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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Micro electro mechanical system optical switching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present disclosure includes apparatus, system, and method embodiments that provide micro electo mechanical system optical switching and methods of manufacturing switches. For example, one optical switch embodiment includes at least one micro electro mechanical system type pivot mirror structure disposed along a path of an optical signal, the structure having a mirror and an actuator, and the mirror having a pivot axis along a first edge and having a second edge rotatable with respect to the pivot axis, the mirror being capable of and arranged to be actuated to pivot betweeen a position parallel to a plane of an optical signal and a position substantially normal to the plane of the optical signal.

Thorson, Kevin J; Stevens, Rick C; Kryzak, Charles J; Leininger, Brian S; Kornrumpf, William P; Forman, Glenn A; Iannotti, Joseph A; Spahn, Olga B; Cowan, William D; Dagel, Daryl J

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

2

Hybrid plasmonic nanodevices: Switching mechanism for the nonlinear emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Control of the light emission at the nanoscale is of central interest in nanophotonics due to the many applications in very different fields, ranging from quantum information to biophysics. Resonant excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in metal nanoparticles create nanostructured and enhanced light fields around those structures, which produce their strong interaction in a hybrid nanodevice with other plasmonic or non-plasmonic objects. This interaction may in turn also modulate the far field with important consequences in the applications. We show in this paper that the nonlinear emission from semiconductor quantum dots is strongly affected by the close presence of metal nanoparticles, which are resonantly excited. Using a pulsed laser, optical second harmonic is generated in the quantum dot, and it is highly enhanced when the laser is tuned around the nanoparticle plasmon resonance. Even more interesting is the demonstration of a switching mechanism, controlled by an external continuous-wave field, which can enhance or extinguish the SH signal, even when the pulsed laser is always on. Experimental observations are in excellent agreement with the theoretical calculations, based on the dipole-dipole near-field coupling of the objects forming the hybrid system.

Bragas, Andrea V. [Departamento de Física, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, IFIBA CONICET, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London (Canada)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

In-situ observation of self-regulated switching behavior in WO{sub 3-x} based resistive switching devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transmittance of tungsten oxides can be adjusted by oxygen vacancy (V{sub o}) concentration due to its electrochromic property. Here, we report an in-situ observation of resistive switching phenomenon in the oxygen-deficient WO{sub 3-x} planar devices. Besides directly identifying the formation/rupture of dark-colored conductive filaments in oxide layer, the stripe-like WO{sub 3-x} device demonstrated self-regulated switching behavior during the endurance testing, resulting in highly consistent switching parameters after a stabilizing process. For very high V{sub o}s mobility was demonstrated in the WO{sub 3-x} film by the pulse experiment, we suggested that the electric-field-induced homogeneous migration of V{sub o}s was the physical origin for such unique switching characteristics.

Hong, D. S.; Wang, W. X.; Chen, Y. S., E-mail: yschen@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Ionwater hydrogen-bond switching observed with 2D IR vibrational echo chemical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ion­water hydrogen-bond switching observed with 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange for review November 8, 2008) The exchange of water hydroxyl hydrogen bonds between anions and water oxygens of anion­ water hydroxyl hydrogen bond switching under thermal equilib- rium conditions as Taw 7 1 ps. Pump

Fayer, Michael D.

5

Photo-induced micro-mechanical optical switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical switch is formed by introducing light lengthwise to a microcantilever waveguide directed toward a second waveguide. The microcantilever is caused to bend by light emitted from a laser diode orthogonal to the microcantilever and at an energy above the band gap, which induces stress as a result of the generation of free carriers. The bending of the waveguide directs the carrier frequency light to a second receptor waveguide or to a non-responsive surface. The switch may be combined in an array to perform multiple switching functions rapidly and at low energy losses.

Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Datskos, Panagiotis George (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (late of Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Electro-mechanical heat switch for cryogenic applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat switch includes two symmetric jaws. Each jaw is comprised of a link connected at a translatable joint to a flexible arm. Each arm rotates about a fixed pivot, and has an articulated end including a thermal contact pad connected to a heat sink. The links are joined together at a translatable main joint. To close the heat switch, a closing solenoid is actuated and forces the main joint to an over-center position. This movement rotates the arms about their pivots, respectively, forces each of them into a stressed configuration, and forces the thermal contact pads towards each other and into compressive contact with a cold finger. The closing solenoid is then deactivated. The heat switch remains closed due to a restoring force generated by the stressed configuration of each arm, until actuation of an opening solenoid returns the main joint to its starting open-switch position.

van den Berg, Marcel L. (Oakland, CA); Batteux, Jan D. (Hayward, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Modeling, simulation, and testing of the mechanical dynamics of and RF MEMS switch.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mechanical dynamics can be a determining factor for the switching speed of radio-frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switches. This paper presents the simulation of the mechanical motion of a microswitch under actuation. The switch has a plate suspended by springs. When an electrostatic actuation is applied, the plate moves toward the substrate and closes the switch. Simulations are calculated via a high-fidelity finite element model that couples solid dynamics with electrostatic actuation. It incorporates non-linear coupled dynamics and accommodates fabrication variations. Experimental modal analysis gives results in the frequency domain that verifies the natural frequencies and mode shapes predicted by the model. An effective 1D model is created and used to calculate an actuation voltage waveform that minimizes switch velocity at closure. In the experiment, the switch is actuated with this actuation voltage, and the displacements of the switch at various points are measured using a laser Doppler velocimeter through a microscope. The experiments are repeated on several switches from different batches. The experimental results verify the model.

Sumali, Hartono; Epp, David S.; Massad, Jordan Elias; Dyck, Christopher William; Starr, Michael James

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

PERSPECTIVES Nano-to-Microscale Mechanical Switches and Fuses Mediate Adhesive Contacts between  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PERSPECTIVES Nano-to-Microscale Mechanical Switches and Fuses Mediate Adhesive Contacts between to their molecular origins. The present work focuses on nano-to-microscale regulatory aspects that mediate and that they had to be primarily mechanical. Accordingly, our experimental approach was to study in vitro the nano

Heinrich, Volkmar

9

Probing the switching mechanism in ZnO nanoparticle memristors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a cryostat (Oxford Instruments, Optistat CF). After reflection from the back contact of the sample (45o incident angle), the probe beam was incident on a silicon photodiode connected via a current-to-voltage converter to a dual-channel lock... . In this case, although the height of barrier decreases, the charge injection through the barrier shifts 7 from a tunneling mechanism to thermionic emission.24 Furthermore, the hopping mechanism dominates the charge transport inside the film, due...

Li, C.; Beirne, G. J.; Kamita, G.; Lakhwani, G.; Wang, J.; Greenham, N. C.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acid Side Chains in the BLUF Photoreceptor Observed by Ultrafast Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acid Side Chains in the BLUF Photoreceptor Observed hydrogen-bond network with nearby amino acid side chains, including a highly conserved tyrosine and glutamine. The participation of particular amino acid side chains in the ultrafast hydrogen-bond switching

van Stokkum, Ivo

11

Conformationally controlled pK-switching in membrane proteins: One more mechanism specic to the enzyme catalysis?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-active tyrosine YZ in the oxygen- evolving photosystem II. It is conceivable that YZ switches its pK from VV4 to general mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis. In the bacterial photosyn- thetic reaction center (RC transfer; Photosynthetic reaction center; Bacteriorhodopsin; Photosystem II 1. Introduction The nature

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

12

Latching micro optical switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

13

Observation of non-Markovian micro-mechanical Brownian motion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At the heart of understanding the emergence of a classical world from quantum theory is the insight that all macroscopic quantum systems are to some extent coupled to an environment and hence are open systems. The associated loss of quantum coherence, i.e., decoherence, is also detrimental for quantum information processing applications. In contrast, properly engineered quantum noise can counteract decoherence and can even be used in robust quantum state generation. To exploit the detailed dynamics of a quantum system it is therefore crucial to obtain both good knowledge and control over its environment. Here we present a method to reconstruct the relevant properties of the environment, that is, its spectral density, of the center of mass motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator. We observe a clear signature of non-Markovian Brownian motion, which is in contrast to the current paradigm to treat the thermal environment of mechanical quantum resonators as fully Markovian. The presented method, inspired by methods of system identification, can easily be transferred to other harmonic systems that are embedded in a complex environment, for example electronic or nuclear spin states in a solid state matrix. Our results also open up a route for mechanical quantum state engineering via coupling to unorthodox reservoirs.

S. Groeblacher; A. Trubarov; N. Prigge; M. Aspelmeyer; J. Eisert

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

14

Reduction of a Redox-Active Ligand Drives Switching in a Cu(I) Pseudorotaxane by a Bimolecular Mechanism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reduction of a redox-active ligand is shown to drive reversible switching of a Cu(I) [2]pseudorotaxane ([2]PR{sup 2+}) into the reduced [3]pseudorotaxane ([3]PR{sup 2+}) by a bimolecular mechanism. The unreduced pseudorotaxanes [2]PR{sup 2+} and [3]PR{sup 2+} are initially self-assembled from the binucleating ligand, 3,6-bis(5-methyl-2-pyridine)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (Me2BPTZ), and a preformed copper-macrocycle moiety (Cu-M{sup 2+}) based on 1,10-phenanthroline. X-ray crystallography revealed a syn geometry of the [3]PR{sup 2+}. The UV-vis-NIR spectra show low-energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions that red shift from 808 nm for [2]PR{sup 2+} to 1088 nm for [3]PR{sup 2+}. Quantitative analysis of the UV-vis-NIR titration shows the stepwise formation constants to be K{sub 1} = 8.9 x 10{sup 8} M{sup -1} and K{sub 2} = 3.1 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1}, indicative of negative cooperativity. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and coulometry of Me{sub 2}BPTZ, [2]PR{sup 2+}, and [3]PR{sup 2+} shows the one-electron reductions at E{sub 1/2} = -0.96, -0.65, and -0.285 V, respectively, to be stabilized in a stepwise manner by each Cu{sup 2+} ion. CVs of [2]PR{sup 2+} show changes with scan rate consistent with an EC mechanism of supramolecular disproportionation after reduction: [2]PR{sup 0} + [2]PR{sup 2+} = [3]PR{sup 2+} + Me{sub 2}BPTZ{sup 0} (K*{sub D}, k{sub d}). UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry was used to confirm the 1:1 product stoichiometry for [3]PR{sup 2+}:Me{sub 2}BPTZ. The driving force ({Delta}G*{sub D} = -5.1 kcal mol{sup -1}) for the reaction is based on the enhanced stability of the reduced [3]PR{sup 2+} over reduced [2]PR{sup 0} by 365 mV (8.4 kcal mol{sup -1}). Digital simulations of the CVs are consistent with a bimolecular pathway (k{sub d} = 12,000 s{sup -1} M{sup -1}). Confirmation of the mechanism provides a basis to extend this new switching modality to molecular machines.

McNitt, Kristy A.; Parimal, Kumar; Share, Andrew I.; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Witlicki, Edward H.; Pink, Maren; Bediako, D. Kwabena; Plaisier, Christina L.; Le, Nga; Heeringa, Lee P.; Vander Griend, Douglas A.; Flood, Amar H.; (Calvin); (Indiana)

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

15

Cold dark matter cosmology conflicts with fluid mechanics and observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cold dark matter hierarchical clustering (CDMHC) cosmology based on the Jeans 1902 criterion for gravitational instability gives predictions about the early universe contrary to fluid mechanics and observations. Jeans neglected viscosity, diffusivity, and turbulence: factors that determine gravitational structure formation and contradict small structures (CDM halos) forming from non-baryonic dark matter particle candidates. From hydro-gravitational-dynamics (HGD) cosmology, viscous-gravitational fragmentation produced supercluster (10^46 kg), cluster, and galaxy-mass (10^42 kg) clouds in the primordial plasma with the large fossil density turbulence (rho_o ~ 3x10-17 kg m-3) of the first fragmentation at 10^12 s, and a protogalaxy linear and spiral clump morphology reflecting maximum stretching near vortex lines of the plasma turbulence at the 10^13 s plasma-gas transition. Gas protogalaxies fragmented into proto-globular-star-cluster mass (10^36 kg) clumps of protoplanet gas clouds that are now frozen as earth-mass (10^24-^25 kg) Jovian planets of the baryonic dark matter, about 30,000,000 rogue planets per star. Observations contradict the CDMHCC prediction of large explosive Population III first stars at 10^16 s, but support the immediate gentle formation of small Population II first stars at 10^13 s in globular-star-clusters from HGD.

Carl H. Gibson

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

16

High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry switch.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two different Sandia MEMS devices have been tested in a high-g environment to determine their performance and survivability. The first test was performed using a drop-table to produce a peak acceleration load of 1792 g's over a period of 1.5 ms. For the second test the MEMS devices were assembled in a gun-fired penetrator and shot into a cement target at the Army Waterways Experiment Station in Vicksburg Mississippi. This test resulted in a peak acceleration of 7191 g's for a duration of 5.5 ms. The MEMS devices were instrumented using the MEMS Diagnostic Extraction System (MDES), which is capable of driving the devices and recording the device output data during the high-g event, providing in-flight data to assess the device performance. A total of six devices were monitored during the experiments, four mechanical non-volatile memory devices (MNVM) and two Silicon Reentry Switches (SiRES). All six devices functioned properly before, during, and after each high-g test without a single failure. This is the first known test under flight conditions of an active, powered MEMS device at Sandia.

Baker, Michael Sean; Pohl, Kenneth Roy

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Cathode heating mechanisms in pseudospark plasma switches Timothy J. Sommerer,`) Hoyoung Pak,b) and Mark J. Kushnef)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the switch will close (that is, the smallestpossiblepressure-electrode spacingproduct by operatingat low valuesof pressureX electrodespacing (pd product). In spite of operatingat low pressures( .C1

Kushner, Mark

18

Observations of the long distance exploding wire restrike mechanism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An exploding wire restrike mechanism is applied to create plasma paths up to 9 m in length. The mechanism uses enameled copper wires in a 5 to 10 kV/m region of average electric field (AEF). This relatively low AEF restrike mechanism appears to be linked to the formation of plasma beads along the wire's length. Voltage traces, measurement of relative emitted light intensity and photographs are presented at AEFs below, inside and above the identified restrike region.

Sinton, Rowan; Herel, Ryan van; Enright, Wade; Bodger, Pat [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800 Christchurch (New Zealand)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

E-Print Network 3.0 - antihypertrophic molecular switch Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Steps... identifies and distinguishes between two distinct molecular mechanisms for generating stochastic switches... . In one class of switches, the stochasticity of a...

20

E-Print Network 3.0 - a-site molecular switches Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Steps... identifies and distinguishes between two distinct molecular mechanisms for generating stochastic switches... . In one class of switches, the stochasticity of a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

lai.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power...

22

Is Bell's theorem relevant to quantum mechanics? On locality and non-commuting observables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bell's theorem is a statement by which averages obtained from specific types of statistical distributions must conform to a family of inequalities. These models, in accordance with the EPR argument, provide for the simultaneous existence of quantum mechanically incompatible quantities. We first recall several contradictions arising between the assumption of a joint distribution for incompatible observables and the probability structure of quantum-mechanics, and conclude that Bell's theorem is not expected to be relevant to quantum phenomena described by non-commuting observables, irrespective of the issue of locality. Then, we try to disentangle the locality issue from the existence of joint distributions by introducing two models accounting for the EPR correlations but denying the existence of joint distributions. We will see that these models do not need to resort explicitly to non-locality: the first model relies on conservation laws for ensembles, and the second model on an equivalence class by which different configurations lead to the same physical predictions.

A. Matzkin

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

23

Observation of phononic helical edge states in a mechanical 'topological insulator'  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A topological insulator is characterized by a dichotomy between the interior and the edge of a finite system: While the bulk has a non-zero energy gap, the edges are forced to sustain excitations traversing these gaps. Originally proposed for electrons governed by quantum mechanics, it has remained an important open question if the same physics can be observed for systems obeying Newton's equations of motion. Here, we report on measurements that characterize the collective behavior of mechanical oscillators exhibiting the phenomenology of the quantum spin hall effect. The phononic edge modes are shown to be helical and we demonstrate their topological protection via the stability against imperfections. Our results open the door to the design of topological acoustic meta-materials that can capitalize on the stability of the surfaces phonons as reliable wave guides.

Süsstrunk, Roman

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Observation of plasma instabilities related to dust particle growth mechanisms in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Instabilities are observed in the self-bias voltage measured on a probe immersed in microwave plasma excited at Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR). Observed in the MHz range, they were systematically measured in dust-free or dusty plasmas (obtained for different conditions of applied microwave powers and acetylene flow rates). Two characteristic frequencies, well described as lower hybrid oscillations, can be defined. The first one, in the 60–70 MHz range, appears as a sharp peak in the frequency spectra and is observed in every case. Attributed to ions, its position shift observed with the output power highlights that nucleation process takes place in the dusty plasma. Attributed to lower hybrid oscillation of powders, the second broad peak in the 10–20 MHz range leads to the characterization of dust particles growth mechanisms: in the same way as in capacitively coupled plasmas, accumulation of nucleus confined near the probe in the magnetic field followed by aggregation takes place. Then, the measure of electrical instabilities on the self-bias voltage allows characterizing the discharge as well as the chemical processes that take place in the magnetic field region and their kinetics.

Drenik, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia) [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); CNRS, LAPLACE, 31062 Toulouse/Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Yuryev, P.; Clergereaux, R. [CNRS, LAPLACE, 31062 Toulouse/Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)] [CNRS, LAPLACE, 31062 Toulouse/Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Vesel, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Margot, J. [Groupe de Physique des Plasmas, Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)] [Groupe de Physique des Plasmas, Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Confronting the relaxation mechanism for a large cosmological constant with observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to deal with a large cosmological constant a relaxation mechanism based on modified gravity has been proposed recently. By virtue of this mechanism the effect of the vacuum energy density of a given quantum field/string theory (no matter how big is its initial value in the early universe) can be neutralized dynamically, i.e. without fine tuning, and hence a Big Bang-like evolution of the cosmos becomes possible. Remarkably, a large class F^n_m of models of this kind, namely capable of dynamically adjusting the vacuum energy irrespective of its value and size, has been identified. In this paper, we carefully put them to the experimental test. By performing a joint likelihood analysis we confront these models with the most recent observational data on type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and the high redshift data on the expansion rate, so as to determine which ones are the most favored by observations. We compare the optimal relaxation models F^n_m found by this method with the standard or concordance LambdaCDM model, and find that some of these models may appear as almost indistinguishable from it. Interestingly enough, this shows that it is possible to construct viable solutions to the tough cosmological fine tuning problem with models that display the same basic phenomenological features as the concordance model.

Spyros Basilakos; Florian Bauer; Joan Sola

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

26

Observation of Joule Heating-Assisted Electromigration Failure Mechanisms for Dual Damascene Cu/SiO? Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Failure mechanisms observed in electromigration (EM) stressed dual damascene Cu/SiO? interconnects trees were studied and simulated. Failure sites with â??melt patch’ or â??crater’ are common for test structures in the top ...

Chang, Choon Wai

27

Remote switch actuator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

28

A Comparison of High-Voltage Switches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes our work on high-voltage switches during the past few years. With joint funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DOD), we tested a wide variety of switches to a common standard. This approach permitted meaningful comparisons between disparate switches. Most switches were purchased from commercial sources, though some were experimental devices. For the purposes of this report, we divided the switches into three generic types (gas, vacuum, and semiconductor) and selected data that best illustrates important strengths and weaknesses of each switch type. Test techniques that indicate the state of health of the switches are emphasized. For example, a good indicator of residual gas in a vacuum switch is the systematic variation of the switching delay in response to changes in temperature and/or operating conditions. We believe that the presentation of this kind of information will help engineers to select and to test switches for their particular applications. Our work was limited to switches capable of driving slappers. Also known as exploding-foil initiators, slappers are detonators that initiate a secondary explosive by direct impact with a small piece of matter moving at the detonation velocity (several thousands of meters per second). A slapper is desirable for enhanced safety (no primary explosive), but it also places extra demands on the capacitor-discharge circuit to deliver a fast-rising current pulse (greater than 10 A/ns) of several thousand amperes. The required energy is substantially less than one joule; but this energy is delivered in less than one microsecond, taking the peak power into the megawatt regime. In our study, the switches operated in the 1 kV to 3 kV range and were physically small, roughly 1 cm{sup 3} or less. Although a fuze functions only once in actual use, multiple-shot capability is important for production testing and for research work. For this reason, we restricted this report to multiple-shot switches. Furthermore, our work included only switches with submicrosecond timing precision, thereby excluding mechanical switches.

Chu, K.W.; Scott, G.L.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Observations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArmsSpeedingSpeedingUnder Well-ControlledObservation ofof Multiple

30

Resistive switching in doped BiFeO{sub 3} films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polycrystalline Bi{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} films (BXFO) were synthesized by sol-gel spin coating method. Local resistive switching behavior was investigated. Bipolar resistive switching characteristics were clearly observed in both two samples. However, for the Bi{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} film, the switching from the low resistance (LRS) to the high resistance (HRS) occurred at positive bias and the switching from the HRS to the LRS at negative bias. On the contrary, the resistance of Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} film was switched from the LRS to the HRS when a negative bias was applied. Possible mechanisms for both resistive switching forms were discussed on the basis of the Schottky-like barrier.

Wu, Lei; Jiang, Changjun, E-mail: jiangchj@lzu.edu.cn; Xue, Desheng [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

31

Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

32

Thermally actuated thermionic switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

Solid state switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Single-crystalline monolayer and multilayer graphene nano switches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth of monolayer, bi-layer, and tri-layer single-crystalline graphene (SCG) using chemical vapor deposition method is reported. SCG's mechanical properties and single-crystalline nature were characterized and verified by atomic force microscope and Raman spectroscopy. Electro-mechanical switches based on mono- and bi-layer SCG were fabricated, and the superb properties of SCG enable the switches to operate at pull-in voltage as low as 1?V, and high switching speed about 100?ns. These devices exhibit lifetime without a breakdown of over 5000 cycles, far more durable than any other graphene nanoelectromechanical system switches reported.

Li, Peng; Cui, Tianhong, E-mail: tcui@me.umn.edu [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Jing, Gaoshan [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Bo; Sando, Shota [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

35

Reusable fast opening switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

36

Reusable fast opening switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

Van Devender, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Emin, David (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

MEMS relays for make-break power switching applications : {111} silicon etched planar electrical contacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relays and switches are of interest in applications such as test equipment, radar, communications, and power systems, amongst others. Unlike solid state switches, mechanical relays provide galvanic isolation across the ...

Weber, Alexis Christian, 1974-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Reflective HTS switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

39

Erected mirror optical switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

Allen, James J.

2005-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

40

Fast superconducting magnetic field switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

Goren, Yehuda (Mountain View, CA); Mahale, Narayan K. (The Woodlands, TX)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Optoelectronic switching of addressable molecular crossbar junctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This letter reports on the observation of optoelectronic switching in addressable molecular crossbar junctions fabricated using polymer stamp-printing method. The active medium in the junction is a molecular self-assembled monolayer softly sandwiched between gold electrodes. The molecular junctions are investigated through currentvoltage measurements at varied temperature (from 95 to 300 K) in high vacuum condition. The junctions show reversible optoelectronic switching with the highest on/off ratio of 3 orders of magnitude at 95 K. The switching behavior is independent of both optical wavelength and molecular structure, while it strongly depends on the temperature. Initial analysis indicates that the distinct binding nature of the molecule/electrode interfaces play a dominant role in the switching performance.

J. C. Li

2006-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

42

Solid state switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

43

Observations of Ferroelastic Switching by Raman Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have become an important part of turbine technology by providing thermal protection to the underlying metallic components. These coatings are typically made from a zirconia-based ceramics which have a low thermal...

Bolon, Amy Marie

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

44

An optical switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1987-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.

Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Cygnus PFL Switch Jitter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following X-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rads at 1 m, 50-ns full-widthhalf-maximum. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are Marx generator, water-filled pulse forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, threecell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance may be jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the source X-ray spectrum and dose. Therefore, PFL switch jitter may contribute to shot-to-shot variation in these parameters, which are crucial to radiographic quality. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and present the correlation with dose. For this analysis, the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting, which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition the PFL switch performance for one larger switch gap setting will be examined.

C. Mitton, G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, et al.

2007-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

47

Cygnus Water Switch Jitter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse–forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

A radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

49

Thermionic gas switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

1984-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

50

Switching power pulse system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

Aaland, K.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

51

Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

52

Switching power supply  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

Mihalka, A.M.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

53

Transparent electrode for optical switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

54

Switching power pulse system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.

Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

The quantum cryptographic switch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We illustrate using a quantum system the principle of a cryptographic switch, in which a third party (Charlie) can control to a continuously varying degree the amount of information the receiver (Bob) receives, after the sender (Alice) has sent her information. Suppose Charlie transmits a Bell state to Alice and Bob. Alice uses dense coding to transmit two bits to Bob. Only if the 2-bit information corresponding to choice of Bell state is made available by Charlie to Bob can the latter recover Alice's information. By varying the information he gives, Charlie can continuously vary the information recovered by Bob. The performance of the protocol subjected to the squeezed generalized amplitude damping channel is considered. We also present a number of practical situations where a cryptographic switch would be of use.

Srinatha Narayanaswamy; Omkar Srikrishna; R. Srikanth; Subhashish Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

56

Crystallinity dependence of resistive switching in Ti/Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Pt: Filamentary versus interfacial mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The resistive switching characteristics of two Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (PSCMO)-based devices (Ti/PSCMO-1/Pt and Ti/PSCMO-2/Pt) prepared under different conditions have been investigated. The two devices both showed bipolar switching behaviors. Scanning electron microscope measurements showed different grain boundaries in the two PSCMO films. By fitting the I-V curves and area dependence of the device resistance, we found that the Ti/PSCMO-1/Pt device indicated filamentary conduction, whereas interfacial effects dominated the conductance in Ti/PSCMO-2/Pt device. Our results suggest that the different grain boundaries may play a critical role in oxygen vacancy movement and hence result in the two different resistive switching properties.

Song, L. W.; Niu, S. S.; Sun, Y. C.; Hua, L. F.; Zhao, X., E-mail: xzhao@hebtu.edu.cn; Chen, W. [College of Physics Science and Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

57

CREE: Making the Switch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

Grider, David; Palmer, John

2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

58

CREE: Making the Switch  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

Grider, David; Palmer, John

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

59

Cygnus Diverter Switch Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 50-ns x-ray sources fielded in an underground laboratory at the Nevada Test Site. The tests performed in this laboratory involve study of the dynamic properties of plutonium and are called subcritical experiments. From end-to-end, the Cygnus machines utilize the following components: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), waterfilled coaxial transmission line (WTL), 3-cell inductive voltage adder (IVA), and rod-pinch diode. The upstream WTL interface to the PFL is via a radial insulator with coaxial geometry. The downstream WTL terminates in a manifold where the center conductor splits into three lines which individually connect to each of the IVA cell inputs. There is an impedance mismatch at this juncture. It is a concern that a reflected pulse due to anomalous behavior in the IVA or diode might initiate breakdown upon arrival at the upstream PFL/WTL insulator. Therefore near the beginning of the WTL a radial diverter switch is installed to protect the insulator from over voltage and breakdown. The diverter has adjustable gap spacing, and an in-line aqueous-solution (sodium thiosulfate) resistor array for energy dissipation. There are capacitive voltage probes at both ends of the WTL and on the diverter switch. These voltage signals will be analyzed to determine diverter performance. Using this analysis the usefulness of the diverter switch will be evaluated.

G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton et al.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Ultrafast gas switching experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to I kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than I nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and wave forms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. We have applied this technology to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. For example, we have developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia- designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > 1 kHz at > 100 kV/m E field.

Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Magnetic switch for reactor control rod  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a control rod system for a nuclear reactor utilizing an electromagnetic grapple mechanism for holding and releasing a control rod, the improvement comprising a magnetic reed switch assembly having a Curie-point magnetic shunt and responsive to reactor coolant temperature for short circuiting the electromagnetic grapple mechanism causing release of the control rod when the coolant temperature reaches the Curie-point of the magnetic shunt. The magnetic reed switch assembly includes a: a permanent magnet, a pair of magnetic pole pieces located at and in contact with opposite ends of the permanent magnet, the Curie-point magnetic shunt being positioned adjacent the permanent magnet and in contact with the pair of magnetic pole pieces, and a reed switch positioned intermediate the pole pieces and provided with a pair of ferromagnetic reeds, a nonmagnetic enclosure around the reeds, a first of the reeds being secured at one end to a first of the pair of pole pieces, a second of the reeds having one end extending into and secured to a hollow member positioned in and extending through a second of the pair of pole pieces, the one end of the second of the reeds secured to a condector adapted to be connected to the electromagnetic grapple mechanism.

