Sample records for observed adverse effect

  1. adverse cardiovascular effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adverse Effects of Antenatal Ultrasonography A. J. Baczkowski Department of Statistics, University the recent evidence for potential adverse effects of antenatal...

  2. Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haley, R. W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution Robert W. Haley, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Division of Epidemiology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, Texas ? Texas Medical Association has adopted resolutions... Rice University study of how to maintain energy efficiency while reducing air pollution. ? Supported legislation based on the findings. The Medical Professor Increasingly Concerned ? Asthma ? Emphysema ? Heart Attacks ? Stunted lung...

  3. adverse health effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    j.vaccine.2009.12.030 Expected and Unexpected adverse effects H1N1 vaccination for health care workers in a University Hospital CiteSeer Summary: All authors declare that...

  4. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  5. aed adverse effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the effects of SAD. In high-latitude countries (e.g., Canada, UK, Nordic and Baltic countries), evaluating proposals for high-risk programmes during the late fall...

  6. adverse radiotherapy effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the effects of SAD. In high-latitude countries (e.g., Canada, UK, Nordic and Baltic countries), evaluating proposals for high-risk programmes during the late fall...

  7. The effects of adverse environmental conditions on workload

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ann Elizabeth

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the high temperature-continuous noise combi na- tion were found to be significantly different from the other conditions tested. There were also significant effects of noise and temperature in increasing workload (p&. 01). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish... and Maxfield, 1962). These areas were studied i n the present experi men&. . Another aspect of a man-machine system that affects the perfor- mance of a human operator is the level of workload imposed on the oper- ator by the task (Knowles, 1963; Senders...

  8. The issue of 'Adverse Effects and the Impacts of Response Measures' in UNFCCC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    of emission reduction activities on energy exporting countries. In negotiations the Organisation of Petroleum. This paper explores the political, economic and legal dimensions of this interlocked adverse effects to the impacts of climate change. This suggests that tacit G77-China support for OPEC's position may therefore

  9. THE ADVERSE EFFECTS TO FISHES OF PILE-DRIVING - THE IMPLICATIONS FOR ESA AND EFH CONSULTATIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, John H.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADVERSE EFFECTS TO FISHES OF PILE-DRIVING - THE IMPLICATIONS753-9517 Chapter 2 Abstract Piles are integral components ofWhile treated-wood and concrete piles are commonly used for

  10. Rhodium Mossbauer Superradiance of Observable Gravitational Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao Cheng; Bing Xia

    2007-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize the experimental observations of three case studies on the long-lived rhodium Mossbauer Effect. Extraordinary observations reported in this work manifest the open-up of photonic band gap in analogy to the superconducting gap. Observable gravitational effect is manifested by the superradiance of different sample orientations corresponding to the earth gravity. These observations are of potential importance for detecting gravitational waves and development of the two-photon gamma laser.

  11. Spectroscopic observation of the rotational Doppler effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Barreiro; J. W. R. Tabosa; H. Failache; A. Lezama

    2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first spectroscopic observation of the rotational Doppler shift associated with light beams carrying orbital angular momentum. The effect is evidenced as the broadening of a Hanle/EIT coherence resonance on Rb vapor when the two incident Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams have opposite topological charges. The observations closely agree with theoretical predictions.

  12. Rhodium Mossbauer Superradiance of Observable Gravitational Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yao

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the direct observations of the entangled superradiance from rhodium nuclei oriented along the long edge of the polycrystalline sample. The long-lived rhodium Mossbauer effect is sensitive to the earth gravity, which opens up novel approaches of detecting the gravitational waves. Superradiance and exciton diffusion are enhanced by liquid-nitrogen cooling. Gravitational effect attributed to multipolar nuclear transition of the atto-eV natural linewidth is manifested by emissions from different sample orientations corresponding to the earth gravity. The long-range gamma coupling across grain boundaries despite the temperature variation inside sample is manifested by the observed dependence on macroscopic sample size.

  13. Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorham, P.W.

