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office ofEnergyFinalEnergyEVProposed PenaltyEnergylinesDEPARTMENT OF

  10. Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions forCheneyNovemberiMid-Level Ethanol Blends TestDepartmentDepartment

  11. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelk, H.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State: it is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the 13th year generators have been required to submit these reports to NYSERDA. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1998. Activity is the measure of a material`s radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second. Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1998. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1998 LLRW reports were received. 2 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Appraisal of a cementitious material for waste disposal: Neutron imaging studies of pore structure and sorptivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGlinn, Peter J., E-mail: pjm@ansto.gov.a [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Beer, Frikkie C. de [South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa), Church Street West Extension, Pelindaba, Brits District, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Aldridge, Laurence P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Radebe, Mabuti J.; Nshimirimana, Robert [South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa), Church Street West Extension, Pelindaba, Brits District, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Brew, Daniel R.M.; Payne, Timothy E.; Olufson, Kylie P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cementitious materials are conventionally used in conditioning intermediate and low level radioactive waste. In this study a candidate cement-based wasteform has been investigated using neutron imaging to characterise the wasteform for disposal in a repository for radioactive materials. Imaging showed both the pore size distribution and the extent of the cracking that had occurred in the samples. The rate of the water penetration measured both by conventional sorptivity measurements and neutron imaging was greater than in pastes made from Ordinary Portland Cement. The ability of the cracks to distribute the water through the sample in a very short time was also evident. The study highlights the significant potential of neutron imaging in the investigation of cementitious materials. The technique has the advantage of visualising and measuring, non-destructively, material distribution within macroscopic samples and is particularly useful in defining movement of water through the cementitious materials.

  13. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07.

  14. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  15. The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Finck; Bevin Brush; Dick Jansen; David Chamberlain; Don Dry; George Brooks; Margaret Goldberg

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises Source term information is required for to reconstruct a device used in a dispersed radiological dispersal device. Simulating a radioactive environment to train and exercise sampling and sample characterization methods with suitable sample materials is a continued challenge. The Idaho National Laboratory has developed and permitted a Radioactive Response Training Range (RRTR), an 800 acre test range that is approved for open air dispersal of activated KBr, for training first responders in the entry and exit from radioactively contaminated areas, and testing protocols for environmental sampling and field characterization. Members from the Department of Defense, Law Enforcement, and the Department of Energy participated in the first contamination exercise that was conducted at the RRTR in the July 2011. The range was contaminated using a short lived radioactive Br-82 isotope (activated KBr). Soil samples contaminated with KBr (dispersed as a solution) and glass particles containing activated potassium bromide that emulated dispersed radioactive materials (such as ceramic-based sealed source materials) were collected to assess environmental sampling and characterization techniques. This presentation summarizes the performance of a radioactive materials surrogate for use as a training aide for nuclear forensics.

  16. Active remote detection of radioactivity based on electromagnetic signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprangle, P. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States) [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States); Hafizi, B. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Milchberg, H.; Nusinovich, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)] [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States); Zigler, A. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States) [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States); Icarus Research, Inc., PO Box 30780, Bethesda, Maryland 20824-0780 (United States); The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a new concept for the remote detection of radioactive materials. The concept is based on the detection of electromagnetic signatures in the vicinity of radioactive material and can enable stand-off detection at distances greater than 100?m. Radioactive materials emit gamma rays, which ionize the surrounding air. The ionized electrons rapidly attach to oxygen molecules forming O{sub 2}{sup ?} ions. The density of O{sub 2}{sup ?} around radioactive material can be several orders of magnitude greater than background levels. The elevated population of O{sub 2}{sup ?} extends several meters around the radioactive material. Electrons are easily photo-detached from O{sub 2}{sup ?} ions by laser radiation. The photo-detached electrons, in the presence of laser radiation, initiate avalanche ionization which results in a rapid increase in electron density. The rise in electron density induces a frequency modulation on a probe beam, which becomes a direct spectral signature for the presence of radioactive material.

  17. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  18. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  19. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  20. The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allred, W.E.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin.

  1. The Use of Energy Information in Plastic Scintillator Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bates, Derrick J.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Runkle, Robert C.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plastic scintillator material is often used for gamma-ray detection in many applications due to its relatively good sensitivity and cost-effectiveness compared to other detection materials. However, due to the dominant Compton scattering interaction mechanism, full energy peaks are not observed in plastic scintillator spectra and isotopic identification is impossible. Typically plastic scintillator detectors are solely gross count detectors. In some safeguards and security applications, such as radiation portal monitors for vehicle screening, naturally-occurring radioactive material (NORM) often triggers radiation alarms and results in innocent or nuisance alarms. The limited energy information from plastic scintillator material can be used to discriminate the NORM from targeted materials and reduce the nuisance alarm rate. An overview of the utilization of the energy information from plastic scintillator material will be presented, with emphasis on the detection capabilities and potential limitations for safeguards and security applications. (PIET-43741-TM-490)

  2. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, David R. (Bothel, WA); Stampfer, Joseph F. (Santa Fe, NM); Macdonald, John M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  3. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  4. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07. Admin Chg 2, dated 6-8-11, cancels DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1.

  5. Hazardous Material Packaging for Transport - Administrative Procedures

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1986-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To establ1sh administrative procedures for the certification and use of radioactive and other hazardous materials packaging by the Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem.

  7. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) interim policy and to provide guidance for sealed radioactive source accountability. The directive does not cancel any directives. Extended by DOE N 5400.10 to 12-24-93 & Extended by DOE N 5400.12 to 12-24-94.

  8. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This Notice extends DOE N 5400.9, Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability, of 12-24-91, until 12-24-95, unless sooner superseded or rescinded. The contents of DOE N 5400.9 will be updated and incorporated in the revised DOE O 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.

  9. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Cancels DOE O 5820.2A. Chg 1 dated 8-28-01. Certified 1-9-07.

  10. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Cancels DOE O 5820.2A

  11. New Proton Radioactivity Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    New Proton Radioactivity Measurements Richard J. Irvine Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor to search for examples of proton emission from ground and low­lying states in odd­Z nuclei at the proton into a double­sided silicon strip detector system, where their subsequent particle decays (proton or alpha) were

  12. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  13. Low-level radioactive waste regulation: Science, politics and fear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, M.E. (ed.)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inevitable consequence of the use of radioactive materials is the generation of radioactive wastes and the public policy debate over how they will be managed. In 1980, Congress shifted responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from the federal government to the states. This act represented a sharp departure from more than 30 years of virtually absolute federal control over radioactive materials. Though this plan had the enthusiastic support of the states in 1980, it now appears to have been at best a chimera. Radioactive waste management has become an increasingly complicated and controversial issue for society in recent years. This book discusses only low-level wastes, however, because Congress decided for political reasons to treat them differently than high-level wastes. The book is based in part on three symposia sponsored by the division of Chemistry and the Law of the American Chemical Society. Each chapter is derived in full or in part from presentations made at these meetings, and includes: (1) Low-level radioactive wastes in the nuclear power industry; (2) Low-level radiation cancer risk assessment and government regulation to protect public health; and (3) Low-level radioactive waste: can new disposal sites be found.

  14. Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř-R-462 Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory after Core-melt Accidents at the Barsebäck;#12;RIS0-R-462 RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF DANISH TERRITORY AFTER CORE-MELT ACCIDENTS AT THE BARSEBACK. An assessment is made of the radioactive contamination of Danish territory in the event of a core-melt accident

  15. Hanford Double-Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation Update - 15302

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Tank AY-102 was the first of 28 double-shell radioactive waste storage tanks constructed at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, near Richland, WA. The tank was completed in 1970, and entered service in 1971. In August, 2012, an accumulation of material was discovered at two sites on the floor of the annulus that separates the primary tank from the secondary liner. The material was sampled and determined to originate from the primary tank. This paper summarizes the changes in leak behavior that have occurred during the past two years, inspections to determine the capability of the secondary liner to continue safely containing the leakage, and the initial results of testing to determine the leak mechanism.

  16. Karlsruhe Database for Radioactive Wastes (KADABRA) - Accounting and Management System for Radioactive Waste Treatment - 12275

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmerkus, Felix; Rittmeyer, Cornelia [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The data management system KADABRA was designed according to the purposes of the Cen-tral Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH), which is specialized in the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. The layout considers the major treatment processes of the HDB as well as regulatory and legal requirements. KADABRA is designed as an SAG ADABAS application on IBM system Z mainframe. The main function of the system is the data management of all processes related to treatment, transfer and storage of radioactive material within HDB. KADABRA records the relevant data concerning radioactive residues, interim products and waste products as well as the production parameters relevant for final disposal. Analytical data from the laboratory and non destructive assay systems, that describe the chemical and radiological properties of residues, production batches, interim products as well as final waste products, can be linked to the respective dataset for documentation and declaration. The system enables the operator to trace the radioactive material through processing and storage. Information on the actual sta-tus of the material as well as radiological data and storage position can be gained immediately on request. A variety of programs accessed to the database allow the generation of individual reports on periodic or special request. KADABRA offers a high security standard and is constantly adapted to the recent requirements of the organization. (authors)

  17. Nanostructured magnetic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Keith T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Conference, Atlanta, GA (Nanostructured Magnetic Materials by Keith T. Chan Doctor ofinduced by a Si-based material occurs at a Si/Ni interface

  18. C-1 1999 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT APPENDIX C: CONCEPTS OF RADIOACTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Man-made Medical, 39 Nuclear Medicine, 14 Consumer Products, 10 SOURCES OF RADIATION Radioactivity as radiation. The three most important types of radiation are described below. COMMON TYPES OF RADIATION ALPHA occurring radioactive elements such as radon emit alpha radiation. BETA Beta radiation is composed

  19. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  20. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  1. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  2. Characterization of naturally occurring porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, Robert Daniel

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    characteristics of natural occur- ring porous media, The gR /K dimensionless ratio is related to the minimum water saturation in the reverse manner as is permeability. REFERENCES Wyllie, M. R. J. and M. B. Spangler: Application of Electrical Resistivity...: Resistivity of Brine-Saturated Sands in Relation to Pore Seometry. Cornell, D. snd D. L. Kstz: Flow of Sases through Consolidated Porous Media. Industrial and En ineeri hemietr (October 1953) Vo . 5, p. 21 5. Leverett, N, C. : Capillary Behavior...

  3. Astrophysics experiments with radioactive beams at ATLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, B. B.; Clark, J. A.; Pardo, R. C.; Rehm, K. E., E-mail: rehm@anl.gov; Savard, G. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)] [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactions involving short-lived nuclei play an important role in nuclear astrophysics, especially in explosive scenarios which occur in novae, supernovae or X-ray bursts. This article describes the nuclear astrophysics program with radioactive ion beams at the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. The CARIBU facility as well as recent improvements for the in-flight technique are discussed. New detectors which are important for studies of the rapid proton or the rapid neutron-capture processes are described. At the end we briefly mention plans for future upgrades to enhance the intensity, purity and the range of in-flight and CARIBU beams.

  4. Radioactive waste management strategy in the Republic of Croatia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subasic, D.; Saler, A.; Skanata, D. [Javno poduzece za zbrinjavanje radioaktivnog otpada, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental preservation and human health protection have been proclaimed by the Croatian Government as priority actions. Hence, all organized actions toward this aim are expected to be supported by the State. Radioactive waste management plays a significant role in controlling materials that could harm the environment. Strategy in handling radioactive wastes is a prerequisite for well-organized radwaste management. It should be applied to all radioactive wastes that have already been produced in various industries, medical institutions, and scientific laboratories. Additionally, radioactive wastes that are being generated in the Krsko NPP must not be neglected, as well as possible future nuclear program needs in Croatia. For all considered actions, world-wide experiences and safety requirements should be strictly respected.

  5. Thermal testing of packages for transport of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, J.A.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be shown capable of surviving tests specified by regulations such as Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (called 10CFR71 in this paper) within the United States. Equivalent regulations hold for other countries such as Safety Series 6 issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The containers must be shown to be capable of surviving, in order, drop tests, puncture tests, and thermal tests. Immersion testing in water is also required, but must be demonstrated for undamaged packages. The thermal test is intended to simulate a 30 minute exposure to a fully engulfing pool fire that could occur if a transport accident involved the spill of large quantities of hydrocarbon fuels. Various qualification methods ranging from pure analysis to actual pool fire tests have been used to prove regulatory compliance. The purpose of this paper is to consider the alternatives for thermal testing, point out the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and to provide the designer with the information necessary to make informed decisions on the proper test program for the particular shipping container under consideration. While thermal analysis is an alternative to physical testing, actual testing is often emphasized by regulators, and this report concentrates on these testing alternatives.

  6. Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    » & Risř-R-462 Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory after Core-melt Accidents 1982 Risř National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark #12;RISŘ-R-462 RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION contamination of Danish territory in the event of a core-melt accident at the Barseback nuclear power plant

  7. CHERNOBYL DATA BASE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAY 1990 THE NORDIC CHERNOBYL DATA BASE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS Nordic liaison CHERNOBYL DATA BASE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS Final Report of the NKA Project AKT 242 Edited the members of the working group. Graphic Systems AB, Malmo 1990 #12;111 ABSTRACT. The NORDIC CHERNOBYL DATA

  8. Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W. (13237 W. 8th Ave., Golden, CO 80401); Brugger, Ronald P. (Lafayette, CO)

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

  9. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  10. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, David G. (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  11. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, D.G.