Germer, J.H.

1986-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

A steering mechanism for phototaxis in Chlamydomonas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chlamydomonas shows both positive and negative phototaxis. It has a single eyespot near its equator and as the cell rotates during forward motion the light signal received by the eyespot varies. We use a simple mechanical model of Chlamydomonas that couples the flagellar beat pattern to the light intensity at the eyespot to demonstrate a mechanism for phototactic steering that is consistent with observations. The direction of phototaxis is controlled by a parameter in our model and the steering mechanism is robust to noise. Our model shows switching between directed phototaxis when the light is on and run-and-tumble behaviour in the dark.

Rachel R. Bennett; Ramin Golestanian

2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

63

APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects: IV. Mechanical and radiative feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During the embedded stage of star formation, bipolar molecular outflows and UV radiation from the protostar are important feedback processes. Our aim is to quantify the feedback, mechanical and radiative, for a large sample of low-mass sources. The outflow activity is compared to radiative feedback in the form of UV heating by the accreting protostar to search for correlations and evolutionary trends. Large-scale maps of 26 young stellar objects, which are part of the Herschel WISH key program are obtained using the CHAMP+ instrument on the APEX (12CO and 13CO 6-5), and the HARP-B instrument on the JCMT (12CO and 13CO 3-2). Maps are used to determine outflow parameters and envelope models are used to quantify the amount of UV-heated gas and its temperature from 13CO 6-5 observations. All sources in our sample show outflow activity and the outflow force, F_CO, is larger for Class 0 sources than for Class I sources, even if their luminosities are comparable. The outflowing gas typically extends to much greater ...

Y?ld?z, Umut A; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Karska, Agata; Belloche, Arnaud; Endo, Akira; Frieswijk, Wilfred; Güsten, Rolf; van Kempen, Tim A; Leurini, Silvia; Nagy, Zsofia; Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan-Pablo; Risacher, Christophe; van der Marel, Nienke; van Weeren, Reinout J; Wyrowski, Friedrich

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Switching it up | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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65

Hybrid switch for resonant power converters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

66

Robust adaptive control of switched systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, robust adaptive controllers are developed for classes of switched nonlinear systems. Switched systems are those governed by differential equations, which undergo vector field switching due to sudden changes ...

El-Rifai, Khalid, 1979-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Optimized scalable network switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

68

Optimized scalable network switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

69

Fully Integrated NxN MEMS Wavelength Selective Switch with 100% Colorless Add-Drop Ports  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fully Integrated NxN MEMS Wavelength Selective Switch with 100% Colorless Add-Drop Ports Shifu Yuan/drop ports. © 2007 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2330) Fiber optics communications; (060 multi-port wavelength selective switches using liquid crystal devices. Micro-Electro-Mechanical System

Bowers, John

70

Sharp and fast: Sensors and switches based on polymer brushes with adsorption-active minority chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a design for polymer-based sensors and switches with sharp switching transition and fast response time. The switching mechanism involves a radical change in the conformations of adsorption-active minority chains in a brush. Such transitions can be induced by a temperature change of only about ten degrees, and the characteristic time of the conformational change is less than a second. We present an analytical theory for these switches and support it by self-consistent field calculations and Brownian dynamics simulations.

Leonid I. Klushin; Alexander M. Skvortsov; Alexey A. Polotsky; Shuanhu Qi; Friederike Schmid

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

71

Regenerative switching CMOS system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

Welch, J.D.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

72

Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2?kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1??J arrival, the structure with thickness of 650??m reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (?4?kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ?4?kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed.

Hu, Long, E-mail: hulong-1226@126.com [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

73

Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

Sullivan, J S

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

74

Using X-ray observations to identify the particle acceleration mechanisms in VHE SNRs and "dark" VHE sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations have proven to be very successful in localizing Galactic acceleration sites of VHE particles. Observations of shell-type supernova remnants have confirmed that particles are accelerated to VHE energies in supernova blast waves; the interpretation of the gamma-ray data in terms of hadronic or leptonic particle components in these objects relies nevertheless strongly on input from X-ray observations. The largest identified Galactic VHE source class consists of pulsar wind nebulae, as detected in X-rays. Many of the remaining VHE sources remain however unidentified until now. With X-ray observations of these enigmatic "dark" objects one hopes to solve the following questions: What is the astrophysical nature of these sources? Are they predominantly electron or hadron accelerators? And what is their contribution to the overall cosmic ray energy budget? The paper aims to provide an overview over the identification status of the Galactic VHE source population.

G. Pühlhofer

2007-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

75

Optical Packet Switching -1 Optical Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Packet Switching - 1 Optical Networks: from fiber transmission to photonic switching Optical Packet Switching Fabio Neri and Marco Mellia TLC Networks Group ­ Electronics Department e.mellia@polito.it ­ tel. 011 564 4173 #12;Optical Packet Switching - 2 · This work is licensed under the Creative Commons

Mellia, Marco

76

Current rectification, switching, polarons, and defects in molecular electronic devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Devices for nano- and molecular size electronics are currently a focus of research aimed at an efficient current rectification and switching. A few generic molecular scale devices are reviewed here on the basis of first-principles and model approaches. Current rectification by (ballistic) molecular quantum dots can produce the rectification ratio ~100. Current switching due to conformational changes in the molecules is slow, on the order of a few kHz. Fast switching (~1THz) may be achieved, at least in principle, in a degenerate molecular quantum dot with strong coupling of electrons with vibrational excitations. We show that the mean-field approach fails to properly describe intrinsic molecular switching and present an exact solution to the problem. Defects in molecular films result in spurious peaks in conductance, apparent negative differential resistance, and may also lead to unusual temperature and bias dependence of current. The observed switching in many cases is_extrinsic_, caused by changes in molecule-electrode geometry, molecule reconfiguration, metallic filament formation through, and/or changing amount of disorder in a molecular film. We give experimental examples of telegraph "switching" and "hot spot" formation in the molecular films.

A. M. Bratkovsky

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

77

Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

Cooper, J.A.

1984-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

78

Plasma flow switch experiment on Procyon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results obtained from a series of plasma flow switch experiments done on the Procyon explosive pulse power generator. These experiments involved switching into a fixed inductance dummy load and also into a dynamic implosion load. The results indicated that the switch did fairly well at switching current into the load, but the results for the implosion are more ambiguous. The results are compared to calculations and the implications for future plasma flow switch work are discussed.

Benage, J.F. Jr.; Bowers, R.; Peterson, D. [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Design of a Command-Triggered Plasma Opening Switch for Terawatt Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inductive energy storage systems can have high energy density, lending to smaller, less expensive systems. The crucial element of an inductive energy storage system is the opening switch. This switch must conduct current while energy is stored in an inductor, then open quickly to transfer this energy to a load. Plasma can perform this function. The Plasma Opening Switch (POS) has been studied for more than two decades. Success with the conventional plasma opening switch has been limited. A system designed to significantly improve the performance of vacuum opening switches is described in this paper. The gap cleared of plasma is a rough figure-of-merit for vacuum opening switches. Typical opened gaps of 3 mm are reported for conventional switches. The goal for the system described in this paper is more than 3 cm. To achieve this, the command-triggered POS adds an active opening mechanism, which allows complete separation of conduction and opening. This separation is advantageous because of the widely different time scales of conduction and opening. The detrimental process of magnetic field penetration into the plasma during conduction is less important in this switch. The opening mechanism duration is much shorter than the conduction time, so penetration during opening is insignificant. Opening is accomplished with a fast magnetic field that pushes plasma out of the switch region. Plasma must be removed from the switch region to allow high voltage. This paper describes some processes important during conduction and opening, and show calculations on the trigger requirements. The design of the switch is shown. This system is designed to demonstrate both improved performance and nanosecond output jitter at levels greater than one terawatt. An amplification mechanism is described which reduces the trigger energy. Particle-in-cell simulations of the system are also shown.

SAVAGE,MARK E.; MENDEL,C.W.; SEIDEL,DAVID B.

1999-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

80

Formation mechanism of linear friction welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy joint based on microstructure observation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The microstructure of the linear friction welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy joint was investigated by optical microscope, scanning electronic microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results show that the dynamic recovery and recrystallization resulting from the intensive plastic deformation and fast heating and cooling processes during linear friction welding account for the superfine {alpha} + {beta} grains in the weld center. Fine {alpha} grains distribute in the {beta} matrix or at the boundaries of {beta} grains. A mass of dislocations networks and metastructures present within the {alpha} and {beta} grains. - Research Highlights: {yields} TEM is employed in the analysis. {yields} The dynamic recovery is the main mechanism in thermal deformation of TC4. {yields} Superfine grains in the weld result from dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallizaion, but the recrystallization is inadequate.

Ma Tiejun; Chen Tao, E-mail: ctwc-13@163.com; Li Wenya; Wang Shiwei; Yang Siqian

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Stochastic Switching Games and Duopolistic Competition in Emissions Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study optimal behavior of energy producers under a CO_2 emission abatement program. We focus on a two-player discrete-time model where each producer is sequentially optimizing her emission and production schedules. The game-theoretic aspect is captured through a reduced-form price-impact model for the CO_2 allowance price. Such duopolistic competition results in a new type of a non-zero-sum stochastic switching game on finite horizon. Existence of game Nash equilibria is established through generalization to randomized switching strategies. No uniqueness is possible and we therefore consider a variety of correlated equilibrium mechanisms. We prove existence of correlated equilibrium points in switching games and give a recursive description of equilibrium game values. A simulation-based algorithm to solve for the game values is constructed and a numerical example is presented.

Ludkovski, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Optical switch using Risley prisms  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Optical Switch Using Risley Prisms  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

84

Switch for serial or parallel communication networks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

Crosette, D.B.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

85

Electronic logic to enhance switch reliability in detecting openings and closures of redundant switches  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and failsafe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

Cooper, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Non-homogeneous hidden Markov-switching models for wind time series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of wind direction in [27]. However HMMs assume that the successive observations are conditionally conditions at successive time steps for the dataset considered in this work. Markov-Switching Auto

Brest, Université de

87

Switch for Good Community Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective.

Crawford, Tabitha; Amran, Martha

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

88

Electrical contact resistance degradation of a hot-switched simulated metal MEMS contact.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrical contact resistance testing was performed by hot-switching a simulated gold-platinum metal microelectromechanical systems contact. The experimental objective was to determine the sensitivity of the contact resistance degradation to current level and environment. The contact resistance increased sharply after 100 hot-switched cycles in air. Hot-switching at a reduced current and in nitrogen atmosphere curtailed contact resistance degradation by several orders of magnitude. The mechanism responsible for the resistance degradation was found to be arc-induced decomposition of adsorbed surface contaminants.

Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dickrell, Daniel John, III

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

ASYMPTOTIC OBSERVERS FOR DISCRETE-TIME SWITCHED LINEAR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- essary. 2 In Alessandri and Coletta (2001), it was 2 The example at the end of this paper illustrates

Egerstedt, Magnus

90

Planning in partially-observable switching-mode continuous domains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continuous-state POMDPs provide a natural representation for a variety of tasks, including many in robotics. However, most existing parametric continuous-state POMDP approaches are limited by their reliance on a single ...

Brunskill, Emma

91

A Reconnection Switch to Trigger gamma-Ray Burst Jet Dissipation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prompt gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission requires some mechanism to dissipate an ultrarelativistic jet. Internal shocks or some form of electromagnetic dissipation are candidate mechanisms. Any mechanism needs to answer basic questions, such as what is the origin of variability, what radius does dissipation occur at, and how does efficient prompt emission occur. These mechanisms also need to be consistent with how ultrarelativistic jets form and stay baryon pure despite turbulence and electromagnetic reconnection near the compact object and despite stellar entrainment within the collapsar model. We use the latest magnetohydrodynamical models of ultrarelativistic jets to explore some of these questions in the context of electromagnetic dissipation due to the slow collisional and fast collisionless reconnection mechanisms, as often associated with Sweet-Parker and Petschek reconnection, respectively. For a highly magnetized ultrarelativistic jet and typical collapsar parameters, we find that significant electromagnetic dissipation may be avoided until it proceeds catastrophically near the jet photosphere at large radii (r {approx} 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14}cm), by which the jet obtains a high Lorentz factor ({gamma} {approx} 100-1000), has a luminosity of L{sub j} {approx} 10{sup 50}-10{sup 51} erg s{sup -1}, has observer variability timescales of order 1s (ranging from 0.001-10s), achieves {gamma}{theta}{sub j} {approx} 10-20 (for opening half-angle {theta}{sub j}) and so is able to produce jet breaks, and has comparable energy available for both prompt and afterglow emission. A range of model parameters are investigated and simplified scaling laws are derived. This reconnection switch mechanism allows for highly efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy into prompt emission and associates the observed prompt GRB pulse temporal structure with dissipation timescales of some number of reconnecting current sheets embedded in the jet. We hope this work helps motivate the development of self-consistent radiative compressible relativistic reconnection models.

McKinney, Jonathan C.; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; ,

2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

92

Observation of chaotic beats in a driven memristive Chua's circuit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, a time varying resistive circuit realising the action of an active three segment piecewise linear flux controlled memristor is proposed. Using this as the nonlinearity, a driven Chua's circuit is implemented. The phenomenon of chaotic beats in this circuit is observed for a suitable choice of parameters. The memristor acts as a chaotically time varying resistor (CTVR), switching between a less conductive OFF state and a more conductive ON state. This chaotic switching is governed by the dynamics of the driven Chua's circuit of which the memristor is an integral part. The occurrence of beats is essentially due to the interaction of the memristor aided self oscillations of the circuit and the external driving sinusoidal forcing. Upon slight tuning/detuning of the frequencies of the memristor switching and that of the external force, constructive and destructive interferences occur leading to revivals and collapses in amplitudes of the circuit variables, which we refer as chaotic beats. Numerical simulations and Multisim modelling as well as statistical analyses have been carried out to observe as well as to understand and verify the mechanism leading to chaotic beats.

A. Ishaq Ahamed; K. Srinivasan; K. Murali; M. Lakshmanan

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

93

Heat transfer between anisotropic nanopartricles: Enhancement and switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We theoretically study heat transfer between two anisotropic nanoparticles in vacuum, and derive closed expressions in terms of the anisotropic dipole polarizabilities. We show that transfer between two small spheroids can be many times as large as the one for two spheres of same volumes. Such increase with anisotropy is also found for the heat emission of an isolated small spheroid. Furthermore, we observe a strong dependence of transfer on the relative orientation, yielding the interpretation as a heat transfer switch. The switch quality, given as the ratio of transfer in the ``on'' and ``off'' positions, is observed to be as large as $10^3$ in the near field and even larger in the far field.

Roberta Incardone; Thorsten Emig; Matthias Krüger

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

94

Multiprocessor switch with selective pairing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

System, method and computer program product for a multiprocessing system to offer selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). Each paired microprocessor or processor cores that provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability connect with a system components such as a memory "nest" (or memory hierarchy), an optional system controller, and optional interrupt controller, optional I/O or peripheral devices, etc. The memory nest is attached to a selective pairing facility via a switch or a bus

Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Salapura, Valentina

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

95

Microwave-triggered laser switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-repetition rate switch is described for delivering short duration, high-powered electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

Piltch, M.S.

1982-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

96

Microwave-triggered laser switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-repetition rate switch for delivering short duration, high-power electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Optical switching system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optically bistable device is disclosed. The device includes a uniformly thick layer of amorphous silicon to constitute a Fabry-Perot chamber positioned to provide a target area for a probe beam. The probe beam has a maximum energy less than the energy band gap of the amorphous semiconductor. In a preferred embodiment, a multilayer dielectric mirror is positioned on the Fabry-Perot chamber to increase the finesse of switching of the device. The index of refraction of the amorphous material is thermally altered to alter the transmission of the probe beam.

Ranganathan, Radha (N. Tonawanda, NY); Gal, Michael (Engadine, AU); Taylor, P. Craig (Salt Lake City, UT)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

A magnetically switched kicker for proton extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application of magnetic current amplification and switching techniques to the generation of precise high current pulses for switching magnets is described. The square loop characteristic of Metglas tape wound cores at high excitation levels provides excellent switching characteristics for microsecond pulses. The rugged and passive nature of this type pulser makes it possible to locate the final stages of amplification at the load for maximum efficiency. 12 refs., 8 figs.

Dinkel, J.; Biggs, J.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

High-index-contrast electromechanical optical switches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

System developers are looking to replace protocol-dependent, bandwidth-limited optical networks with intelligent optically-transparent integrated photonic networks. Several electromechanical optical switches are explored ...

Bryant, Reginald (Reginald Eugene), 1978-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

PBC: A Partially Buffered Crossbar Packet Switch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fabric is widely used as the interconnect of high-performance packet switches due to its low cost-performance packet switches because of its low cost and scalability. As a result, the vast majority and scalability. There are two main variants of the crossbar fabric: unbuffered and internally buffered. On one

Kuzmanov, Georgi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Seismic switch for strong motion measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seismic switching device that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period.

Harben, Philip E. (Oakley, CA); Rodgers, Peter W. (Santa Barbara, CA); Ewert, Daniel W. (Patterson, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Seismic switch for strong motion measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

Optoelectronic switches based on diffusive conduction Hilmi Volkan Demira  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optoelectronic switches based on diffusive conduction Hilmi Volkan Demira and Fatih Hakan Koklu the process of diffusive conduction that we use in our optoelectronic switches to achieve rapid optical. We demonstrate the feasibility of using such diffusive conductive optoelectronic switches

Miller, David A. B.

104

Distribution of supercurrent switching in graphene under the proximity effect.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the stochastic nature of switching current in hysteretic current-voltage characteristics of superconductor-graphene-superconductor junctions. We find that the dispersion of the switching current distribution scales with temperature as {sigma}{sub I} {proportional_to} T{sup {alpha}{sub G}} with {alpha}{sub G} as low as 1/3. This observation is in sharp contrast to the known Josephson junction behavior where {sigma}{sub I} {proportional_to} T{sup {alpha}{sub J}} with {alpha}{sub J} = 2/3. We propose an explanation using a generalized version of Kurkijaervi's theory for the flux stability in rf-SQUID and attribute this anomalous effect to the temperature dependence of the critical current which persists down to low temperatures.

Coskun, U. C.; Brenner, M.; Hymel, T.; vakaryuk, V.; Levchenko, A.; Bezryadin, A. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Illinois-Urbana); (Univ. Texas); (Michigan State Univ.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Feedback Mechanism for Microtubule Length Regulation by Stathmin Gradients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We formulate and analyze a theoretical model for the regulation of microtubule (MT) polymerization dynamics by the signaling proteins Rac1 and stathmin. In cells, the MT growth rate is inhibited by cytosolic stathmin, which, in turn, is inactivated by Rac1. Growing MTs activate Rac1 at the cell edge, which closes a positive feedback loop. We investigate both tubulin sequestering and catastrophe promotion as mechanisms for MT growth inhibition by stathmin. For a homogeneous stathmin concentration in the absence of Rac1, we find a switch-like regulation of the MT mean length by stathmin. For constitutively active Rac1 at the cell edge, stathmin is deactivated locally, which establishes a spatial gradient of active stathmin. In this gradient, we find a stationary bimodal MT length distributions for both mechanisms of MT growth inhibition by stathmin. One subpopulation of the bimodal length distribution can be identified with fast growing and long pioneering MTs in the region near the cell edge, which have been observed experimentally. The feedback loop is closed through Rac1 activation by MTs. For tubulin sequestering by stathmin, this establishes a bistable switch with two stable states: one stable state corresponds to upregulated MT mean length and bimodal MT length distributions, i.e., pioneering MTs; the other stable state corresponds to an interrupted feedback with short MTs. Stochastic effects as well as external perturbations can trigger switching events. For catastrophe promoting stathmin we do not find bistability.

Maria Zeitz; Jan Kierfeld

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

106

Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Poster presentation given at the 16th Directions in...

107

Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate Researchers have found a way to magnetize this material using light,...

108

Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book Games and activity book about energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies for kids....

109

Robust Diamond-Based RF Switch Yields Enhanced Communication...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Robust Diamond-Based RF Switch Yields Enhanced Communication Capabilities Technology available for licesning: A radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch...

110

Statistical physics of a model binary genetic switch with linear feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the statistical properties of a simple genetic regulatory network that provides heterogeneity within a population of cells. This network consists of a binary genetic switch in which stochastic flipping between the two switch states is mediated by a "flipping" enzyme. Feedback between the switch state and the flipping rate is provided by a linear feedback mechanism: the flipping enzyme is only produced in the on switch state and the switching rate depends linearly on the copy number of the enzyme. This work generalises the model of [Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 118104] to a broader class of linear feedback systems. We present a complete analytical solution for the steady-state statistics of the number of enzyme molecules in the on and off states, for the general case where the enzyme can mediate flipping in either direction. For this general case we also solve for the flip time distribution, making a connection to first passage and persistence problems in statistical physics. We show that the statistics of the model are non-Poissonian, leading to a peak in the flip time distribution. The occurrence of such a peak is analysed as a function of the parameter space. We present a new relation between the flip time distributions measured for two relevant choices of initial condition. We also introduce a new correlation measure to show that this model can exhibit long-lived temporal correlations, thus providing a primitive form of cellular memory. Motivated by DNA replication as well as by evolutionary mechanisms involving gene duplication, we study the case of two switches in the same cell. This results in correlations between the two switches; these can either positive or negative depending on the parameter regime.

Paolo Visco; Rosalind J. Allen; Martin R. Evans

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

111

Critical analysis and remedy of switching failures in straintronic logic using Bennett clocking in the presence of thermal fluctuations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Straintronic logic is a promising platform for beyond Moore's law computing. Using Bennett clocking mechanism, information can propagate through an array of strain-mediated multiferroic nanomagnets, exploiting the dipolar coupling between the magnets without having to physically interconnect them. Here, we perform a critical analysis of switching failures, i.e., error in information propagation due to thermal fluctuations through a chain of such straintronic devices. We solved stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation considering room-temperature thermal perturbations and show that magnetization switching may fail due to inherent magnetization dynamics accompanied by thermally broadened switching delay distribution. Avenues available to circumvent such issue are proposed.

Roy, Kuntal, E-mail: royk@purdue.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

112

Value iteration for (switched) homogeneous systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this note, we prove that dynamic programming value iteration converges uniformly for discrete-time homogeneous systems and continuous-time switched homogeneous systems. For discrete-time homogeneous systems, rather than ...

Dahleh, Munther A.

113

Clause chaining, switch reference and coordination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis I ponder over a constellation of phenomena that revolve around switch reference and coordination, drawing mainly on their instantiation in Kisedje (Je, Brazil). I start by investigating Klsedje's case system. ...

Nonato, Rafael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Mercury switch with non-wettable electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mercury switch device comprising a pool of mercury and a plurality of electrical contacts made of or coated with a non-wettable material such as titanium diboride.

Karnowsky, Maurice M. (Albulquerque, NM); Yost, Frederick G. (Carlsbad, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Soft X-ray tomography of phenotypic switching and the cellular response to antifungal peptoids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soft X-ray tomography of phenotypic switching and the cellular response to antifungal peptoids that circumvent fungal drug- resistance mechanisms. In this work we used soft X-ray tomogra- phy to image of an entire, fully functional biological system, i.e., in the milieu of a cell (8, 10). Recently, soft X-ray

Barron, Annelise E.

116

Theory and inference for a Markov switching GARCH model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007/55 Theory and inference for a Markov switching GARCH model Luc Bauwens, Arie Preminger and Jeroen V.K. Rombouts #12;CORE DISCUSSION PAPER 2007/55 Theory and inference for a Markov switching GARCH-switching GARCH model (MS-GARCH) wherein the conditional mean and variance switch in time from one GARCH process

Nesterov, Yurii

117

Switch-like reprogramming of gene expression after fusion of multinucleate plasmodial cells of two Physarum polycephalum sporulation mutants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •We investigate reprogramming of gene expression in multinucleate single cells. •Cells of two differentiation control mutants are fused. •Fused cells proceed to alternative gene expression patterns. •The population of nuclei damps stochastic fluctuations in gene expression. •Dynamic processes of cellular reprogramming can be observed by repeated sampling of a cell. -- Abstract: Nonlinear dynamic processes involving the differential regulation of transcription factors are considered to impact the reprogramming of stem cells, germ cells, and somatic cells. Here, we fused two multinucleate plasmodial cells of Physarum polycephalum mutants defective in different sporulation control genes while being in different physiological states. The resulting heterokaryons established one of two significantly different expression patterns of marker genes while the plasmodial halves that were fused to each other synchronized spontaneously. Spontaneous synchronization suggests that switch-like control mechanisms spread over and finally control the entire plasmodium as a result of cytoplasmic mixing. Regulatory molecules due to the large volume of the vigorously streaming cytoplasm will define concentrations in acting on the population of nuclei and in the global setting of switches. Mixing of a large cytoplasmic volume is expected to damp stochasticity when individual nuclei deliver certain RNAs at low copy number into the cytoplasm. We conclude that spontaneous synchronization, the damping of molecular noise in gene expression by the large cytoplasmic volume, and the option to take multiple macroscopic samples from the same plasmodium provide unique options for studying the dynamics of cellular reprogramming at the single cell level.

Walter, Pauline; Hoffmann, Xenia-Katharina; Ebeling, Britta; Haas, Markus; Marwan, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.marwan@ovgu.de

2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

118

High-Q silica zipper cavity for optical radiation pressure driven MOMS switch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We design a silica zipper cavity that has high optical and mechanical Q (quality factor) values and demonstrate numerically the feasibility of a radiation pressure driven micro opto-mechanical system (MOMS) directional switch. The silica zipper cavity has an optical Q of 4.0 × 10{sup 4} and an effective mode volume V{sub mode} of 0.67?{sup 3} when the gap between two cavities is 34 nm. The mechanical Q (Q{sub m}) is determined by thermo-elastic damping and is 2.0 × 10{sup 6} in a vacuum at room temperature. The opto-mechanical coupling rate g{sub OM} is as high as 100 GHz/nm, which allows us to move the directional cavity-waveguide system and switch 1550-nm light with 770-nm light by controlling the radiation pressure.

Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Tanabe, Takasumi, E-mail: takasumi@elec.keio.ac.jp [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Video Switching in the Panopto Editor Video Switching in the Panopto Editor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Video Switching in the Panopto Editor Video Switching in the Panopto Editor In My Pitt Video (Panopto) you can control and edit which video streams the viewer sees by editing individual streams in the My Pitt Video (Panopto) Editor. Editing the primary video source will edit on all streams, editing

Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

120

Optical switching and photoluminescence in erbium-implanted vanadium dioxide thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) is under intensive consideration for optical switching due to its reversible phase transition, which features a drastic and rapid shift in infrared reflectivity. Classified as an insulator–to–metal transition, the phase transition in VO{sub 2} can be induced thermally, electrically, and optically. When induced optically, the transition can occur on sub-picosecond time scales. It is interesting to dope VO{sub 2} with erbium ions (Er{sup 3+}) and observe their combined properties. The first excited-state luminescence of Er{sup 3+} lies within the wavelength window of minimal transmission-loss in silicon and has been widely utilized for signal amplification and generation in silicon photonics. The incorporation of Er{sup 3+} into VO{sub 2} could therefore result in a novel photonic material capable of simultaneous optical switching and amplification. In this work, we investigate the optical switching and photoluminescence in Er-implanted VO{sub 2} thin films. Thermally driven optical switching is demonstrated in the Er-implanted VO{sub 2} by infrared reflectometry. Photoluminescence is observed in the thin films annealed at ?800?°C or above. In addition, Raman spectroscopy and a statistical analysis of switching hysteresis are carried out to assess the effects of the ion implantation on the VO{sub 2} thin films. We conclude that Er-implanted VO{sub 2} can function as an optical switch and amplifier, but with reduced switching quality compared to pure VO{sub 2}.