    2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first observations of the Askaryan effect in ice: coherent impulsive radio Cherenkov radiation from the charge asymmetry in an electromagnetic (EM) shower. Such radiation has been observed in silica sand and rock salt, but this is the first direct observation from an EM shower in ice. These measurements are important since the majority of experiments to date that rely on the effect for ultra-high energy neutrino detection are being performed using ice as the target medium. As part of the complete validation process for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, we performed an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in June 2006 using a 7.5 metric ton ice target, yielding results fully consistent with theoretical expectations.

  14. Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANITA collaboration; P. W. Gorham; S. W. Barwick; J. J. Beatty; D. Z. Besson; W. R. Binns; C. Chen; P. Chen; J. M. Clem; A. Connolly; P. F. Dowkontt; M. A. DuVernois; R. C. Field; D. Goldstein; A. Goodhue; C. Hast; C. L. Hebert; S. Hoover; M. H. Israel; J. Kowalski; J. G. Learned; K. M. Liewer; J. T. Link; E. Lusczek; S. Matsuno; B. Mercurio; C. Miki; P. Miocinovic; J. Nam; C. J. Naudet; J. Ng; R. Nichol; K. Palladino; K. Reil; A. Romero-Wolf; M. Rosen; D. Saltzberg; D. Seckel; G. S. Varner; D. Walz; F. Wu

    2007-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first observations of the Askaryan effect in ice: coherent impulsive radio Cherenkov radiation from the charge asymmetry in an electromagnetic (EM) shower. Such radiation has been observed in silica sand and rock salt, but this is the first direct observation from an EM shower in ice. These measurements are important since the majority of experiments to date that rely on the effect for ultra-high energy neutrino detection are being performed using ice as the target medium. As part of the complete validation process for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, we performed an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in June 2006 using a 7.5 metric ton ice target, yielding results fully consistent with theoretical expectations.

  15. Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barwick, S W; Besson, D Z; Binns, W R; Chen, P; Clem, J M; Connolly, A; Dowkontt, P F; Duvernois, M A; Field, R C; Goldstein, D; Goodhue, A; Gorham, P W; Hast, C; Hebert, C L; Hoover, S; Israel, M H; Kowalski, J; Learned, J G; Liewer, K M; Link, J T; Lusczek, E; Matsuno, S; Mercurio, B; Miki, C; Miocinovic, P; Nam, J; Naudet, C J; Ng, J; Nichol, R; Palladino, K J; Reil, K; Romero-Wolf, A; Rosen, M; Saltzberg, D; Secke, D; Varner, G S; Walz, D; Wu, F

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first observations of the Askaryan effect in ice: coherent impulsive radio Cherenkov radiation from the charge asymmetry in an electromagnetic (EM) shower. Such radiation has been observed in silica sand and rock salt, but this is the first direct observation from an EM shower in ice. These measurements are important since the majority of experiments to date that rely on the effect for ultra-high energy neutrino detection are being performed using ice as the target medium. As part of the complete validation process for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, we performed an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in June 2006 using a 7.5 metric ton ice target, yielding results fully consistent with theoretical expectations.

  16. adversely impacting posttransplant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the prefrontal cortex. Next we consider studies that suggest that the effect of environmental adversity may be conditional on an individuals genotype. We also briefly...

  17. Effect of linear lumping on controllability and observability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tóth, János

    Effect of linear lumping on controllability and observability Zs´ofia Horv´ath October 2006 Email to reduce the number of state variables on controllability and observability of linear differential the effect of linear lumping on such properties of the system as controllability and observability and apply

  18. Observation of the photodielectric effect in an amorphous semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Stephen Anthony

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OBSERVATION OF THE PHOTODIELECTRIC EFFECT IN AN AHGRPBGUS SFNICONDUCTOR A THESIS by STEPHEN ANTHONY COLLINS Subqitted tu the Graduate College of Texas A&M University iu Partial fulfillment of. the requirement for the. degree of 1IASTER OI...' SCIFNCE August 1971 Hajcr Suhjec '. Fleqtricel magic. earing OBSERVATION OF THE PHOTODIELECTRIC EFFECT IN AN AMORPHOUS SEMICONDUCTOR A THESIS by STEPHEN ANTHONY COLLINS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of epartm...