    1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  12. Vibrational Damping of Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggerstaff, Janet M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the damping material and epoxy resin. The surface of theinfiltration of the epoxy resin into the damping materialthe damping material and resin (epoxy) is occurring and is

  13. How low-energy fusion can occur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Ivlev

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion of two deuterons of room temperature energy is discussed. The nuclei are in vacuum with no connection to any external source (electric or magnetic field, illumination, surrounding matter, traps, etc.) which may accelerate them. The energy of two nuclei is conserved and remains small during the motion through the Coulomb barrier. The penetration through this barrier, which is the main obstacle for low-energy fusion, strongly depends on a form of the incident flux on the Coulomb center at large distances from it. In contrast to the usual scattering, the incident wave is not a single plane wave but the certain superposition of plane waves of the same energy and various directions, for example, a convergent conical wave. The wave function close to the Coulomb center is determined by a cusp caustic which is probed by de Broglie waves. The particle flux gets away from the cusp and moves to the Coulomb center providing a not small probability of fusion (cusp driven tunneling). Getting away from a caustic cusp also occurs in optics and acoustics.

  14. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive material that has been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1994. This report does not include backlog waste: solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  15. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1993. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive waste in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, ``Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria,`` (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  16. Radioactive Testing Results in Support of the In-Tank Precipitation Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.; Crawford, C.L.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of twelve tests examined benzene generation rates with radioactive materials simulating the planned Batches 2 through 4 that complete Cycle 1 for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility.

  17. Bagless transfer process and apparatus for radioactive waste confinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, D.N.; Hones, R.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus are provided for removing radioactive material from a glovebox, placing the material in a stainless steel storage vessel in communication with the glovebox, and sealing the vessel with a welded plug. The vessel is then severed along the weld, a lower half of the plug forming a closure for the vessel. The remaining welded plug half provides a seal for the remnant portion of the vessel and thereby maintains the sealed integrity of the glovebox. 7 figs.

  18. Bagless transfer process and apparatus for radioactive waste confinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, David N. (Aiken, SC); Hones, Robert H. (Evans, GA); Rogers, M. Lane (Aiken, SC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus is provided for removing radioactive material from a glovebox, placing the material in a stainless steel storage vessel in communication with the glovebox, and sealing the vessel with a welded plug. The vessel is then severed along the weld, a lower half of the plug forming a closure for the vessel. The remaining welded plug half provides a seal for the remnant portion of the vessel and thereby maintains the sealed integrity of the glovebox.

  19. Impacts of Radioactive 137Cs on Marine Bacterioplankton: Effects of the Fukushima Disaster on Hawaii's Kaneohe Bay Bacterial Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Paul

    Impacts of Radioactive 137Cs on Marine Bacterioplankton: Effects of the Fukushima Disaster such catastrophe, a tsunami off the coast of Japan, occurred on March 11, 2011. The tsunami caused the Fukushima on the bacterioplankton community of Kaneohe Bay in Oahu, Hawaii. The bay is in the direct path of Fukushima's radioactive

  20. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations are executed.

  1. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense application that formed the basis for the commercial nuclear power industry.

  2. Radiation shielding materials and containers incorporating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirsky, Steven M. (Greenbelt, MD); Krill, Stephen J. (Arlington, VA); Murray, Alexander P. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound ("PYRUC") shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  3. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  4. Wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector and monitor capable of measuring radioactive-gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude is described. The device is designed to have an ionization chamber sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel-plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel-plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization-chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  5. Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD

    1999-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials.

  6. Handling Radioactive Waste from the Proton Accelerator Facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) - Always Surprising? - 13320

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueth, Joachim [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) is the largest national research centre in Switzerland. Its multidisciplinary research is dedicated to a wide field in natural science and technology as well as particle physics. In this context, PSI is operating, amongst others, a large proton accelerator facility since more than 30 years. In two cyclotrons, protons are accelerated to high speeds and then guided along roughly 100 m of beam line to three different target stations to produce secondary particles like mesons and neutrons for experiments and a separately beam line for UCN. The protons induce spallation processes in the target materials, and also at other beam loss points along the way, with emission of protons, neutrons, hydrogen, tritium, helium, heavier fragments and fission processes. In particular the produced neutrons, due to their large penetration depth, will then interact also with the surrounding materials. These interactions of radiation with matter lead to activation and partly to contamination of machine components and the surrounding infrastructures. Maintenance, operation and decommissioning of installations generate inevitably substantial amounts of radioactive operational and dismantling waste like targets, magnets, collimators, shielding (concrete, steel) and of course secondary waste. To achieve an optimal waste management strategy for interim storage or final disposal, radioactive waste has to be characterized, sorted and treated. This strategy is based on radiation protection demands, raw waste properties (size, material, etc.), and requirements to reduce the volume of waste, mainly for legal and economical reasons. In addition, the radiological limitations for transportation of the waste packages to a future disposal site have to be taken into account, as well as special regulatory demands. The characterization is a task of the waste producer. The conditioning processes and quality checks for radioactive waste packages are part of an accredited waste management process of PSI, especially of the Section Dismantling and Waste Management. Strictly proven and accepted methods needed to be developed and enhanced for safe treatment, transport, conditioning and storage. But in the field of waste from research activities, individual and new solutions have to be found in an increasingly growing administrative environment. Furthermore, a wide variety of components, with a really large inventory of radioactive nuclides, has to be handled. And there are always surprising challenges concerning the unusual materials or the nuclide inventory. In case of the operational and dismantling radioactive accelerator waste, the existing conditioning methods are in the process of a continuous enhancement - technically and administratively. The existing authorized specifications of conditioning processes have to be extended to optimize and fully describe the treatment of the inevitably occurring radioactive waste from the accelerator facility. Additional challenges are the changes with time concerning the legal and regulatory requirements - or do we have to consider it as business as usual? This paper gives an overview of the current practices in radioactive waste management and decommissioning of the existing operational accelerator waste. (authors)

  7. Corrosion of barrier materials in seawater environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiser, J.H.; Soo, P.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief review has been carried out on the performance of barrier materials for low-level radioactive wastes in seawater environments. The environments include those for shallower coastal waters as well as the deep ocean (down to 3800 m). The review is mainly focused on metallic materials since they are the most common for seawater service and they have the largest data base. Information from the literature is usually pertinent to shallower coastal locations, but there is a valuable source of corrosion data obtained from several studies of metallic specimens exposed to ocean-bed conditions. In addition, the corrosion of carbon steel barriers has been evaluated for actual waste containers that were retrieved from previously-used disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Of the metallic materials studied, carbon steel showed the least corrosion resistance. Failure by non-uniform attack in a typical waste container could occur in as little as 25 y in some ocean environments ` Penetration by local attack, such as pitting and crevice corrosion resistance was also observed for more expensive materials such as low-alloy steels, stainless steels, titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, copper alloys, nickel alloys, aluminum alloys, and lead alloys.

  8. Electrostatics and radioactive aerosol behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, C.F.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive aerosols differ from their nonradioactive counterparts by their ability to charge themselves by emitting charged particles during the radioactive decay process. Evidence that electrostatics, including this charging process, can affect the transport of the aerosols was summarized previously. Charge distributions and the mean charge for a monodisperse radioactive aerosol have been considered in detail. The principal results of theory to calculate charge distributions on a aerosol with a size distribution, changes to Brownian coagulation rates for an aerosol in a reactor containment, and possible changes to aerosol deposition resulting from the charging will be presented. The main purpose of the work has been to improve calculations of aerosol behavior in reactor containments, but behavior in less ionizing environments will be affected more strongly, and some problems remain to be solved in performing reliable calculations.

  9. Hazardous Materials Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials, and for modal transportation.

  10. Review of Monte Carlo simulations for backgrounds from radioactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selvi, Marco [INFN - Sezione di Bologna (Italy)] [INFN - Sezione di Bologna (Italy)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    For all experiments dealing with the rare event searches (neutrino, dark matter, neutrino-less double-beta decay), the reduction of the radioactive background is one of the most important and difficult tasks. There are basically two types of background, electron recoils and nuclear recoils. The electron recoil background is mostly from the gamma rays through the radioactive decay. The nuclear recoil background is from neutrons from spontaneous fission, (?, n) reactions and muoninduced interactions (spallations, photo-nuclear and hadronic interaction). The external gammas and neutrons from the muons and laboratory environment, can be reduced by operating the detector at deep underground laboratories and by placing active or passive shield materials around the detector. The radioactivity of the detector materials also contributes to the background; in order to reduce it a careful screening campaign is mandatory to select highly radio-pure materials. In this review I present the status of current Monte Carlo simulations aimed to estimate and reproduce the background induced by gamma and neutron radioactivity of the materials and the shield of rare event search experiment. For the electromagnetic background a good level of agreement between the data and the MC simulation has been reached by the XENON100 and EDELWEISS experiments, using the GEANT4 toolkit. For the neutron background, a comparison between the yield of neutrons from spontaneous fission and (?, n) obtained with two dedicated softwares, SOURCES-4A and the one developed by Mei-Zhang-Hime, show a good overall agreement, with total yields within a factor 2 difference. The energy spectra from SOURCES-4A are in general smoother, while those from MZH presents sharp peaks. The neutron propagation through various materials has been studied with two MC codes, GEANT4 and MCNPX, showing a reasonably good agreement, inside 50% discrepancy.

  11. Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Maine State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Maine. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Maine. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested partices including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant goverment agencies and activities, all of which may impact management practices in Maine.

  12. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  13. Natural Radioactivity of Boron Added Clay Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akkurt, I.; Guenoglu, K. [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Dept. of Physics, Isparta (Turkey); Canakcii, H. [Gaziantep University, Engineering Faculty, Civil Engineering Dept., Gaziantep (Turkey); Mavi, B. [Amasya University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Dept. of Physics, Amasya (Turkey)

    2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Clay, consisting fine-grained minerals, is an interesting materials and can be used in a variety of different fields especially in dermatology application. Using clay such a field it is important to measure its natural radioactivity. Thus the purpose of this study is to measure {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K concentration in clay samples enriched with boron. Three different types of clay samples were prepared where boron is used in different rate. The measurements have been determined using a gamma-ray spectrometry consists of a 3''x3'' NaI(Tl) detector. From the measured activity the radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), external hazard index (H{sub ex}), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose (AED) have also been obtained.

  14. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program -- 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1993 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report. The 1993 inspection program revealed that the condition of the Savannah River Site waste tanks had not changed significantly from that reported in the previous annual report. No new leaksites were observed. No evidence of corrosion or materials degradation was observed in the waste tanks. However, degradation was observed on covers of the concrete encasements for the out-of-service transfer lines to Tanks 1 through 8.

  15. Integrated Management Program Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, A.; Cochran, J. R.; El-Adham, K.; El-Sorougy, R.

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactive materials in ''public'' locations are typically contained in small, stainless steel capsules known as sealed radiation sources (RS). These capsules seal in the radioactive materials, but not the radiation, because it is the radiation that is needed for a wide variety of applications at hospitals, medical clinics, manufacturing plants, universities, construction sites, and other facilities in the public sector. Radiation sources are readily available, and worldwide there are hundreds of thousands of RS. The IMPRSS Project is a cooperative development between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA), Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), New Mexico Tech University (NMT), and Agriculture Cooperative Development International (ACDI/VOCA). SNL will coordinate the work scope between the participant organizations.

  16. The Radioactive Beam Program at Argonne

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Back

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I will present selected topics of the ongoing radioactive beam program at Argonne and discuss the capabilities of the CARIBU radioactive ion production facility as well as plans for construction of a novel superconducting solenoid spectrometer.

  17. Low Level Radioactive Waste Authority (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal laws passed in 1980 and 1985 made each state responsible for the low-level radioactive waste produced within its borders. Act 204 of 1987 created the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority ...

  18. Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..............................................................................................................27 1.2.5 Solid radioactive waste disposal at sea Protection Agency. Printed on paper made from a minimum 75% deinked postconsumer waste. Front cover ............................................................................................................................22 1.2 Disposals of radioactive waste

  19. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  20. Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 3 Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds New physics is often discovered by pushing energies. With the current large mixing angle-MSW oscillation parameters, Borexino expects to observe 0.35 neutrino events per day per ton from 7Be in the energy window. Because there are so few events

  1. Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish U.S. Department of Energy requirements for inventory reporting, transaction reporting, verification of reporting, and assign responsibilities for reporting of radioactive sealed sources. DOE N 251.86 extends this notice until 5-6-11. No cancellations. Canceled by DOE O 231.1B

  2. An overview of airborne radioactive emissions at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guevara, F.A.; Dvorak, R.F.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strict control is essential over any emissions of radioactivity in the ventilation exhaust from facilities where radioactive materials may become airborne. At Los Alamos National Laboratory there are 87 stacks exhausting ventilation air to the environment from operations with a potential for radioactive emissions. These stacks cover the diverse operations at all Laboratory facilities where radioactive materials are handled and require continuous sampling/monitoring to detect levels of contamination. An overview is presented of the operations, associated ventilation exhaust cleanup systems, and analysis of the emissions. In keeping with the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable concept, emissions of radionuclides are reduced whenever practicable. A specific example describing the reduction of emissions from the linear accelerator beam stop area at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility during 1985 by a factor of 8 over previous emissions is presented.