Lim, Herianto, E-mail: mail@heriantolim.com; Stavrias, Nikolas; Johnson, Brett C.; McCallum, Jeffrey C. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Marvel, Robert E.; Haglund, Richard F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37240 (United States)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

Sub-mesoscale coastal eddies observed by high frequency radar: A new mechanism for delivering nutrients to kelp forests in the Southern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nutrients to kelp forests in the Southern California Bight Corinne J. Bassin and Libe Washburn Institute radar: A new mechanism for delivering nutrients to kelp forests in the Southern California Bight] Internal waves are one such process that transport nutrients and larvae to kelp forests on the inner shelf

California at Santa Barbara, University of

122

Characteristics of trap-filled gallium arsenide photoconductive switches used in high gain pulsed power applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrical properties of semi-insulating (SI) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) have been investigated for some time, particularly for its application as a substrate in microelectronics. Of late this material has found a variety of applications other than as an isolation region between devices, or the substrate of an active device. High resistivity SI GaAs is increasingly being used in charged particle detectors and photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS). PCSS made from these materials operating in both the linear and non-linear modes have applications such as firing sets, as drivers for lasers, and in high impedance, low current Q-switches or Pockels cells. In the non-linear mode, it has also been used in a system to generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) High Power Microwaves (HPM). The choice of GaAs over silicon offers the advantage that its material properties allow for fast, repetitive switching action. Furthermore photoconductive switches have advantages over conventional switches such as improved jitter, better impedance matching, compact size, and in some cases, lower laser energy requirement for switching action. The rise time of the PCSS is an important parameter that affects the maximum energy transferred to the load and it depends, in addition to other parameters, on the bias or the average field across the switch. High field operation has been an important goal in PCSS research. Due to surface flashover or premature material breakdown at higher voltages, most PCSS, especially those used in high power operation, need to operate well below the inherent breakdown voltage of the material. The lifetime or the total number of switching operations before breakdown, is another important switch parameter that needs to be considered for operation at high bias conditions. A lifetime of {approximately} 10{sup 4} shots has been reported for PCSS's used in UWB-HPM generation [5], while it has exceeded 10{sup 8} shots for electro-optic drivers. Much effort is currently being channeled in the study related to improvements of these two parameters high bias operation and lifetime improvement for switches used in pulsed power applications. The contact material and profiles are another important area of study. Although these problems are being pursued through the incorporation of different contact materials and introducing doping near contacts, it is important that the switch properties and the conduction mechanism in these switches be well understood such that the basic nature of the problems can be properly addressed. In this paper the authors report on these two basic issues related to the device operation, i.e., mechanisms for increasing the hold-off characteristics through neutron irradiation, and the analysis of transport processes at varying field conditions in trap dominated SI GaAs in order to identify the breakdown mechanism during device operation. It is expected that this study would result in a better understanding of photoconductive switches, specifically those used in high power operation.

ISLAM,N.E.; SCHAMILOGLU,E.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; JOSHI,R.P.

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

123

Photonic switching devices based on semiconductor nanostructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Focusing and guiding light into semiconductor nanostructures can deliver revolutionary concepts for photonic devices, which offer a practical pathway towards next-generation power-efficient optical networks. In this review, we consider the prospects for photonic switches using semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and photonic cavities which possess unique properties based on their low dimensionality. The optical nonlinearity of such photonic switches is theoretically analyzed by introducing the concept of a field enhancement factor. This approach reveals drastic improvement in both power-density and speed, which is able to overcome the limitations that have beset conventional photonic switches for decades. In addition, the overall power consumption is reduced due to the atom-like nature of QDs as well as the nano-scale footprint of photonic cavities. Based on this theoretical perspective, the current state-of-the-art of QD/cavity switches is reviewed in terms of various optical nonlinearity phenomena which have been utilized to demonstrate photonic switching. Emerging techniques, enabled by cavity nonlinear effects such as wavelength tuning, Purcell-factor tuning and plasmonic effects are also discussed.

Chao-Yuan Jin; Osamu Wada

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

124

High speed transfer switch with 50 kA and 50 kV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper gives the mechanical design and electrical parameters of a pneumatically operated transfer switch. This design is used to switch 3-second 50-kA current pulses, and is easily capable of 75 kA operation (2 {times} 10{sup 10} I{sup 2}t); with water-cooled versions capable of 20 kA continuously. Although the switch is not specifically designed to make or break 50 kA, it is provided with auxiliary Elkonite arcing contacts have proven their value in protecting the main electrodes even under repetitive (50 kA) fault conditions. Included in this presentation will be the results of extensive life testing and associated criteria. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Reass, W.A.; Kasik, R.J.; Wilds, W.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Efficient tunable switch from slow light to fast light in quantum opto-electromechanical system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The control of slow and fast light propagation, in the probe transmission in a single experiment, is a challenging task. This type of control can only be achieved through highly nonlinear interactions and additional interfering pathway(s), which is therefore seldom reported. Here, we devise a scheme in which slow light, and a tunable switch from slow light to fast light can be achieved in the probe transmission based on a hybrid setup, which is composed of an optical cavity with two charged nano mechanical resonators (MRs). The two MRs are electrostatically coupled via tunable Coulomb coupling strength ($g_{c}$) making a quantum opto-electromechanical system (QOEMS). The parameter $g_{c}$ that couples the two MRs can be switched on and off by controlling the bias voltages on the MRs, and acts as a tunable switch that allows the propagation of transmitted probe field as slow light ($g_{c} \

M. Javed Akram; Khalid Naseer; Farhan Saif

2015-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

126

An evaluation of Access Tier local area network switches.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This reports tabulates the Test and Evaluation results of the Access Class Switch tests conducted by members of Department 9336. About 15 switches were reviewed for use in the enterprise network as access tier switches as defined in a three tier architecture. The Access Switch Tier has several functions including: aggregate customer desktop ports, preserve and apply QoS tags, provide switched LAN access, provide VLAN assignment, as well as others. The typical switch size is 48 or less user ports. The evaluation team reviewed network switch evaluation reports from the Tolly Group as well as other sources. We then used these reports as a starting point to identify particular switches for evaluation. In general we reviewed the products of dominant equipment manufacturers. Also, based on architectural design requirements, the majority of the switches tested were of relatively small monolithic unit variety.

Eldridge, John M.; Olsberg, Ronald R.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Resistive switching and threshold switching behaviors in La{sub 0.1}Bi{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of cobalt doping on the electrical conductivity of La{sub 0.1}Bi{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} (LBFCO, x = 0, 0.01, 0.03) ceramics were investigated. It is found that the leakage current increases with cobalt dopant concentration in LBFCO. On the application of bias voltage LBFCO ceramics with cobalt doping exhibits resistive switching effects at room temperature and threshold switching effects at elevated temperatures (50 Degree-Sign C and 80 Degree-Sign C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of LBFCO ceramics show that cobalt dopant is bivalent as an acceptor, which induces an enhancement of oxygen vacancy concentration in LBFCO ceramics. Possible mechanisms for both resistive switching and threshold switching effects are discussed on the basis of the interplay of bound ferroelectric charges and mobile charged defects.

Wang, S. Y.; Qiu, Xue; Feng, Yu; Hou, X. G.; Yu, D. S.; Li, D. J. [College of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074 (China); Liu, W. F. [Tianjin Key laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gao, J. [Department of Physics, the University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Formation Pumping of Molecular Hydrogen in the M17 PDR The first observation of a new emission mechanism from the most abundant molecule  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanism from the most abundant molecule Michael Burton1 , Diana Londish2 , Peter Brand3 1 School-IR image of M17. This image clearly shows the two ionization bars. Figures 2 and 3 show the lines images OF PHYSICS Abstract We have imaged the emission from the near-infrared v=1-0 S(1), 1-0 S(7), 2-1 S(1) and 6

Burton, Michael

129

Compact high voltage solid state switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

Glidden, Steven C.

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

130

Magnetic switch for reactor control rod  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic reed switch assembly for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electromagnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Magnetic switch for reactor control rod. [LMFBR  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic reed switch assembly is described for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electro-magnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

Germer, J.H.

1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

132

Fundamental science investigations to develop a 6-MV laser triggered gas switch for ZR: first annual report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In October 2005, an intensive three-year Laser Triggered Gas Switch (LTGS) development program was initiated to investigate and solve observed performance and reliability issues with the LTGS for ZR. The approach taken has been one of mission-focused research: to revisit and reassess the design, to establish a fundamental understanding of LTGS operation and failure modes, and to test evolving operational hypotheses. This effort is aimed toward deploying an initial switch for ZR in 2007, on supporting rolling upgrades to ZR as the technology can be developed, and to prepare with scientific understanding for the even higher voltage switches anticipated needed for future high-yield accelerators. The ZR LTGS was identified as a potential area of concern quite early, but since initial assessments performed on a simplified Switch Test Bed (STB) at 5 MV showed 300-shot lifetimes on multiple switch builds, this component was judged acceptable. When the Z{sub 20} engineering module was brought online in October 2003 frequent flashovers of the plastic switch envelope were observed at the increased stresses required to compensate for the programmatically increased ZR load inductance. As of October 2006, there have been 1423 Z{sub 20} shots assessing a variety of LTGS designs. Numerous incremental and fundamental switch design modifications have been investigated. As we continue to investigate the LTGS, the basic science of plastic surface tracking, laser triggering, cascade breakdown, and optics degradation remain high-priority mission-focused research topics. Significant progress has been made and, while the switch does not yet achieve design requirements, we are on the path to develop successively better switches for rolling upgrade improvements to ZR. This report summarizes the work performed in FY 2006 by the large team. A high-level summary is followed by detailed individual topical reports.

Warne, Larry Kevin; Van Den Avyle, James A.; Lehr, Jane Marie; Rose, David (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Krompholz, Hermann G. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Vela, Russell (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Timoshkin, Igor (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); Woodworth, Joseph Ray; Prestwich, Kenneth Randel (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Krile, John (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Given, Martin (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); McKee, G. Randall; Rosenthal, Stephen Edgar; Struve, Kenneth William; Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Benwell, Andrew L. (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri); Kovaleski, Scott (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri); LeChien, Keith, R.; Johnson, David (Titan Pulse Sciences Division); Fouracre, R.A. (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); Yeckel, Chris (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri); Wakeland, Peter Eric (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. R. (Titan Pulse Sciences Division); Hodge, Keith Conquest (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Pasik, Michael Francis; Savage, Mark Edward; Maenchen, John Eric; Curry, Randy D. (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri); Feltz, Greg (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Bliss, David Emery; MacGregor, Scott (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); Corley, J. P. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Anaya, Victor (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Wallace, Zachariah (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Neuber, Andreas. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX)

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed.

Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

1986-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

134

Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed. 7 figs.

Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

1987-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

135

Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Silberkleit, Lee I. (Mountlake Terrace, WA)

1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

136

Engineered materials for all-optical helicity-dependent magnetic switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineered materials for all-optical helicity-dependent magnetic switching S. Mangin1,2 *, M we explore the optical manipulation of the magnetization in engineered magnetic materials. We of engineered magnetic materials and devices. We demonstrate that AO-HDS can be observed not only in selected RE

Fainman, Yeshaiahu

137

Discrete-time mode switching control with application to a PMSM position servo system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discrete-time mode switching control with application to a PMSM position servo system Guoyang Cheng control Servo systems Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) Observer Nonlinearities a b s t r a c results on a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) servo system verify that the proposed control

Benmei, Chen

138

EXPLORING THE MECHANISMS OF VARIABILITY IN CLASS I AND II YSOS WITH TWO-EPOCH HST/NICMOS OBSERVATIONS. A. S. Cotera1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to variable accretion processes onto the stellar photosphere [e.g. 2]. The timescales of the variability of the objects, L1551 IRS 5 and HH 30 were observed as part of GTO 7228 (PI: Young), while the other five, Co

Schneider, Glenn

139

Resistive switching phenomena of tungsten nitride thin films with excellent CMOS compatibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of WN{sub x} thin films. • Excellent CMOS compatibility WN{sub x} films as a resistive switching material. • Resistive switching mechanism revealed trap-controlled space charge limited conduction. • Good endurance and retention properties over 10{sup 5} cycles, and 10{sup 5} s, respectively - Abstract: We report the resistive switching (RS) characteristics of tungsten nitride (WN{sub x}) thin films with excellent complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility. A Ti/WN{sub x}/Pt memory cell clearly shows bipolar RS behaviors at a low voltage of approximately ±2.2 V. The dominant conduction mechanisms at low and high resistance states were verified by Ohmic behavior and trap-controlled space-charge-limited conduction, respectively. A conducting filament model by a redox reaction explains the RS behavior in WN{sub x} films. We also demonstrate the memory characteristics during pulse operation, including a high endurance over >10{sup 5} cycles and a long retention time of >10{sup 5} s.

Hong, Seok Man; Kim, Hee-Dong; An, Ho-Myoung; Kim, Tae Geun, E-mail: tgkim1@korea.ac.kr

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Mechanical Engineering Department 04 November 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department Light Sources Light emitting diode (LED) When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched a p-n junction #12;Mechanical Engineering Department Light Sources Light emitting diode (LED the p-n junction #12;Mechanical Engineering Department Light Sources Light emitting diode (LED) #12

Furlong, Cosme

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new diffuse discharge gas switch wherein a mixture of gases is used to take advantage of desirable properties of the respective gases. There is a conducting gas, an insulating gas, and a third gas that has low ionization energy resulting in a net increase in the number of electrons available to produce a current.

Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

A thermodynamic switch for chromosome colocalization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general model for the early recognition and colocalization of homologous DNA sequences is proposed. We show, on a thermodynamic ground, how the distance between two homologous DNA sequences is spontaneously regulated by the concentration and affinity of diffusible mediators binding them, which act as a switch between two phases corresponding to independence or colocalization of pairing regions.

M. Nicodemi; B. Panning; A. Prisco

2008-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

143

Isolated and soft-switched power converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Adams, Donald Joe (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Optically initiated silicon carbide high voltage switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved photoconductive switch having a SiC or other wide band gap substrate material, such as GaAs and field-grading liners composed of preferably SiN formed on the substrate adjacent the electrode perimeters or adjacent the substrate perimeters for grading the electric fields.

Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Sullivan, James S. (Livermore, CA); Sanders; David M. (Livermore, CA)

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

145

Thermionic converter in load-switching mode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electrical equivalent circuit is proposed for a thermionic electrogenerating element. It is suitable for calculation of transients in load-switching mode. Formulas are given for estimating circuit parameters. A sample numerical calculation is given for the transient between no-load and short-circuit regimes. The results may be employed to identify experimental data in the frequency domain.

Mendel'baum, M.A.; Es'kov, V.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

All-optical discrete vortex switch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce discrete vortex solitons and vortex breathers in circular arrays of nonlinear waveguides. The simplest vortex breather in a four-waveguide coupler is a nonlinear dynamic state changing its topological charge between +1 and -1 periodically during propagation. We find the stability domain for this solution and suggest an all-optical vortex switching scheme.

Desyatnikov, Anton S. [Nonlinear Physics Center, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Dennis, Mark R. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Ferrando, Albert [Interdisciplinary Modeling Group, InterTech and Departament d'Optica, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Switching dynamics in cholesteric blue phases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blue phases are networks of disclination lines, which occur in cholesteric liquid crystals near the transition to the isotropic phase. They have recently been used for the new generation of fast switching liquid crystal displays. Here we study numerically the steady states and switching hydrodynamics of blue phase I (BPI) and blue phase II (BPII) cells subjected to an electric field. When the field is on, there are three regimes: for very weak fields (and strong anchoring at the boundaries) the blue phases are almost unaffected, for intermediate fields the disclinations twist (for BPI) and unzip (for BPII), whereas for very large voltages the network dissolves in the bulk of the cell. Interestingly, we find that a BPII cell can recover its original structure when the field is switched off, whereas a BPI cell is found to be trapped more easily into metastable configurations. The kinetic pathways followed during switching on and off entails dramatic reorganisation of the disclination networks. We also discuss the effect of changing the director field anchoring at the boundary planes and of varying the direction of the applied field.

A. Tiribocchi; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

148

Carbon nano-relays for low power switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis two unique carbon based nanoelectromechanical switches or carbon nano-relays are demonstrated as a toolkit for investigating NEMs based low power switching. The first is a vertical carbon nano-relay, consisting ...

Milaninia, Kaveh Mehdi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Physical process Mechanical mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Physical process Generation · Mechanical mechanisms F = m·a · Electric/Magnetic mechanisms F ­ Quadrupoles......shear stress fluctuations ­ High order poles...... phys. interpretation difficult Governing

Berlin,Technische Universität

150

Invertibility of Nonlinear Switched Systems Aneel Tanwani and Daniel Liberzon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Invertibility of Nonlinear Switched Systems Aneel Tanwani and Daniel Liberzon Abstract-- This article addresses the invertibility problem for switched nonlinear systems affine in controls. The problem and sufficient condition for a switched system to be invertible, which says that the subsystems should

151

OPTICAL PACKET SWITCHING George N. Rouskas, Lisong Xu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1 OPTICAL PACKET SWITCHING George N. Rouskas, Lisong Xu Department of Computer Science of optical packet switching (OPS) is emerging as an alter- native to coarser-grained switching in the optical reconfigurable, bandwidth-efficient, and flexible optical layer. In this chapter we study some

152

RF-MEMS capacitive switches with high reliability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reliable long life RF-MEMS capacitive switch is provided with a dielectric layer comprising a "fast discharge diamond dielectric layer" and enabling rapid switch recovery, dielectric layer charging and discharging that is efficient and effective to enable RF-MEMS switch operation to greater than or equal to 100 billion cycles.

Goldsmith, Charles L.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.; Sampath, Suresh; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Carpick, Robert W.; Hwang, James; Mancini, Derrick C.; Gudeman, Chris

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

153

A Brain-Switch using Riemannian Geometry A. Barachant1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Brain-Switch using Riemannian Geometry A. Barachant1 , S. Bonnet1 , M. Congedo2 , C. Jutten2 1 the issue of asynchronous brain-switch. The detection of a specific brain pattern from the ongoing EEG-time EEG segments contain all the desired information. Such a brain-switch is valuable as it is easy to set

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

154

Energy and Switch Area Optimizations for FPGA Global Routing Architectures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

13 Energy and Switch Area Optimizations for FPGA Global Routing Architectures YI ZHU, YUANFANG HU and wire style optimization, to reduce the energy and switch area of FPGA global routing architectures achieve up to 10% to 15% energy savings and up to 20% switch area savings in average for a set of seven

Fainman, Yeshaiahu

155

Switching characteristics and maximum repetitive frequency of InGaAsP/InP bistable injection lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Switching characteristics of nonuniformly pumped InGaAsP/InP BH Structure bistable lasers are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. First observation of automatic turn-on phenomenon was made, which is found to be a random process. For repetitive operation, turn-on delay time and necessary duration of switch-off pulse practically limited the maximum repetitive frequency. For ''switch-on,'' triggering the saturable absorption region is more effective. For reducing the minimum switch-off pulse width, either higher doping or reverse biasing at the absorption region is recommended. Tradeoff relation of OFF pulse width with threshold current and stable operation are discussed. With some improvements in device parameters, bistable operation at repetitive frequency over 1 GHz is expected.

Liu, H.F.; Hashimoto, Y.; Kamiya, T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial molecular switch Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

variation in which they evade immunity by switching... transmission. mathematical model Typanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein switching hierarchy Source: Read,...

157

Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

Powell, James G. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

Powell, J.G.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

159

High-speed, sub-pull-in voltage MEMS switching.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have proposed and demonstrated MEMS switching devices that take advantage of the dynamic behavior of the MEMS devices to provide lower voltage actuation and higher switching speeds. We have explored the theory behind these switching techniques and have demonstrated these techniques in a range of devices including MEMS micromirror devices and in-plane parallel plate MEMS switches. In both devices we have demonstrated switching speeds under one microsecond which has essentially been a firm limit in MEMS switching. We also developed low-loss silicon waveguide technology and the ability to incorporate high-permittivity dielectric materials with MEMS. The successful development of these technologies have generated a number of new projects and have increased both the MEMS switching and optics capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories.

Spahn, Olga Blum; Brewer, Steven; Olsson, Roy H.; Bogart, Gregory R.; Luck, David L.; Watts, Michael R.; Shaw, Michael J.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul James; Tigges, Christopher P.; Grossetete, Grant David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 5, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 1999 261 The AMOEBA Switch: An Optoelectronic Switch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The AMOEBA Switch: An Optoelectronic Switch for Multiprocessor Networking Using Dense-WDM Ashok V- cessor optoelectronic bit-sliced arrayed (AMOEBA) crossbar switch. The AMOEBA switch addresses directly onto silicon VLSI circuits. Optoelectronic-VLSI technology is used to integrate the switch fabric

Ford, Joseph E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Flexoelectric switching in cholesteric blue phases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present computer simulations of the response of a flexoelectric blue phase network, either in bulk or under confinement, to an applied field. We find a transition in the bulk between the blue phase I disclination network and a parallel array of disclinations along the direction of the applied field. Upon switching off the field, the system is unable to reconstruct the original blue phase but gets stuck in a metastable phase. Blue phase II is comparatively much less affected by the field. In confined samples, the anchoring at the walls and the geometry of the device lead to the stabilisation of further structures, including field-aligned disclination loops, splayed nematic patterns, and yet more metastable states. Our results are relevant to the understanding of the switching dynamics for a class of new, "superstable", blue phases which are composed of bimesogenic liquid crystals, as these materials combine anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients, and low or near-zero dielectric anisotropy.

A. Tiribocchi; M. E. Cates; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

162

Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF/sub 4/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, n-C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, WF/sub 6/, (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/S and (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/O.

Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Multiple acousto-optic q-switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Switch Switch  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon...

165

Switch Switch  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline GalliumSuppressionSustainable SuccessSustainableL L 2

166

Thermionic switched self-actuating reactor shutdown system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-actuating reactor shutdown system incorporating a thermionic switched electromagnetic latch arrangement which is responsive to reactor neutron flux changes and to reactor coolant temperature changes. The system is self-actuating in that the sensing thermionic device acts directly to release (scram) the control rod (absorber) without reference or signal from the main reactor plant protective and control systems. To be responsive to both temperature and neutron flux effects, two detectors are used, one responsive to reactor coolant temperatures, and the other responsive to reactor neutron flux increase. The detectors are incorporated into a thermionic diode connected electrically with an electromagnetic mechanism which under normal reactor operating conditions holds the the control rod in its ready position (exterior of the reactor core). Upon reaching either a specified temperature or neutron flux, the thermionic diode functions to short-circuit the electromagnetic mechanism causing same to lose its holding power and release the control rod, which drops into the reactor core region under gravitational force.

Barrus, Donald M. (San Jose, CA); Shires, Charles D. (San Jose, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Humidity effects on tip-induced polarization switching in lithium niobate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last several decades, ferroelectrics have attracted much attention as perspective materials for nonlinear optics and data storage devices. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a powerful tool both for studies of domain structures with nanoscale spatial resolution and for writing the isolated nanodomains by local application of the electric field. Quantitative analysis of the observed behavior requires understanding the role of environmental factors on imaging and switching process. Here we study the influence of the relative humidity in the SPM chamber on tip-induced polarization switching. The observed effects are attributed to existence of a water meniscus between the tip and the sample surface in humid atmosphere. These results are important for a deeper understanding of complex investigations of ferroelectric materials and their applications, and suggest the necessity for fundamental studies of electrocapillary phenomena at the tip-surface junction and their interplay with bias-induced materials responses.

Ievlev, Anton [ORNL] [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Shur, Vladimir Ya. [Ural Federal University, Russia] [Ural Federal University, Russia; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Fuel Switching Strategies for the 1990s  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, petroleum coke, waste hydrocarbons (such as recovered from lubricants), biomass, and in the near future, methanol and other oxygenates or alcohols. Coal may also conceivably be a long-term sWitching candidate when utilized in a number of advanced open... under mos t conditions, in a manner that generates less NO x than heavier fuels such as coal, coke, and residual oil. Achieving NO x reductions with the latter is often a matter of capital investments and operating costs in either combustion...

Cascone, R.

169

Q switching by self-focusing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel passive technique for obtaining short-laser-pulse emission is presented. A cell with a high-second-order refractive-index liquid is included in an unstable laser cavity. The external self-focusing introduced by the cell at higher optical intensities reduces the diffraction losses, producing modulation of the gain and Q switching of the cavity. Compared with saturable absorbers, this method provides better mode quality, avoids filamentary emission, and is not restricted in wavelength. Experimental results are presented that are in good agreement with the numerical model developed.

Marconi, M.C.; Martinez, O.E.; Diodati, F.P.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

The World Behind Your Light Switch (1966)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe MolecularPlaceThe publication of theWork

171

Flipping the switch | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityFieldMinds" | NationalFlipping the switch To

172

Organic solid state optical switches and method for producing organic solid state optical switches  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention consists of a light-intensity dependent molecular switch comprised of a compound which shuttles an electron or a plurality of electrons from a plurality of electron donors to an electron acceptor upon being stimulated with light of predetermined wavelengths, and a method for making said compound.

Wasielewski, M.R.; Gaines, G.L.; Niemczyk, M.P.; Johnson, D.G.; Gosztola, D.J.; O`Neil, M.P.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets A Segmented Drive Inverter Topology with a Small DC Bus Capacitor A Segmented Drive Inverter Topology with a...

174

Multi-gap high impedance plasma opening switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high impedance plasma opening switch having an anode and a cathode and at least one additional electrode placed between the anode and cathode is disclosed. The presence of the additional electrodes leads to the creation of additional plasma gaps which are in series, increasing the net impedance of the switch. An equivalent effect can be obtained by using two or more conventional plasma switches with their plasma gaps wired in series. Higher impedance switches can provide high current and voltage to higher impedance loads such as plasma radiation sources. 12 figs.

Mason, R.J.

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

175

Multi-gap high impedance plasma opening switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high impedance plasma opening switch having an anode and a cathode and at least one additional electrode placed between the anode and cathode. The presence of the additional electrodes leads to the creation of additional plasma gaps which are in series, increasing the net impedance of the switch. An equivalent effect can be obtained by using two or more conventional plasma switches with their plasma gaps wired in series. Higher impedance switches can provide high current and voltage to higher impedance loads such as plasma radiation sources.

Mason, Rodney J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Coloring Book | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coloring book of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies for kids. coloringbook2010.pdf More Documents & Publications Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Coloring Book...

177

Electrocaloric devices based on thini-film heat switches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a new approach to refrigeration and electrical generation that exploits the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of these thin-film heat engines can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches would enable thin-film heat engines to outperform conventional vaporcompression devices.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malloy, Kevin J [UNM

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and Emissions Research Conference 2010 Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching P-20 Motivation * High power LTC-diesel mode operation * Transient...

179

Probabilistic Bisimulations of Switching and Resetting Diffusions Alessandro Abate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Probabilistic Bisimulations of Switching and Resetting Diffusions Alessandro Abate Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft, The Netherlands a.abate@tudelft.nl Abstract-- This contribution presents

Abate, Alessandro

180

Microsoft Word - CX-Hat_Rock_Switch_14June2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEC-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Glenn Russell Project Manager -TPCV-TPP-4 Proposed Action: Hat Rock Switching Station Replacement...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

switched reluctance motor benefits: - Low material and fabrication cost - No permanent magnet material * Back-emf and demagnetization is not an issue * Permits operation...

182

The Role of Micro-Mechanics in Soil Mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Role of Micro-Mechanics in Soil Mechanics M.D.Bolton CUED/D-Soils/TR313 September 2000;1 The Role of Micro-Mechanics in Soil Mechanics Malcolm Bolton Summary It is suggested that observations of the changing microstructure of soils will permit the selection and refinement of relevant micro-mechanisms

Bolton, Malcolm

183

Power Control for Crossbar-based Input-Queued Switches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, if f is the maximum digital signal frequency, the power consumption of a CMOS device is proportional number of data simultaneously flowing across the switching fabric. Thermal power dissipation is becoming1 Power Control for Crossbar-based Input-Queued Switches Andrea Bianco, Paolo Giaccone, Guido

184

Bandwidth Efficient All-to-All Broadcast on Switched Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bandwidth Efficient All-to-All Broadcast on Switched Clusters Ahmad Faraj Pitch Patarasuk Xin Yuan}@cs.fsu.edu Abstract We develop an all-to-all broadcast scheme that achieves maximum bandwidth efficiency for clusters all- to-all broadcast as efficiently as a single switch connect- ing all machines when the message

Yuan, Xin

185

Interactive Visibility Culling in Complex Environments using Occlusion-Switches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.3.5 [Com- puter Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object ModelingInteractive Visibility Culling in Complex Environments using Occlusion-Switches Naga K. Govindaraju culling in complex 3D environments. An occlusion- switch consists of two GPUs (graphics processing units

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

186

Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Rene Carmona  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Approach Ren´e Carmona Department of Operations://www.pstat.ucsb.edu/faculty/ludkovski We consider the valuation of energy storage facilities within the framework of stochastic control;Carmona and Ludkovski: Optimal Switching for Energy Storage 2 in the commodity financial markets. Storage

Carmona, Rene

187

A distributed scheduling algorithm for an optical switching fabric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, energy consumption and dissipation issues. Introducing optical technologies to implement switching different input/output ports. Electronic switching fabrics have scaled remarkably and can still keep up, they have almost reached their limits. Indeed, to support an increasing number of ports and higher data

188

Multistage-Based Switching Fabrics for Scalable Routers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with distributed packet routing to achieve high scalability and low costs. Our fabrics are based on a multistage patterns are evaluated and discussed as well. Being scalable and of low costs, the proposed switching their arrival LCs toward their destined LCs. Switching fabrics naturally affect overall router perfor- mance

Tzeng, Nian-Feng

189

Pulse and Hold Switching Current Readout of Superconducting Quantum Circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;#12;Abstract Josephson junction qubits are promising candidates for a scalable quantum processor. Such qubits on the switching of a Josephson junction from the zero voltage state to a finite voltage state. The Josephson a switching current detector by analyzing the phase space of a Josephson junction circuit with frequency

Haviland, David

190

Hybrid Dynamical Systems, or HDS: The Ultimate Switching Experience  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hybrid Dynamical Systems, or HDS: The Ultimate Switching Experience Michael S. Branicky Laboratory concentrated on formalizing the notion of a hybrid system as switching among an indexed collection of dynamical give a quick overview of the area of hybrid systems. I also briefly review the formal definition

Branicky, Michael S.