  19. air pollution adversely: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Rice University study of how to...

  20. On O($a^2$) effects in gradient flow observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberto Ramos; Stefan Sint

    2015-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In lattice gauge theories, the gradient flow has been used extensively both, for scale setting and for defining finite volume renormalization schemes for the gauge coupling. Unfortunately, rather large cutoff effects have been observed in some cases. We here investigate these effects to leading order in perturbation theory, considering various definitions of the lattice observable, the lattice flow equation and the Yang Mills lattice action. These considerations suggest an improved set- up for which we perform a scaling test in the pure SU(3) gauge theory, demonstrating strongly reduced cutoff effects. We then attempt to obtain a more complete understanding of the structure of O($a^2$) effects by applying Symanzik's effective theory approach to the 4+1 dimensional local field theory with flow time as the fifth dimension. From these considerations we are led to a fully O($a^2$) improved set-up the study of which is left to future work.

  1. Observations of beam-beam effects at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papotti, G; Herr, W; Giachino, R; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces a list of observations related to the beam-beam interaction that were collected over the first years of LHC proton physics operation (2010-12). Beam-beam related effects not only have been extensively observed and recorded, but have also shaped the operation of the LHC for high-intensity proton running in a number of ways: the construction of the filling scheme, the choice of luminosity levelling techniques, measures to mitigate instabilities, and the choice of settings for improving performance (e.g. to reduce losses), among others.

  2. First Direct Observation of CO2's Greenhouse Effect at the Earth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's Surface First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's...

  3. Waveguides for performing spectroscopy with confined effective observation volumes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  4. Observations of the first aerosol indirect effect in shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Barnard, James C.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) are used to estimate the impact of both aerosol indirect effects and cloud dynamics on the microphysical and optical properties of shallow cumuli observed in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Not surprisingly, we find that the amount of light scattered by the clouds is dominated by their liquid water content (LWC), which in turn is driven by cloud dynamics. However, removing the effect of cloud dynamics by examining the scattering normalized by LWC shows a strong sensitivity of scattering to pollutant loading. These results suggest that even moderately sized cities, like Oklahoma City, can have a measureable impact on the optical properties of shallow cumuli.

  5. Can quark effects be observed in intermediate heavy ion collisions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. T. da Silva; D. Hadjimichef

    2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years a tentative description of the short-range part of hadron interactions with constituent quark interchange has been developed providing an alternative approach to meson physics. Quark interchange plays a role, for example, in the nucleon-nucleon ($NN$) phase-shifts and cross-section. In heavy ion collision simulations at intermediate energies one of the main features is the $NN$ cross-section in the collisional term, where in most cases it is an input adjusted to the free space value. In this paper we introduce the quark degrees of freedom to the $NN$ cross-section in the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) model and explore the possibility that these effects appear in the observables at lower energies.

  6. Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haley, R. W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on clean air: ? 2007: Encouraging energy efficiencies, no more coal plants ? 2009: Retrofitting old coal plants and old diesel engines ? 2011: Disclosure of ?fracking? fluids injected below ground ? Alliance with Texas Business for Clean Air ? Financed...

  7. Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeeding access(SC)Gas and OilPhaseObservation of aof

  8. RECENTER -ADVERSITY INTO TRANSFORMATION Course Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, William A.

    Center" delivers power tools and real time strategies for creating performance transformation no matter what and practical system for transforming your communication skills from the inside and outside. Use real timeRECENTER - ADVERSITY INTO TRANSFORMATION Course Description: Knowing how to use adversity