  3. Developing a Methodology for Characterizing the Effects of Building Materials’ Natural Radiation Background on a Radiation Portal Monitoring System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzmaurice, Matthew Blake 1988-

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Trafficking of radioactive material, particularly special nuclear material (SNM), has long been a worldwide concern. To interdict this material the US government has installed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) around the globe. Building materials...

  4. Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water Sven P. Nielsen Risř National Laboratory Working OF INVESTIGATION 11 3 DESCRIPTION OF INVESTIGATION 12 4 RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER 13 5 SAMPLING 15 6 27 #12;4 #12;5 Preface This project for investigation of radioactivity in drinking water shall

  5. Environmental Radioactivity in Greenland in 1981

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ris«-R-471 v Environmental Radioactivity in Greenland in 1981 A. Aarkrog, Henning Dahlgaard, Elis July 1962 #12;Risř-R-471 ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY IN GREENLAND IN 1981 A. Aarkrog, Henning Dahlgaard. Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1981 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most

  6. Environmental Radioactivity in Greenland in 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ·ft I la 0 0 0 0 Risn-R-405 Environmental Radioactivity in Greenland in 1978 A. Aarkrog, Heinz ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY IN GREENLAND IN 1978 A. Aarkrog, Heinz Hansen and J. Lippert Abstract. Heasureaents of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1978 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases

  7. Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

  8. The radioactive Substances (Uranium and Thorium) Exemption Order 1962 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Keith

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1962 No.2710 ATOMIC ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES The Radioactive Substances (Uranium and Thorium) Exemption Order 1962...

  9. WM'05 Conference, February 27 -March 3, 2005, Tucson, AZ TRACKING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES IN COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identification [RFID] tags). Preliminary pseudo-random testing results have been very positive. Once we have radiological and nuclear material tracking and monitoring in commerce and is part of a larger program entitled in proximity to radioactive materials. Current candidate technologies include, (1) Satellite, (2) Radio

  10. Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan [JAVYS, PLc. - Nuclear and Decommisioning Company, PLc. (Slovakia)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

  11. Ion exchange columns for selective removal of cesium from aqueous radioactive waste using hydrous crystalline silico-titanates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricci, David Michael

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conscious society. In Hanford, WA, hundreds of underground storage tanks hold tens of millions of gallons of aqueous radioactive waste. This liquid waste, which has a very high sodium content, contains trace amounts of radioactive cesium 137. Since... the material for batch ion exchange of the nuclear waste solution. More research was needed to investigate the material's effectiveness in a column operation. An ion exchange column system was developed to study column performance. The column design...

  12. Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Body Position in the Transport of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homola, J.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes safety requirements for transport of radioactive waste in Slovakia and the role of regulatory body in the transport licensing and assessment processes. Importance of radioactive waste shipments have been increased since 1999 by starting of NPP A-1 decommissioning and operation of near surface disposal facility. Also some information from history of shipment as well as future activities are given. Legal basis for radioactive waste transport is resulting from IAEA recommendations in this area. Different types of transport equipment were approved by regulatory body for both liquid and solid waste and transportation permits were issued to their shipment. Regulatory body attention during evaluation of transport safety is focused mainly on ability of individual packages to withstand different transport conditions and on safety analyses performed for transport equipment for liquid waste with high frequency of shipments. During past three years no event was occurred in connection with radioactive waste transport in Slovakia.

  13. Release of Radioactive Scrap Metal/Scrap Metal (RSM/SM) at Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company, Inc. (REECo) is the prime contractor to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in providing service and support for NTS operations. Mercury Base Camp is the main control point for the many forward areas at NTS, which covers 1,350 square miles. The forward areas are where above-ground and underground nuclear tests have been performed over the last 41 years. No metal (or other material) is returned to Mercury without first being tested for radioactivity. No radioactive metals are allowed to reenter Mercury from the forward areas, other than testing equipment. RAMATROL is the monitor check point. They check material in various ways, including swipe tests, and have a large assortment of equipment for testing. Scrap metal is also checked to address Resource Conservation and Recovery Act concerns. After addressing these issues, the scrap metals are categorized. Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR) are followed by REECo. The nonradioactive scrap material is sold through the GSA on a scheduled basis. Radioactive scrap metal are presently held in forward areas where they were used. REECo has gained approval of their Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325 application, which will allow disposal on site, when RSM is declared a waste. The guideline that REECo uses for release limits is DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Works, Attachment 2, Surface Radioactivity Guides, of this order, give release limits for radioactive materials. However, the removal of radioactive materials from NTS require approval by DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) on a case-by-case basis. Requirements to consider before removal are found in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management.

  14. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for “stick built” structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Manufactured Housing Institute. The results of this research can lead to savings in annual losses of life and property by providing validated information to enable the advancement of code requirements and by developing engineering software that can predict and optimize wind resistance.

  15. Disposition of intravenous radioactive acyclovir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Miranda, P.; Good, S.S.; Laskin, O.L.; Krasny, H.C.; Connor, J.D.; Lietman, P.S.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetic and metabolic disposition of (8-14C)acyclovir (ACV) was investigated in five subjects with advanced malignancy. The drug was administered by 1-hr intravenous infusion at doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg. Plasma and blood radioactivity-time, and plasma concentration-time data were defined by a two-compartment open kinetic model. There was nearly equivalent distribution of radioactivity in blood and plasma. The overall mean plasma half-life and total body clearance +/- SD of ACV were 2.1 +/- 0.5 hr and 297 +/- 53 ml/min/1.73 m2. Binding of ACV to plasma proteins was 15.4 +/- 4.4%. Most of the radioactive dose excreted was recovered in the urine (71% to 99%) with less than 2% excretion in the feces and only trace amounts in the expired Co2. Analyses by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that 9-(carboxymethoxymethyl)guanine was the only significant urinary metabolite of ACV, accounting for 8.5% to 14.1% of the dose. A minor metabolite (less than 0.2% of dose) had the retention time of 8-hydroxy-9-((2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl)guanine. Unchanged urinary ACV ranged from 62% to 91% of the dose. There was no indication of ACV cleavage to guanine. Renal clearance of ACV was approximately three times the corresponding creatinine clearances.

  16. Porous Materials Porous Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Porous Materials x Porous Materials · Physical properties * Characteristic impedance p = p 0 e -jk xa- = vej[ ] p x - j ; Zc= p ve = c ka 0k = c 1-j #12;2 Porous Materials · Specific acoustic impedance Porous Materials · Finite thickness ­ blocked p e + -jk (x-d)a p e - jk (x-d)a d x #12

  17. REPORT NO. 5 background material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    processing plant, and (2) release of radioactive materials from the detonation of nuclear weapons or other of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in 1961 and 1962 the question arose as to the possible need for protec from such events as: (1) an industrial accident, possibly involving a nuclear reactor or a nuclear fuel

  18. Film Badge Application Radioactive Material Package Receipt Log

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    of Radiation Control & Radiological Services P.O. Box 118340, 212 Nuclear Sciences Center, Gainesville, FL: ____________________________________________________________ FACILITY: __________________ BLDG: _____________________ ROOM: __________ MAILING ADDRESS Principal Investigator Dept. Facility Building Lab Room Radionuclide Activity (mCi) Date Received

  19. administered radioactive material: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    properties in nuclear terra incognita. It is important to remember that the lesson learned by going to the limits of the nuclear binding is also important for normal nuclei...

  20. Fast Neutron Radioactivity and Damage Studies on Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, J.; Anderson, S. D.; Wolf, Z.; Volk, J. T.; Pellett, D.; Boussoufi, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were doped differently. Shin Etsu clearly made signi?cantdemagnetization curves from Shin-Etsu for block types N50Mand changing e.g. Shin-Etsu considers N34Z to be a 5 th

  1. Fast Neutron Radioactivity and Damage Studies on Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, J.; Anderson, S. D.; Wolf, Z.; Volk, J. T.; Pellett, D.; Boussoufi, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and electronics need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LCs) to improve reliability and

  2. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved Quality Assurance programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved Quality Assurance programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Comments to make future revisions of this directory more useful are invited and should be directed to the Spent Fuel Project Office, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  3. airborne radioactive materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bronchial model; Radiation 1. Introduction Inhalation of airborne short-lived radon progeny in the indoor and outdoor environment yields the greatest amount of natural...

  4. NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLoveReferenceAgendaSecurityAbout UsNationaloverNational

  5. NNSA: Securing Domestic Radioactive Material | National Nuclear Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLoveReferenceAgendaSecurityAbout

  6. Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Department ofNotices |Notice TheThreeCommitteeElenaCommission |

  7. Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Department ofNotices |Notice TheThreeCommitteeElenaCommission |of

  8. Safety and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSARDevelopmental AssignmentAprilANDSafety

  9. Applying Risk Communication to the Transportation of Radioactive Materials

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s ReplyApplication of SyntheticPowerManagementOpportunity | Department

  10. Applying Risk Communication to the Transportation of Radioactive Materials

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s ReplyApplication of SyntheticPowerManagementOpportunity | Department|

  11. Radioactive Materials at SSRL | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiationRadiation

  12. Q A RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergy Small Team Oversight Activities -Toilets, and Urinals |2 Q A

  13. Radioactive Materials Transportation and Incident Response | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergy Small Team OversightDepartmentofEnergy 5/13/11Energy

  14. Applying Risk Communication to the Transportation of Radioactive Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from Tarasa U.S.LLC | DepartmentReport | DepartmentApplying

  15. Safety and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergy SmallImplementing J-F-1 SECTION JtheNEWMR.Y : J O H

  16. Safety and Security Technologies for Radioactive Material Shipments |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergy SmallImplementing J-F-1 SECTION JtheNEWMR.Y : J O HDepartment of

  17. RPR 14 ISU-1 REQUEST FOR SHIPMENT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70COMMUNITYResponses:December562 Revision 0 HANFORD BX-FARM4

  18. Key changes in proteins occur in cyanobacteria | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    proteins occur in cyanobacteria Identification of redox-sensitive enzymes can enrich biofuel production research Overview of the chemical biology technique used by PNNL...

  19. Determining Planes Along Which Earthquakes Occur- Method of Applicatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Along Which Earthquakes Occur- Method of Application to Earthquakes Accompanying Hydraulic Fracturing Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  20. Theoretical Aspects of Science with Radioactive Nuclear Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacek Dobaczewski; Witold Nazarewicz

    1997-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Physics of radioactive nuclear beams is one of the main frontiers of nuclear science today. Experimentally, thanks to technological developments, we are on the verge of invading the territory of extreme N/Z ratios in an unprecedented way. Theoretically, nuclear exotica represent a formidable challenge for the nuclear many-body theories and their power to predict nuclear properties in nuclear terra incognita. It is important to remember that the lesson learned by going to the limits of the nuclear binding is also important for normal nuclei from the neighborhood of the beta stability valley. And, of course, radioactive nuclei are crucial astrophysically; they pave the highway along which the nuclear material is transported up in the proton and neutron numbers during the complicated synthesis process in stars.

  1. Theoretical Aspects of Science with Radioactive Nuclear Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobaczewski, J; Dobaczewski, Jacek; Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Physics of radioactive nuclear beams is one of the main frontiers of nuclear science today. Experimentally, thanks to technological developments, we are on the verge of invading the territory of extreme N/Z ratios in an unprecedented way. Theoretically, nuclear exotica represent a formidable challenge for the nuclear many-body theories and their power to predict nuclear properties in nuclear terra incognita. It is important to remember that the lesson learned by going to the limits of the nuclear binding is also important for normal nuclei from the neighborhood of the beta stability valley. And, of course, radioactive nuclei are crucial astrophysically; they pave the highway along which the nuclear material is transported up in the proton and neutron numbers during the complicated synthesis process in stars.

  2. Radioactive Waste Management BasisSept 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, S S

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this RWMB is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  3. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  4. Original article Hydraulic conductance of two co-occuring neotropical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Hydraulic conductance of two co-occuring neotropical understory shrubs December 1999) Abstract ­ Whole plant hydraulic conductance was measured for two co-occuring neotropical hydraulic con- ductance and leaf specific conducance in the drought-avoiding species, P. trigonum, than

  5. Hazardous Material Code Identification NFPA 704, 1996 Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    Hazardous Material Code Identification NFPA 704, 1996 Edition Identification of Health Hazard Color offer no hazard. 00 Materials that will not burn. 00 Materials that in themselves are normally stable DAMAGE TO LIVING TISSUE. MATERIALS POSSESSING RADIOACTIVITY HAZARDS. The identification systems

  6. Radioactive Waste Management, Inspection Criteria; Approach,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    except for storage for decay or otherwise authorized by the Field Element Manager? Are radioactive waste storage, treatment, and disposal activities performed in a manner that...

  7. Uranium Compounds and Other Natural Radioactivities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for application of radioactive sources requirements. However, soil samples from the Chernobyl or Fukushima exclusion areas, mined ores or tailings from mining operations, and...

  8. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Transportation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Jay Jones Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management April 22, 2004 Albuquerque, New Mexico 2 Session Overview * Meeting objectives and expectations * Topic Group...