191

Comparative Study of Switched Reluctance Motors Performances for Two Current  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of machines as high torque ripple, high acoustic noise and vibration limit their industrial applications [1Comparative Study of Switched Reluctance Motors Performances for Two Current Distributions a 3-phase, 6-slot, and 4-pole Mutually Coupled Switched Reluctance Motor (MCSRM 6/4) with new current

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

192

A Software Engineering Framework for Switched Fuzzy Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of switched fuzzy systems, in which the discrete characteristics of the mode-switching logic are implemented the intuitive nature of fuzzy logic. Our approach is backed by a Java package that provides an initial that this approach is useful as a tool for the natural development of control systems. Specifically, fuzzy set theory

Weiss, Gera

193

Design, fabrication and testing of a lateral self-cleaning MEMS switch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A lateral contact MEMS switch has been developed to address the need for a long life cycle, low contact resistance RF switch. At the present time, there is no commercial MEMS switch that meets all the requirements. The ...

Shi, Yong, 1965-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium.

Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium. 10 figs.

Booth, R.; Pocha, M.D.

1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

196

Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).

Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Tijeras, NM)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).

Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Tijeras, NM)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

High voltage photo switch package module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces, and at least one light-input surface. First metallic layers are formed on the electrode-interface surfaces, and one or more optical waveguides having input and output ends are bonded to the substrate so that the output end of each waveguide is bonded to a corresponding one of the light-input surfaces of the photo-conductive substrate. This forms a waveguide-substrate interface for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer. A dielectric material such as epoxy is then used to encapsulate the photo-conductive substrate and optical waveguide so that only the metallic layers and the input end of the optical waveguide are exposed. Second metallic layers are then formed on the first metallic layers so that the waveguide-substrate interface is positioned under the second metallic layers.

Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen E

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

199

Resistive switching of a TaO{sub x}/TaON double layer via ionic control of carrier tunneling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Resistance random access memory (RRAM) is an attractive candidate for future non-volatile memory due to its superior features. As the oxide thickness is scaled down, the charge transport mechanism is also subject to the transition from hopping to tunneling dominant process, which is critically related to the interfacial electronic band structure. A TaO{sub x}/TaON double layer-based RRAM is fabricated and characterized in this work. Upon TaON insertion at the lower interface, the improved switching behavior is observed. The TaON at the bottom electrode interface blocks oxygen vacancy percolation due to strong N-O bonds and also modifies interfacial band alignment to lower the injected electron energy from bottom electrode due to higher tunneling barrier height than that of TaO{sub x}/Pt. This study suggested that a defect-minimized insertion layer like TaON with a proper interfacial band alignment is pivotal in RRAM for the effective ionic control of carrier tunneling resulting in non-linear I-V behavior with improved properties.

Jeon, Heeyoung; Park, Jingyu; Kim, Hyunjung [Department of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Woochool; Song, Hyoseok [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chunho [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); FAB Manufacturing Division, SK Hynix Inc., 2091, Gyeongchung-daero, Bubal-eub, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 167-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyungtak, E-mail: hseo@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-739 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

200

A spin light emitting diode incorporating ability of electrical helicity switching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fabrication and optical characteristics of a spin light-emitting-diode (spin-LED) having dual spin-injection electrodes with anti-parallel magnetization configuration are reported. Alternating a current between the two electrodes using a computer-driven current source has led us to the observation of helicity switching of circular polarization at the frequency of 1 kHz. Neither external magnetic fields nor optical delay modulators were used. Sending dc-currents to both electrodes with appropriate ratio has resulted in continuous variation of circular polarization between the two opposite helicity, including the null polarization. These results suggest that the tested spin-LED has the feasibility of a monolithic light source whose circular polarization can be switched or continuously tuned all electrically.

Nishizawa, N., E-mail: nishizawa@isl.titech.ac.jp; Nishibayashi, K.; Munekata, H. [Imaging Science and Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-J3-15 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

E-Print Network 3.0 - automotive switch-mode audio Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

advantages and problems when implementing direct energy conversion switching-mode audio power... on a direct-conversion switching-mode audio power ampli- ... Source: Ris National...

202

E-Print Network 3.0 - activation switch macs-index Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical Summary: quadratically with switching node degree when active optoelectronic devices are used as switching elements 2... is presented. Because of the high cost of...

203

E-Print Network 3.0 - ab switched current Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering 16 Switch Detection in Genetic Regulatory Riccardo Porreca1 Summary: CRP, Fis, GyrAB, and stable RNAs. Vertical lines denote detected switches, while crosses...

204

A phenomenological multi-axial constitutive law for switching in polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A phenomenological multi-axial constitutive law for switching in polycrystalline ferroelectric; accepted 30 January 2002 Abstract A phenomenological constitutive law for ferroelectric switching due

205

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted auxiliary switch Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

quasiresonant tank soft- switching inverter," in Proc. IEEE Ind... IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 2, MARCH 2004 363 A Passive Soft-Switching... for...

206

Redesign of the H-Bridge Switch Plate of the SNS High Voltage Converter Modulator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1-MW High Voltage Converter Modulators [1] have operated in excess of 250,000 hours at the Spallation Neutron Source. Increased demands on the accelerator performance require increased modulator reliability. An effort is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to redesign the modulator H-bridge switch plate with the goals of increasing reliability and performance [2]. The major difference between the SLAC design and the existing design is the use of press-pack IGBTs. Compared to other packaging options, these IGBTs have been shown to have increased performance in pulsed-power applications, have increased cooling capability, and do not fragment and disassemble during a fault event. An overview of the SLAC switch plate redesign is presented. Design steps including electrical modeling of the modulator and H-bridge, development of an integrated IGBT clamping mechanism, and fault tests are discussed. Experimental results will be presented comparing electrical performance of the SLAC switch plate to the existing switchplate under normal and fault conditions.

Kemp, M.A.; Burkhart, C.; Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC; Anderson, D.E.; /Oak Ridge

2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

207

AMEAerospace & Mechanical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AMEAerospace & Mechanical Engineering #12;Aerospace and Mechanical Engineers design complex mechanical, thermal, fluidic, acousti- cal, optical, and electronic systems, with char- acteristic sizes space. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering (AME) students conduct basic and applied research within

Wang, Hai

208

Highly uniform bipolar resistive switching characteristics in TiO{sub 2}/BaTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} multilayer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanoscale multilayer structure TiO{sub 2}/BaTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} has been fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by chemical solution deposition method. Highly uniform bipolar resistive switching (BRS) characteristics have been observed in Pt/TiO{sub 2}/BaTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}/Pt cells. Analysis of the current-voltage relationship demonstrates that the space-charge-limited current conduction controlled by the localized oxygen vacancies should be important to the resistive switching behavior. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub 2} play a crucial role in the resistive switching phenomenon and the introduced TiO{sub 2}/BaTiO{sub 3} interfaces result in the high uniformity of bipolar resistive switching characteristics.

Ma, W. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Yue, E-mail: zhengy35@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, 510275 Guangzhou (China) [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, 510275 Guangzhou (China); Micro and Nano Physics and Mechanics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, 510275 Guangzhou (China); Lin, S. P. [Micro and Nano Physics and Mechanics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, 510275 Guangzhou (China) [Micro and Nano Physics and Mechanics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, 510275 Guangzhou (China); Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Zhuhai Campus, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai 519082 (China); Luo, J. M.; Wang, B., E-mail: zhengy35@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, 510275 Guangzhou (China); Li, Z. X. [Micro and Nano Physics and Mechanics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, 510275 Guangzhou (China)] [Micro and Nano Physics and Mechanics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, 510275 Guangzhou (China)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

209

Bayesian Nonparametric Methods for Learning Markov Switching Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article, we explored a Bayesian nonparametric approach to learning Markov switching processes. This framework requires one to make fewer assumptions about the underlying dynamics, and thereby allows the data to ...

Fox, Emily Beth

210

Development and application of an advanced switched reluctance generator drive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation contains the results of research conducted on the design and control characterization of a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG) for maximum output power. The SRG is an attractive solution to the increasing worldwide demand...

Asadi, Peyman

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Throughput-cost analysis of optical flow switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we employ a cost model embodying major sources of capital expenditure (CapEx) to compare the throughput-cost tradeoff offered by optical flow switching to that of more traditional optical network architectures.

Chan, Vincent W. S.

212

Integrated optical switching using titanium nitride micro electromechanical systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis reports an integrated optical wavelength specific switching device for applications in optical integrated circuits (OICs) based on micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). The device consists of a ring resonator ...

Takahashi, Satoshi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

AlGaN/GaN-based power semiconductor switches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AlGaN/GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) have great potential for their use as high efficiency and high speed power semiconductor switches, thanks to their high breakdown electric field, mobility and ...

Lu, Bin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

Milaninia, Kaveh M.

215

arterial switch operation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

interfaces with the ac grid using a pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) inverter. In 3, a variable-speed wind turbine for a Switched Reluctance Wind Generator, Based on Current...

216

Data Parallel SwitchLevel Simulation \\Lambda Randal E. Bryant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Data Parallel Switch­Level Simulation \\Lambda Randal E. Bryant Computer Science Department Carnegie the bit­level paral­ lelism inherent in conventional machine operations. Bryant---Data Parallel Simulation

Bryant, Randal E.

217

Combining Genetic Oscillators and Switches using Evolutionary Algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

motifs, one toggle switch and one self- sustained oscillator using an evolutionary algorithm, which can]. Of particular interest in biology are those network motifs that produce self-sustained oscillations and bistable

Jin, Yaochu

218

Coordinated Variable Structure Switching Attacks for Smart Grid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

attacks for smart grid systems has the potential to disrupt large-scale power system operation within a short interval of time. Through successful cyber intrusion, an opponent can remotely apply a state- dependent coordinated switching sequence on one...

Liu, Shan

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

219

Using Multiprotocol Label Switching in Virtual Private Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the design of Multiprotocol Label Switching Virtual Private Networks(MPLS VPN). MPLS VPNs are true peer models, which perform traffic separation at Layer 3, through the implementation of separate IP VPN forwarding tables. MPLS...

Doddapaneni, Krishnamohan

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

RF-MEMS Switched Varactors for Medium Power Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In RF (Radio Frequency) domain, one of the limitations of using MEMS (Micro Electromechanical Systems) switching devices for medium power applications is RF power. Failure phenomena appear even for 500 mW. A design of MEMS switched capacitors with an enhanced topology is presented in this paper to prevent it. This kind of device and its promising performances will serve to fabricate a MEMS based phase shifter able to work under several watts.

Maury, F; Crunteanu, A; Conseil, F; Blondy, P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Electronically commutated serial-parallel switching for motor windings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and a circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises controlling a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected between a multiphase voltage source and the phase windings to switch the phase windings between a parallel connection and a series connection while providing commutation discharge paths for electrical current resulting from inductance in the phase windings. This provides extra torque for starting a vehicle from lower battery current.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

222

All-optical switching in optically induced nonlinear waveguide couplers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate all-optical vortex switching in nonlinear coupled waveguide arrays optically induced in photorefractive media. Our technique is based on multiplexing of nondiffracting Bessel beams to induce various types of waveguide configurations. Using double- and quadruple-well potentials, we demonstrate precise control over the coupling strength between waveguides, the linear and nonlinear dynamics and symmetry-breaking bifurcations of guided light, and a power-controlled optical vortex switch.

Diebel, Falko, E-mail: falko.diebel@uni-muenster.de; Boguslawski, Martin; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia [Institut für Angewandte Physik and Center for Nonlinear Science (CeNoS), Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany); Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

223

Efficient Switches for Solar Power Conversion: Four Quadrant GaN Switch Enabled Three Phase Grid-Tied Microinverters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing power switches for new types of inverters that improve the efficiency and reliability of converting energy from solar panels into useable electricity for the grid. Transistors act as fast switches and control the electrical energy that flows in an electrical circuit. Turning a transistor off opens the circuit and stops the flow of electrical current; turning it on closes the circuit and allows electrical current to flow. In this way a transistor can be used to convert DC from a solar panel into AC for use in a home. Transphorm’s transistors will enable a single semiconductor device to switch electrical currents at high-voltage in both directions—making the inverter more compact and reliable. Transphorm is using Gallium Nitride (GaN) as a semiconductor material in its transistors instead of silicon, which is used in most conventional transistors, because GaN transistors have lower losses at higher voltages and switching frequencies.

None

2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

224

Protection Mechanisms for Application Service Hosting Platforms Xuxian Jiang, Dongyan Xu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protection Mechanisms for Application Service Hosting Platforms Xuxian Jiang, Dongyan Xu Department on the virtual OS technology. We then present three protection mechanisms we have developed in SODA, our ASHP architecture. The mechanisms include: (1) resource isolation between AS, (2) virtual switching and firewalling

Xu, Dongyan

225

Generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth model accurately describing the switching processes in pseudo-single ferromagnetic particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth (SW) type model to describe various experimentally observed angular dependencies of the switching field in non-single-domain magnetic particles. Because the nonuniform magnetic states are generally characterized by complicated spin configurations with no simple analytical description, we maintain the macrospin hypothesis and we phenomenologically include the effects of nonuniformities only in the anisotropy energy, preserving as much as possible the elegance of SW model, the concept of critical curve and its geometric interpretation. We compare the results obtained with our model with full micromagnetic simulations in order to evaluate the performance and limits of our approach.

Cimpoesu, Dorin, E-mail: cdorin@uaic.ro; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru [Department of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi 700506 (Romania)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

226

Ferroelectric opening switches for large-scale pulsed power drivers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast electrical energy storage or Voltage-Driven Technology (VDT) has dominated fast, high-voltage pulsed power systems for the past six decades. Fast magnetic energy storage or Current-Driven Technology (CDT) is characterized by 10,000 X higher energy density than VDT and has a great number of other substantial advantages, but it has all but been neglected for all of these decades. The uniform explanation for neglect of CDT technology is invariably that the industry has never been able to make an effective opening switch, which is essential for the use of CDT. Most approaches to opening switches have involved plasma of one sort or another. On a large scale, gaseous plasmas have been used as a conductor to bridge the switch electrodes that provides an opening function when the current wave front propagates through to the output end of the plasma and fully magnetizes the plasma - this is called a Plasma Opening Switch (POS). Opening can be triggered in a POS using a magnetic field to push the plasma out of the A-K gap - this is called a Magnetically Controlled Plasma Opening Switch (MCPOS). On a small scale, depletion of electron plasmas in semiconductor devices is used to affect opening switch behavior, but these devices are relatively low voltage and low current compared to the hundreds of kilo-volts and tens of kilo-amperes of interest to pulsed power. This work is an investigation into an entirely new approach to opening switch technology that utilizes new materials in new ways. The new materials are Ferroelectrics and using them as an opening switch is a stark contrast to their traditional applications in optics and transducer applications. Emphasis is on use of high performance ferroelectrics with the objective of developing an opening switch that would be suitable for large scale pulsed power applications. Over the course of exploring this new ground, we have discovered new behaviors and properties of these materials that were here to fore unknown. Some of these unexpected discoveries have lead to new research directions to address challenges.

Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Glover, Steven Frank

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Observation of angle-modulated switch between enhancement and suppression of nonlinear  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interaction of four-wave mixing image," Opt. Express 19(14), 13675­13685 (2011). 2. N. Li, Z. Zhao, H. Chen, P-Banacloche, "Measurement of dispersive properties of electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium atoms," Phys. Rev. Li, L. M. Narducci, A. M. Lyyra, and F. C. Spano, "Autler-Townes splitting in molecular lithium

Wu, Shin-Tson

228

Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime.

Heath, Robert M., E-mail: r.heath.1@research.gla.ac.uk; Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT, Scotland (United Kingdom); Webster, Mark G. [Department of Statistics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Warburton, Richard J. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

229

Breakthrough Technologies In Vivo Observation of Cavitation and Embolism Repair  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Breakthrough Technologies In Vivo Observation of Cavitation and Embolism Repair Using Magnetic that approximately 10 vessels had cavitated during this time. Leaf water potentials decreased from 1.25 to 2.1 MPa cavitation. Refilling of xylem vessels occurred as soon as the lights were switched off, with the majority

Holbrook, N. Michele

230

Spark gap switch system with condensable dielectric gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark gap switch system is disclosed which is capable of operating at a high pulse rate comprising an insulated switch housing having a purging gas entrance port and a gas exit port, a pair of spaced apart electrodes each having one end thereof within the housing and defining a spark gap therebetween, an easily condensable and preferably low molecular weight insulating gas flowing through the switch housing from the housing, a heat exchanger/condenser for condensing the insulating gas after it exits from the housing, a pump for recirculating the condensed insulating gas as a liquid back to the housing, and a heater exchanger/evaporator to vaporize at least a portion of the condensed insulating gas back into a vapor prior to flowing the insulating gas back into the housing.

Thayer, III, William J. (Kent, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Utilizing zero-sequence switchings for reversible converters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for providing additional dc inputs or outputs (49, 59) from a dc-to-ac inverter (10) for controlling motor loads (60) comprises deriving zero-sequence components (V.sub.ao, V.sub.bo, and V.sub.co) from the inverter (10) through additional circuit branches with power switching devices (23, 44, 46), transforming the voltage between a high voltage and a low voltage using a transformer or motor (42, 50), converting the low voltage between ac and dc using a rectifier (41, 51) or an H-bridge (61), and providing at least one low voltage dc input or output (49, 59). The transformation of the ac voltage may be either single phase or three phase. Where less than a 100% duty cycle is acceptable, a two-phase modulation of the switching signals controlling the inverter (10) reduces switching losses in the inverter (10). A plurality of circuits for carrying out the invention are also disclosed.

Hsu, John S.; Su, Gui-Jia; Adams, Donald J.; Nagashima, James M.; Stancu, Constantin; Carlson, Douglas S.; Smith, Gregory S.

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

232

High peak power test of S-band waveguide switches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The injector and source of particles for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 2856-MHz S-band electron-positron linear accelerator (linac) which produces electrons with energies up to 650 MeV or positrons with energies up to 450 MeV. To improve the linac rf system availability, an additional modulator-klystron subsystem is being constructed to provide a switchable hot spare unit for each of the five existing S-band transmitters. The switching of the transmitters will require the use of SF6-pressurized waveguide switches at a peak operating power of 35 MW. A test stand was set up at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Klystron-Microwave laboratory to conduct tests characterizing the power handling capability of these waveguide switches. Test results are presented.

Nassiri, A.; Grelick, A.; Kustom, R.L.; White, M.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Design of switched-resistor monolithic filters using NMOS technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MOS Capacitors 19 Parasitics Capacitances on MOS Transrstor 21 10 Typical plot of different value MOS Switch I vs. frequen s of V and W/ gs 23 cy for L = 0. 3 , . 22 SR basic element 25 12 Operation of switched-resistor nique tech- 27..., the individual capac- itors must be closely matched. The drawbacks of this tech- nique are several. First, it requires a large number of taps for interconnections which usually results in an in- crease of chip area. Second, there is an error caused...

Ngo, Dinh Tai

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Ultrafast thermally induced magnetic switching in synthetic ferrimagnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthetic ferrimagnets are composite magnetic structures formed from two or more anti-ferromagnetically coupled magnetic sublattices with different magnetic moments. Here, we report on atomistic spin simulations of the laser-induced magnetization dynamics on such synthetic ferrimagnets and demonstrate that the application of ultrashort laser pulses leads to sub-picosecond magnetization dynamics and all-optical switching in a similar manner as in ferrimagnetic alloys. Moreover, we present the essential material properties for successful laser-induced switching, demonstrating the feasibility of using a synthetic ferrimagnet as a high density magnetic storage element without the need of a write field.

Evans, Richard F. L., E-mail: richard.evans@york.ac.uk; Ostler, Thomas A.; Chantrell, Roy W. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Radu, Ilie [Institut für Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Rasing, Theo [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Heyendaalsewg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

235

The design and characterization of switched-resistor filters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED-RESISTOR FILTERS A Thesis by JAMES TRAUGOTT BASS Submitted to t'ne Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulf'llment of the requirement. for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1983 Major Subjec : Electrical Engineering THE DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED-RESISTOR FILTERS A THESIS BY JAMES TRAUGOTT BASS Approved as to style and content by: an a I . caper (Chairman of Committee) Nor. an C. GriswoI, d (Member...

Bass, James Traugott

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Quantum coherent switch utilizing commensurate nanoelectrode and charge density periodicities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A quantum coherent switch having a substrate formed from a density wave (DW) material capable of having a periodic electron density modulation or spin density modulation, a dielectric layer formed onto a surface of the substrate that is orthogonal to an intrinsic wave vector of the DW material; and structure for applying an external spatially periodic electrostatic potential over the dielectric layer.

Harrison, Neil (Santa Fe, NM); Singleton, John (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

237

Digit switch evaluations and capillary IPA (isopropyl alcohol) study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capillary flow of isopropyl alcohol under the wire insulation of an eleven-wire cable dissolved trapped flux from the pretinning and soldering operations and caused it to deposit on the circuit board inside a digit switch. Conformal coatings were successful in sealing the wire insulation gap to prevent solvent flow. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Mizik, P.M.; Kibalo, E.F.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Chiral imides as potential chiroptical switches: synthesis and optical properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a molecule upon application of electric fields to the switching cell or de- vice.5­7 Electrochromic compounds different. Aromatic imides are known to be electrochromic with intense UV­vis absorptions in their neutral; Naphthalene imides; Electrochromic; Fluorescence. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 613 520 2600x2713; fax: +1

Wan, Xin-hua

239

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Single ferroelectric-domain photovoltaic switch based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Single ferroelectric-domain photovoltaic switch based on lateral BiFeO3 cells Ji serves as a basis for solid-state memory. This phenomenon can also yield an interesting photovoltaic imposed by the ferroelectric polarization vectors. Here, we demonstrate a single-domain photovoltaic

Jo, Moon-Ho

240

Optically-initiated silicon carbide high voltage switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved photoconductive switch having a SIC or other wide band gap substrate material, such as GaAs and field-grading liners composed of preferably SiN formed on the substrate adjacent the electrode perimeters or adjacent the substrate perimeters for grading the electric fields.

Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Sullivan, James S. (Livermore, CA); Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA)

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Energy Aware Computing through Probabilistic Switching: A Study of Limits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Aware Computing through Probabilistic Switching: A Study of Limits Krishna V. Palem, Fellow developed here for building energy-aware networks for computing, using PBITs. Interesting examples thermodynamics and, hence, can serve as a basis for energy-aware computing. While the estimates of the energy

242

no switch: spontaneous actin polymerization (MINIMAL ACTIVTY) FractionActin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polymerization (MINIMAL ACTIVTY) FractionActin Polymerization relative activity = t1/2 / t1/2 max actin polymerization in presence of constitutively active output domain (VCA) (MAXIMAL ACTIVITY) experimental point: actin polymerization of switch in presence/absence of inputs (EXPERIMENTAL ACTIVITY) t1/2 = time

Lim, Wendell

243

Deep subwavelength plasmonic waveguide switch in double graphene layer structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deep subwavelength plasmonic waveguide switch in double graphene layer structure Hideo Iizuka in double graphene layer structure Hideo Iizuka1,a) and Shanhui Fan2,b) 1 Toyota Central Research December 2013) Graphene provides excellent prospects of the dynamic tunability, low propagation loss

Fan, Shanhui

244

WDM Burst Switching for Petabit Data Networks Jonathan S. Turner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

protocols, like IP. This paper briefly summarizes the operational principles of WDM burst switchingnetworks Principles. Burst switching systems assign user data bursts to channels in WDM links on-the-fly in order to provide efficient statistical multiplexing of high rate data channels. The transmission links in a burst

Turner, Jonathan S.

245

Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Mike Ludkovski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Approach Mike Ludkovski Department of Mathematics University, Princeton, NJ 08544 rcarmona@princeton.edu, We consider the valuation of energy storage facilities within the framework of stochastic control. Our two main examples are natural gas dome storage

Ludkovski, Mike

246

Task Assignment in a Server Farm with Switching Delays and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

costs Holding costs (per job) Objective to balance between Energy consumption Performance (e.g., latency Energy- and Delay-aware cost structure Switching costs Running costs Holding costs (per job) Objective to balance between Energy consumption Performance (e.g., latency) Heterogeneous servers, job-specific costs

Hyytiä, Esa

247

Left invertibility, flatness and identifiability of switched linear dynamical systems: a framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Left invertibility, flatness and identifiability of switched linear dynamical systems: a framework invertibility and flatness, dynamical systems are structurally equivalent to some specific cryptographic invertibility, flatness and identifiability of discrete- time switched linear systems are investigated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Energy Efficient Optical Burst Switched (OBS) Balagangadhar G. Bathula, Jaafar M. H. Elmirghani  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Efficient Optical Burst Switched (OBS) Networks Balagangadhar G. Bathula, Jaafar M. H for optical burst switched networks that reduces energy consumption without significantly degrading and hence energy efficiency is an important issue. Due to the advances in optical transmission

Bathula, Balagangadhar G

249

A scalable silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for high performance computing systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A scalable silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for high performance computing systems-scale optical switch for scalable interconnect network in high performance computing systems. The proposed

Yoo, S. J. Ben

250

Utility External Disconnect Switch: Practical, Legal, and Technical Reasons to Eliminate the Requirement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report documents the safe operation of PV systems without a utility external disconnect switch in several large jurisdictions. It includes recommendations for regulators contemplating utility external disconnect switch requirements.

251

Flocking of Multi-agent Dynamical Systems Based on Pseudo-leader Mechanism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flocking behavior of multiple agents can be widely observed in nature such as schooling fish and flocking birds. Recent literature has proposed the possibility that flocking is possible even only a small fraction of agents are informed of the desired position and velocity. However, it is still a challenging problem to determine which agents should be informed or have the ability to detect the desired information. This paper aims to address this problem. By combining the ideas of virtual force and pseudo-leader mechanism, where a pseudo-leader represents an agent who can detect the desired information, we propose a scheme for choosing pseudo-leaders in a multi-agent group. The presented scheme can be applied to a multi-agent group even with an unconnected or switching neighbor graph. Experiments are given to show that the methods presented in this paper are of high accuracy and perform well.

Jin Zhou; Wenwu Yu; Xiaoqun Wu; Michael Small; Jun-an Lu

2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

252

In-situ weak-beam and polarization control of multidimensional laser sidebands for ultrafast optical switching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All-optical switching has myriad applications in optoelectronics, optical communications, and quantum information technology. To achieve ultrafast optical switching in a compact yet versatile setup, we demonstrate distinct sets of two-dimensional (2D) broadband up-converted multicolor arrays (BUMAs) in a thin type-I ?-barium-borate crystal with two noncollinear near-IR femtosecond pulses at various phase-matching conditions. The unique interaction mechanism is revealed as quadratic spatial solitons (QSSs)-coupled cascaded four-wave mixing (CFWM), corroborated by numerical calculations of the governing phase-matching conditions. Broad and continuous spectral-spatial tunability of the 2D BUMAs are achieved by varying the time delay between the two incident pulses that undergo CFWM interaction, rooted in the chirped nature of the weak white light and the QSSs generation of the intense fundamental beam. The control of 2D BUMAs is accomplished via seeding a weak second-harmonic pulse in situ to suppress the 2D arrays with polarization dependence on the femtosecond timescale that matches the control pulse duration of ?35 fs. A potential application is proposed on femtosecond all-optical switching in an integrated wavelength-time division multiplexing device.