  9. Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

  10. IMPACT OF ADVERSE WEATHER ON TRAFFIC CONDITIONS ON AN AMERICAN HIGHWAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    IMPACT OF ADVERSE WEATHER ON TRAFFIC CONDITIONS ON AN AMERICAN HIGHWAY Effect of the Sun Glare ANALYTIQUE NOM PRENOM AUTEUR AUFFRAY Benjamin TITRE DU TFE IMPACT OF AN ADVERSE WEATHER ON AN AMERICAN rf. biblio. : 42 MOTS CLS Sun, Glare, Highway, Visibility, Weather, Sunlight, Delay, Traffic

  11. Observing Healthcare Interior Environments and the Effect on Patient Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Courtney R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    variables in the interior environments that have the greatest impact, whether positive or negative, on patients. The methods used to perform this research include: inspections of the facility, observations, and surveys. By combining all of these methods...

  12. Observation of Entropic Effect on Conformation Changes of Complex...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    entropic effect in determining the folding of a linear dicarboxylate dianion with a flexible aliphatic chain O2C-(CH2)6-CO2 by photoelectron spectroscopy as a...

  13. QUANTIFYING OBSERVATIONAL PROJECTION EFFECTS USING MOLECULAR CLOUD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, Christopher N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Offner, Stella S.R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O. [Zentrum fr Astronomie der Universitt Heidelberg, Institut fr Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Goodman, Alyssa A., E-mail: beaumont@ifa.hawaii.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical properties of molecular clouds are often measured using spectral-line observations, which provide the only probes of the clouds' velocity structure. It is hard, though, to assess whether and to what extent intensity features in position-position-velocity (PPV) space correspond to 'real' density structures in position-position-position (PPP) space. In this paper, we create synthetic molecular cloud spectral-line maps of simulated molecular clouds, and present a new technique for measuring the reality of individual PPV structures. Using a dendrogram algorithm, we identify hierarchical structures in both PPP and PPV space. Our procedure projects density structures identified in PPP space into corresponding intensity structures in PPV space and then measures the geometric overlap of the projected structures with structures identified from the synthetic observation. The fractional overlap between a PPP and PPV structure quantifies how well the synthetic observation recovers information about the three-dimensional structure. Applying this machinery to a set of synthetic observations of CO isotopes, we measure how well spectral-line measurements recover mass, size, velocity dispersion, and virial parameter for a simulated star-forming region. By disabling various steps of our analysis, we investigate how much opacity, chemistry, and gravity affect measurements of physical properties extracted from PPV cubes. For the simulations used here, which offer a decent, but not perfect, match to the properties of a star-forming region like Perseus, our results suggest that superposition induces a ?40% uncertainty in masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions derived from {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0). As would be expected, superposition and confusion is worst in regions where the filling factor of emitting material is large. The virial parameter is most affected by superposition, such that estimates of the virial parameter derived from PPV and PPP information typically disagree by a factor of ?2. This uncertainty makes it particularly difficult to judge whether gravitational or kinetic energy dominate a given region, since the majority of virial parameter measurements fall within a factor of two of the equipartition level ? ? 2.

  14. Adverse Weather Conditions If adverse weather conditions occur which affects tube, bus or rail services, Heads of Department/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adverse Weather Conditions If adverse weather conditions occur which affects tube, bus or rail to present him/herself for work. Where, due to the adverse weather conditions, public transport is affected as a result of the adverse weather conditions (for example a child's school is closed), they should consult

  15. Observation of bunch to bunch differences due to beam-beam effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papotti, G; Giachino, R; Herr, W; Pieloni, T; Schaumann, M; Trad, G

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the bunch filling schemes in the LHC the bunches experience a very different collision schedule and therefore different beam-beam effects. These differences and the effect on the performance have been observed and compared with the expectations. Possible limitations due to these effects are discussed

  16. Adverse Diversity Analysis Guidance | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0 ARRA Newsletters 20103-03Energy Advanced Technology andCleanAdverse

  17. LABORATORY OBSERVATIONS AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE EFFECTS OF AN ARRAY OF WAVE ENERGY CONVERTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Merrick