  9. Storage of nuclear materials by encapsulation in fullerenes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of encapsulating radioactive materials inside fullerenes for stable long-term storage. Fullerenes provide a safe and efficient means of disposing of nuclear waste which is extremely stable with respect to the environment. After encapsulation, a radioactive ion is essentially chemically isolated from its external environment.

  10. Cosmic radioactivity and INTEGRAL results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diehl, Roland [Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Excellence Cluster Origin and Evolution of the Universe', D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes co-produced by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernova have been measured since more than thirty years. Over the past ten years, INTEGRAL complemented the first sky survey made by COMPTEL. The {sup 26}A1 isotope with 1 My decay time had been first direct proof of currently-ongoing nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. This has now become a tool to study the ?My history of specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy, where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information about bar and spiral structure. Recent findings suggest that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. {sup 60}Fe is co-produced by the sources of {sup 26}A1, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. {sup 56}Ni and {sup 44}Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we report latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of INTEGRAL observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations, connecting to other traces of cosmic radioactivity and to other cosmic messengers.

  11. Gas generation from low-level radioactive waste: Concerns for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) has urged the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to reexamine the topic of hydrogen gas generation from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in closed spaces to ensure that the slow buildup of hydrogen from water-bearing wastes in sealed containers does not become a problem for long-term safe disposal. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has prepared a report, summarized in this paper, for the NRC to respond to these concerns. The paper discusses the range of values for G(H{sub 2}) reported for materials of relevance to LLW disposal; most of these values are in the range of 0.1 to 0.6. Most studies of radiolytic hydrogen generation indicate a leveling off of pressurization, probably because of chemical kinetics involving, in many cases, the radiolysis of water within the waste. Even if no leveling off occurs, realistic gas leakage rates (indicating poor closure by gaskets on drums and liners) will result in adequate relief of pressure for radiolytic gas generation from the majority of commercial sector LLW packages. Biodegradative gas generation, however, could pose a pressurization hazard even at realistic gas leakage rates. Recommendations include passive vents on LLW containers (as already specified for high integrity containers) and upper limits to the G values and/or the specific activity of the LLW.

  12. Gas generation from low-level radioactive waste: Concerns for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) has urged the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to reexamine the topic of hydrogen gas generation from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in closed spaces to ensure that the slow buildup of hydrogen from water-bearing wastes in sealed containers does not become a problem for long-term safe disposal. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has prepared a report, summarized in this paper, for the NRC to respond to these concerns. The paper discusses the range of values for G(H{sub 2}) reported for materials of relevance to LLW disposal; most of these values are in the range of 0.1 to 0.6. Most studies of radiolytic hydrogen generation indicate a leveling off of pressurization, probably because of chemical kinetics involving, in many cases, the radiolysis of water within the waste. Even if no leveling off occurs, realistic gas leakage rates (indicating poor closure by gaskets on drums and liners) will result in adequate relief of pressure for radiolytic gas generation from the majority of commercial sector LLW packages. Biodegradative gas generation, however, could pose a pressurization hazard even at realistic gas leakage rates. Recommendations include passive vents on LLW containers (as already specified for high integrity containers) and upper limits to the G values and/or the specific activity of the LLW.

  13. Bioindicators for Monitoring Radioactive Pollution of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    * IK s Dfc2looX|o Risø-R-443 Bioindicators for Monitoring Radioactive Pollution of the Marine-R-443 BIOINDICATORS FOR MONITORING RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT Experiments Dahlgaard Abstract. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) are globally used as bio- indicators for pollution of coastal

  14. Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2004 RIFE - 10 2005 #12;Food Standards Agency Emergency Planning, Radiation and Incidents Division Aviation House 125 Kingsway London WC2B 6NH RadioactivityinFoodandtheEnvironment,2004 Scottish Environment ProtectionAgency Radioactive Substances Unit Erskine Court The Castle

  15. Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2002 RIFE - 8 2003 #12;1 ENVIRONMENT AGENCY ENVIRONMENT AND HERITAGE SERVICE FOOD STANDARDS AGENCY SCOTTISH ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AGENCY Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2002 RIFE - 8 October 2003 #12;2 This report was compiled by the Centre for Environment

  16. 4. Nuclei and Radioactivity Paradoxes and Puzzles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browder, Tom

    , and Firearms tests wine, gin, whisky, and vodka for radioactivity. If the product does not have sufficient. The key feature of radioactivity that makes it so fascinating is that the energy released is enormous-- at least when compared to typical chemical energies. The typical energy release in the explosion of one

  17. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [ed.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  18. The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dummer, J.E.; Taschner, J.C.; Courtright, C.C.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.

  19. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world`s largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  20. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  1. Thermal treatment of organic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrubasik, A.; Stich, W. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste.

  2. PERFORMANCE OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR RADIOACTIVE GAS CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a summary of the design and testing of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The containment vessel closure incorporates features specifically designed for the containment of tritium when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of Type B radioactive material shipping Packages. The paper discusses functional performance of the containment vessel closure of the BTSP prototype packages and separate testing that evaluated the performance of the metallic C-Rings used in a mock BTSP closure.

  3. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hess, C.C.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes. 6 figs.

  4. Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes disposal of liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases, through: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques. However, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used.

  5. Radioactive targets for neutron-induced cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronenberg, A. (Andreas); Bond, E. M. (Evelyn M.); Glover, S. E. (Samuel E.); Rundberg, R. S. (Robert S.); Vieira, D. J. (David J.); Esch, E. I. (Ernst-Ingo); Reifarth, R. (Rene); Ullmann, J. L. (John L.); Haight, Robert C.; Rochmann, D. (Dimitri)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements using radioactive targets are important for the determination of key reaction path ways associated with the synthesis of the elements in nuclear astrophysics (sprocess), advanced fuel cycle initiative (transmutation of radioactive waste), and stockpile stewardship. High precision capture cross-section measurements are needed to interpret observations, predict elemental or isotopical ratios, and unobserved abundances. There are two new detector systems that are presently being commissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory for very precise measurements of (n,{gamma}) and (n,f) cross-sections using small quantities of radioactive samples. DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments), a 4 {pi} gamma array made up of 160 BaF{sub 2} detectors, is designed to measure neutron capture cross-sections of unstable nuclei in the low-energy range (thermal to {approx}500 keV). The high granularity and high detection efficiency of DANCE, combined with the high TOF-neutron flux available at the Lujan Center provides a versatile tool for measuring many important cross section data using radioactive and isotopically enriched targets of about 1 milligram. Another powerful instrument is the Lead-slowing down spectrometer (LSDS), which will enable the measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-section of U-235m and other short-lived actinides in a energy range from 1-200 keV with sample sizes down to 10 nanograms. Due to the short half-life of the U-235m isomer (T{sub 1/2} = 26 minutes), the samples must be rapidly and repeatedly extracted from its {sup 239}Pu parent. Since {sup 239}Pu is itself highly fissile, the separation must not only be rapid, but must also be of very high purity (the Pu must be removed from the U with a decontamination factor >10{sup 12}). Once extracted and purified, the {sup 235m}U isomer would be electrodeposited on solar cells as a fission detector and placed within the LSDS for direct (n,f) cross section measurements. The production of radioactive targets of a few milligrams will be described as well as the containment for safe handling of these targets at the Lujan Center at LANSCE. To avoid any contamination, the targets are electrochemically fixed onto thin Ti foils and two foils are placed back to back to contain the radioactive material within. This target sandwich is placed in a cylinder made of aluminum with thin translucent windows made of Kapton. Actinides targets, such as {sup 234,235,236,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu are prepared by electrodeposition or molecular plating techniques. Target thicknesses of 1-2 mg/cm{sup 2} with sizes of 1 cm{sup 2} or more have been made. Other targets will be fabricated from separation of irradiated isotopically enriched targets, such as {sup 155}Eu from {sup 154}Sm,{sup 171}Tm from {sup 170}Er, and {sup 147}Pm from {sup 146}Nd, which has been irradiated in the high flux reactor at ILL, Grenoble. A radioactive sample isotope separator (RSIS) is in the process of being commissioned for the preparation of other radioactive targets. A brief summary of these experiments and the radioactive target preparation technique will be given.

  6. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRONOWSKI,DAVID R.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  7. A Low-Tech, Low-Budget Storage Solution for High Level Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Carlsen; Ted Reed; Todd Johnson; John Weathersby; Joe Alexander; Dave Griffith; Douglas Hamelin

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for safe, secure, and economical storage of radioactive material becomes increasingly important as beneficial uses of radioactive material expand (increases inventory), as political instability rises (increases threat), and as final disposal and treatment facilities are delayed (increases inventory and storage duration). Several vendor-produced storage casks are available for this purpose but are often costly — due to the required design, analyses, and licensing costs. Thus the relatively high costs of currently accepted storage solutions may inhibit substantial improvements in safety and security that might otherwise be achieved. This is particularly true in areas of the world where the economic and/or the regulatory infrastructure may not provide the means and/or the justification for such an expense. This paper considers a relatively low-cost, low-technology radioactive material storage solution. The basic concept consists of a simple shielded storage container that can be fabricated locally using a steel pipe and a corrugated steel culvert as forms enclosing a concrete annulus. Benefits of such a system include 1) a low-tech solution that utilizes materials and skills available virtually anywhere in the world, 2) a readily scalable design that easily adapts to specific needs such as the geometry and radioactivity of the source term material), 3) flexible placement allows for free-standing above-ground or in-ground (i.e., below grade or bermed) installation, 4) the ability for future relocation without direct handling of sources, and 5) a long operational lifetime . ‘Le mieux est l’ennemi du bien’ (translated: The best is the enemy of good) applies to the management of radioactive materials – particularly where the economic and/or regulatory justification for additional investment is lacking. Development of a low-cost alternative that considerably enhances safety and security may lead to a greater overall risk reduction than insisting on solutions that remain economically and/or politically ‘out of reach’.

  8. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management-Quality Assurance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Civilian Radioactive Waste Management-Quality Assurance Requirements and Description Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management-Quality Assurance Requirements and Description...

  9. RESRAD Computer Code- Evaluation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination was a problem until the RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) Computer Code was first released in 1989.

  10. Portsmouth Site Delivers First Radioactive Waste Shipment to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Portsmouth Site Delivers First Radioactive Waste Shipment to Disposal Facility in Texas Portsmouth Site Delivers First Radioactive Waste Shipment to Disposal Facility in Texas...

  11. Southwestern Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation authorizes the state's entrance into the Southwestern Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact, which provides for the cooperative management of low-level radioactive waste....

  12. Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  13. Improving Home Automation by Discovering Regularly Occurring Device Usage Patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    Improving Home Automation by Discovering Regularly Occurring Device Usage Patterns Edwin O in an environment can be mined to discover significant patterns, which an intelligent agent could use to automate of two prediction algorithms, thus demonstrating multiple uses for a home automation system. Finally, we

  14. accident excursion occurring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    accident excursion occurring First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Annual Report of Railroad...

  15. Evaluation of beta partical densitometry for determination of self-absorption factors in gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity measurements on air particulate filter samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breida, Margaret A

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpha and beta particles emitted from radioactive material collected on an air filter may be significantly attenuated by the mass (thickness) of collected dust. In this study, we determined the mass or thickness of the simulated dust deposit...

  16. Evaluation of beta partical densitometry for determination of self-absorption factors in gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity measurements on air particulate filter samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breida, Margaret A

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpha and beta particles emitted from radioactive material collected on an air filter may be significantly attenuated by the mass (thickness) of collected dust. In this study, we determined the mass or thickness of the simulated dust deposit...

  17. Part of the National Nuclear User Facility Culham Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Part of the National Nuclear User Facility Culham Materials Research Facility #12;Introduction from Professor Steve Cowley Culham's Materials Research Facility (MRF) is a valuable addition to the UK's suite and fusion ­ with equipment for the processing and micro-characterisation of radioactive materials, for on

  18. Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative.

  19. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  20. Radiological survey of the radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haywood, F.F.; Burden, J.E.; Ellis, B.S.; Loy, E.T.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No uranium ore milling was performed at the Lowman site, which is located approximately 0.8 km northeast of the town of Lowman, Idaho. Nevertheless, approximately 80,000 metric tons of radioactive sands and residues from upgrading of heavy minerals by physical processing methods remain on the site grounds. Measurements of external gamma radiation 1 m above the surface showed exposure rates up to 2.4 mR/hr on site, but the exposure rate off site quickly dropped to the background level in all directions. Analysis of surface soil and sediment samples for /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th indicated a limited spread of radioactive material.