Liu, Weimin; Wang, Liang; Fang, Chong, E-mail: Chong.Fang@oregonstate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

253

Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

Song, Shoujun, E-mail: sunnyway@nwpu.edu.cn; Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man [School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)] [School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Optical Label Switching Technology and Energy-Efficient Future Networks S. J. Ben Yoo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Label Switching Technology and Energy-Efficient Future Networks S. J. Ben Yoo Department traffic with extremely low energy consumption and high goodput. Keywords: Optical packet switching, optical label switching, energy efficient networks. 1. Introduction The future Internet is rapidly

Kolner, Brian H.

255

Design and simulation of planar electro-optic switches in ferroelectrics Mahesh Krishnamurthi,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and simulation of planar electro-optic switches in ferroelectrics Mahesh Krishnamurthi polarization dependent planar optical switches based on the electro-optic effect in ferroelectrics operating at 1.55 m wavelength are presented. The first design is a 3 3 optical switch based entirely on electro-optic

Gopalan, Venkatraman

256

Fig. 1: Schematic of the optoelectronic switch. Source/drain and channel regions formed in Si.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Si Ge E-field Fig. 1: Schematic of the optoelectronic switch. Source/drain and channel regions (z) energy Novel Si-based CMOS Optoelectronic Switching Device Operating in the Near Infrared Ali K, high performance optoelectronic switch is introduced. The device is a Si- MOSFET with Ge gate that can

Miller, David A. B.

257

Integrated packaging allows for improvement in switching characteristics of silicon carbide devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated packaging allows for improvement in switching characteristics of silicon carbide devices will be available after the conference. Abstract Silicon Carbide devices can achieve very high switching speed-mode filtering). The consequences on the switching speed are discussed. 1. Introduction Silicon carbide (Si

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

A Novel MEMS LTCC Switch Matrix Bahram Yassini, Savio Choi, Andre Zybura, Ming Yu,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Novel MEMS LTCC Switch Matrix Bahram Yassini, Savio Choi, Andre Zybura, Ming Yu, Robert. E planar 4x4 switch matrix using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches and Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) substrate is presented for the first time. Together a 9-layer LTCC substrate and 32 MEMS

Yu, Ming

259

The effects of mobile ATM switches on PNNI peer group operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This contribution discusses why, and how, mobile networks and mobile switches might be discussed during Phase 1 of the WATM standards process. Next, it reviews mobile routers within Mobile IP. That IP mobility architecture may not apply to the proposed mobile ATM switches. Finally, it discusses problems with PNNI peer group formation and operation when mobile ATM switches are present.

Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Dynamic Overlay Single-Domain Contracting for End-to-End Contract-Switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and business relation- ships with other providers as well as users. To allow these much needed economic-switched inter-network will enable flexible and eco- nomically efficient management of risks and value flows as a "packet- switched" network. A contract-switched architecture will enable flexible and eco- nomically

Yuksel, Murat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Design and Evaluation of Scalable Switching Fabrics for High-Performance Routers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high scalability and low costs. The considered switching fabrics are based on a multistage structure. The buffered switching fabrics under our consideration are scalable and of low costs, ideally suitable's for packets to move from their arrival LC's toward their destined LC's. Switching fabrics naturally affect

Tzeng, Nian-Feng

262

Reversible piezomagnetoelectric switching in bulk polycrystalline ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in materials offer tremendous advantages in device functionality enabling technologies including advanced electronic memory, combining electronic speed, and efficiency with magnetic robustness. However, low cost polycrystalline ME materials are excluded from most commercial applications, operating only at cryogenic temperatures, impractically large electric/magnetic fields, or with low ME coefficients (1-100 mV/cm?Oe). Despite this, the technological potential of single compound ME coupling has continued to drive research into multiferroics over the last two decades. Here we show that by manipulating the large induced atomic strain within the polycrystalline, room temperature multiferroic compound 0.7BiFeO{sub 3}–0.3PbTiO{sub 3}, we can induce a reversible, piezoelectric strain controlled ME effect. Employing an in situ neutron diffraction experiment, we have demonstrated that this piezomagnetoelectric effect manifests with an applied electric field >8 kV/mm at the onset of piezoelectric strain, engineered in to the compound by crystallographic phase mixing. This produces a remarkable intrinsic ME coefficient of 1276 mV/cm?Oe, due to a strain driven modification to the oxygen sub-lattice, inducing an increase in magnetic moment per Fe{sup 3+} ion of +0.142 ?{sub B}. This work provides a framework for investigations into strain engineered nanostructures to realize low-cost ME devices designed from the atoms up, as well as contributing to the deeper understanding of single phase ME coupling mechanisms.

Stevenson, T., E-mail: t.j.stevenson@leeds.ac.uk; Bennett, J.; Brown, A. P.; Wines, T.; Bell, A. J.; Comyn, T. P. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Smith, R. I. [ISIS Neutron Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Micro-opto-mechanical switching and tuning for integrated optical systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated optical circuits have the potential to lower manufacturing and operating costs and enhance the functionality of optical systems in a manner similar to what has been achieved by integrating electronic circuits. ...

Nielson, Gregory Nolan, 1974-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

On the mechanisms of switching between two steady states of electroconductivity in plasticized transparent PVC films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The results of experimental researches of electroconductivity of PVC films, plasticized by patented modifier, at fields below the breakdown level are described. A possibility of management of the repeated transitions between two states with high and relatively low conductivity with conservation of reversibility is found out. A simple qualitative model of abnormal conductivity based on representation of polymer film as a sequence p-n of transitions is offered. For samples of plasticized PVC films with thickness 30-50 microns specific volume resistance of steady states was of an order of 10E4 Om*m \\times 10E6 Om*m, accordingly. A simple qualitative model describing abnormal character of conductivity of polymeric films is offered. The model considers the presence of known non-uniform plasticized polymer structure with discrete domains in which quasi-free moving of charges can occur. At imposing of an external field semi-condictive domains form sequence of p-n transitions which provides presence of two states of conductivity, in analogy with dinistors.

D. V. Vlasov; L. A. Apresian; V. I. Krystob; T. V. Vlasova

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

265

Spin-transfer switching of orthogonal spin-valve devices at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the quasi-static and dynamic switching characteristics of orthogonal spin-transfer devices incorporating an out-of-plane magnetized polarizing layer and an in-plane magnetized spin valve device at cryogenic temperatures. Switching at 12?K between parallel and anti-parallel spin-valve states is investigated for slowly varied current as well as for current pulses with durations as short as 200 ps. We demonstrate 100% switching probability with current pulses 0.6?ns in duration. We also present a switching probability diagram that summarizes device switching operation under a variety of pulse durations, amplitudes, and polarities.

Ye, L., E-mail: ly17@nyu.edu; Gopman, D. B.; Rehm, L.; Backes, D.; Wolf, G.; Kent, A. D. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Ohki, T. [Raytheon BBN Technologies, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Kirichenko, A. F.; Vernik, I. V.; Mukhanov, O. A. [HYPRES, 175 Clearbrook Road, Elmsford, New York 10523 (United States)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

Design of high order switched resistor momolithic filters using NMOS technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-aliasing filter is used to band-limit the input signal. 3 Switched Capacitor representation of a resistor, a) Switched Capacitor, b) Fixed Resistor. . . . . . . . . . Basic Switched Resistor Block. a) Switched Resistor, b) Fixed Resistor. 5 Switched.... VBS for depletion and enhancement transistors. 18 9 IO vs YDS curves for depletion (a, c), and enhancement (b, d) transistors (YBS= 0 V). a) II/L= 1, b) M/L= 1, c) Vi/L= . 5, d) V(/L= 5 19 10 DC resistance for an NMOS transistor vs. VGS (W/L= . 3...

Aguilar, Raul Antonio

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

The Usefulness of Bi-Level Switching; Original Technical Note: November 1998. Revised August, 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

California's Title 24 Energy Efficiency Building Standard requires multiple lighting level control in all individual offices. Usually, this requirement is fulfilled using bi-level switching. With bi-level switching, each office occupant is provided with two wall switches near the doorway to control their lights. In a typical installation, one switch would control 1/3 of the fluorescent lamps in the ceiling lighting system, while the other switch would control the remaining 2/3 of the lamps. This allows four possible light levels: OFF, 1/3, 2/3 and FULL lighting. Because it has been required by building code since 1983, bi-level switching is common in California office buildings. However, there is no published evidence showing that occupants sometimes use just one switch rather than just switching on both switches when entering the room. Consequently, some have questioned whether bi-level switching is a necessary or desirable requirement for typical office buildings. In fact, the draft national standard, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989K apparently does not require bi-level switching at all.

Building Technologies Department

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Microwave pulse compression from a storage cavity with laser-induced switching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser-induced switch and a multiple cavity configuration are disclosed for producing high power microwave pulses. The microwave pulses are well controlled in wavelength and timing, with a quick rise time and a variable shape and power of the pulse. In addition, a method of reducing pre-pulse leakage to a low level is disclosed. Microwave energy is directed coherently to one or more cavities that stores the energy in a single mode, represented as a standing wave pattern. In order to switch the stored microwave energy out of the main cavity and into the branch waveguide, a laser-actuated switch is provided for the cavity. The switch includes a laser, associated optics for delivering the beam into the main cavity, and a switching gas positioned at an antinode in the main cavity. When actuated, the switching gas ionizes, creating a plasma, which becomes reflective to the microwave energy, changing the resonance of the cavity, and as a result the stored microwave energy is abruptly switched out of the cavity. The laser may directly pre-ionize the switching gas, or it may pump an impurity in the switching gas to an energy level which switches when a pre-selected cavity field is attained. Timing of switching the cavities is controlled by varying the pathlength of the actuating laser beam. For example, the pathlengths may be adjusted to output a single pulse of high power, or a series of quick lower power pulses.

Bolton, Paul R. (Menlo Park, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

An experimental study of VBR video over various ATM switch architectures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most important components of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network is the switch. Switch design is not a part of the ATM standards so vendors use a wide variety of techniques to build their switches. In this paper, the authors present experimental results of switching and multiplexing real-time Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video traffic (JPEG, MPEG-1, and MPEG-2) through two different ATM switch architectures. Real-time VBR traffic, such as digital video, is particularly interesting due to its high demands in terms of bandwidth, real-time delivery and processing requirements. The experiments show that the fastest switches, i.e., lowest latencies, do not necessarily perform better when transmitting VBR video. The impact of the high speed network components; characteristics, such as switch fabric architecture, buffering strategies, and higher layer transport protocols (i.e., UDP, TCP/IP), are illustrated through the experimental results.

Tsang, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Hsieh, J.; Du, D.H.C. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured. 11 figures.

Atac, R.; Fischler, M.S.; Husby, D.E.

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured.

Atac, Robert (Aurora, IL); Fischler, Mark S. (Warrenville, IL); Husby, Donald E. (DeKalb, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc.] [Omega-P, Inc.

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

273

Electro-optical switching and memory display device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuits means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

Skotheim, T.A.; O'Grady, W.E.; Linkous, C.A.

1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

274

Parallel Routing Algorithms for Nonblocking Electronic and Photonic Switching Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parallel Routing Algorithms for Nonblocking Electronic and Photonic Switching Networks Enyue Lu for the RNB networks of complexities ranging from OðN lg N� to OðN1:5 lg N� crosspoints and parallel algorithms that run in Oðminfd� lg N; ffiffiffiffiffi N p g� time for the SNB networks of OðN1:5 lg N�

Lu, Enyue "Annie"

275

Device having two optical ports for switching applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-sided light-activatable semiconductor switch device having an optical port on each side thereof. The semiconductor device may be a p-i-n diode or of bulk intrinsic material. A two ported p-i-n diode, reverse-biased to "off" by a 1.3 kV dc power supply, conducted 192 A when activated by two 1 kW laser diode arrays, one for each optical port.

Rosen, Ayre (Cherry Hill, NJ); Stabile, Paul J. (Langehorne, PA)

1991-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

276

Mechanical memory  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

277

Mechanical memory  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Zolotorev, Max (Mountain View, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Magnetization switching of rare earth orthochromite CeCrO{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the synthesis of single phase rare earth orthochromite CeCrO{sub 3} and its magnetic properties. A canted antiferromagnetic transition with thermal hysteresis at T?=?260?K is observed, and a magnetic compensation (zero magnetization) near 133?K is attributed to the antiparallel coupling between Ce{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} moments. At low temperature, field induced magnetization reversal starting from 43?K for H?=?1.2 kOe reveals the spin flip driven by Zeeman energy between the net moments and the applied field. These findings may find potential uses in magnetic switching devices such as nonvolatile magnetic memory which facilitates two distinct states of magnetization.

Cao, Yiming; Cao, Shixun, E-mail: sxcao@shu.edu.cn; Ren, Wei; Feng, Zhenjie; Yuan, Shujuan; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Lu, Bo [Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

280

Electric field controlled reversible magnetic anisotropy switching studied by spin rectification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this letter, spin rectification was used to study the electric field controlled dynamic magnetic properties of the multiferroic composite which is a Co stripe with induced in-plane anisotropy deposited onto a Pb(Mg{sub 1?3}Nb{sub 2?3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} substrate. Due to the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetoelastic effects, a reversible in-plane anisotropy switching has been realized by varying the history of the applied electric field. This merit results from the electric hysteresis of the polarization in the nonlinear piezoelectric regime, which has been proved by a butterfly type electric field dependence of the in-plane anisotropy field. Moreover, the electric field dependent effective demagnetization field and linewidth have been observed at the same time.

Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong, E-mail: fanxiaolong@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Xue, Desheng [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 56, NO. 3, MARCH 2009 817 Sensorless Control for a Switched Reluctance Wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for a Switched Reluctance Wind Generator, Based on Current Slopes and Neural Networks Estanislao Echenique, Juan

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

282

4 ESS (trademark) switch electromagnetic-pulse assessment. Volume 2. Task 3 laboratory testing of the 4 ESS Switch. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 4ESS Switch was subjected to test sequences representative of electromagnetic stresses following a high-altitude nuclear blast. These laboratory tests revealed some potential equipment sensitivities requiring only minor modifications. With these modifications implemented, the 4 ESS Switch demonstrated considerable robustness in servicing calls following current injection stress. (jhd)

Not Available

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Computational mechanics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

Goudreau, G.L.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Spontaneous symmetry breaking in 2D: Kibble-Zurek mechanism in temperature quenched colloidal monolayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Kibble-Zurek mechanism describes the formation of topological defects during spontaneous symmetry breaking for quite different systems. Shortly after the big bang, the isotropy of the Higgs-field is broken during the expansion and cooling of the universe. Kibble proposed the formation of monopoles, strings, and membranes in the Higgs field since the phase of the symmetry broken field can not switch globally to gain the same value everywhere in space. Zurek pointed out that the same mechanism is relevant for second order phase transitions in condensed matter systems. Every finite cooling rate induces the system to fall out of equilibrium which is due to the critical slowing down of order parameter fluctuations: the correlation time diverges and the symmetry of the system can not change globally but incorporates defects between different domains. Depending on the cooling rate the heterogeneous order parameter pattern are a fingerprint of critical fluctuations. In the present manuscript we show that a monolayer of superparamagnetic colloidal particles is ideally suited to investigate such phenomena. In thermal equilibrium the system undergos continuous phase transitions according KTHNY-theory. If cooled rapidly across the melting temperature the final state is a polycrystal. We show, that the observations can not be explained with nucleation of a supercooled fluid but is compatible with the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

Patrick Dillmann; Georg Maret; Peter Keim

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

285

Thermally activated switching of perpendicular magnet by spin-orbit spin torque  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We theoretically investigate the threshold current for thermally activated switching of a perpendicular magnet by spin-orbit spin torque. Based on the Fokker-Planck equation, we obtain an analytic expression of the switching current, in agreement with numerical result. We find that thermal energy barrier exhibits a quasi-linear dependence on the current, resulting in an almost linear dependence of switching current on the log-scaled current pulse-width even below 10?ns. This is in stark contrast to standard spin torque switching, where thermal energy barrier has a quadratic dependence on the current and the switching current rapidly increases at short pulses. Our results will serve as a guideline to design and interpret switching experiments based on spin-orbit spin torque.

Lee, Ki-Seung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Spin Convergence Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seo-Won [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byoung-Chul [Spin Convergence Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Jin, E-mail: kj-lee@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Spin Convergence Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

286

Enhancement of proton energy by polarization switch in laser acceleration of multi-ion foils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a scheme to significantly increase the energy of quasi-monoenergetic protons accelerated by a laser beam without increasing the input power. This improvement is accomplished by first irradiating the foil several wave periods with circular polarization and then switching the laser to linear polarization. The polarization switch increases the electron temperature and thereby moves more electrons ahead of the proton layer, resulting in a space charge electric field pushing the protons forwards. The scaling of the proton energy evolution with respect to the switching time is studied, and an optimal switching time is obtained. The proton energy for the case with optimal switching time can reach about 80 MeV with an input laser power of 70 TW, an improvement of more than 30% compared to the case without polarization switch.

Liu, Tung-Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Eliasson, Bengt [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wang, Jyhpyng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Hung [Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Klystron switching power supplies for the Internation Linear Collider  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Linear Collider is a majestic High Energy Physics particle accelerator that will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, by producing electron-positron collisions at center of mass energy of about 500 GeV. In particular, the subject of this dissertation is the R&D for a solid state Marx Modulator and relative switching power supply for the International Linear Collider Main LINAC Radio Frequency stations.

Fraioli, Andrea; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

High-current, fast-switching transistor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work that shows how the results obtained under a previous contract (NAS3-18916) have been applied to a larger-diameter (33-mm) transistor are described. An improved base contact for equalizing the base-emitter voltage at high currents has been developed along with an improved emitter contact preform which increases the silicon area available for current conduction. The electrical performance achieved is consistent with the proposed optimum design. The device design, wafer-processing techniques, and various measurements which include forward SOA, dc characteristics, and switching times are described.

Hower, P.L.

1981-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Commute Mode Switching Impact Tool | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energyon ArmedWaste andAccessCO2 InjectionDepartment ofFresno U.S.Commute Mode Switching

290

Lyons Switch, Oklahoma: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point, Alaska:Luz IILynn County,119. It isLyonSwitch,

291

EECBG Success Story: Texas County "Flips The Switch" On NewEnergy...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

runoff. More than 350 residents and students celebrated the grand opening of the first "green" building in Hidalgo County, Texas. The switch signified the county's achievement in...

292

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated segment switch Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

College Collection: Biology and Medicine 38 Switch Characterization and the Haptic Profile David Weir, Michael Peshkin, J. Edward Colgate Summary: a 38 inch diameter load...

293

Near-Infrared Electrochromic and Chiroptical Switching Materials: Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Chiral Organogels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-Infrared Electrochromic and Chiroptical Switching Materials: Design, Synthesis regions have been realized using a low molecular weight gel as a chiral scaffold and electrochromic

Wan, Xin-hua

294

14 ESS (trademark) switch inherent radiation-hardness assessment. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Phase I of the 4 ESS Switch RHA Program documented in this report is the preliminary assessment of the inherent fallout-radiation susceptibility of the 4 ESS Switch. The approach described herein consists of the identification of the active microelectronic piece-parts used in the 4 ESS Switch; characterization of their radiation tolerance, based on available data; preliminary identification of hardness-critical packs; and preliminary analysis of 4 ESS Switch performance during expose to ambient (unshielded) fallout radiation, also based on available data. (Author)

Not Available

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Stress-tolerant and temperature-stable RF MEMS capacitive switches and tunable filters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

frequencies, the equivalent resistance and capacitance arehas a lower series equivalent resistance (R se ) compared toresistance of the switch were extracted from fitting the equivalent

Reines, Isak C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

E-Print Network 3.0 - atrial switch operation Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This waveform generator made operator... and been incorporated into a stream based ECG simulator. The simulator a timing operator to switch from... Open-Source Method...

297

Microsoft Word - CX-Rogue-GoldBeach-DisconnectSwitch-FY13_WEB...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Gregory L Vassallo Electical Engineer - TPCV-ALVEY Proposed Action: Rogue-Gold Beach No. 2 disconnect switch replacement...

298

Electrically operated magnetic switch designed to display reduced leakage inductance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically operated magnetic switch is disclosed herein for use in opening and closing a circuit between two terminals depending upon the voltage across these terminals. The switch so disclosed is comprised of a ferrite core in the shape of a toroid having opposing ends and opposite inner and outer sides and an arrangement of electrically conductive components defining at least one current flow path which makes a number of turns around the core. This arrangement of components includes a first plurality of electrically conducive rigid rods parallel with and located outside the outer side of the core and a second plurality of electrically conductive rigid rods parallel with and located inside the inner side of the core. The arrangement also includes means for electrically connecting these rods together so that the define the current flow path. In one embodiment, this latter means uses rigid cross-tab means. In another, preferred embodiment, printed circuits on rigid dielectric substrates located on opposite ends of the core are utilized to interconnect the rods together. 10 figures.

Cook, E.G.

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

299

Electrically operated magnetic switch designed to display reduced leakage inductance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically operated magnetic switch is disclosed herein for use in opening and closing a circuit between two terminals depending upon the voltage across these terminals. The switch so disclosed is comprised of a ferrite core in the shape of a toroid having opposing ends and opposite inner and outer sides and an arrangement of electrically conductive components defining at least one current flow path which makes a number of turns around the core. This arrangement of components includes a first plurality of electrically conducive rigid rods parallel with and located outside the outer side of the core and a second plurality of electrically conductive rigid rods parallel with and located inside the inner side of the core. The arrangement also includes means for electrically connecting these rods together so that the define the current flow path. In one embodiment, this latter means uses rigid cross-tab means. In another, preferred embodiment, printed circuits on rigid dielectric substrates located on opposite ends of the core are utilized to interconnect the rods together.

Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Agreement Mechanisms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre theAdministratorCFM LEAPAgenda AgendaAgreement Mechanisms

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Ocean Observing Ocean Observing Systems (OOS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, national, and global scales. · Ocean Observing Systems serve: Fishing industry National security Coastal properties, such as salinity, temperature, and waves Satellite maps of sea surface temperature NATIONAL Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) 11 REGIONAL Systems, including: MANY LOCAL Systems

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

302

Nonlinear geometric effects in mechanical bistable morphing structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bistable structures associated with non-linear deformation behavior, exemplified by the Venus flytrap and slap bracelet, can switch between different functional shapes upon actuation. Despite numerous efforts in modeling such large deformation behavior of shells, the roles of mechanical and nonlinear geometric effects on bistability remain elusive. We demonstrate, through both theoretical analysis and table-top experiments, that two dimensionless parameters control bistability. Our work classifies the conditions for bistability, and extends the large deformation theory of plates and shells.

Zi Chen; Qiaohang Guo; Carmel Majidi; Wenzhe Chen; David J. Srolovitz; Mikko P. Haataja

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

303

Mechanical Engineering ME 3720 FLUID MECHANICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering ME 3720 FLUID MECHANICS Pre-requisite: ME 2330 Co-requisite: ME 3210) to develop an understanding of the physical mechanisms and the mathematical models of fluid mechanics of fluid mechanics problems in engineering practice. The basic principles of fluid mechanics

Panchagnula, Mahesh

304

Modeling the choice to switch from fuelwood to electricity Implications for giant panda habitat conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was explained by demographic and electricity factors (price, voltage, and outage frequency). In addition, lowering electricity prices and increasing electricity quality would encourage local residents to switchANALYSIS Modeling the choice to switch from fuelwood to electricity Implications for giant panda

An, Li

305

Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation Based Optical-Label Switching Transmitter with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation Based Optical-Label Switching Transmitter with All-Optical, 95616 Email: sbyoo@ucdavis.edu Abstract: This paper introduces a modulation-format transparent optical-label switching transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation. Packets consisting of 100 Gb

Kolner, Brian H.

306

Optical-Label Switching, MPLS, MPLambdaS and GMPLS S. J. B. Yoo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical-Label Switching, MPLS, MPLambdaS and GMPLS S. J. B. Yoo Department of Electrical), yoo@ece.ucdavis.edu ABSTRACT This paper discusses the new architecture and protocol of Optical characteristics of Optical-Label switching indicate its support of diverse QoS, CoS, and ToS services while

Kolner, Brian H.

307

Online Center of Gravity Estimation in Automotive Vehicles using Multiple Models and Switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Online Center of Gravity Estimation in Automotive Vehicles using Multiple Models and Switching and switching for realtime estimation of center of gravity (CG) position in automotive vehicles. The method utilizes simple linear vehicle models and assumes availability of standard stock automotive sensors. We

Duffy, Ken

308

Magnetic properties and switching volumes of nanocrystalline SmFeSiC films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Systematic studies of the effects of Si addition on the magnetic and magnetization reversal properties of SmFeSiC films are presented. The magnetic switching volume and other magnetic parameters (e.g., coercivity) are strongly dependent upon the Si content. Correlations between switching volume, coercivity, and the intergrain interactions are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Zhang, S.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Institute of Physics and Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, Peoples Republic of (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Institute of Physics and Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, Peoples Republic of (China); Shan, Z.S.; Liu, Y. [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0113 (United States)] [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0113 (United States); Zhao, T.Y.; Zhao, J.G.; Shen, B.G.; Zhan, W.S. [Institute of Physics and Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, Peoples Republic of (China)] [Institute of Physics and Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, Peoples Republic of (China); Sellmyer, D.J. [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0113 (United States)] [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0113 (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self-assembled multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self The electrochromic switching times of solid state conducting polymer devices fabricated by the ionic self shown to decrease with the active area of the electrochromic device suggesting that even faster

Heflin, Randy

310

Solid-State Gadolinium-Magnesium Hydride Optical Switch R. Armitage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-state electrochromic device. With positive polarization of the hydride electrode, the visible reflectance approaches 35 and reflecting states. Keywords: gadolinium-magnesium; electrochromic hydride; optical switching device. 2 #12;A conventional electrochromics5 . Optical switching has also been demonstrated by varying the H content

311

Increasing output energy from a passively Q-switched Er:glass laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

designators, laser range finders, wind metrology, LIDARs, and communication [8­10]. Passive Q- switches have many advantages over active ones. These include low cost, compact size and weight, robustness, and high are passively Q-switched, only the lowest spatial mode can develop. Attempts to increase the pump power in order

Friesem, Asher A.

312

Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

Chen, Kanghua (Canton, MI); Ahmed, Sayeed (Canton, MI); Zhu, Lizhi (Canton, MI)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

313

Single ultrafast diffusive conduction based optoelectronic switch for multi-channel operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single ultrafast diffusive conduction based optoelectronic switch for multi-channel operation Fatih to multi-channel operation, including Green's function diffusive conduction solution and crosstalk conduction based optoelectronic switches that accommodate >100 optical channels (with 2,000mm-2 channel

Miller, David A. B.

314

Implications of a Regime-Switching Model on Natural Gas Storage Valuation and Optimal Operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Implications of a Regime-Switching Model on Natural Gas Storage Valuation and Optimal Operation-switching model for the risk adjusted natural gas spot price and study the implications of the model on the valuation and optimal operation of natural gas storage facilities. We calibrate the model parameters to both

Forsyth, Peter A.

315

An AWGR based Low-Latency Optical Switch for Data Centers and High Performance Computing Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i An AWGR based Low-Latency Optical Switch for Data Centers and High Performance Computing Systems based optical switch for data centers and high performance computing systems that builds upon several for Data Centers and High Performance Computing Systems ..i ABSTRACT .....................................

Kolner, Brian H.

316

ATLAS II: Optimizing a 10Gbps SingleChip ATM Switch Dionisios Pnevmatikatos and George Kornaros  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATLAS II: Optimizing a 10Gbps Single­Chip ATM Switch Dionisios Pnevmatikatos and George Kornaros, Heraklio, Crete, GR­711­10 GREECE fpnevmati,kornarosg@ics.forth.gr Abstract We describe ATLAS II, an optimized version of the ATLAS I ATM switch. While in ATLAS I we concentrated on cor­ rectness, in ATLAS II

Markatos, Evangelos P.