    1 LABORATORY OBSERVATIONS AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE EFFECTS OF AN ARRAY OF WAVE ENERGY of wave energy converters (WECs) on water waves through the analysis of extensive laboratory experiments absorption is a reasonable predictor of the effect of WECs on the far field. Keywords: wave- energy; spectral

  18. Wind resources and wind farm wake effects offshore observed from satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind resources and wind farm wake effects offshore observed from satellite Charlotte Bay Hasager to quantify the wake effect at two large offshore wind farms in Denmark. It is found that the wake velocity further. There is fast progress on planning and installation of offshore wind farms in the European waters

  19. Observations of Multi-Resonance Effect in ELM Control with Magnetic Perturbation Fields on the JET Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observations of Multi-Resonance Effect in ELM Control with Magnetic Perturbation Fields on the JET Tokamak

  20. Analysis of Hanle-effect signals observed in Si-channel spin accumulation devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamura, Yota, E-mail: takamura@spin.pe.titech.ac.jp [Imaging Science and Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Akushichi, Taiju; Sadano, Adiyudha; Okishio, Takao; Shuto, Yusuke; Sugahara, Satoshi, E-mail: sugahara@isl.titech.ac.jp [Imaging Science and Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We reexamined curve-fitting analysis for spin-accumulation signals observed in Si-channel spin-accumulation devices, employing widely-used Lorentz functions and a new formula developed from the spin diffusion equation. A Si-channel spin-accumulation device with a high quality ferromagnetic spin injector was fabricated, and its observed spin-accumulation signals were verified. Experimentally obtained Hanle-effect signals for spin accumulation were not able to be fitted by a single Lorentz function and were reproduced by the newly developed formula. Our developed formula can represent spin-accumulation signals and thus analyze Hanle-effect signals.

  1. The observable effects of a photospheric component on GRB's and XRF's prompt emission spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Per, A; Rees, Martin J; Pe'er, Asaf; M\\'esz\\'aros, Peter; Rees, Martin J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal radiative component is likely to accompany the first stages of the prompt emission of Gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) and X-ray flashes (XRF's). We analyze the effect of such a component on the observable spectrum, assuming that the observable effects are due to a dissipation process occurring below or near the thermal photosphere. We consider both the internal shock model and a 'slow heating' model as possible dissipation mechanisms. For comparable energy densities in the thermal and the leptonic component, the dominant emission mechanism is Compton scattering. This leads to a nearly flat energy spectrum (\

  2. Progress Toward Observing Quantum Effects in an Optomechanical System in Cryogenics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jack

    , placed at 400 mK inside a 3 He fridge. The major goals of this research are: laser cooling the 261 kAbstract Progress Toward Observing Quantum Effects in an Optomechanical System in Cryogenics Cheng Yang 2011 Quantum optomechanical systems use radiation pressure of light to couple the optical field

  3. adverse clinical sequelae: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Immunization Practices (ACIP) (13). ACIP reviewed the cases, recommended enhanced surveillance for adverse events, and updated the ACIP statement on YEL (4). This report...

  4. Energy Department Announces Secretarial Determination of No Adverse...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    transfers of uranium will not have an adverse material impact on the domestic uranium mining, conversion, or enrichment industries. Find a copy of the Secretarial Determination...

  5. Secretary Chu Announces Determination of No Adverse Material...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    transfer of uranium will not have an adverse material impact on the domestic uranium mining, conversion, or enrichment industries. View the Secretarial Determination (pdf -148...

  6. adverse reproductive outcomes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lynn 2012-01-01 5 Inflammatory bowel disease - risk factors for adverse outcomes, and preventive measures. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Kornfeld D. 1997...

  7. adverse perinatal outcome: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lynn 2012-01-01 5 Inflammatory bowel disease - risk factors for adverse outcomes, and preventive measures. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Kornfeld D. 1997...

  8. adversely affect neurological: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of microtubules, as is whether paclitaxel is released Walter, Nils G. 77 Does the knowledge of unaudited account balances adversely affect the performance of substantive...