  1. Low Level Radioactive Wastes Conditioning during Decommissioning of Salaspils Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramenkova, G.; Klavins, M. [Faculty of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Latvia, 19 Rainis Boulevard, Riga, LV-1586 (Latvia); Abramenkovs, A. [Ministry of Environment, Hazardous Wastes Management State Agency, 31 Miera Street, Salaspils, LV-2169 (Latvia)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The decommissioning of Salaspils research reactor is connected with the treatment of 2200 tons different materials. The largest part of all materials ({approx}60 % of all dismantled materials) is connected with low level radioactive wastes conditioning activities. Dismantled radioactive materials were cemented in concrete containers using water-cement mortar. According to elaborated technology, the tritiated water (150 tons of liquid wastes from special canalization tanks) was used for preparation of water-cement mortar. Such approach excludes the emissions of tritiated water into environment and increases the efficiency of radioactive wastes management system for decommissioning of Salaspils research reactor. The Environmental Impact Assessment studies for Salaspils research reactor decommissioning (2004) and for upgrade of repository 'Radons' for decommissioning purposes (2005) induced the investigations of radionuclides release parameters from cemented radioactive waste packages. These data were necessary for implementation of quality assurance demands during conditioning of radioactive wastes and for safety assessment modeling for institutional control period during 300 years. Experimental studies indicated, that during solidification of water- cement samples proceeds the increase of temperature up to 81 deg. C. It is unpleasant phenomena since it can result in damage of concrete container due to expansion differences for mortar and concrete walls. Another unpleasant factor is connected with the formation of bubbles and cavities in the mortar structure which can reduce the mechanical stability of samples and increase the release of radionuclides from solidified cement matrix. The several additives, fly ash and PENETRON were used for decrease of solidification temperature. It was found, that addition of fly ash to the cement-water mortar can reduce the solidification temperature up to 62 deg. C. Addition of PENETRON results in increasing of solidification temperature up to 83 deg. C. Experimental data shows, that water/cement ratio significantly influences on water-cement mortar's viscosity and solidified samples mechanical stability. Increasing of water ratio from 0.45 up to 0.65 decreases water-cement mortar's viscosity from 1100 mPas up to 90 mPas. Significant reduction of viscosity is an important factor, which facilitates the fulfillment all gaps and cavities with the mortar during conditioning of solid radioactive wastes in containers. On the other hand, increase water ratio from 0.45 up to 0.65 decreases mechanical stability of water-cement samples from 23 N/mm{sup 2} to the 12 N/mm{sup 2}. It means that water-cement bulk stability significantly decreases with increasing of water content. Technologically is important to increase the tritiated water content in container with cemented radioactive wastes. It gives a possibility to increase the fulfillment of container with radioactive materials. On the other hand, additional water significantly reduces bulk stability of containers with cemented radioactive wastes, which can result in disintegration of radioactive wastes packages in repository during 300 years. Taking into account the experimental results, it is not recommended to exceed the water/cement ratio more than 0.60. Tritium and Cs{sup 137} leakage tests show, that radionuclides release curves has a complicate structure. Experimental results indicated that addition of fly ash result in facilitation of tritium and cesium release in water phase. This is unpleasant factor, which significantly decreases the safety of disposed radioactive wastes. Despite the positive impact on solidification temperature drop, the addition of fly ash to the cement-water mortar is not recommended in case of cementation of radionuclides in concrete containers. In conclusion: The cementation processes of solid radioactive wastes in concrete containers were investigated. The influence of additives on cementation processes was studied. It was shown, that the increasing of water ratio from 0.45 up to 0.65 decreases water-cement mortar

  2. The IAEA and Control of Radioactive SourcesThe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodd, B.

    2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the control of radioactive sources.

  3. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilles, W.P.; Jasen, W.G.; Roberts, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid radioactive waste must be classified before treatment and disposal methods can be chosen. After treatment and before disposal, the radionuclide contents of a container must be certified. This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described.

  4. Routine inspection effort required for verification of a nuclear material production cutoff convention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, D.; Fainberg, A.; Sanborn, J.; Allentuck, J.; Sun, C.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On 27 September 1993, President Clinton proposed {open_quotes}... a multilateral convention prohibiting the production of highly enriched uranium or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside of international safeguards.{close_quotes} The UN General Assembly subsequently adopted a resolution recommending negotiation of a non-discriminatory, multilateral, and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty (hereinafter referred to as {open_quotes}the Cutoff Convention{close_quotes}) banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons. The matter is now on the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament, although not yet under negotiation. This accord would, in effect, place all fissile material (defined as highly enriched uranium and plutonium) produced after entry into force (EIF) of the accord under international safeguards. {open_quotes}Production{close_quotes} would mean separation of the material in question from radioactive fission products, as in spent fuel reprocessing, or enrichment of uranium above the 20% level, which defines highly enriched uranium (HEU). Facilities where such production could occur would be safeguarded to verify that either such production is not occurring or that all material produced at these facilities is maintained under safeguards.

  5. Experiments with radioactive samples at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veluri, V. R.; Justus, A.; Glagola, B.; Rauchas, A.; Vacca, J.

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a national synchrotron-radiation light source research facility. The 7 GeV electron Storage Ring is currently delivering intense high brilliance x-ray beams to a total of 34 beamlines with over 120 experiment stations to members of the international scientific community to carry out forefront basic and applied research in several scientific disciplines. Researchers come to the APS either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATs) or as Independent Investigators (IIs). Collaborative Access Teams comprise large number of investigators from universities, industry, and research laboratories with common research objectives. These teams are responsible for the design, construction, finding, and operation of beamlines. They are the owners of their experimental enclosures (''hutches'') designed and built to meet their specific research needs. Fig. 1 gives a plan view of the location of the Collaborative Access Teams by Sector and Discipline. In the past two years, over 2000 individual experiments were conducted at the APS facility. Of these, about 60 experiments involved the use of radioactive samples, which is less than 3% of the total. However, there is an increase in demand for experiment stations to accommodate the use of radioactive samples in different physical forms embedded in various matrices with activity levels ranging from trace amounts of naturally occurring radionuclides to MBq (mCi) quantities including transuranics. This paper discusses in some detail the steps in the safety review process for experiments involving radioactive samples and how ALARA philosophy is invoked at each step and implemented.

  6. Probing New Physics with Underground Accelerators and Radioactive Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eder Izaguirre; Gordan Krnjaic; Maxim Pospelov

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    New light, weakly coupled particles can be efficiently produced at existing and future high-intensity accelerators and radioactive sources in deep underground laboratories. Once produced, these particles can scatter or decay in large neutrino detectors (e.g Super-K and Borexino) housed in the same facilities. We discuss the production of weakly coupled scalars $\\phi$ via nuclear de-excitation of an excited element into the ground state in two viable concrete reactions: the decay of the $0^+$ excited state of $^{16}$O populated via a $(p,\\alpha)$ reaction on fluorine and from radioactive $^{144}$Ce decay where the scalar is produced in the de-excitation of $^{144}$Nd$^*$, which occurs along the decay chain. Subsequent scattering on electrons, $e(\\phi,\\gamma)e$, yields a mono-energetic signal that is observable in neutrino detectors. We show that this proposed experimental set-up can cover new territory for masses $250\\, {\\rm keV}\\leq m_\\phi \\leq 2 m_e$ and couplings to protons and electrons, $10^{-11} new physics component to the neutrino and nuclear astrophysics programs at underground facilities.

  7. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, Michael C.

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  8. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, Michael Clair

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre-decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with hotographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  9. Radioactive gold in the treatment of bovine ocular squamous carcinoma and its precursor lesions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    England, Roy Belvin

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A&M University D. V. M. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. M. C. Banks Ten cases of clinically diagnosed bovine ocular carcinoma were treated by implanting radioactive gold seeds into the lesions with a needle and stylet. Progress films... were made at regular intervals during a 6 months convalescent period to record any changes resulting from this treatment. In 6 of 10 cases, total or near total regression occurred, while temporary regression and subsequent proliferation...

  10. RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    . Properly labeled containers with lids, covers, or seals. B. Labels, tape, plastic bags, plastic jugs or suitable liquid containers, corrugated cardboard boxes. C. Note: Liquid Waste containers are provided radioactive waste containing different radionuclides. C. Minimize radioactive waste by preventing unnecessary

  11. Scientists Connect Thermoelectric Materials and Topological Insulators...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that does not occur in normal semiconductors. Thermoelectric materials enable scalable direct conversion of heat to electricity in solid state devices, and have potential for...

  12. Effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive sources on radiation intensity in beta-voltaic nuclear battery system: A preliminary result

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basar, Khairul, E-mail: khbasar@fi.itb.ac.id; Riupassa, Robi D., E-mail: khbasar@fi.itb.ac.id; Bachtiar, Reza, E-mail: khbasar@fi.itb.ac.id; Badrianto, Muldani D., E-mail: khbasar@fi.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that one main problem in the application of beta-voltaic nuclear battery system is its low efficiency. The efficiency of the beta-voltaic nuclear battery system mainly depends on three aspects: source of radioactive radiation, interface between materials in the system and process of converting electron-hole pair to electric current in the semiconductor material. In this work, we show the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive sources on radiation intensity of beta-voltaic nuclear battery system.

  13. Switchable radioactive neutron source device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stanford, G.S.; Rhodes, E.A.; Devolpi, A.; Boyar, R.E.

    1987-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a switchable neutron generating apparatus comprised of a pair of plates, the first plate having an alpha emitter section on it and the second plate having a target material portion on it which generates neutrons when its nuclei absorb an alpha particle. In operation, the alpha portion of the first plate is aligned with the neutron portion of the second plate to produce neutrons and brought out of alignment to cease production of neutrons. 3 figs.

  14. Switchable radioactive neutron source device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyar, Robert E. (La Grange, IL); DeVolpi, Alexander (Bolingbrook, IL); Stanford, George S. (Downers Grove, IL); Rhodes, Edgar A. (Woodridge, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a switchable neutron generating apparatus comprised of a pair of plates, the first plate having an alpha emitter section on it and the second plate having a target material portion on it which generates neutrons when its nuclei absorb an alpha particle. In operation, the alpha portion of the first plate is aligned with the neutron portion of the second plate to produce neutrons and brought out of alignment to cease production of neutrons.

  15. Resolutions of Problems that Occurred in SPEAR3 Magnet Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Nanyang

    2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Some problems occurred during the SPEAR3 magnet production at IHEP, China. It was very hard to find resolution from existing knowledge of those problems. It was possible that similar problems might have happen in building accelerator magnet in other institutes before, but they were not addressed in public papers. These problems were discussed and solved by engineers from both SLAC and IHEP after conducting certain experiments. Traditionally, the magnet design and measurement data have been always well documented and addressed in papers, but the production experiences have not been recorded adequately. It is the goal of this paper to record the problems and their resolutions during SPEAR3 magnet production at IHEP China, which will certainly benefit future magnet projects.

  16. Walk the Line: The Development of Route Selection Standards for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste in the United States - 13519

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilger, Fred [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States)] [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 80906 (United States)] [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 80906 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)] [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) are widely dispersed throughout the United States, these materials are also relatively concentrated in terms of geographic area. That is, the impacts of storage occur in a very small geographic space. Once shipments begin to a national repository or centralized interim storage facility, the impacts of SNF and HLRW will become more geographically distributed, more publicly visible, and almost certainly more contentious. The selection of shipping routes will likely be a major source of controversy. This paper describes the development of procedures, regulations, and standards for the selection of routes used to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The paper begins by reviewing the circumstances around the development of HM-164 routing guidelines. The paper discusses the significance of New York City versus the Department of Transportation and application of HM-164. The paper describes the methods used to implement those regulations. The paper will also describe the current HM-164 designated routes and will provide a summary data analysis of their characteristics. This analysis will reveal the relatively small spatial scale of the effects of HM 164. The paper will then describe subsequent developments that have affected route selection for these materials. These developments include the use of 'representative routes' found in the Department of Energy (DOE) 2008 Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the formerly proposed Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The paper will describe recommendations related to route selection found in the National Academy of Sciences 2006 report Going the Distance, as well as recommendations found in the 2012 Final Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. The paper will examine recently promulgated federal regulations (HM-232) for selection of rail routes for hazardous materials transport. The paper concludes that while the HM 164 regime is sufficient for certain applications, it does not provide an adequate basis for a national plan to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to centralized storage and disposal facilities over a period of 30 to 50 years. (authors)

  17. Can Deflagration-Detonation-Transitions occur in Type Ia Supernovae?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Niemeyer

    1999-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism for deflagration-detonation-transition (DDT) by turbulent preconditioning, suggested to explain the possible occurrence of delayed detonations in Type Ia supernova explosions, is argued to be conceptually inconsistent. It relies crucially on diffusive heat losses of the burned material on macroscopic scales. Regardless of the amplitude of turbulent velocity fluctuations, the typical gradient scale for temperature fluctuations is shown to be the laminar flame width or smaller, rather than the factor of thousand more required for a DDT. Furthermore, thermonuclear flames cannot be fully quenched in regions much larger than the laminar flame width as a consequence of their simple ``chemistry''. Possible alternative explosion scenarios are briefly discussed.

  18. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project. Highway infrastructure report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to arranging for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must develop a safe and efficient transportation system in order to deliver the material that has accumulated at various sites throughout the country. The ability to transport radioactive waste safely has been demonstrated during the past 20 years: DOE has made over 2,000 shipments of spent fuel and other wastes without any fatalities or environmental damage related to the radioactive nature of the cargo. To guarantee the efficiency of the transportation system, DOE must determine the optimal combination of rail transport (which allows greater payloads but requires special facilities) and truck transport Utilizing trucks, in turn, calls for decisions as to when to use legal weight trucks or, if feasible, overweight trucks for fewer but larger shipments. As part of the transportation system, the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) study contributes to DOE`s development of transportation plans for specific facilities. This study evaluates the ability of different facilities to receive, load and ship the special casks in which radioactive materials will be housed during transport In addition, the DOE`s Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) study (forthcoming) will evaluate the rail, road and barge access to 76 reactor sites from which DOE is obligated to begin accepting spent fuel in 1998. The NSTI study will also assess the existing capabilities of each transportation mode and route, including the potential for upgrade.