317

Minimizing Simultaneous Switching Noise at Reduced Power with Power Transmission Lines for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minimizing Simultaneous Switching Noise at Reduced Power with Power Transmission Lines for High] by replacing the power plane structure with a power transmission line (PTL). In this paper, a new power switching noise; power transmission line I. INTRODUCTION The rapid increase in data rates and transistor

Swaminathan, Madhavan

318

On the equivalence of economic lot scheduling and switched production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the equivalence of economic lot scheduling and switched production systems K.G.M. Jacobs from switched production systems are applied to the economic lot schedul- ing problem: i) A feedback-entrant production scheduling where parts arrive into the manufacturing system with certain (random) arrival rates

Armbruster, Dieter

319

DOS -A Scalable Optical Switch for Datacenters xye@ucdavis.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOS - A Scalable Optical Switch for Datacenters Xiaohui Ye xye@ucdavis.edu Paul Mejia pmmejia studies of Datacenter Optical Switch (DOS) designed for scalable and high- throughput interconnections System (OSMOSIS) [4, 5] and Data Vortex [6-8] are two pioneering projects in this area. DOS (Datacenter

Kolner, Brian H.

320

Parasol and GreenSwitch: Managing Datacenters Powered by Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parasol and GreenSwitch: Managing Datacenters Powered by Renewable Energy ´I~nigo Goiri, William the renewable energy supply. For highest benefits, green datacenter operators must intelligently manage with Parasol, GreenSwitch, and MapReduce workloads demonstrate that intelligent workload and energy source

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Impact of Photonic Switch Radix on Realizing Optical Interconnection Networks for Exascale Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power consumption. Several challenges still need to be addressed, for instance, achieving energy of programmability, resilience, power consumption and cost. Incremental evolutions of existing platforms may-stage architecture to obtain a virtual high port count switch, forming an indirect network. Alternatively, switches

Bergman, Keren

322

Scheduling in Switches with Small Internal Buffers Nikos Chrysos and Manolis Katevenis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION Packet networks require low-cost and fast packet switches to keep pace with the increase of today belong to the former category, but the trend is towards buffered fabrics that exploit advances://archvlsi.ics.forth.gr/bpbenes/ Draft version of 22 July 2005 Abstract-- Unbuffered crossbars or switching fabrics contain no internal

Katevenis, Manolis G.H.

323

Switch-reference and Omotic-Cushitic Language Contact in Southwest Ethiopia Yvonne Treis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Switch-reference and Omotic-Cushitic Language Contact in Southwest Ethiopia Yvonne Treis LLACAN. This study shows that there is a confined area in the South of Ethiopia where many Omotic languages and a few (Cushitic) and gives an overview of the distribution of switch-reference systems in Ethiopia in general

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Characterization of the conduction phase of a plasma opening switch using a hydrogen plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of the conduction phase of a plasma opening switch using a hydrogen plasma J. J Pulsed Power Physics Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 Y 2004; published online 7 January 2005) Plasma opening switch (POS) experiments were conducted

325

Electrochemical control of quantum interference in anthraquinone-based molecular switches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical control of quantum interference in anthraquinone-based molecular switches Troels properties of a recently proposed anthraquinone-based electrochemical switch. Robust conductance on in the anthraquinone but absent in the hydroquinone molecular bridge. A simple explanation of the interference effect

Thygesen, Kristian

326

Energy landscape and thermally activated switching of submicron-sized ferromagnetic elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy landscape and thermally activated switching of submicron-sized ferromagnetic elements Weinan September 2002; accepted 18 November 2002 Thermally activated switching and the energy landscape films. The energy landscape of such a system is nicely summarized on the plane spanned by the average

Van Den Eijnden, Eric

327

Fast deterministic switching in orthogonal spin torque devices via the control of the relative spin polarizations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We model 100 ps pulse switching dynamics of orthogonal spin transfer (OST) devices that employ an out-of-plane polarizer and an in-plane polarizer. Simulation results indicate that increasing the spin polarization ratio, C{sub P}?=?P{sub IPP}/P{sub OPP}, results in deterministic switching of the free layer without over-rotation (360° rotation). By using spin torque asymmetry to realize an enhanced effective P{sub IPP}, we experimentally demonstrate this behavior in OST devices in parallel to anti-parallel switching. Modeling predicts that decreasing the effective demagnetization field can substantially reduce the minimum C{sub P} required to attain deterministic switching, while retaining low critical switching current, I{sub p}???500??A.

Park, Junbo; Buhrman, R. A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Ralph, D. C. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States) [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

328

Air-Gap Convection in a Switched Reluctance Machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Switched reluctance machines (SRMs) have recently become popular in the automotive market as they are a good alternative to the permanent magnet machines commonly employed for an electric powertrain. Lumped parameter thermal networks are usually used for thermal analysis of motors due to their low computational cost and relatively accurate results. A critical aspect to be modelled is the rotor-stator air-gap heat transfer, and this is particularly challenging in an SRM due to the salient pole geometry. This work presents firstly a review of the literature including the most relevant correlations for this geometry, and secondly, numerical CFD simulations of air-gap heat transfer for a typical configuration. A new correlation has been derived: $\\mathbf{Nu=0.181\\ Ta_m^{0.207}}$

Romanazzi, Pietro

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Possible temperature control DC switch effect between two superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The lifetime of an electron pair could not be unlimited long, on the basis of this, we suggest a model. The model means that the movements of charge carriers in a superconductor should have three forms: the single-electron movement, the single-pair movement, and the revolving around the mass center of two electrons in a pair. Thus the current in a superconductor has three possible parts. Similarly, there should be three possible effects in a SIS junction: the tunneling of single electron, the tunneling of single pair, and the pair-forming following the pair-breaking. This paper will discuss these problems and present a possible temperature control DC switch effect between two superconductors.

Tian De Cao

2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

330

Effect of electronic reconstruction on cuprate-manganite spin switches.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine the anomalous inverse spin switch behavior in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}(LCMO)/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO)/LCMO trilayers by combined transport studies and polarized neutron reflectometry. Measuring magnetization profiles and magnetoresistance in an in-plane rotating magnetic field, we prove that, contrary to many accepted theoretical scenarios, the relative orientation between the two LCMO's magnetizations is not sufficient to determine the magnetoresistance. Rather the field dependence of magnetoresistance is explained by the interplay between the applied magnetic field and the (exponential tail of the) induced exchange field in YBCO, the latter originating from the electronic reconstruction at the LCMO/YBCO interfaces.

Liu, Y.; Visani, C.; Nemes, N. M.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Zhu, L. Y.; Tornos, J.; Zhernenkov, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.; te Velthuis, S. G. E. (Materials Science Division); (Universidad Complutense de Madrid); (LANL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1996 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electrochemical method for metal ion separations, called Electrically Switched Ion Exchange, is described. Direct oxidation and reduction of an electroactive film attached to an electrode surface is used to load and unload the film with alkali metal cations. The electroactive films under investigation are Ni hexacyanoferrates, which are deposited on the surface by applying an anodic potential to a Ni electrode in a solution containing the ferricyanide anion. Reported film preparation procedures were modified to produce films with improved capacity and stability. Electrochemical behavior of the derivatized electrodes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The films show selectivity for Cs in concentrated sodium solutions. Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in oxidation state of the film and imaging experiments have demonstrated that the redox reactions are spatially homogenous across the film. Requirements for a bench scale unit were identified.

Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Genders, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

275 C Downhole Switched-Mode Power Supply  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vee-square (V2) control based controller IC is developed for a switch mode power supply capable of operating at extreme temperature/harsh environment conditions. A buck type regulator with silicon carbide power junction field effect transistors (JFET) as power devices is used to analyze the performance of controller. Special emphases are made on the analog sub-blocks--voltage reference, operational transconductance amplifier and comparator as individual building blocks. Transformer coupled gate drives and high temperature operable magnetic cores and capacitors are identified and tested for use in the design. Conventional ceramic chip packaging of ICs combined with lead carrier type mounting of passive filter components is introduced for hybrid packaging of the complete product. The developed SMPS is anticipated to support the operation of down-hole microcontrollers and other electronics devices that require low/medium power filtered dc inputs over an operating temperature of 275 C.

Chris Hutchens; Vijay Madhuravasal

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Spin switches for compact implementation of neuron and synapse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanomagnets driven by spin currents provide a natural implementation for a neuron and a synapse: currents allow convenient summation of multiple inputs, while the magnet provides the threshold function. The objective of this paper is to explore the possibility of a hardware neural network implementation using a spin switch (SS) as its basic building block. SS is a recently proposed device based on established technology with a transistor-like gain and input-output isolation. This allows neural networks to be constructed with purely passive interconnections without intervening clocks or amplifiers. The weights for the neural network are conveniently adjusted through analog voltages that can be stored in a non-volatile manner in an underlying CMOS layer using a floating gate low dropout voltage regulator. The operation of a multi-layer SS neural network designed for character recognition is demonstrated using a standard simulation model based on coupled Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations, one for each magnet in the network.

Quang Diep, Vinh, E-mail: vdiep@purdue.edu; Sutton, Brian; Datta, Supriyo [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Behin-Aein, Behtash [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

334

High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J (Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Edgewood, NM); O'Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Denison, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Brown, Darwin J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

E-beam high voltage switching power supply  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

E-beam high voltage switching power supply  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

BULKING SLUDGE TREATMENT BY MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATION AND MECHANICAL TREATMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the operation of the biological stage of waste water treatment plants. If the threatening extensive growth of wastewater treatment plants often need a complex control for the optimal processing. The measurement status and for the regulation of biological parts in waste water treatment plants. Furthermore, e

338

Positive feedback and temperature mediated molecular switch controls differential gene regulation in Bordetella pertussis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on the phosphorelay kinetics operative within BvgAS two component system we propose a mathematical framework for signal transduction and gene regulation of phenotypic phases in Bordetella pertussis. The proposed model identifies a novel mechanism of transcriptional interference between two promoters present in the bvg locus. To understand the system behavior under elevated temperature, the developed model has been studied in two different ways. First, a quasi-steady state analysis has been carried out for the two component system, comprising of sensor BvgS and response regulator BvgA. The quasi-steady state analysis reveals temperature induced sharp molecular switch, leading to amplification in the output of BvgA. Accumulation of a large pool of BvgA thus results into differential regulation of the downstream genes, including the gene encoding toxin. Numerical integration of the full network kinetics is then carried out to explore time dependent behavior of different system components, that qualitatively capture the essential features of experimental results performed in vivo. Furthermore, the developed model has been utilized to study mutants that are impaired in their ability to phosphorylate the transcription factor, BvgA, of the signaling network.

Arnab Bandyopadhyay; Suman K. Banik

2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

339

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD equilibrium statistical mechanics based upon the conservation of energy and potential enstrophy to the mass. The equilibrium state resembles the buoyancy structure actually observed. Key words: statistical mechanics, ocean

Salmon, Rick

340

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering An experimental methodology is presented for mechanism verification of physics-based prognosis of mechanical damage, such as fatigue. The proposed experimental methodology includes multi-resolution in-situ mechanical testing, advanced imaging analysis, and mechanism

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341

Optimization of radio astronomical observations using Allan variance measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stability tests based on the Allan variance method have become a standard procedure for the evaluation of the quality of radio-astronomical instrumentation. They are very simple and simulate the situation when detecting weak signals buried in large noise fluctuations. For the special conditions during observations an outline of the basic properties of the Allan variance is given, and some guidelines how to interpret the results of the measurements are presented. Based on a rather simple mathematical treatment clear rules for observations in ``Position-Switch'', ``Beam-'' or ``Frequency-Switch'', ``On-The-Fly-'' and ``Raster-Mapping'' mode are derived. Also, a simple ``rule of the thumb'' for an estimate of the optimum timing for the observations is found. The analysis leads to a conclusive strategy how to plan radio-astronomical observations. Particularly for air- and space-borne observatories it is very important to determine, how the extremely precious observing time can be used with maximum efficiency. The analysis should help to increase the scientific yield in such cases significantly.

R. Schieder; C. Kramer

2001-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

342

Quantum Mechanics and Gravitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In summer 1999 an experiment at ILL, Grenoble was conducted. So-called ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) were trapped in the vertical direction between the Fermi-potential of a smooth mirror below and the gravitational potential of the earth above [Ne00, Ru00]. If quantum mechanics turns out to be a sufficiently correct description of the phenomena in the regime of classical, weak gravitation, one should observe the forming of quantized bound states in the vertical direction above a mirror. Already in a simplified view, the data of the experiment provides strong evidence for the existence of such gravitationally bound quantized states. A successful quantum-mechanical description would then provide a convincing argument, that the socalled first quantization can be used for gravitation as an interaction potential, as this is widely expected. Furthermore, looking at the characteristic length scales of about 10 mikron of such bound states formed by UCN, one sees, that a complete quantum mechanical description of this experiment additionally would enable one to check for possible modifications of Newtonian gravitation on distance scales being one order of magnitude below currently available tests [Ad00]. The work presented here deals mainly with the development of a quantum mechanical description of the experiment.

A. Westphal

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

343

The formation of iron aluminides on aluminum surface by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and growth of Fe based aluminum diffusion layers at the Fe-Al interface have been investigated to improve the surface hardness. The diffusion of Fe into Al has been accomplished by focusing a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the modified surface. The variety of the layer depth is achieved based on the type of heating and quenching media. Microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of the modified surface were carried out via gas discharge spectrometer GDS, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Vickers Hardness tester. The results indicate that hardness at the interface of Fe-Al layer is increased. The optimum hardness achieved as 93 HV at corresponding critical energy density of 438 Jcm{sup ?2}.

Bidin, Noriah; Al-Wafi, Yusef A. [Advanced Photonic Science Institute, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, 81310, Johor (Malaysia)

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

344

3252 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 54, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2007 Silicon Germanium CMOS Optoelectronic Switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optoelectronic Switching Device: Bringing Light to Latch Ali K. Okyay, Student Member, IEEE, Duygu Kuzum, Student. Saraswat, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--We propose a novel semiconductor optoelectronic (OE) switch--Germanium, integrated optoelectronics, metal­ oxide­semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) switches, optical

Miller, David A. B.

345

Comparative Studies of All-Optical vs. Electrical vs. Hybrid Switches in Datacom and in Telecom Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparative Studies of All-Optical vs. Electrical vs. Hybrid Switches in Datacom and in Telecom switches. 2. Telecom Switches: optical vs. electrical vs. hybrid In the national and global telecom Networks Xiaohui Ye, Venkatesh Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Kolner, Brian H.

346

Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

347

SWITCHING METHODS FOR LINEAR TURBO EQUALIZATION Seok-Jun Lee, Naresh R. Shanbhag, and Andrew C. Singer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SWITCHING METHODS FOR LINEAR TURBO EQUALIZATION Seok-Jun Lee, Naresh R. Shanbhag, and Andrew C,acsinger]@uiuc.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, several switching methods are presented for a class of switching turbo equalization the best bit error rate (1.5dB processing gain at 10-4 ) with low complexity. 1. INTRODUCTION The turbo

Singer, Andrew C

348

Transparent high-data-rate optical transmission through broadband hitless bypass switches for chip-scale optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of silicon photonics are its large bandwidth, low energy consumption, and small footprint components switches, with open eye-diagrams and error-free operation (BERs less than 10-12 ). Both through- and drop-ports was demonstrated [5], with switching from one input to various output ports. Here we demonstrate a hitless switch

Bergman, Keren

349

Mechanical Dissipation in Silicon Flexures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermo-mechanical properties of silicon make it of significant interest as a possible material for mirror substrates and suspension elements for future long-baseline gravitational wave detectors. The mechanical dissipation in 92um thick single-crystal silicon cantilevers has been observed over the temperature range 85 K to 300 K, with dissipation approaching levels down to phi = 4.4E-7.

S. Reid; G. Cagnoli; D. R. M. Crooks; J. Hough; P. Murray; S. Rowan; M. M. Fejer; R. Route; S. Zappe

2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

350

Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric field induced polarization switching underpins most functional applications of ferroelectric materials in information technology, materials science, and optoelectronics. In the last 20 years, much attention has been focused on the switching of individual domains using scanning probe microscopy, both as model of ferroelectric data storage and approach to explore fundamental physics of ferroelectric switching. The classical picture of tip induced switching includes formation of cylindrical domain oriented along the tip field, with the domain size is largely determined by the tip-induced field distribution and domain wall motion kinetics. The polarization screening is recognized as a necessary precondition to the stability of ferroelectric phase; however, screening processes are generally considered to be uniformly efficient and not leading to changes in switching behavior. Here, we demonstrate that single-point tip-induced polarization switching can give rise to a surprisingly broad range of domain morphologies, including radial and angular instabilities. These behaviors are traced to the surface screening charge dynamics, which in some cases can even give rise to anomalous switching against the electric field (ionic field effect). The implications of these behaviors for ferroelectric materials and devices are discussed.

Ievlev, Anton [ORNL] [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Shur, Vladimir Ya. [Ural Federal University, Russia] [Ural Federal University, Russia; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Phase space quantum mechanics - Direct  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional approach to quantum mechanics in phase space (q,p), is to take the operator based quantum mechanics of Schroedinger, or an equivalent, and assign a c-number function in phase space to it. We propose to begin with a higher level of abstraction, in which the independence and the symmetric role of q and p is maintained throughout, and at once arrive at phase space state functions. Upon reduction to the q- or p-space the proposed formalism gives the conventional quantum mechanics, however, with a definite rule for ordering of factors of noncommuting observables. Further conceptual and practical merits of the formalism are demonstrated throughout the text.

Nasiri, S.; Sobouti, Y.; Taati, F. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, 45195-1159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Department of Physics, Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran); Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, 45195-1159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, 45195-1159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, D-78457 Sanadaj (Iran)

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Efficiency of stripping mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are several physical processes to remove gas from galaxies in clusters, with subsequent starvation and star formation quenching: tidal interactions between galaxies, or tidal stripping from the cluster potential itself, interactions with the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) through ram pressure, turbulent or viscous stripping, or also outflows from star formation of nuclear activity, We review the observational evidence for all processes, and numerical simulations of galaxies in clusters which support the respective mechanisms. This allows to compare their relative efficiencies, all along cluster formation.

F. Combes

2003-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

353

Total ionizing dose effect of ?-ray radiation on the switching characteristics and filament stability of HfOx resistive random access memory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The total ionizing dose (TID) effect of gamma-ray (?-ray) irradiation on HfOx based resistive random access memory was investigated by electrical and material characterizations. The memory states can sustain TID level ?5.2 Mrad (HfO{sub 2}) without significant change in the functionality or the switching characteristics under pulse cycling. However, the stability of the filament is weakened after irradiation as memory states are more vulnerable to flipping under the electrical stress. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to ascertain the physical mechanism of the stability degradation, which is attributed to the Hf-O bond breaking by the high-energy ?-ray exposure.

Fang, Runchen; Yu, Shimeng, E-mail: shimengy@asu.edu [School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States); School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Gonzalez Velo, Yago; Chen, Wenhao; Holbert, Keith E.; Kozicki, Michael N.; Barnaby, Hugh [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

354

Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber by integrating the metamaterial layer to be the out of plane movable microactuator. The metamaterial layer is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage across the suspended complementary metamaterial layer and the stationary bottom metallic reflector. Thus, the effective spacing between the metamaterial layer and bottom metal reflector is varied as a function of applied voltage. With the reduction of effective spacing between the metamaterial and reflector layers, a strong spectral blue shift in the peak absorption wavelength can be achieved. With spacing change of 300?nm, the spectral shift of 0.7??m in peak absorption wavelength was obtained for near infrared spectral region. The electro-optic switching performance of the device was characterized, and a striking switching contrast of 1500% was achieved at 2.1??m. The reported micro-electro-mechanically tunable complementary metamaterial absorber device can potentially enable a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices, such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches that form the key components to facilitate future photonic circuit applications.

Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Institute of Microelectronics (IME), 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Kwong, Dim-Lee [Institute of Microelectronics (IME), 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Lee, Chengkuo, E-mail: elelc@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

355

Three-terminal resistive switching memory in a transparent vertical-configuration device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The resistive switching phenomenon has attracted much attention recently for memory applications. It describes the reversible change in the resistance of a dielectric between two non-volatile states by the application of electrical pulses. Typical resistive switching memories are two-terminal devices formed by an oxide layer placed between two metal electrodes. Here, we report on the fabrication and operation of a three-terminal resistive switching memory that works as a reconfigurable logic component and offers an increased logic density on chip. The three-terminal memory device we present is transparent and could be further incorporated in transparent computing electronic technologies.

Ungureanu, Mariana; Llopis, Roger [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain)] [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain) [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

356

Uniqueness of Viscosity Solutions for Optimal Multi-Modes Switching Problem with Risk of default  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we study the optimal m-states switching problem in finite horizon as well as infinite horizon with risk of default. We allow the switching cost functionals and cost of default to be of polynomial growth and arbitrary. We show uniqueness of a solution for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. This system is the deterministic version of the Verification Theorem of the Markovian optimal m-states switching problem with risk of default. This problem is connected with the valuation of a power plant in the energy market.

Asri, Brahim El

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Differential ultrafast all-optical switching of the resonances of a micropillar cavity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We perform frequency- and time-resolved all-optical switching of a GaAs-AlAs micropillar cavity using an ultrafast pump-probe setup. The switching is achieved by two-photon excitation of free carriers. We track the cavity resonances in time with a high frequency resolution. The pillar modes exhibit simultaneous frequency shifts, albeit with markedly different maximum switching amplitudes and relaxation dynamics. These differences stem from the non-uniformity of the free carrier density in the micropillar, and are well understood by taking into account the spatial distribution of injected free carriers, their spatial diffusion and surface recombination at micropillar sidewalls.

Thyrrestrup, Henri, E-mail: h.t.nielsen@utwente.nl; Yüce, Emre; Ctistis, Georgios; Vos, Willem L. [Complex Photonic Systems (COPS), MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Claudon, Julien; Gérard, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jean-michel.gerard@cea.fr [University Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M, Nanophysics and Semiconductors Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SP2M, Nanophysics and Semiconductors Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The switching speed of magnetic fluids was investigated by using laser light of different power densities as well as incandescent light. It was found that the switching speed exhibited a strong dependence on incident power density and there existed an optimum value at which the fastest switching operation was achieved. In addition, it was revealed that the clustering of magnetic nanoparticles, which became resolved at large power densities, resulted in a rapid agglomeration of nanoparticles when a magnetic field was applied. It is suggested that the optical trapping force of the laser beam is responsible for the formation of clusters.

Deng Haidong [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Liu Jin; Lin Xusheng; Sun Ting; Dai Qiaofeng; Wu Lijun; Lan Sheng [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Zhao Weiren; Zhang Wei [College of Science and Technology Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Gopal, Achanta Venu [DCMP and MS, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

359

Experimental investigation of explosive-driven plasma-compression opening switches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma-compression opening-switch techniques are being developed for use in explosive-driven magnetic-flux-compresssion-generator applications. A new test bed for performing low-cost experimentation is described. Experiments with approx.0.15 MA/cm linear current density in the switch have achieved resistance increases of a factor of 10 in a few hundred nanoseconds. Peak field strengths of 30 kV/cm are generated in these tests. Data are presented from preliminary tests that indicate reduced pressure in the plasma cavity enhanced switch performance.

Goforth, J.H.; Caird, R.S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Effects of graphene on electro-optic switching and spontaneous polarization of a ferroelectric liquid crystal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small quantity of graphene flakes was doped in a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC), and the field-induced ferroelectric electro-optic switching was found to be significantly faster in the FLC + graphene hybrid than that of the pure FLC. Further studies revealed that the suspended graphene flakes enhanced the FLC's spontaneous polarization by improving smectic-C ordering resulting from the ?–? electron stacking, and reduced rotation viscosity by trapping some of the free ions of the FLC media. These effects coherently impacted the FLC-switching phenomenon, enabling the FLC molecules to switch faster on reversing an external electric field.

Basu, Rajratan, E-mail: basu@usna.edu [Department of Physics, Soft-matter and Nanomaterials Laboratory, The United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402 (United States)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Dual-mode ion switching conducting polymer films as high energy supercapacitor materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electropolymerized polypyrrole films formed from micellar solution of anionic surfactants, viz., Dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS), showed potential-dependent anion and cation ion switching behavior and the peculiar columnar structure. The formation process and the redox of the polypyrrole was studied with the in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) methods. In-situ AFM observation clearly indicated that such a columnar structure started to form around critical charge densities of 60--100 mC cm{sup {minus}2}. The cyclic voltammogram for the PPy doped with DBS{sup {minus}} film showed two redox couples, each of which corresponds to a cation and an anion exchange process. Thus, the film behaves as a dual-mode ion doping/undoping exchanger. As the PPy film was prepared in higher concentration of the surfactant dopant, where the micelles are formed in solution, the resulting film showed a considerably higher (ca. three orders of magnitude) diffusion coefficient compared to ordinary PPy films so far reported. Such an enhanced diffusivity of ions could be attributed to a peculiar structure of the polymer formed. The feasibility of such polypyrrole in use of supercapacitor material was discussed.

Naoi, Katsuhiko; Oura, Yasushi [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

362

On the mechanism of NO selective catalytic reduction by hydrocarbons over Cu-ZSM-5 via X-ray absorption spectroscopic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An understanding of the catalytic mechanism of NO{sub x} reduction is critical for the development of next-generation high-fuel efficiency, low-emission vehicles. This paper compiles the investigations in recent years on the mechanism of NO selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by hydrocarbon over Cu-ZSM-5. The studies were focused on the oxidation state and coordination chemistry of the exchanged Cu as the active site during the catalytic reaction using X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) techniques, mainly XANES and EXAFS. Their experiment demonstrated the existence of a redox mechanism which involves cyclic switching of the oxidation states between Cu(II) and Cu(I) in an oxygen-rich gas mixture under elevated temperature. The authors also observed the coordination structural change of copper ion in ZSM-5 accompanying the change of oxidation state. A correlation between cuprous ion concentration and catalytic activity was found in NO SCR by propene. The impact of another two hydrocarbons, propane and methane, on the copper redox behavior also appears to correlate to catalytic activities in the respective mixtures. Discussions on the nature of the active sites and the mechanism of SCR are presented based on the XAS data analysis. The similarity and difference of the physical properties of copper ion between NO catalytic decomposition and NO SCR are also discussed.

Liu, D.J. [AlliedSignal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States)] [AlliedSignal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Robota, H.J. [ASEC, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [ASEC, Tulsa, OK (United States)

1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

363

Anomalous reduction of the switching voltage of Bi-doped Ge{sub 0.5}Se{sub 0.5} ovonic threshold switching devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Switching devices based on Ovonic Threshold Switching (OTS) have been considered as a solution to overcoming limitations of Si-based electronic devices, but the reduction of switching voltage is a major challenge. Here, we investigated the effect of Bi-doping in Ge{sub 0.5}Se{sub 0.5} thin films on their thermal, optical, electrical properties, as well as on the characteristics of OTS devices. As Bi increased, it was found that both of the optical energy gap (E{sub g}{sup opt}) and the depth of trap states decreased resulting in a drastic reduction of the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) by over 50%. In addition, E{sub g}{sup opt} was found to be about three times of the conduction activation energy for each composition. These results are explained in terms of the Mott delocalization effect by doping Bi.

Seo, Juhee [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyung-Woo [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang-yeol [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Byung-ki; Lee, Suyoun, E-mail: slee-eels@kist.re.kr [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

364

Influence of different illumination profiles on the on-state resistances of silicon carbide photoconductive semiconductor switches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characteristics of a silicon-carbide (SiC) photoconductive switch under different illumination profiles are presented. We triggered a V-doped semi-insulated 6H-SiC switch with lateral geometry using a laser beam of 532-nm wavelength. Photoconductivity tests for different spot profiles and locations show that such switches achieve a minimum on-state resistance when the switching gap is illuminated. The differences between on-state resistances are small for various partial illuminations of the switching gap. Semiconductor modeling is used to simulate the electric field and current profiles for different partial illuminations. The simulation results show poor on-state switch performance when partially illuminated. Based on these results, a more revealing circuit model for the switch matches well with experimental results for partial illuminations.

Wang, Langning, E-mail: wanglangning@126.com; Xun, Tao; Yang, Hanwu; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Yu [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment. During the late 1960s and 1970s, some of the abandoned buildings were used for offices, special projects, and storage. Some of the remaining electrical transformers contain PCBs in concentrations less than 500 ppm. Many of the steam and hot water pipes in the buildings are insulated with asbestos insulation, but none of the equipment or buildings have high counts of surface radioactive contamination. The general conditions of the buildings are from fair to poor. Many should be boarded-up to prevent personnel entry and in some cases demolitions would be the safer alternative.

Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

1988-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

366

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering seminar Three Dimensional Traction Force Microscopy with Applications in Cell Mechanics abstract The interactions between biochemical and mechanical signals during-dimensional measurement techniques are needed to investigate the effect of mechanical properties of the substrate

367

Mechanical Engineer Company Description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineer Company Description Control Solutions Inc. is a small, dynamic, and rapidly. Position Description The Mechanical Engineer is responsible for all aspects associated with the mechanical enclosures, brackets, cabling assemblies among others. Systems include mechanisms, sensors, hydraulics, among

Kostic, Milivoje M.

368

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Ross Schlueter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Ross Schlueter Engineering Deputy For Mechanical Engineering Russ Wells Mechanical Engineering Department Deputy ELECTRONICS, SOFTWARE & INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING Henrik von Der Sen Mechanical Admin. Assist. Joan Wolter Electronics Admin. Assist. Marilyn Wong Division Admin

369

Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski spacetime become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

Masafumi Fukuma; Yuho Sakatani

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

A Switching Control Approach to Haptic Exploration for Quality Grasps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Andrew H. Fagg Symbiotic Computing Laboratory University of Oklahoma Norman, OK 73072 Abstract-- Robotic and Andrew H. Fagg: School of Computer Science, [di|fagg]@cs.ou.edu Brian T. Watson: School of Mechanical

Fagg, Andrew H.

371

On the NP-hardness of checking matrix polytope stability and continuous-time switching stability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motivated by questions in robust control and switched linear dynamical systems, we consider the problem checking whether all convex combinations of k matrices in R[superscript ntimesn] are stable. In particular, we are ...

Gurvits, Leonid

372

Tunable Substrate Integrated Waveguide Filters Implemented with PIN Diodes and RF MEMS Switches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the first fully tunable substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) filter implemented with PIN diodes and RF MEMS switches. The methodology for tuning SIW filters is explained in detail and is used to create three separate designs...

Armendariz, Marcelino

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

373

On the synthesis of switched output feedback controllers for linear, time-invariant systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The theory of switching systems has seen many advances in the past decade. Its beginnings were founded primarily due to the physical limitations in devices to implement control such as relays, but today there exists a ...

Santarelli, Keith R. (Keith Robert), 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

PRICING ASSET SCHEDULING FLEXIBILITY USING OPTIMAL SWITCHING RENE CARMONA AND MICHAEL LUDKOVSKI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRICING ASSET SCHEDULING FLEXIBILITY USING OPTIMAL SWITCHING REN´E CARMONA AND MICHAEL LUDKOVSKI Abstract. We study the financial engineering aspects of operational flexibility of energy assets methods. 1. Introduction. Pricing of operational flexibility is one of the fundamental problems

Ludkovski, Mike

375

Design and Evaluation of a 42-V Automotive Alternator With Integrated Switched-Mode Rectifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents techniques for the design of high-power Lundell alternators with integrated switched-mode rectifiers. A multisection stator winding and interleaved rectifier arrangement is introduced that enables high ...

Tang, Sai Chun

376

A comparison of cue processing and executive functioning in child task-switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research, 29 (6), 597-626. Huizinga, M. , Dolan, C. V. , &Neuropsychologia, 44, 2017- Huizinga, M. , & van der Molen,on task-switch fluency (Huizinga & van der Molan, 2006).

Holt, Anna E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Issues in the design of switched linear control systems: A benchmark study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the paper presents a wind turbine regulation problem. This problem is can be solved using a switched linear in the overall system that is not present in any of the composite subsystems. For example, it can be easily shown

Williamson, John

378

Materials and devices for optical switching and modulation of photonic integrated circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The drive towards photonic integrated circuits (PIC) necessitates the development of new devices and materials capable of achieving miniaturization and integration on a CMOS compatible platform. Optical switching: fast ...

Seneviratne, Dilan Anuradha

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

E-Print Network 3.0 - actively q-switched intracavity Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

), the laser is passively Q switched for nearly 200 ps before evolving into a self-sustaining mode locking r... -----T-"""""I""j ; 30 *L 5 " 0 Relaxation oscillations Time...

380

Estimation of linear autoregressive models with Markov-switching, the E.M. algorithm revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work concerns estimation of linear autoregressive models with Markov-switching using expectation maximisation (E.M.) algorithm. Our method generalise the method introduced by Elliot for general hidden Markov models and avoid to use backward recursion.

Rynkiewicz, Joseph

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Electro-optic harmonic conversion to switch a laser beam out of a cavity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to switching laser beams out of laser cavities, and more particularly, it relates to the use of generating harmonics of the laser beam to accomplish the switching. When laser light is generatd in a laser cavity the problem arises of how to switch the laser light out of the cavity in order to make use of the resulting laser beam in a well known multitude of ways. These uses include range finding, communication, remote sensing, medical surgery, laser fusion applications and many more. The switch-out problem becomes more difficult as the size of the laser aperture grows such as in laser fusion applications. The final amplifier stages of the Nova and Novette lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are 46 centimeters with the laser beam expanded to 74 centimeters thereafter. Larger aperture lasers are planned.

Haas, R.A.; Henesian, M.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

382

Efficiency consideration of DC link soft-switching inverters for motor drive applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper critically evaluates efficiency of soft switching inverters including an actively clamped resonant dc link inverter and a clamped-mode resonant pole inverter. An analytical approach to evaluating efficiency of the clamped-mode soft switching inverter has been developed. The evaluation results are compared with that of the standard pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverter. A 50-kW induction motor is used as the variable load, and the inverter efficiency is evaluated under different speed and torque conditions. The clamped-mode soft-switching inverter, although eliminating the switching loss, shows poor efficiency over the entire load range. Under low load conditions, the efficiency profile is even worse. The actively clamped resonant dc link inverter shows highest efficiency over the entire speed and torque range. However, its energy saving over the standard PWM inverter is marginal under full load or high speed conditions.

Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; McKeever, J.W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetylation relay switch Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laboratory Summary: of a light switch. In addition to a NOT gate, we will use a photo resistor and a relay. This experiment... incident on the photo resistor. The output of the...

384

Demonstration of the Feasibility of Large Port Count Optical Switching Using a Hybrid MZI SOA Switch Module in a Recirculating Loop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B is recorded at a data rate of 10Gb/s. © 2014 Optical Society of America OCIS Codes: (130.0250) Optoelectronics, (130.4815) Optical switching devices In recent years, a surge has occurred in the demand for network traffic due to popular internet... . A32, Jul. 2011. [12] R. Stabile, A. Albores-Mejia, and K. A. Williams, “Monolithic active-passive 16 × 16 optoelectronic switch”, Opt. Lett. 37, pp. 4666-4668, 2012. [13] V. Aksyuk and S. Arney, “238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect...

Cheng, Q.; Wonfor, A.; Wei, J. L.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

385

Investigation of inherent radio frequency oscillation and minor switching in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVESTIGATION OF INHERENT RADIO FREQUENCY OSCILLATION AND MINOR SWITCHING IN AMORPHOUS CHALCOGENIDE SEMICONDUCTORS A Thesis by ROBERT WAYNE GILL JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1971 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering INVESTIGATION OF INHERENT RADIO FREQUENCY OSCILLATION AND MINOR SWITCHING IN AMORPHOUS CHALCOGENIDE SEMICONDUCTORS A Thesis by ROBERT WAYNE GILL JR...

Gill, Robert Wayne

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

A centralized approach to bandwidth allocation and connection management in switched Lans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A CENTRALIZED APPROACH TO BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION AND CONNECTION MANAGEMENT IN SWITCHED LANS A Thesis by KUMAR SANKARAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1998 Major Subject: Computer Science A CENTRALIZED APPROACH TO BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION AND CONNECTION MANAGEMENT IN SWITCHED LANS A Thesis by KUMAR SANKARAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Sankaran, Kumar

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Parallel, staged opening switch power conditioning techniques for flux compression generator applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Air Force Weapons Laboratory, working jointly with Los Alamos National Laboratory, has conducted a series of experiments directed at exploring composite, or staged, switching techniques for use in opening switches in applications which require the conduction of very high currents (or current densities) with very low losses for relatively long times (several tens of microseconds), and the interruption of these currents in much shorter times (ultimately a few hundred nanoseconds). This paper reports the results of those experiments.

Reinovsky, R.E.; Levi, P.S.; Bueck, J.C.; Goforth, J.H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Ultrananocrystalline diamond films with optimized dielectric properties for advanced RF MEMS capacitive switches  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An efficient deposition process is provided for fabricating reliable RF MEMS capacitive switches with multilayer ultrananocrystalline (UNCD) films for more rapid recovery, charging and discharging that is effective for more than a billion cycles of operation. Significantly, the deposition process is compatible for integration with CMOS electronics and thereby can provide monolithically integrated RF MEMS capacitive switches for use with CMOS electronic devices, such as for insertion into phase array antennas for radars and other RF communication systems.

Sumant, Anirudha V.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Mancini, Derrick C.

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Experimental demonstration of interaction-free all-optical switching via the quantum Zeno effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We experimentally demonstrate all-optical interaction-free switching using the quantum Zeno effect, achieving a high contrast of 35:1. The experimental data matches a zero-parameter theoretical model for several different regimes of operation, indicating a good understanding of the switch's characteristics. We also discuss extensions of this work that will allow for significantly improved performance, and the integration of this technology onto chip-scale devices.

Kevin T. McCusker; Yu-Ping Huang; Abijith Kowligy; Prem Kumar

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

NPN General Purpose Amplifier This device is designed as a general purpose amplifier and switch.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a general purpose amplifier and switch. The useful dynamic range extends to 100 mA as a switch and to 100-Base Voltage 6.0 V IC Collector Current - Continuous 200 mA TJ, Tstg Operating and Storage Junction Temperature Parameter Test Conditions Min Max Units V(BR)CEO Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage IC = 1.0 mA, IB = 0 40

Ravikumar, B.

391

Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.

Hamadene, S., E-mail: hamadene@univ-lemans.fr; Morlais, M. A., E-mail: Marie_Amelie.Morlais@univ-lemans.fr [Universite du Maine, LMM (France)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Effects of finite gain-bandwidth products on switched capacitor filters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 'vlav 198o Major Subject: Electrical Engineering EFFECTS OF FINITE GAIN-BANDWIDTH PRODUCTS ON SWITCHED CAPACITOR FILTERS A Thesis by FREDERIC D. MARCIANO Approved as to style and content by: o re E. Sanchez-Sinencio (Chairman of Committee... Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. E. Sanchez-Sinencio A methodology for the systematic study of the effects of finite gain-bandwidth products on switched capacitor filters is presented. The algorithms are established for a general structure comprising...

Marciano, Frederic D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Characterizing switching problems in low earth orbit satellite constellations with satellite failures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHARACTERIZING SWITCHING PROBLEMS IN LOW EARTH ORBIT SATELLITE CONSTELLATIONS WITH SATELLITE FAILURES A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT WADSWORTH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1999 Major Subject: Computer Science CHARACTERIZING SWITCHING PROBLEMS IN LOW EARTH ORBIT SATELLITE CONSTELLATIONS WITH SATELLITE FAILURES A Thesis By BRANDON SCOTT WADSWORTH Submitted to Texas...

Wadsworth, Brandon Scott

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

394

Role of oxygen vacancies in resistive switching in Pt/Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen vacancies at the metal/oxide interface, driven by an electric field, have been considered responsible for the switching to the low-resistance state. We studied the electrical properties, along with microscopic observations, of the Pt/Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (001) single-crystal system. Electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed highly accumulated oxygen vacancies at the interface in the high-resistance state, contrasting to common explanation. Higher resistance state by more oxygen vacancies was further confirmed in Pt/H{sub 2}-annealed SrTiO{sub 3}. These results suggest the presence of an interfacial state which dominantly determined the resistivity by changing the barrier height at the interface.

Park, Jinho; Kwon, Deok-Hwang; Park, Hongwoo; Kim, M., E-mail: mkim@snu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, C. U. [Department of Physics, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin, Kyungki 449-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

395

Magnetic switching behaviors of orbital states with different magnetic quantum numbers in Au/Fe/MgO multilayer system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A spin specific magnetic hysteresis (SSMH) curve and an orbital specific magnetic hysteresis (OSMH) curve are obtained for Fe/Au/Fe/MgO multilayers by magnetic Compton scattering and SQUID magnetometer measurements. The SSMH curve with each contribution of magnetic quantum number |m|?=?0, 1, and 2 states is obtained by decomposition analyses of magnetic Compton profiles. Residual magnetization is observed for the SSMH curve with magnetic quantum number |m|?=?0, 2 and the OSMH curve. Although the SQUID magnetometer measurements do not show perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the present Fe/Au/Fe/MgO multilayer film, the SSMH curve with magnetic quantum number |m|?=?0, 2 and OSMH curve show switching behaviors of PMA.

Suzuki, Kosuke, E-mail: kosuzuki@gunma-u.ac.jp; Takubo, Shota; Kato, Tadashi; Yamazoe, Masatoshi; Hoshi, Kazushi; Sakurai, Hiroshi [Department of Electronics and Informatics, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Homma, Yoshiya [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2145-2 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Itou, Masayoshi; Sakurai, Yoshiharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

396

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 2, MARCH 2004 363 A Passive Soft-Switching Snubber for PWM Inverters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Switching Snubber for PWM Inverters Fang Z. Peng, Senior Member, IEEE, Gui-Jia Su, Senior Member, IEEE, and Leon M for pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverters to achieve soft-switching purposes without significant cost for each switching device in an inverter to provide low dv/dt and low switching losses to the device

Tolbert, Leon M.

397

Observables of Macdonald processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a framework for computing averages of various observables of Macdonald processes. This leads to new contour--integral formulas for averages of a large class of multilevel observables, as well as Fredholm determinants for averages of two different single level observables.

Alexei Borodin; Ivan Corwin; Vadim Gorin; Shamil Shakirov

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

398

Methoden Wetenschappelijk and Observational  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methoden Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Fact-free and Observational Science #12;Data · Part of modern science is based on observation ­How do we do this? ­And what are the pitfalls? · Knowing how to observe is an important step in experimental design #12;Three kinds of science · There are (in my view) three ways

Steels, Luc

399

E-beam high voltage switching power supply  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

400

E-beam high voltage switching power supply  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

ENGINEERING MECHANICS SEMINARSENGINEERING MECHANICS SEMINARS THINK COMPOSITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENGINEERING MECHANICS SEMINARSENGINEERING MECHANICS SEMINARS THINK COMPOSITE "THINK outside the box" for more competitive structural COMPOSITES Dr. Melih Papila Visiting Professor, Aero/Astro Department, Stanford University. Adv. Composites and Polymer Processing Lab., Sabanci University, Istanbul. mpapila

Ponce, V. Miguel

402

Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic Shop)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The position is a Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic Shop) located in Kent, Washington, and will be responsible for the safe and efficient operation of a field garage performing...

403

Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu{sub 0.6}Te{sub 0.4} based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580??m diameter dot TiN/Cu{sub 0.6}Te{sub 0.4}-C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents.

Devulder, Wouter, E-mail: Wouter.Devulder@UGent.be; De Schutter, Bob; Detavernier, Christophe [Department of Solid State Sciences, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 (S1), 9000 Gent (Belgium); Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Muller, Robert; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Belmonte, Attilio [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

404

Infrasonic observations of the Northridge, California, earthquake  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrasonic waves from the Northridge, California, earthquake of 17 January 1994 were observed at the St. George, Utah, infrasound array of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The distance to the epicenter was 543 kilometers. The signal shows a complex character with many peaks and a long duration. An interpretation is given in terms of several modes of signal propagation and generation including a seismic-acoustic secondary source mechanism. A number of signals from aftershocks are also observed.

Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Laser triggering of water switches in terrawatt-class pulse power accelerators.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Focused Beams from high-power lasers have been used to command trigger gas switches in pulse power accelerators for more than two decades. This Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was aimed at determining whether high power lasers could also command trigger water switches on high-power accelerators. In initial work, we determined that focused light from three harmonics of a small pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm could be used to form breakdown arcs in water, with the lowest breakdown thresholds of 110 J/cm{sup 2} or 14 GW/cm{sup 2} at 532 nm in the green. In laboratory-scale laser triggering experiments with a 170-kV pulse-charged water switch with a 3-mm anode-cathode gap, we demonstrated that {approx}90 mJ of green laser energy could trigger the gap with a 1-{sigma} jitter of less than 2ns, a factor of 10 improvement over the jitter of the switch in its self breaking mode. In the laboratory-scale experiments we developed optical techniques utilizing polarization rotation of a probe laser beam to measure current in switch channels and electric field enhancements near streamer heads. In the final year of the project, we constructed a pulse-power facility to allow us to test laser triggering of water switches from 0.6- MV to 2.0 MV. Triggering experiments on this facility using an axicon lens for focusing the laser and a switch with a 740 kV self-break voltage produced consistent laser triggering with a {+-} 16-ns 1-{sigma} jitter, a significant improvement over the {+-} 24-ns jitter in the self-breaking mode.

Woodworth, Joseph Ray; Johnson, David Lee (Titan Pulse Sciences, San Leandro, CA); Wilkins, Frank (Bechtel Nevada, Las Vegas, NV); Van De Valde, David (EG& G Technical Services, Albuquerque, NM); Sarkisov, Gennady Sergeevich (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Zameroski, Nathan D.; Starbird, Robert L. (Bechtel Nevada, Las Vegas, NV)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Mechanical & Biomedical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical & Biomedical Engineering Department BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COURSE 105 Mechanical Engineering Graphics 3 CHEM 111L College Chemistry Lab (DLN) 1 ENGL 102 English PHYS 211 Mechanics, Waves & Heat (DLN) 4 UF 100 Intellectual Foundations 3 PHYS 211L Mechanics, Waves

Barrash, Warren

407

Blast-induced phenotypic switching in cerebral vasospasm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the cerebrovasculature is a common manifestation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) reported among combat is not required for vasospasm in bTBI, which suggests that the unique mechanics of blast injury could potentiate. These results suggest that an acute, blast-like injury is sufficient to induce a hypercontraction

Parker, Kevin Kit

408

Tunnel MOS Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor for RF Switching Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6 dry etching on the trap density and trap state energy of AlGaN surface are investigated using the GP/w- w method. Various tunneling mechanisms at different biases are then characterized in samples and compared with each other. To improve...

Rezanezhad Gatabi, Iman

2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

409

Observational learning in horses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING IN HORSES A Thesis by KATHERINE LOUISE BAER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Animal... Science OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING IN HORSES A Thesis by KATHERINE LOUISE BAER Approved as to style and content by: L7 . 5+~ (Chairma of . C mmittee) ) c r (Mem ) YiNicc CJ ~- (Membeh) (Head of Department May 1979 ABSTRACT Observational...

Baer, Katherine Louise

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Hot Pot Field Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

Lane, Michael

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

411

Hot Pot Field Observations  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

Lane, Michael

412

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Student  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

......................................................................................9 Engineering Career Services ................................................................9 McMechanical Engineering Graduate Student Handbook January 2014 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison #12;Mechanical Engineering Web Page: http://www.engr.wisc.edu/me Graduate

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

413

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 1 Welcome MIE Industrial Advisory Board October 15, 2010 #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 2 MIE Dorothy Adams Undergraduate/Graduate Secretary David Schmidt Associate Professor & Graduate Program Director #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 3 MIE James Rinderle

Mountziaris, T. J.

414

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the Department of Mechanical Engineering Tufts University Retooling Our Energy Ecosystem: challengesMechanical engineering Department Seminar Robert J. Hannemann The Gordon Institute and Chair of the Tufts Department of Mechanical Engineering. His technical and academic interests

415

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HANDBOOK FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR Old Dominion University Department of Mechanical Engineering Batten College of Engineering and Technology Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0247 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

416

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar Katia Bertoldi Harvard University Soft materials in response to diverse stimuli. While the mechanical attributes - such as energy absorption, stiffness and switchable functionalities. Katia Bertoldi is an Assistant Professor of Applied Mechanics at Harvard

417

A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105?C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

None, None

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

14 ESS (trademark) switch inherent radiation-hardness assessment. Volume 2. Appendices to final report. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Phase I of the 4 ESS Switch RHA Program document in this report is the preliminary assessment of the Inherent fallout-radiation susceptibility of the 4 ESS Switch. The approach described herein consists of the identification of the active microelectronic piece-parts used in the 4 ESS Switch; characterization of their radiation tolerance, based on available data; preliminary identification of hardness-critical packs; and preliminary analysis of 4 ESS Switch performance during export to ambient (unshielded) fallout radiation, also based on available data.

Not Available

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A local switch Markov chain on given degree graphs with application in connectivity of Peer-to-Peer networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-to-Peer networks Tom´as Feder Adam Guetz Milena Mihail Amin Saberi Abstract We study a switch Markov chain

Saberi, Amin

420

From Packet to Power Switching: Digital Direct Load Scheduling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At present, the power grid has tight control over its dispatchable generation capacity but a very coarse control on the demand. Energy consumers are shielded from making price-aware decisions, which degrades the efficiency of the market. This state of affairs tends to favor fossil fuel generation over renewable sources. Because of the technological difficulties of storing electric energy, the quest for mechanisms that would make the demand for electricity controllable on a day-to-day basis is gaining prominence. The goal of this paper is to provide one such mechanisms, which we call Digital Direct Load Scheduling (DDLS). DDLS is a direct load control mechanism in which we unbundle individual requests for energy and digitize them so that they can be automatically scheduled in a cellular architecture. Specifically, rather than storing energy or interrupting the job of appliances, we choose to hold requests for energy in queues and optimize the service time of individual appliances belonging to a broad class whi...

Alizadeh, Mahnoosh; Thomas, Robert J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Bimodal switching field distributions in all-perpendicular spin-valve nanopillars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Switching field measurements of the free layer element of 75?nm diameter spin-valve nanopillars reveal a bimodal distribution of switching fields at low temperatures (below 100?K). This result is inconsistent with a model of thermal activation over a single perpendicular anisotropy barrier. The correlation between antiparallel to parallel and parallel to antiparallel switching fields increases to nearly 50% at low temperatures. This reflects random fluctuation of the shift of the free layer hysteresis loop between two different magnitudes, which may originate from changes in the dipole field from the polarizing layer. The magnitude of the loop shift changes by 25% and is correlated to transitions of the spin-valve into an antiparallel configuration.

Gopman, D. B., E-mail: daniel.gopman@physics.nyu.edu; Kent, A. D. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Bedau, D.; Katine, J. A. [HGST San Jose Research Center, San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Mangin, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Fullerton, E. E. [CMRR, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

422

Analysis and Design of an Organic High Speed Digital Electro-Optic Switch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have analyzed and designed an organic high speed digital optical switch (DOS) based on transverse electro-optic effect. In analysis section, we proposed a quantum photonic model (QPM) to explain linear electro-optic (EO) effect. This model interpret this effect by photon-electron interaction in attosecond regime. We simulate applied electric field on molecule and crystal by Monte-Carlo method in time domain. We show how a waveguide response to an optical signal with different wavelengths when a transverse electric field applied to the waveguide. In design section, we configure conceptually a 2 * 2 EO switch with full adiabatic coupler. In this DOS, we use a rib waveguides that its core has been constructed from NPP crystal. This switch is smaller at least to one-half of similar DOS in dimensions.

Ali Akbar Wahedy Zarch; Hassan Kaatuzian; Ahmad Ajdarzadeh Oskouei; Ahmad Amjadi

2007-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

423

Analysis and Design of an Organic High Speed Digital Electro-Optic Switch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have analyzed and designed an organic high speed digital optical switch (DOS) based on transverse electro-optic effect. In analysis section, we proposed a quantum photonic model (QPM) to explain linear electro-optic (EO) effect. This model interpret this effect by photon-electron interaction in attosecond regime. We simulate applied electric field on molecule and crystal by Monte-Carlo method in time domain. We show how a waveguide response to an optical signal with different wavelengths when a transverse electric field applied to the waveguide. In design section, we configure conceptually a 2 * 2 EO switch with full adiabatic coupler. In this DOS, we use a rib waveguides that its core has been constructed from NPP crystal. This switch is smaller at least to one-half of similar DOS in dimensions.

Zarch, Ali Akbar Wahedy; Oskouei, Ahmad Ajdarzadeh; Amjadi, Ahmad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Effect of damping on the laser induced ultrafast switching in rare earth-transition metal alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present simulations of thermally induced magnetic switching in ferrimagnetic systems performed with a Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch (LLB) equation for damping constant in a wide range of values. We have systematically studied the GdFeCo ferrimagnet with various concentrations of Gd and compared for some values of parameters the LLB results with atomistic simulations. The agreement is remarkably good, which shows that the dynamics described by the ferrimagnetic LLB is a reasonable approximation of this complex physical phenomenon. As an important element, we show that the LLB is able to also describe the intermediate formation of a ferromagnetic state which seems to be essential to understand laser induced ultrafast switching. The study reveals the fundamental role of damping during the switching process.

Oniciuc, Eugen; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Cimpoesu, Dorin; Stancu, Alexandru, E-mail: alstancu@uaic.ro [Faculty of Physics and CARPATH Center, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

425

Self-Q-switching behavior of erbium-doped tellurite microstructured fiber lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We reported self-Q-switching behavior of erbium-doped tellurite microstructured fiber (EDTMF) lasers and further demonstrated a self-Q-switched EDTMF laser with a high repetition rate of more than 1?MHz. A 14?cm EDTMF was used as the gain medium. Upon a pump power of ?705?mW at 1480?nm, output pulses with a lasing wavelength of ?1558?nm, a repetition rate of ?1.14?MHz, and a pulse width of ?282?ns were generated from the fiber by employing a linear cavity. The maximum output power was ?316 mW and the slope efficiency was about 72.6% before the saturation of the laser power. Moreover, the influence of the fiber length on laser performances was investigated. The results showed that self-Q-switching behavior in our experiments was caused by the re-absorption originated from the ineffectively pumped part of the active fiber.

Jia, Zhi-Xu; Yao, Chuan-Fei; Kang, Zhe; Qin, Guan-Shi, E-mail: qings@jlu.edu.cn; Qin, Wei-Ping, E-mail: wpqin@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ohishi, Yasutake [Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

426

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 1 Welcome MIE Industrial Advisory Board May 5th, 2011 #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 2 IAB 2010-2011 · David K. Anderson ­ Alden Research Laboratory, Inc went on for three weeks Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 6 #12;Reza Shahbazian Yassar Mechanical

Mountziaris, T. J.

427

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar Ju Li Professor MIT Electrochemical-mechanical actions computational and experimental research on mechanical properties of materials, and energy storage and conversion Refreshments served at 10:45 AM The creation of a nanoscale electrochemical and mechanical testing platform

Lin, Xi

428

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering Department Undergraduate Advising Manual for Bachelor of Science Degrees in Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Mechanics 2011-2012 - Updated April 15, 2012 #12;Johns Hopkins University ­ Department of Mechanical Engineering 2011-2012 Undergraduate Student Advising Manual Page 2

Ghosh, Somnath

429

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar James Bird Department of Mechanical Engineering Boston ­ are discussed. James Bird is an Assistant Professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Boston completed post-doctoral research at MIT. His research interests include experimental fluid mechanics

430

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering Department Undergraduate Advising Manual for Bachelor of Science Degrees in Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Mechanics 2012-2013 - Updated July 14, 2013 #12;Johns Hopkins University ­ Department of Mechanical Engineering 2012-2013 Undergraduate Student Advising Manual Page 2

Ghosh, Somnath

431

Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has, and ground- based mechanical systems. Instrument Design Building on decades of design experience that has evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

432

Combined Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Studies of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Studies of the Electron-Transfer Reactions Involving Carbon Tetrachloride in Combined Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Studies of the...

433

Electrode with transparent series resistance for uniform switching of optical modulation devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Switching uniformity of an optical modulation device for controlling the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is improved by use of an electrode comprising an electrically resistive layer that is transparent to the radiation. The resistive layer is preferably an innerlayer of a wide-bandgap oxide sandwiched between layers of indium tin oxide or another transparent conductor, and may be of uniform thickness, or may be graded so as to provide further improvement in the switching uniformity. The electrode may be used with electrochromic and reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) smart window devices, as well as display devices based on various technologies.

Tench, D. Morgan (Camarillo, CA); Cunningham, Michael A. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Kobrin, Paul H. (Newbury Park, CA)

2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

434

Towards forming-free resistive switching in oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2?x}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the resistive switching behavior in stoichiometric HfO{sub 2} and oxygen-deficient HfO{sub 2?x} thin films grown on TiN electrodes using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Oxygen defect states were controlled by the flow of oxygen radicals during thin film growth. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of sub-stoichiometric hafnium oxide and defect states near the Fermi level. The oxygen deficient HfO{sub 2?x} thin films show bipolar switching with an electroforming occurring at low voltages and low operating currents, paving the way for almost forming-free devices for low-power applications.