  9. adverse reaction reporting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissertations Summary: ??Numerous studies have investigated the association between air pollution and adverse reproductive outcomes. Many estimated exposure at the birth...

  10. Hawking and Unruh radiation perception by different observers: applications of the effective temperature function (in Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis C. Barbado

    2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the perception of the radiation phenomena of Hawking radiation and Unruh effect by using two main tools: the Unruh-DeWitt detectors and the effective temperature function (ETF), this last tool based on Bogoliubov transformations. Using the Unruh-DeWitt detectors we find an adiabatic expansion of the detection properties along linear trajectories with slowly varying acceleration in Minkowski, which allows us to calculate the spectrum detected, finding the thermal spectrum as the zeroth order contribution. Using the ETF we study the perception of Hawking radiation by observers following radial trajectories outside a Schwarzschild black hole. One of the most important results is that, in general, free-falling observers crossing the event horizon do detect some radiation, even when the field is in the Unruh vacuum state, due to a Doppler blue-shift that diverges at the horizon. We give a general expression for the ETF, which has a clear interpretation in terms of well-known physical phenomena. We discuss which contribution to the perception comes from the radiation emitted by the black hole, and which contribution is due to the Unruh effect caused by the movement of the observer. We conclude that the Unruh effect is not only due to the observer's proper acceleration and cannot even be defined locally, but is due to the observer's acceleration with respect to the asymptotic region. We apply the ETF to the analysis of different physical situations, in particular to a possible buoyancy scenario near the horizon due to Hawking radiation pressure. Finally, we propose a non-stationary vacuum state, which we call pulsating vacuum, for the radiation field outside a stellar object hovering closely to form an event horizon. In this vacuum state, we get nearly Hawking radiation emitted by the object, while avoiding the known problems of the information paradox and the trans-planckian problem.

  11. Observation of the chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang Li; Dmitri E. Kharzeev; Cheng Zhang; Yuan Huang; I. Pletikosic; A. V. Fedorov; R. D. Zhong; J. A. Schneeloch; G. D. Gu; T. Valla

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electric current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions (massless spin $1/2$ particles with a definite projection of spin on momentum) -- a dramatic phenomenon arising from a collective motion of particles and antiparticles in the Dirac sea. The recent discovery of Dirac semimetals with chiral quasi-particles opens a fascinating possibility to study this phenomenon in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first observation of chiral magnetic effect through the measurement of magneto-transport in zirconium pentatelluride, ZrTe_5. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments show that this material's electronic structure is consistent with a 3D Dirac semimetal. We observe a large negative magnetoresistance when magnetic field is parallel with the current. The measured quadratic field dependence of the magnetoconductance is a clear indication of the chiral magnetic effect. The observed phenomenon stems from the effective transmutation of Dirac semimetal into a Weyl semimetal induced by the parallel electric and magnetic fields that represent a topologically nontrivial gauge field background.

  12. Experimental Observation of the Inverse Spin Hall Effect at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Baoli; Shi, Junren; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Hongming; Li, Dafang; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shoucheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Dongmin; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We observe the inverse spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in Al-GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells. Specifically, they find that an inhomogeneous spin density induced by the optical injection gives rise to an electric current transverse to both the spin polarization and its gradient. The spin Hall conductivity can be inferred from such a measurement through the Einstein relation and the onsager relation, and is found to have the order of magnitude of 0.5(e{sup 2}/h). The observation is made at the room temperature and in samples with macroscopic sizes, suggesting that the inverse spin Hall effects is a robust macroscopic transport phenomenon.