  19. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  20. Pump station for radioactive waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitton, John P.; Klos, Dean M.; Carrara, Danny T.; Minno, John J.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump station for transferring radioactive particle containing waste water, includes: (a.) an enclosed sump having a vertically elongated right frusto conical wall surface and a bottom surface and (b.) a submersible volute centrifugal pump having a horizontally rotating impeller and a volute exterior surface. The sump interior surface, the bottom surface and the volute exterior surface are made of stainless steel having a 30 Ra or finer surface finish. A 15 Ra finish has been found to be most cost effective. The pump station is used for transferring waste water, without accumulation of radioactive fines.

  1. Covetic Materials

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Can re-melt, dilute, alloy... Fabrication of Covetic Materials - Nanocarbon Infusion 3 4 Technical Approach Unusual Characteristics of Covetic Materials ("covalent" &...

  2. Patient Positioning Based on a Radioactive Tracer Implanted in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer: A Performance and Safety Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruijf, Willy J.M. de, E-mail: kruijf.de.w@bvi.nl [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands); Verstraete, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Neustadter, David [Navotek Medical Ltd, Yokneam (Israel)] [Navotek Medical Ltd, Yokneam (Israel); Corn, Benjamin W. [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel)] [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hol, Sandra; Venselaar, Jack L.M. [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands)] [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands); Davits, Rob J.; Wijsman, Bart P. [TweeSteden Hospital, Tilburg (Netherlands)] [TweeSteden Hospital, Tilburg (Netherlands); Van den Bergh, Laura; Budiharto, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Oyen, Raymond [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)] [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Haustermans, Karin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, Philip M.P. [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands)] [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance and safety of a radiation therapy positioning system (RealEye) based on tracking a radioactive marker (Tracer) implanted in patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a single-arm multi-institutional trial in 20 patients. The iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir)-containing Tracer was implanted in the patient together with 4 standard gold seed fiducials. Patient prostate-related symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Computed tomography (CT) was performed for treatment planning, during treatment, and after treatment to evaluate the migration stability of the Tracer. At 5 treatment sessions, cone beam CT was performed to test the positioning accuracy of the RealEye. Results: The Tracer was successfully implanted in all patients. No device or procedure-related adverse events occurred. Changes in IPSS scores were limited. The difference between the mean change in Tracer-fiducial distance and the mean change in fiducial-fiducial distance was -0.39 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] upper boundary, -0.22 mm). The adjusted mean difference between Tracer position according to RealEye and the Tracer position on the CBCT for all patients was 1.34 mm (95% CI upper boundary, 1.41 mm). Conclusions: Implantation of the Tracer is feasible and safe. Migration stability of the Tracer is good. Prostate patients can be positioned and monitored accurately by using RealEye.

  3. Low Radioactivity Crystals for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dafinei, Ioan [Sezione INFN di Roma, P-le Aldo Moro 2, Roma I-00185 (Italy)

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of crystals needed for rare events physics represent a relatively new, exciting challenge in the field of materials science and engineering. Extremely low concentration of radioactive impurities and very high crystal perfection is required for the crystals to be used in experiments in which the main concerns are the reduction of the background and the use of high sensitivity detectors. A further complication is the fact that for an experiment with a significant discovery potential, relatively large quantities of crystals are needed. The present work makes a review of the general problems related to the production of crystals for rare events physics and gives details related to the production of the TeO{sub 2} crystals needed for the major experiment in this field using bolometric technique, namely the CUORE experiment. The potential use of crystals for future double beta decay experiments is also discussed.

  4. Radioactivity and health: A history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stannard, J.N.; Baalman, R.W. Jr. (ed.)

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book is designed to be primarily a history of research facts, measurements, and ideas and the people who developed them. ''Research'' is defined very broadly to include from bench-top laboratory experiments to worldwide environmental investigations. The book is not a monograph or a critical review. The findings and conclusions are presented largely as the investigators saw and reported them. Frequently, the discussion utilizes the terminology and units of the time, unless they are truly antiquated or potentially unclear. It is only when the work being reported is markedly iconoclastic or obviously wrong that I chose to make special note of it or to correct it. Nevertheless, except for direct quotations, the language is mine, and I take full responsibility for it. The working materials for this volume included published papers in scientific journals, books, published conferences and symposia, personal interviews with over 100 individuals, some of them more than once (see Appendix A), and particularly for the 1940--1950 decade and for the large government-supported laboratories to the present day, ''in-house'' reports. These reports frequently represent the only comprehensive archive of what was done and why. Unfortunately, this source is drying up because of storage problems and must be retrieved by ever more complex and inconvenient means. For this reason, special efforts have been taken to review and document these sources, though even now some sections of the field are partially inaccessible. Nevertheless, the volume of all materials available for this review was surprisingly large and the quality much better than might have been expected for so complex and disparate a fields approached under conditions of considerable urgency.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Contamination Issues at the Chernobyl Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Schmieman, Eric A.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near surface waste-storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986 to 1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5 to 15 km from the NPP site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100-years service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste management at the reactor site and in the Exclusion Zone, and especially for high-level and long-lived waste, has not been developed.

  6. Results of the material screening program of the NEXT experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dafni, T; Bandac, I; Bettini, A; Borges, F I G M; Camargo, M; Carcel, S; Cebrian, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Diaz, J; Esteve, R; Fernandes, L M P; Fernandez, M; Ferrario, P; Ferreira, A L; Freitas, E D C; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Gomez, H; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Gutierrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Labarga, L; Laing, A; Liubarsky, I; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzon, G; Mari, A; Martin-Albo, J; Martinez, A; Martinez-Lema, G; Miller, T; Monrabal, F; Monserrate, M; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Vidal, J Munoz; Nebot-Guinot, M; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C A B; Perez, J; Aparicio, J L Perez; Renner, J; Ripoll, L; Rodriguez, A; Rodriguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Segui, L; Serra, L; Shuman, D; Simon, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; Villar, J A; Webb, R C; White, J T; Yahlali, N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC (NEXT)', intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay, requires extremely low background levels. An extensive material screening and selection process to assess the radioactivity of components is underway combining several techniques, including germanium gamma-ray spectrometry performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory; recent results of this material screening program are presented here.

  7. Results of the material screening program of the NEXT experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Dafni; V. Alvarez; I. Bandac; A. Bettini; F. I. G. M. Borges; M. Camargo; S. Carcel; S. Cebrian; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; J. Diaz; R. Esteve; L. M. P. Fernandes; M. Fernandez; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; V. M. Gehman; A. Goldschmidt; H. Gomez; J. J. Gomez-Cadenas; D. Gonzalez-Diaz; R. M. Gutierrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzon; A. Mari; J. Martin-Albo; A. Martinez; G. Martinez-Lema; T. Miller; F. Monrabal; M. Monserrate; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Munoz Vidal; M. Nebot-Guinot; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; J. Perez; J. L. Perez Aparicio; J. Renner; L. Ripoll; A. Rodriguez; J. Rodriguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; L. Segui; L. Serra; D. Shuman; A. Simon; C. Sofka; M. Sorel; J. F. Toledo; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; J. F. C. A. Veloso; J. A. Villar; R. C. Webb; J. T. White; N. Yahlali

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC (NEXT)', intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay, requires extremely low background levels. An extensive material screening and selection process to assess the radioactivity of components is underway combining several techniques, including germanium gamma-ray spectrometry performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory; recent results of this material screening program are presented here.

  8. MARSAME Appendix B B. SOURCES OF BACKGROUND RADIOACTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : · The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) provides information concerning background radioactivity in Background as a Residual Radioactivity Criterion for Decommissioning NUREG-1501 (NRC 1994). · The United Nations Scientific

  9. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherspoon editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson editor, G.S.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive Waste Long-Term Storage Piero Risoluti ENEA,The National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment,environment, and the tech- nology for shutting down radioactive waste storage

  10. Los Alamos achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions Los Alamos achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions The Lab measures air emissions through a comprehensive system of...

  11. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  12. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lorenzo, Donald K. (Knoxville, TN); Van Cleve, Jr., John E. (Kingston, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  13. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  14. Hazardous and Radioactive Mixed Waste Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1989-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous and radioactive mixed waste policies and requirements and to implement the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) within the framework of the environmental programs established under DOE O 5400.1. This directive does not cancel any directives.

  15. Radioactive Target Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tonglin

    Chapter 31 Radioactive Target Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network Tonglin Zhang Abstract for wireless sensor network data to detect and locate a hidden nuclear target in a large study area. The method assumes multiple radiation detectors have been used as sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network

  16. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

  17. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1999-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1998 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances, along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

  18. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, C.J.

    2000-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1999 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  19. Chapter 25: Radioactivity, Nuclear Processes, and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Chapter 25: Radioactivity, Nuclear Processes, and Applications 1 The discovery of nuclear chain only must do everything in our power to safeguard against its abuse. ~ Albert Einstein Did you read · Contains positively charged protons. · Held together by the Nuclear Strong ForceNuclear Strong Force. James

  20. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.

    1996-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  1. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  2. Materials Scientist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Materials Research Engineer; Metallurgical/Chemical Engineer; Product Development Manager;

  3. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH PHOSPHATE RADIOACTIVE TANK WASTE AND SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample of high-level radioactive tank waste was characterized to provide a basis for developing a waste simulant. The simulant is required for engineered-scaled testing of pretreatment processes in a non-radiological facility. The waste material examined was derived from the bismuth phosphate process, which was the first industrial process implemented to separate plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel. The bismuth phosphate sludge is a complex mixture rich in bismuth, iron, sodium, phosphorus, silicon, and uranium. The form of phosphorus in this particular tank waste material is of specific importance because that is the primary component (other than water-soluble sodium salts) that must be removed from the high-level waste solids by pretreatment. This work shows unequivocally that the phosphorus present in this waste material is not present as bismuth phosphate. Rather, the phosphorus appears to be incorporated mostly into an amorphous iron(III) phosphate species. The bismuth in the sludge solids is best described as bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3. Infrared spectral data, microscopy, and thermal analysis data are presented to support these conclusions. The behavior of phosphorus during caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge solids is also discussed.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so called 'Threat assessment' in each CA country which revealed additional problems in the existing regulatory documents beyond those described at the start of our ongoing bilateral projects in Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. (authors)

  6. Sorting and disposal of hazardous laboratory Radioactive waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maoz, Shahar

    Sorting and disposal of hazardous laboratory waste Radioactive waste Solid radioactive waste in a tray to avoid spill Final disposal of both solid and radioactive waste into the yellow barrel into the solid biological waste. Formalin should be disposed off as Chemical Waste. Carcasses of experimental

  7. WM'05 Conference, February 27 March 3, 2005, Tucson, AZ WM-5278 IDENTIFYING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES AT THE DEMOLITION SITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), in a cooperative partnership with the scrap metal industry, developed a CD ROM based training program to provide's scrap metal supply. In order to prevent this unwanted radioactive material from entering metal will be detected in scrap metal loads. Shielding of the sources by the metal scrap, location of the source within

  8. Integrated data base for 1993: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.A.; Storch, S.N.; Ashline, R.C. [and others

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent fuel; also, commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1992. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste (HLW), transuranic (TRU), waste, low-level waste (LLW), commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) LLW. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year (CY) 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal.

  9. Integrated Data Base report--1993: U.S. spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel; also, commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1993. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 256 refs., 38 figs., 141 tabs.

  10. Integrated Data Base for 1992: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payton, M. L.; Williams, J. T.; Tolbert-Smith, M.; Klein, J. A.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1991. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal.

  11. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger-scale system tests. An additional finding from this work is that low-amplitude oscillation may provide an alternative, non-invasive, non-contact means of controlling settling and/or suspension of solids. Further investigation would be necessary to evaluate its utility for radioactive waste treatment applications. This project did not uncover a new technology for radioactive waste treatment. While it may be possible that an efficient electrically driven technology for aerosol treatment could be developed, it appears that other technologies, such as steel and ceramic HEPA filters, can suitably solve this problem. If further studies are to be undertaken, additional fundamental experimentation and modeling is necessary to fully capture the physics; in addition, larger-scale tests are needed to demonstrate the treatment of flowing gas streams through the coupling of acoustic agglomeration with electrocoalescence.