Sharath, S. U., E-mail: sharath@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de; Kurian, J.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertaud, T.; Walczyk, C.; Calka, P.; Zaumseil, P.; Sowinska, M.; Walczyk, D. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Gloskovskii, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

435

Viscosity solutions of systems of PDEs with interconnected obstacles and Multi modes switching problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper deals with existence and uniqueness, in viscosity sense, of a solution for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case of this system is the deterministic version of the Verification Theorem of the Markovian optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions are arbitrary. This problem is connected with the valuation of a power plant in the energy market. The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected BSDEs with oblique reflection.

Hamadène, Said

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

The Feasibility of Building Large Scale Optical Switches Using a Novel MZI-SOA Hybrid Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

presents a schematic of the loop control plane. The switch is mounted on a thermo-electric cooler and operates at 20ºC. Lensed fibres are used to couple light in and out the chip, with a coupling loss of 8dB. A central scheduler (Stanford Research Systems... The Feasibility of Building Large Scale Optical Switches Using a Novel MZI-SOA Hybrid Approach Q. Cheng, J. L. Wei, A. Wonfor, R.V. Penty and I.H. White Centre for Photonic Systems, Electrical Division, Department of Engineering, University...

Cheng, Q.; Wei, J. L.; Wonfor, A.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Electro-optic harmonic conversion to switch a laser beam out of a cavity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a switch to permit a laser beam to escape a laser cavity through the use of an externally applied electric field across a harmonic conversion crystal. Amplification takes place in the laser cavity, and then the laser beam is switched out by the laser light being harmonically converted with dichroic or polarization sensitive elements present to alter the optical path of the harmonically converted laser light. Modulation of the laser beam can also be accomplished by varying the external electric field.

Haas, Roger A. (Pleasanton, CA); Henesian, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

All-optical switching and multistability in photonic structures with liquid crystal defects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate that one-dimensional photonic crystals with pure nematic liquid-crystal defects can operate as all-optical switching devices based on optical orientational nonlinearities of liquid crystals. We show that such a periodic structure is responsible for a modulated threshold of the optical Fr\\'eedericksz transition in the spectral domain, and this leads to all-optical switching and light-induced multistability. This effect has no quasi-statics electric field analogue, and it results from nonlinear coupling between light and a defect mode.

Andrey E. Miroshnichenko; Etienne Brasselet; Yuri S. Kivshar

2007-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

439

Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.

Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

1988-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

440

Tensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 and NbSe2 . | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 and NbSe2 . Tensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

How To Order Our easy Build-A Switch concept allows you to mix and match options to create the switch you need. Below is a complete listing of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Series 8mm DIP Coded Rotary Switches Features/Benefits · Process sealed ­ withstands soldering Example: Switch Function CD08R 8 position, BCD CD08C 8 position, BCD complement CD10R 10 position, BCD CD10C 10 position, BCD complement CD16R 16 position, Hexadecimal CD16C 16 position, Hexadecimal

Berns, Hans-Gerd

442

New Switches for Utility-Scale Inverters: First In-Class Demonstration of a Completely New Type of SiC Bipolar Switch (15kV-20kV) for Utility-Scale Inverters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar ADEPT Project: The SiCLAB is developing a new power switch for utility-scale PV inverters that would improve the performance and significantly reduce the size, weight, and energy loss of PV systems. A power switch controls the electrical energy flowing through an inverter, which takes the electrical current from a PV solar panel and converts it into the type and amount of electricity that is compatible with the electric grid. SiCLAB is using silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductors in its new power switches, which are more efficient than the silicon semiconductors used to conduct electricity in most conventional power switches today. Switches with SiC semiconductors can operate at much higher temperatures, as well as higher voltage and power levels than silicon switches. SiC-based power switches are also smaller than those made with silicon alone, so they result in much smaller and lighter electrical devices. In addition to their use in utility-scale PV inverters, SiCLAB’s new power switches can also be used in wind turbines, railways, and other smart grid applications.

None

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

Modeling the mechanical response of PBX 9501  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An engineering overview of the mechanical response of Plastic-Bonded eXplosives (PBXs), specifically PBX 9501, will be provided with emphasis on observed mechanisms associated with different types of mechanical testing. Mechanical tests in the form of uniaxial tension, compression, cyclic loading, creep (compression and tension), and Hopkinson bar show strain rate and temperature dependence. A range of mechanical behavior is observed which includes small strain recoverable response in the form of viscoelasticity; change in stiffness and softening beyond peak strength due to damage in the form microcracks, debonding, void formation and the growth of existing voids; inelastic response in the form of irrecoverable strain as shown in cyclic tests, and viscoelastic creep combined with plastic response as demonstrated in creep and recovery tests. The main focus of this paper is to elucidate the challenges and issues involved in modeling the mechanical behavior of PBXs for simulating thermo-mechanical responses in engineering components. Examples of validation of a constitutive material model based on a few of the observed mechanisms will be demonstrated against three point bending, split Hopkinson pressure bar and Brazilian disk geometry.

Ragaswamy, Partha [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Matthew W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Cheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Darla G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Sandia National Laboratories: Mechanical Testing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EnergyNuclear Energy Systems Laboratory (NESL) Brayton LabMechanical Testing Mechanical Testing Mechanical Testing Overview Mechanical 1-2 (2008). Standard Test Methods for...

445

Mechanisms of chemical phototoxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Psoralens in combination with ultraviolet light (PUVA) are phototoxic and potent modulators of epidermal cell growth and differentiation. Using an in vitro cell culture model, the effects of psoralens and UVA light on the growth of epidermal cells were investigated. It was found that psoralen and UVA light interact synergistically to inhibit the growth of cells in culture. This synergism was also observed in the ability of PUVA to inhibit DNA synthesis, decrease cell survival, cause mutations and form psoralen-DNA adducts. Using a cell culture model for the differentiation of melanocytes, PUVA was also found to be a potent inducer of melanogenesis as evidenced by its ability to increase cellular tyrosinase, the enzyme responsible for melanin biosynthesis. Results from these studies indicate that PUVA can induce dramatic alterations in the growth rate and differentiation state of cells at dosage levels which are associated with minimal DNA damage. These findings are in conflict with the general assumption that the biological effects of psoralens and UVA light are associated with their ability to bind covalently to and cross-link DNA. Therefore, the author investigated the possibility that sites of action, other than DNA, are involved in the mechanism(s) by which photoactivated psoralens modulate epidermal cell growth and differentiation. The author's laboratory has found that mammalian epidermal cells contain specific, saturable, high-affinity binding sites for the psoralens that are distinct from DNA. This receptor for the psoralens, photolabeled with ({sup 3}H)-8-methoxysporalen, was visualized following sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The psoralen receptor is shown to be a 22,000 dalton protein located in nonnuclear fractions of cell extracts.

Yurkow, E.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

An Optoelectronic Multi-Terabit CMOS Switch Core for Local Area Networks Honglin Wu, Amir Gourgy, and Ted H. Szymanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 An Optoelectronic Multi-Terabit CMOS Switch Core for Local Area Networks Honglin Wu, Amir Gourgy@grads.ece.mcmaster.ca, and teds@mail.ece.mcmaster.ca Abstract Optoelectronic integrated circuits can support thousands of an integrated optoelectronic CMOS crossbar switch to interconnect approx. 128 parallel fiber ribbon optical

Szymanski, Ted

447

3-D Computational Modeling of RF MEMS Switches H. D. Espinosa, M. Fischer, Y. Zhu and S. Lee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in this work by means of wafer level experimental techniques. RF MEMS Switches manufactured by Raytheon Systems, Raytheon Systems Co. developed MEMS switches to operate in tunable filters and oscillators used by Raytheon Systems Co. (b) Top view of the "bow-tie" membrane mounted on posts. It is made of an aluminum

Espinosa, Horacio D.

448

Abstract --When a real time digital simulator, emulating a switched circuit such as a voltage source converter, is interfaced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Abstract -- When a real time digital simulator, emulating a switched circuit such as a voltage source converter, is interfaced with a digital controller, the controller's firing signals may. Incorrect power flow due to inaccurate firing times and controller errors. 2. Switching jitter due

Lehn, Peter W.

449

DyPS: Dynamic Processor Switching for Energy-Aware Video Decoding on Multi-core SoCs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DyPS: Dynamic Processor Switching for Energy-Aware Video Decoding on Multi-core SoCs Yahia approach for energy-aware processor switching (GPP or DSP) according to the video quality. We show better performance and low energy consumption prop- erties. However, the experimental measurements we

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

450

Minimizing Simultaneous Switching Noise at Reduced Power with Constant-Voltage Power Transmission Lines for High-Speed Signaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plane structure with a power transmission line (PTL). In this paper, a new power delivery scheme called Constant Voltage Power Transmission Line (CV-PTL) is shown to significantly reduce switching noise while, and measurements. Keywords Power delivery network, simultaneous switching noise, power transmission line 1

Swaminathan, Madhavan

451

Switching to second-line ART in resource-limited settings: Comparison of programmes with and without viral load monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Switching to second-line ART in resource-limited settings: Comparison of programmes with and without viral load monitoring Running head: Second-line ART in resource-limited settings The ART: Antiretroviral therapy; switching to second-line regimens; resource-limited settings; CD4 cell count; viral load

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

452

Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton results from a hydrogen bond switch between the flavin and its surrounding amino acids that preconfigures a rearrangement of the hydrogen bond network around the flavin takes place leading to a 10-15 nm red shift

van Stokkum, Ivo

453

Observing Massive Galaxy Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A major goal of contemporary astrophysics is understanding the origin of the most massive galaxies in the universe, particularly nearby ellipticals and spirals. Theoretical models of galaxy formation have existed for many decades, although low and high redshift observations are only beginning to put constraints on different ideas. We briefly describe these observations and how they are revealing the methods by which galaxies form by contrasting and comparing fiducial rapid collapse and hierarchical formation model predictions. The available data show that cluster ellipticals must have rapidly formed at z > 2, and that up to 50% of all massive galaxies at z ~ 2.5 are involved in major mergers. While the former is consistent with the monolithic collapse picture, we argue that hierarchal formation is the only model that can reproduce all the available observations.

Christopher J. Conselice

2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

454

Air Observe System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

455

Ann Occup Hyg . Author manuscript Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ann Occup Hyg . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics Abstract Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

456

Internal pipe attachment mechanism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An attachment mechanism for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection.

Bast, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (Pleasanton, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Lennon, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA); Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Joseph A. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Internal pipe attachment mechanism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

458

FOOD AND HABITAT OF THREE SWITCH-FEEDING FISHES IN THE KELP FORESTS OFF SANTABARBARA, CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOOD AND HABITAT OF THREE SWITCH-FEEDING FISHES IN THE KELP FORESTS OFF SANTABARBARA, CALIFORNIA the blue rockfish, Sebastes mystinus, kelp bass, Parolabrax clathratus, and oliverockfish, Sebastes serronoides, all ofwhich cooccur in areas ofreefand giant kelp off Santa Barbara, Calif. The three species

459

A Pricing Based Algorithm for Cell Switching Off in Green Cellular Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Pricing Based Algorithm for Cell Switching Off in Green Cellular Networks Ali Yildiz and Tolga--In this study, we propose a pricing based algorithm that assigns user terminals (UTs) to base stations (BSs) and optimizes the transmission powers in a way that minimizes the energy expenditure. The algorithm takes

Yanikomeroglu, Halim

460

On Invertibility of Switched Linear Systems L. Vu and D. Liberzon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On Invertibility of Switched Linear Systems L. Vu and D. Liberzon Coordinated Science Laboratory.S.A. Email: {linhvu, liberzon}@control.csl.uiuc.edu Abstract-- We address a new problem--the invertibility. In solving the invertibility problem, we introduce the concept of singular pairs for two systems. We give

Liberzon, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Berkeley, California Abstract Proof-of-principle gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have and therefore has limitations in controlling the energy flux associated with solar illumination. The issue storage capacity with the amount of hydrogen needed for maximum switching range. For this reason, as well

462

Differentially-charged and sequentially-switched square-wave pulse forming network  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulse forming network for delivering a high-energy square-wave pulse to a load, including a series of inductive-capacitive sections wherein the capacitors are differentially charged higher further from the load. Each charged capacitor is isolated from adjacent sections and the load by means of a normally open switch at the output of each section. The switch between the load and the closest section to the load is closed to begin discharge of the capacitor in that section into the load. During discharge of each capacitor, the voltage thereacross falls to a predetermined potential with respect to the potential across the capacitor in the next adjacent section further from the load. When this potential is reached, it is used to close the switch in the adjacent section further from the load and thereby apply the charge in that section to the load through the adjacent section toward the load. Each successive section further from the load is sequentially switched in this manner to continuously and evenly supply energy to the load over the period of the pulse, with the differentially charged capacitors providing higher potentials away from the load to compensate for the voltage drop across the resistance of each inductor. This arrangement is low in cost and yet provides a high-energy pulse in an acceptable square-wave form.

North, George G. [Stockton, CA; Vogilin, George E. [Livermore, CA

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Differentially-charged and sequentially-switched square-wave pulse forming network  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a pulse forming network for delivering a high-energy square-wave pulse to a load, including a series of inductive-capacitive sections wherein the capacitors are differentially charged higher further from the load. Each charged capacitor is isolated from adjacent sections and the load by means of a normally open switch at the output of each section. The switch between the load and the closest section to the load is closed to begin discharge of the capacitor in that section into the load. During discharge of each capacitor, the voltage thereacross falls to a predetermined potential with respect to the potential across the capacitor in the next adjacent section further from the load. When this potential is reached, it is used to close the switch in the adjacent section further from the load and thereby apply the charge in that section to the load through the adjacent section toward the load. Each successive section further from the load is sequentially switched in this manner to continuously and evenly supply energy to the load over the period of the pulse, with the differentially charged capacitors providing higher potentials away from the load to compensate for the voltage drop across the resistance of each inductor. This arrangement is low in cost and yet provides a high-energy pulse in an acceptable square-wave form. 5 figs.

North, G.G.; Vogilin, G.E.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Haptic Models of an Automotive Turn-Signal Switch: Identification and Playback Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Haptic Models of an Automotive Turn-Signal Switch: Identification and Playback Results Mark B of virtual environments. This paper addresses the problem of modeling the feel of an automotive turn- signal would require accurate models of the primary automotive controls, including the steering wheel, gear

Hollerbach, John M.

465

Lazy Modulus Switching for the BKW Algorithm on LWE Martin R. Albrecht1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lazy Modulus Switching for the BKW Algorithm on LWE Martin R. Albrecht1 , Jean-Charles Faug`ere3 from {0, 1} or {-1, 0, 1} . We present a variant of the BKW algorithm for binary-LWE and other small of this BKW variant over standard BKW and lattice reduction techniques applied to the SIS problem. Our variant

466

Researchers develop bistable nano switch Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been under intense study by scientists all  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Researchers develop bistable nano switch Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been under intense study for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). A type of one-dimensional structure with high-aspect ratio, carbon nanotubes have properties. Now scientists from Northwestern University have demonstrated a novel carbon nanotube

Espinosa, Horacio D.

467

Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling Control for Crossbars in Input-Queued Switches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

difficult to achieve. Reducing this thermal dissipation "bottleneck", or reducing the on-chip power the static power, due to leakage currents, since it tends to be proportional to the occupied area and can Abstract--The power consumption in chips, in general, and in crossbars switching fabrics, in particular

468

Charge-pump based switched-capacitor integrator for DS modulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

maintaining the same thermal noise performance. Power con- sumption of the CP integrator is analysed) is proportional to the power consumption of the amplifier. Since the input differential pair transistors power switched-capacitor (SC) integrator based on a capacitive charge-pump (CP) is proposed. The CP

Johns, David A.

469

Optoelectronic Multi-Chip-Module Implementation of a 64-Channel Fiber Switch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optoelectronic Multi-Chip-Module Implementation of a 64-Channel Fiber Switch Jason D. Bakos, Donald We present a demonstration prototype of an optoelectronic 3-chip OE-MCM module that implements a 64,2] we have proposed a novel design for optoelectronic multi-chip-modules (OE-MCM) based on small

Bakos, Jason D.

470

Battery-assisted and Photovoltaic-sourced Switched-inductor CMOS Harvesting ChargerSupply  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Battery-assisted and Photovoltaic-sourced Switched-inductor CMOS Harvesting Charger­Supply Rajiv-scale photovoltaic (PV) cells harness a diminutive fraction of light and artificial lighting avails a small 25 mV at 10 ­ 80 kHz and with 77% ­ 89% efficiency. Index Terms--Harvester, photovoltaic (PV

Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

471

Joint block-based video source/channel coding for packet-switched networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Joint block-based video source/channel coding for packet-switched networks R. 0. Hindsa, T. N. Keywords: Video coding, Packet loss, Internet, Joint source/channel coding 1. INTRODUCTION BlockD-336 600 Mountain Avenue Murray Hill, NJ 07974-0636 USA ABSTRACT Block-based video coders rely

Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.

472

Ultrafast Switching of Coherent Electronic Excitation: Great Promise for Reaction Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the advent of femtosecond laser pulses the temporal aspect of the interplay of light and molecular dynamics pulses [4] are the suitable tools to exert microscopic control on molecular dynamics at the quantum levelUltrafast Switching of Coherent Electronic Excitation: Great Promise for Reaction Control

Peinke, Joachim

473

RESONANT TRANSITION SWITCHING WELDING POWER SUPPLY N. Frohleke, H. Mundinger, S. Beineke, P. Wallmeier, H. Grotstollen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESONANT TRANSITION SWITCHING WELDING POWER SUPPLY N. Frohleke, H. Mundinger, S. Beineke, P-bridge topology used in a welding power supply. A new driving scheme adapts the resulting power circuitry for both the droplet and the short-circuiting transfer welding modes occurring in the gas metal arc welding process

Paderborn, Universität

474

Andreev-level spectroscopy and Josephson-current switching in a three-terminal Josephson junction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Andreev-level spectroscopy and Josephson-current switching in a three-terminal Josephson junction H held in thermodynamic equilibrium with the two superconducting contacts of a Josephson junction. When levels. The additional normal-metal probe coupled to the Josephson junction, shown in Fig. 1, models

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

475

Optically-initiated silicon carbide high voltage switch with contoured-profile electrode interfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved photoconductive switch having a SiC or other wide band gap substrate material with opposing contoured profile cavities which have a contoured profile selected from one of Rogowski, Bruce, Chang, Harrison, and Ernst profiles, and two electrodes with matching contoured-profile convex interface surfaces.

Sullivan, James S.; Hawkins, Steven A.

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

476

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 045443 (2013) Nonlinear switching with a graphene coupler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 045443 (2013) Nonlinear switching with a graphene coupler Daria A. Smirnova,1 propagation of electromagnetic waves in two closely spaced graphene layers and demonstrate that this double-layer graphene waveguide can operate as an efficient nonlinear optical coupler for both continuous plasmons

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Scheduling Algorithms for InputQueued Switches: Randomized Techniques and Experimental Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality­of­service (QoS) is to be supported. Much pre­ vious work on scheduling has focused on maximum in itself.'' ---Sallust, Roman historian, 86--35 B.C. 1 Introduction The growth of the Internet places. To support these increasing demands, the most promising switch architecture is one that provides scalable

Rao, Satish

478

Energy-Aware Networks: Reducing Power Consumption By Switching Off Network Elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy-Aware Networks: Reducing Power Consumption By Switching Off Network Elements Luca% of the worldwide energy consumption, and several initiatives are being put into place to reduce the power power consumption, even without taking into account the energy necessary for equipment cooling [4

Mellia, Marco

479

Energy-Aware Networks: Reducing Power Consumption By Switching Off Network Elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy-Aware Networks: Reducing Power Consumption By Switching Off Network Elements Luca% of the worldwide energy consumption, and several initiatives are being punt into place to reduce the power power consumption, even without taking into account the energy necessary for equipment cooling [4

Mellia, Marco

480

Algebraic Foundation of Self Adjusting Switched Capacitors Converters Sam Ben-Yaakov  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) was developed and generalized to any radix case. The proposed approach reduces the power loss by increasing switches or diodes (Fig 1). Unfortunately, SCC suffer from a fundamental power loss deficiency which makes. The power loss is due to the inherent energy dissipation when a capacitor is charged or discharged

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "observed switching mechanism" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

On the Infinite Horizon Constrained Switched LQR Problem Maximilian Balandat, Wei Zhang, Alessandro Abate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abate Abstract-- This paper studies the Discrete-Time Switched LQR problem over an infinite time horizon weizhang@eecs.berkeley.edu A. Abate is with the Delft Center for Systems and Control, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft, The Netherlands a.abate@tudelft.nl Mixed Integer Quadratic Program (MIQP) and solved

Zhang, Wei

482

Transition Path, Quasi-potential Energy Landscape and Stability of Genetic Switches Xiaoguang Li,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transition Path, Quasi-potential Energy Landscape and Stability of Genetic Switches Cheng Lv,1, reconstructing the global quasi-potential energy landscape, analyzing the uphill and downhill transition paths the properties of transition paths, discuss their relation to the quasi-potential energy landscape

Li, Tiejun

483

Detection of Impulsive Effects in Switched DAEs with Applications to Power Electronics Reliability Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-critical systems, e.g., shipboard, aircraft, and automotive, where electrical power provided by power electronicsDetection of Impulsive Effects in Switched DAEs with Applications to Power Electronics Reliability-tolerant power electronics systems to identify design flaws that could jeopardize its reliability. The system

Trenn, Stephan

484

Switched System Models for Coordinated Cyber-Physical Attack Construction and Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Switched System Models for Coordinated Cyber-Physical Attack Construction and Simulation Shan Liu the need to develop intelligent models of cyber-physical attacks that produce salient disruptions. In this paper, we present a foundation for the development of a class of intelligent cyber-physical attacks

Kundur, Deepa

485

Is Loss free Modulator the Central Component of Switching Power Electronics?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Is Loss free Modulator the Central Component of Switching Power Electronics? Application to Flyback This macro component is equivalent to the modulated transformer introduced by bond graph method [1] but applications presented here are original. In practice, this component allows careful power flow investigation

Boyer, Edmond

486

Risk-sensitive optimal switching and applications to district energy systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Cost optimisation of energy system assets has typically been carried out under the assumption of riskRisk-sensitive optimal switching and applications to district energy systems Jhonny Gonzalez School consideration. In a flexible energy system with cogeneration and heat storage, however, it is possible

Glendinning, Paul

487

Rational Design of a Reversible pH-Responsive Switch for Peptide Self-Assembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rational Design of a Reversible pH-Responsive Switch for Peptide Self-Assembly Yuri Zimenkov interwound R-helices, has inspired the design of synthetic peptide systems that self-assemble be coupled to supramolecular structure to re-create the self-assembly behavior that is characteristic

Breedveld, Victor

488

Abstract--Time-driven Switching (TDS) networks with non-immediate forwarding (NIF) provides scheduling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract-- Time-driven Switching (TDS) networks with non-immediate forwarding (NIF) provides that with NIF scheduling complexity may grow exponentially. Efficiently finding a schedule from an exponential formulation of the NIF scheduling problem, under a wide variety of networking requirements, then introduces

Baldi, Mario

489

SWITCHING LMS LINEAR TURBO EQUALIZATION Seok-Jun Lee, Andrew C. Singer, and Naresh R. Shanbhag  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SWITCHING LMS LINEAR TURBO EQUALIZATION Seok-Jun Lee, Andrew C. Singer, and Naresh R. Shanbhag-Champaign 1308 West Main Street, Urbana, IL 61801 Email: [slee6,acsinger,shanbhag]@uiuc.edu ABSTRACT Turbo symbol for each iteration. In this paper, we consider a class of turbo equal- ization algorithms in which

Singer, Andrew C

490

TECHNICAL ADVANCE The ethanol switch: a tool for tissue-specic gene induction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TECHNICAL ADVANCE The ethanol switch: a tool for tissue-speci®c gene induction during plant is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function during plant development. Here, we report ethanol inducible of an ethanol-regulated transcription factor, ALCR, is restricted to precise domains using speci®c promoters

Murray, J.A.H.

491

FERROELECTRIC SWITCH FOR A HIGH-POWER Ka-BAND ACTIVE PULSE COMPRESSOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW ?s-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.

Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc.] [Omega-P, Inc.

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

492

Phase-field simulation of strain-induced domain switching in magnetic thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phase-field simulation of strain-induced domain switching in magnetic thin films Jia-Mian Hu, G of the Bloch point in a magnetic film with strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy Low Temp. Phys. 37, 690 (2011) Evolution of magnetic bubble domains in manganite films Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 042503 (2011) 360° domain wall

Chen, Long-Qing

493

IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 24, NO. 4, APRIL 2003 227 RF MEMS Switches Fabricated on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with superior performance over con- ventional semiconductor devices [4]­[7]. Typically, RF MEMS switches-resistivity silicon wafers, gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafers, and quartz substrates using semiconductor Manuscript and surface planarization of wide metal lines prior to deposition of a metal membrane bridge, which poses

Cetiner, Bedri A.

494

1346 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, AUGUST 2008 Optimal Transmission Switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to node . Binary variable indicating whether transmission line is removed from the system (open susceptance of line . Large number. Upper limit on number of open transmission lines. Sets Set of all transmission lines. Set of open transmission lines in solution to transmission switching in which

Ferris, Michael C.

495

Scaling the NetFPGA switch using Aurora over SATA Ajithkumar Thamarakuzhi, John A. Chandy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scaling the NetFPGA switch using Aurora over SATA Ajithkumar Thamarakuzhi, John A. Chandy two NetFPGA boards which are interconnected by SATA cables. We use the Xilinx Aurora protocolFPGA, SATA, Aurora 1. INTRODUCTION The NetFPGA platform helps researchers, teachers and stu- dents

Chandy, John A.

496

A Genetic Algorithm Based Cell Switch-off Scheme for Energy Saving in Dense Cell Deployments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in global energy consumption, energy consumption has also become a major component of operating expenditures for upwards of 40% of a BS's total energy consumption [2]. The energy consumption break-down at a typical 3GA Genetic Algorithm Based Cell Switch-off Scheme for Energy Saving in Dense Cell Deployments Furkan

Yanikomeroglu, Halim

497

Process Switches and Branch Prediction Accuracy David Chen, Bennett Lau, Jeffrey Shafer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Rice University Abstract There were several hypotheses to "repair" the destructive aliasing in the branch history table after a process switch, both combine by [9], is central to this research project. Analogous to memory caches, aliasing in branch prediction

Rixner, Scott

498

Power Electronics' Circuit Topology the Basic Switching Cells Fang Z. Peng Leon M. Tolbert, Faisal Khan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be obtained for the construction and decomposition of existing power electronic circuits. New power conversion, inverter, N- cell, P-cell. I. INTRODUCTION Power electronic circuits that range from dc-dc, ac-dc, dc- acPower Electronics' Circuit Topology ­ the Basic Switching Cells Fang Z. Peng Leon M. Tolbert

Tolbert, Leon M.

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Kinetic simulation studies of laser-triggering in the Z gas switch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced z-pinch accelerators require precise timing of multiple mega-ampere drivers to deliver terawatt power. The triggering of these drivers is now largely initiated by laser ionization of gas switches. In this paper, we discuss detailed fully kinetic simulation of the Z laser-triggered gas switch involving detailed finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell Monte Carlo modeling of the trigger section of the switch. Other components of the accelerator from the Marx bank through the pulse-forming line are described as circuit elements. The simulations presented here build on a recently developed model of electro-negative gas breakdown and streamer propagation that included photons produced from de-excited neutrals. New effects include multi-photon ionization of the gas in a prescribed laser field. The simulations show the sensitivity of triggering to laser parameters including focal plane within the anode-cathode gap of the trigger section of the switch, intensity at focus, and laser pulse length. Detailed electromagnetic simulations of the trigger section with circuit modeling of the upstream and downstream components are largely in agreement with Z data and demonstrate a new capability.

Welch, D. R.; Rose, D. V.; Thoma, C.; Clark, R. E.; Miller, C.; Madrid, E. A.; Zimmerman, W. R. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States)] [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Rambo, P. K.; Schwarz, J.; Savage, M.; Atherton, B. W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

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TONAK: A Distributed Low-latency and Scalable Optical Switch Architecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Simulations results for a 128-port switch show high throughput and low average packet latency for offered loads of up to 75%, while achieving an energy efficiency of 50pJ/bit. Introduction The ever-growing demand for cloud-based services and high-performance computing is posing major challenges

Yoo, S. J. Ben