  12. Conditioning and Repackaging of Spent Radioactive Cs-137 and Co-60 Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13490

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; El-Zakla, T. [Hot Labs and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)] [Hot Labs and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive Sealed sources (RSSs) are widely use all over the world in medicine, agriculture, industry, research, etc. The accidental misuse and exposure to RSSs has caused significant environmental contamination, serious injuries and many deaths. The high specific activity of the materials in many RSSs means that the spread of as little as microgram quantities can generate significant risk to human health and inhibit the use of buildings and land. Conditioning of such sources is a must to protect humans and environment from the hazard of ionizing radiation and contamination. Conditioning is also increase the security of these sources by decreasing the probability of stolen and/or use in terrorist attacks. According to the law No.7/2010, Egyptian atomic energy authority represented in the hot laboratories and waste management center (centralized waste facility, HLWMC) has the responsibility of collecting, conditioning, storing and management of all types of radioactive waste from all Egyptian territory including spent radioactive sealed sources (SRSSs). This paper explains the conditioning procedures for two of the most common SRSSs, Cs{sup 137} and Co{sup 60} sources which make up more than 90% of the total spent radioactive sealed sources stored in our centralized waste facility as one of the major activities of hot laboratories and waste management center. Conditioning has to meet three main objectives, be acceptable for storage, enable their safe transport, and comply with disposal requirements. (authors)

  13. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  14. DRAFT - DOE O 460.1D, Hazardous Materials Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The Order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials, and for modal transportation.

  15. Handling of Highly Radioactive Radiation Sources in a Hot Cell Using a Mechanically Driven Cell Crane - 13452

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klute, Stefan; Huber, Wolfgang-Bruno [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH, Am Taubenfeld 25/1, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH, Am Taubenfeld 25/1, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany); Meyer, Franz [Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)] [Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2010, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for design and erection of a Hot Cell for handling and storage of highly radioactive radiation sources. This Hot Cell is part of a new hot cell laboratory, constructed for the NHZ (Neues Handhabungszentrum = New Handling Center) of the Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf GmbH (NES). All incurring radioactive materials from Austria are collected in the NHZ, where they are safely conditioned and stored temporarily until their final storage. The main tasks of the NES include, apart from the collection, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste, also the reprocessing and the decontamination of facilities and laboratories originating from 45 years of research and development at the Seibersdorf site as well as the operation of the Hot Cell Laboratory [1]. The new Hot Cell Laboratory inside the NHZ consists of the following room areas: - One hot cell, placed in the center, for remote controlled, radiation protected handling of radioactive materials, including an integrated floor storage for the long-term temporary storage of highly radioactive radiation sources; - An anteroom for the loading and unloading of the hot cell; - One control room for the remote controlling of the hot cell equipment; - One floor storage, placed laterally to the hot cell, for burial, interim storage and removal of fissionable radioactive material in leak-proof packed units in 100 l drums. The specific design activity of the hot cell of 1.85 Pbq relating to 1-Me-Radiator including the integrated floor storage influences realization and design of the components used in the cell significantly. (authors)

  16. Proton radioactivity with a Yukawa effective interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. R. Routray; S. K. Tripathy; B. B. Dash; B. Behera; D. N. Basu

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The half lives of proton radioactivity of proton emitters are investigated theoretically. Proton-nucleus interaction potentials are obtained by folding the densities of the daughter nuclei with a finite range effective nucleon-nucleon interaction having Yukawa form. The Wood-Saxon density distributions for the nuclei used in calculating the nuclear as well as the Coulomb interaction potentials are predictions of the interaction. The quantum mechanical tunneling probability is calculated within the WKB framework. These calculations provide reasonable estimates for the observed proton radioactivity lifetimes. The effects of neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron rich asymmetric matter as well as the nuclear matter incompressibility on the decay probability are investigated.

  17. Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, William E. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

  18. In-field analysis and assessment of nuclear material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, R.E.; Myers, W.S.; Olivares, J.A.; Phillips, J.R.; York, R.L.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has actively developed and implemented a number of instruments to monitor, detect, and analyze nuclear materials in the field. Many of these technologies, developed under existing US Department of Energy programs, can also be used to effectively interdict nuclear materials smuggled across or within national borders. In particular, two instruments are suitable for immediate implementation: the NAVI-2, a hand-held gamma-ray and neutron system for the detection and rapid identification of radioactive materials, and the portable mass spectrometer for the rapid analysis of minute quantities of radioactive materials. Both instruments provide not only critical information about the characteristics of the nuclear material for law-enforcement agencies and national authorities but also supply health and safety information for personnel handling the suspect materials.

  19. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  20. Overview of DOE-NE Structural Materials Research, Materials Challenges and Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maloy, Stuart A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Busby, Jeremy T. [ORNL

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarized materials conditions for application of nanomaterials to reactor components. Material performance is essential to reactor performance, economics, and safety. A modern reactor design utilizes many different materials and material systems to achieve safe and reliable performance. Material performance in these harsh environments is very complex and many different forms of degradation may occur (often together in synergistic fashions). New materials science techniques may also help understand degradation modes and develop new manufacturing and fabrication techniques.

  1. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  2. Metabolic fate of radioactive acyclovir in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Miranda, P.; Good, S.S.; Krasny, H.C.; Connor, J.D.; Laskin, O.L.; Lietman, P.S.

    1982-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The metabolic fate and the kinetics of elimination of (8-/sup 14/C)acyclovir in plasma and blood was investigated in five cancer patients. Doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg were administered by one-hour intravenous infusion. Radioactivity was distributed nearly equally in blood and plasma. The plasma and blood concentration-time data were defined by a two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model. The overall mean acyclovir plasma half-life and total body clearance +/- SD were 2.1 +/- 0.5 hours and 297 +/- 53 ml/min/1.73 m2. Binding of acyclovir to plasma proteins was 15.4 +/- 4.4 percent. The radioactive dose was excreted predominantly in the urine (71 to 99 percent) with less than 2 percent excretion in the feces and only trace amounts of radioactivity in the expired air. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that 9-carboxymethoxymethylguanine was the only significant urinary metabolite of acyclovir accounting for 8.5 to 14.1 percent of the dose. A minor metabolite (less than 0.2 percent of dose) had the retention time of 8-hydroxy-9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine. Unchanged urinary acyclovir ranged from 62 to 91 percent of the dose. There was no indication of acyclovir cleavage to guanine. The renal clearances of acyclovir were three times higher than the corresponding creatinine clearances.

  3. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The processing rate of Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross-flow filter, produces {approx}0.02 gpm/sq. ft. of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) demonstrated significantly higher filter flux for actual waste samples using a small-scale rotary filter. With funding from the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technology, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. The authors improved the design for the disks and filter unit to make them suitable for high-level radioactive service. They procured two units using the new design, tested them with simulated SRS wastes, and evaluated the operation of the units. Work to date provides the following conclusions and program status: (1) The authors modified the design of the filter disks to remove epoxy and Ryton{reg_sign}. The new design includes welding both stainless steel and ceramic coated stainless steel filter media to a stainless steel support plate. The welded disks were tested in the full-scale unit. They showed good reliability and met filtrate quality requirements. (2) The authors modified the design of the unit, making installation and removal easier. The new design uses a modular, one-piece filter stack that is removed simply by disassembly of a flange on the upper (inlet) side of the filter housing. All seals and rotary unions are contained within the removable stack. (3) While it is extremely difficult to predict the life of the seal, the vendor representative indicates a minimum of one year in present service conditions is reasonable. Changing the seal face material from silicon-carbide to a graphite-impregnated silicon-carbide is expected to double the life of the seal. Replacement of the current seal with an air seal could increase the lifetime to 5 years and is undergoing testing in the current work. (4) The bottom bushing showed wear due to a misalignment during the manufacture of the filter tank. Replacing the graphite bushing with a more wear resistant material such as a carbide material will increase the lifetime of the bushing. This replacement requires a more wear resistant part or coating to prevent excessive wear of the shaft. The authors are currently conducting testing with the more wear resistant bushing. (5) The project team plans to use the rotary microfilter as a filter in advance of an ion exchange process under development for potential deployment in SRS waste tank risers.

  5. A MODULAR STORE FOR DRUMS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sims, J.; Holden, G.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, the United Kingdom has no facility for the disposal of any waste above the low level category, indicating that all intermediate and high level waste, apart from spent fuel, has to be stored on the site of origin. To meet this storage requirement, nuclear sites are resorting to converting existing buildings or contemplating the construction of dedicated facilities, resulting in considerable cost implications. These financing aspects not only concern the construction strategy but also impinge on the ultimate decommissioning costs associated with each particular nuclear site. This paper reports on an investigation to apply the commercially available interlocking hollow block system to the design of a store for drums of radioactive waste. This block system can be quickly, and cost effectively, erected and filled with a choice of dense material. Later, the store can be dismantled with a minimum of disposable radioactive waste and the complete facility re - erected at another location if required, considerably reducing both capital construction and decommissioning costs. The investigation also encompassed a detailed review of the equipment required to place the drums of waste into the store, resulting in a scheme for a remotely operated vehicle that did not rely on umbilical control cables. The drum handler design included for 100% redundancy of all functions, meaning that whichever component failed, the handler was always recoverable to effect the necessary repair. The ultimate aim of the waste drum store review was to produce a facility that was as safe as a conventionally constructed unit, but at a lower overall building and decommissioning cost.

  6. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  7. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate wastes are also discussed. The various processing technologies are cross-referenced to the various types of wasteforms since often a particular type of wasteform can be made by a variety of different processing technologies.

  8. Porous material neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diawara, Yacouba (Oak Ridge, TN); Kocsis, Menyhert (Venon, FR)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

  9. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  10. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  11. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  12. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  13. Transient thermal analysis for radioactive liquid mixing operations in a large-scaled tank

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, S. Y.; Smith, III, F. G.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on radioactive liquid temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the high-level radioactive materials stored in Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing longshaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%.

  14. Transient thermal analysis for radioactive liquid mixing operations in a large-scaled tank

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, S. Y.; Smith, III, F. G.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on radioactive liquid temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the high-level radioactive materials stored in Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing longshaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermalmore »response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%.« less

  15. DANCE : Device for Measurement of (n.g.) Reactions on radioactive Species /

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlin, E. P. (Edwin P.); Dragowsky, M. (Michael); Fowler, Malcolm M.; Miller, G. G. (Geoffrey G.); Palmer, P. D. (Phillip D.); Pangualt, L. N. (Laurence N.); Rundberg, R. S. (Robert S.); Haight, Robert C.; Seabury, E. H. (Edward H.); Ullmann, J. L. (John L.); Strottman, D. D. (Daniel D.); Heil, M. (Michael); Kaeppeler, F. (Franz K.); Reifarth, R. (Rene); Wisshak, K.; Wilhelmy, J. B. (Jerry B.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DANCE (Device for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) is a 4{pi} 162 element BaF{sub 2} array under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is designed to provide high granularity, fast timing and high photon detection efficiency. It will be located at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center where neutrons are produced using 800 MeV proton induced spallation reactions on heavy element production targets. Using the pulsed high neutron fluence available at this facility combined with time of flight techniques it will be possible to make neutron capture measurements in the neutron energy range from eV to 100's of keV on rare and radioactive target material at the milligram and below level. These measurements will provide critically needed data for the interpretation of the astrophysical s-process 'branching point' nuclei as well as information for reactions needed in understanding transmutation processes of radioactive species.

  16. Critical Materials:

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lighting. 14 (bottom) Criticality ratings of shortlisted raw 76 materials. 15 77 2. Technology Assessment and Potential 78 This section reviews the major trends within...

  17. Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study the effectiveness of three slurry rheology modifiers. An effective modifier was identified which resulted in lowering the yield stress of the waste simulant. Therefore, the results of this research have led to the basic understanding of the foaming/antifoaming mechanism in waste slurries as well as identification of a rheology modifier, which enhances the processing throughput, and accelerates the DOE mission. The objectives of this research effort were to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that produced foaming and air entrainment in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity (LAW) radioactive waste separation and immobilization processes, and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming/rheology modifier agents. Antifoams/rheology modifiers developed from this research ere tested using non-radioactive simulants of the radioactive wastes obtained from Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  18. Current Regulations and Guidance - New Approaches for Risk-Informed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.T. Ph.D.; CHP [Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and Materials, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the historical foundations and future challenges for commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management in the United States. LLRW has been managed at government facilities since the beginning of the nuclear age and in the commercial sector since the early 1960's. Over the intervening years many technical, management and regulatory changes have occurred. Significant progress has been made in waste form, waste packaging and in recognizing radionuclides important to performance of disposal technologies and disposal facilities. This presentation will examine approaches using existing regulations and risk-informed approaches to improve guidance, licensing and management of LLRW. (authors)

  19. Apparatuses and methods for detecting, identifying and quantitating radioactive nuclei and methods of distinguishing neutron stimulation of a radiation particle detector from gamma-ray stimulation of a detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jerald D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Drigert, Mark W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Aryaeinejad, Rahmat (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of detecting radioactive decay, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radioactive material, the radioactive material generating decay particles; b)providing a plurality of detectors proximate the sample, the detectors comprising a first set and a second set, the first set of the detectors comprising liquid state detectors utilizing liquid scintillation material coupled with photo tubes to generate a first electrical signal in response to decay particles stimulating the liquid scintillation material, the second set of the detectors comprising solid state detectors utilizing a crystalline solid to generate a second electrical signal in response to decay particles stimulating the crystalline solid; c) stimulating at least one of the detectors to generate at least one of the first and second electrical signals, the at least one of the first and second electrical signals being indicative of radioactive decay in the sample. In another aspect, the invention encompasses an apparatus for identifying and quantitating radioactive nuclei of a sample comprising radioactive material that decays to generate neutrons and high-energy .gamma.-rays.

  20. Ultimate disposal of low and medium radioactive waste in France

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringeard, C. [National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Environmental, Safety, Quality Dept.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) has been entrusted with the long-term management of radioactive waste. This paper presents the methodology of safety assessment used by ANDRA for a land disposal facility of radioactive waste with short or medium half-life and with low or medium specific activity. This methodology was used in the design of ``the Centre de stockage de l`Aube``.

  1. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Control Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For use with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. This Guide provides an acceptable methodology for establishing and operating a sealed radioactive source accountability and control program that will comply with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements specified in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (DOE 1998a), hereinafter referred to as 10 CFR 835. In particular, this Guide provides guidance for achieving compliance with subpart M of 10 CFR 835. Canceled by DOE G 441.1-1B.

  2. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, J.K.; Lindemann, P.E.

    1982-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are claimed for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  3. Fusion Induced by Radioactive Ion Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. F. Liang; C. Signorini

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of radioactive beams opens a new frontier for fusion studies. The coupling to the continuum can be explored with very loosely bound nuclei. Experiments were performed with beams of nuclei at or near the proton and neutron drip-lines to measure fusion and associated reactions in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. In addition, the fusion yield is predicted to be enhanced in reactions involving very neutron-rich unstable nuclei. Experimental measurements were carried out to investigate if it is feasible to use such beams to produce new heavy elements. The current status of these experimental activities is given in this review.

  4. Proton radioactivity half lives with Skyrme interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. R. Routray; Abhishek Mishra; S. K. Tripathy; B. Behera; D. N. Basu

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential barrier impeding the spontaneous emission of protons in the proton radioactive nuclei is calculated as the sum of nuclear, Coulomb and centrifugal contributions. The nuclear part of the proton-nucleus interaction potential is obtained in the energy density formalism using Skyrme effective interaction that results into a simple algebraic expression. The half-lives of the proton emitters are calculated for the different Skyrme sets within the improved WKB framework. The results are found to be in reasonable agreement with the earlier results obtained for more complicated calculations involving finite range interactions.

  5. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, John K. (San Diego, CA); Lindemann, Paul E. (Escondido, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  6. Incineration of radioactive waste in shaft furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dmitriev, S.A.; Knyasev, I.A.; Kobelev, A.P. [Moscow SIA Radon, Sergiev Posad (Russian Federation). Dept. of Engineering Supply

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of nuclear technology depends greatly on solving the problems, concerning the treatment of waste, arising from power station activity. A great deal of waste will arise in the process of atomic power station decommissioning. One of the methods for radioactive waste treatment is a method of combustion. The volume reduction factor of the final product is 60--100. In the process of combustion, the organic radwaste is transported into gaseous wastes and ash. For better environmental protection, one must achieve the minimal release of nuclides from partially burned products in the gaseous phase, and maximize the waste in ash form suitable for final disposal.

  7. Huizenga leads safety of spent fuel management, radioactive waste...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Huizenga leads safety of spent fuel management, radioactive waste management meeting in Vienna | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People...

  8. EIS-0200: Managing Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Radioactive...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    EIS evaluates the potential environmental and cost impacts of strategic managment alternatives for managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes that have resulted and...

  9. automated radioactive particle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the technical and cost components. For radioactive waste disposal and plant decommissioning is under examination a new law setting up a National Fund paid by all users of...

  10. The radioactive Substances (Prepared Uranium Thorium Compounds) Exemption Order 1962 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Keith

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1962 No. 2711 ATOMIC ENERGY AND RADIOACI1VE SUBSTANCES The Radioactive Substances (prepared Uranium and Thorium Compounds) Exemption Order 1962...

  11. UOP, A Honewell Company CSTs Clean Radioactive Waste in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radioactive Waste in Fukushima and Worldwide Radiation waste cleanup was in the public eye this year following the huge earthquake and tsunami in Fukushima, Japan. Sandia...

  12. South Carolina Radioactive Waste Transportation and Disposal Act (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Health and Environmental Control is responsible for regulating the transportation of radioactive waste, with some exceptions, into or within the state for storage, disposal, or...

  13. EIS-0286: Hanford Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (HSW EIS) analyzes the proposed waste management practices at the Hanford Site.

  14. Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Office 2 3 TITLE: 4 Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact 5 Statement, Richland, Benton County, Washington (DOE...

  15. Cyclotrons to Make Neutrons & Radioactive Targets for SBSS at...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Cyclotrons to Make Neutrons & Radioactive Targets for SBSS at LBNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear...

  16. Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation authorizes Maryland's entrance into the Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact, which seeks to promote interstate cooperation for the proper management and disposal...

  17. ambient radioactivity monitoring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several...

  18. airborne radioactivity measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several...

  19. artificial radioactivity measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several...

  20. Cermet materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  1. Composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  2. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  3. Nondestructive ultrasonic testing of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Bernard P. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflection wave forms obtained from aged and unaged material samples can be compared in order to indicate trends toward age-related flaws. Statistical comparison of a large number of data points from such wave forms can indicate changes in the microstructure of the material due to aging. The process is useful for predicting when flaws may occur in structural elements of high risk structures such as nuclear power plants, airplanes, and bridges.

  4. Nondestructive ultrasonic testing of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, B.P.

    1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflection wave forms obtained from aged and unaged material samples can be compared in order to indicate trends toward age-related flaws. Statistical comparison of a large number of data points from such wave forms can indicate changes in the microstructure of the material due to aging. The process is useful for predicting when flaws may occur in structural elements of high risk structures such as nuclear power plants, airplanes, and bridges. 4 figs.

  5. WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM THE RISING LIGHT CURVES OF RADIOACTIVELY POWERED SUPERNOVAE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nakar, Ehud, E-mail: piro@caltech.edu [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The light curve of the explosion of a star with a radius {approx}< 10-100 R{sub Sun} is powered mostly by radioactive decay. Observationally, such events are dominated by hydrogen-deficient progenitors and classified as Type I supernovae (SNe I), i.e., white dwarf thermonuclear explosions (Type Ia), and core collapses of hydrogen-stripped massive stars (Type Ib/c). Current transient surveys are finding SNe I in increasing numbers and at earlier times, allowing their early emission to be studied in unprecedented detail. Motivated by these developments, we summarize the physics that produces their rising light curves and discuss ways in which observations can be utilized to study these exploding stars. The early radioactive-powered light curves probe the shallowest deposits of {sup 56}Ni. If the amount of {sup 56}Ni mixing in the outermost layers of the star can be deduced, then it places important constraints on the progenitor and properties of the explosive burning. In practice, we find that it is difficult to determine the level of mixing because it is hard to disentangle whether the explosion occurred recently and one is seeing radioactive heating near the surface or whether the explosion began in the past and the radioactive heating is deeper in the ejecta. In the latter case, there is a ''dark phase'' between the moment of explosion and the first observed light emitted once the shallowest layers of {sup 56}Ni are exposed. Because of this, simply extrapolating a light curve from radioactive heating back in time is not a reliable method for estimating the explosion time. The best solution is to directly identify the moment of explosion, either through observing shock breakout (in X-ray/UV) or the cooling of the shock-heated surface (in UV/optical), so that the depth being probed by the rising light curve is known. However, since this is typically not available, we identify and discuss a number of other diagnostics that are helpful for deciphering how recently an explosion occurred. As an example, we apply these arguments to the recent SN Ic PTF 10vgv. We demonstrate that just a single measurement of the photospheric velocity and temperature during the rise places interesting constraints on its explosion time, radius, and level of {sup 56}Ni mixing.

  6. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  7. Material Symbols 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Andy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is the relation between the material, conventional symbol structures that we encounter in the spoken and written word, and human thought? A common assumption, that structures a wide variety of otherwise competing ...

  8. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  9. Radioactive contamination of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belli, P; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Galenin, E; Gektin, A; Incicchitti, A; Isaienko, V; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagorny, S S; Podviyanuk, R B; Tkachenko, S; Tretyak, V I

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A strontium iodide crystal doped by europium (SrI2(Eu)) was produced by using the Stockbarger growth technique. The crystal was subjected to characterisation that included relative photoelectron output and energy resolution for gamma quanta. The intrinsic radioactivity of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator was tested both in scintillation mode and by using ultra-low background HPGe gamma spectrometry deep underground. The response of the SrI2(Eu) detector to alpha particles (alpha/beta ratio and pulse shape) was estimated by analysing the 226Ra trace contamination internal to the crystal. We have found alpha/beta=0.55 and no difference in scintillation decay for alpha particles and gamma quanta. The application of the obtained results in the search for the double electron capture and electron capture with positron emission in 84Sr has been investigated at a level of sensitivity T_1/2 \\sim 10^15-10^16 yr. The results of these studies demonstrate the potentiality of this material for a variety of scintillation appli...

  10. Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, J.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a significant technical challenge due to the complex nature of sediment movement and emplacement. The objective of this investigation was to show that application of the knowledge of geomorphic processes is an essential element of a complete stream characterization, pursuant to risk analysis and remediation. This paper sets out to describe many of the expected and unexpected findings of the investigations by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) into the placement and rework of contaminated sediments in stream systems. Information from this paper will be useful to other agencies and contractor personnel faced with the challenge of locating and quantifying contaminated sediments in seemingly haphazard fluvial depositional conditions.

  11. Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

  12. Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel A Report to Congress and the Secretary of Energy October 2009 #12 Board #12;#12;U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Survey of National Programs for Managing High

  13. STUDY OF RADIOACTIVE IMPURITIES IN SOLIDS PART ONE : RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    285 STUDY OF RADIOACTIVE IMPURITIES IN SOLIDS PART ONE : RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS F. HARTMANN problem of the emission of radiation by radioactive nuclei is usually treated in a very general form for the computation of relaxation and radiofrequency effects. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE TOME 33, FĂ?VRIER-MARS 1972

  14. Detecting and Locating Radioactive Signals with Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tonglin

    Detecting and Locating Radioactive Signals with Wireless Sensor Networks Tonglin Zhang Department-765-4940558 AbstractMethods of detecting and locating nuclear radioac- tive targets via wireless sensor networks (WSN model, radia- tion and radioactive isotopes, wireless sensor network. I. INTRODUCTION Currently, using

  15. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

  16. MANAGEMENT OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE Revised August 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Fordyce A.

    k MANAGEMENT OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE Revised August 2008 Safety Services #12;MANAGEMENT OF SOLID for Appendices 4 and 5 22 Appendix 10 Flow chart of waste-streaming 23 #12;1 MANAGEMENT OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE The aims of the procedures described here are: To minimise the volumes and activities of solid

  17. 1 INSTRODUCTION In the concept of geological radioactive waste disposal,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , thermal solicitation comes from the heat emitting from the radioactive waste packages. On one hand1 INSTRODUCTION In the concept of geological radioactive waste disposal, argillite is being elements from the waste package towards the environment. During the construction and exploitation phase

  18. Challenges in joining emerging materials Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    Challenges in joining emerging materials T.W.EAGAR Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ABSTRACT The revolution which has occurred in materials science and engineering over the past two decades has not been matched by improvements in joining science and technology

  19. Removal of Historic Low-Level Radioactive Sediment from the Port Hope Harbour - 13314

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolberg, Mark [Baird and Associates, 1267 Cornwall Rd., Suite 100, Oakville ON, L6J7T5 (Canada)] [Baird and Associates, 1267 Cornwall Rd., Suite 100, Oakville ON, L6J7T5 (Canada); Case, Glenn [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Limited, Thornhill, ON (Canada)] [MMM Group Limited, Thornhill, ON (Canada)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Port Hope Harbour, located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, the presence of low-level radioactive sediment, resulting from a former radium and uranium refinery that operated alongside the Harbour, currently limits redevelopment and revitalization opportunities. These waste materials contain radium-226, uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Several other on-land locations within the community of Port Hope are also affected by the low-level radioactive waste management practices of the past. The Port Hope Project is a community initiated undertaking that will result in the consolidation of an estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of the low-level radioactive waste from the various sites in Port Hope into a new engineered above ground long-term waste management facility. The remediation of the estimated 120,000 m{sup 3} of contaminated sediments from the Port Hope Harbour is one of the more challenging components of the Port Hope Project. Following a thorough review of various options, the proposed method of contaminated sediment removal is by dredging. The sediment from the dredge will then be pumped as a sediment-water slurry mixture into geo-synthetic containment tubes for dewatering. Due to the hard substrate below the contaminated sediment, the challenge has been to set performance standards in terms of low residual surface concentrations that are attainable in an operationally efficient manner. (authors)

  20. Critically safe volume vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive enclosures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A physical compact vacuum pickup device of critically safe volume and geometric shape is provided for use in radioactive enclosures, such as a small glove box, to facilitate manual cleanup of either wet or dry radioactive material. The device is constructed and arranged so as to remain safe when filled to capacity with plutonium-239 oxide. Two fine mesh filter bags are supported on the exterior of a rigid fine mesh stainless steel cup. This assembly is sealed within, and spaced from, the interior walls of a stainless steel canister. An air inlet communicates with the interior of the canister. A modified conventional vacuum head is physically connected to, and associated with, the interior of the mesh cup. The volume of the canister, as defined by the space between the mesh cup and the interior walls of the canister, forms a critically safe volume and geometric shape for dry radioactive particles that are gathered within the canister. A critically safe liquid volume is maintained by operation of a suction terminating float valve, and/or by operation of redundant vacuum check/liquid drain valves and placement of the air inlet. 5 figures.