  13. Possible observables for the chiral electric separation effect in Cu + Au collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo-Liang Ma; Xu-Guang Huang

    2015-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The quark-gluon plasma (QGP) generated in relativistic heavy-ion collisions could be locally parity-odd. In parity-odd QGP, the electric field may induce a chiral current which is called the chiral electric separation effect (CESE). We propose two possible observables for CESE in Cu + Au collisions: The first one is the correlation $\\zeta_{\\alpha\\beta}=\\langle \\cos[2(\\phi_\\alpha+\\phi_\\beta-2\\Psi_{\\rm RP})]\\rangle$; the second one is the charge-dependent event-plane angle $\\Psi^{q}_2$ with $q=\\pm$ being charge. Nonzero $\\Delta\\zeta=\\zeta_{opp}-\\zeta_{same}$ and $\\Delta\\Psi=\\langle|\\Psi_2^+-\\Psi_2^-|\\rangle$ may signal the CESE in Cu + Au collisions. Within a multiphase transport model, we study how the final state interaction affects these observables. We find that the correlation $\\gamma_{\\alpha\\beta}=\\langle\\cos(\\phi_{\\alpha}+\\phi_{\\beta}-\\Psi_{\\rm RP})\\rangle$ is sensitive to the out-of-plane charge separation caused by the chiral magnetic effect and to the in-plane charge separation caused by the in-plane electric field, but it is not sensitive to the CESE. On the other hand, $\\Delta\\zeta$ and $\\Delta\\Psi$ are sensitive to the CESE. Therefore, we suggest that the future experiments measure the above observables in Cu+Au collisions in order to disentangle different chiral and charge separation mechanisms.

  14. Observation of the 'head-tail' effect in nuclear recoils of low-energy neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Dujmic; H. Tomita; M. Lewandowska; S. Ahlen; P. Fisher; S. Henderson; A. Kaboth; G. Kohse; R. Lanza; J. Monroe; A. Roccaro; G. Sciolla; N. Skvorodnev; R. Vanderspek; H. Wellenstein; R. Yamamoto

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Directional detection of dark matter can provide unambiguous observation of dark matter interactions even in the presence of background. This article presents an experimental method to measure the direction tag ("head-tail") of the dark matter wind by detecting the scintillation light created by the elastic nuclear recoils in the scattering of dark matter particles with the detector material. The technique is demonstrated by tagging the direction of the nuclear recoils created in the scattering of low-energy neutrons with CF4 in a low-pressure time-projection chamber that is developed by the DMTPC collaboration. The measurement of the decreasing ionization rate along the recoil trajectory provides the direction tag of the incoming neutrons, and proves that the "head-tail" effect can be observed.

  15. adverse events related: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with severe adverse events consistent with YEL-AND or YEL-AVD were reported. All six patients were vaccinated in the United States with 17Dderived YEL, required...

  16. adverse environmental conditions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract Autonomous Driving benefits strongly from a 3D recon- struction of the environment in real 7 THE BLOOD OF NORTH AMERICAN FRESH-WATER MUSSELS UNDER NORMAL AND ADVERSE...

  17. adverse health outcomes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Latex Allergy and Occupational Asthma in Health Care Workers: Adverse Outcomes CiteSeer Summary: The prevalence of natural rubber...

  18. Zero-mode clad waveguides for performing spectroscopy with confined effective observation volumes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  19. Observability of thermal effects in the Casimir interaction from graphene-coated substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko

    2014-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the recently proposed theory, we calculate thermal effect in the Casimir interaction from graphene-coated metallic and dielectric substrates. The cases when only one or both of the two parallel plates are coated with graphene are considered. It is shown that the graphene coating does not influence the Casimir interaction between metals, but produces large impact for dielectrics. This impact increases with decreasing static dielectric permittivity of the plate material. The thermal correction to the gradient of the Casimir force between an Au sphere and graphene coated fused silica plate is calculated. It is shown to be significanlty greater than the total experimental error in the recently performed experiment, which is demonstrated to be only one step away from observation of the thermal effect from a graphene-coated substrate at short separation distances. To achieve this goal, one should increase the thickness of the fused silica film from 300 nm to 2000 nm.

  20. Experimental observation of standing wave effect in low-pressure very-high-frequency capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, You-Nian, E-mail: ynwang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Radial uniformity measurements of plasma density were carried out by using a floating double probe in a cylindrical (21?cm in electrode diameter) capacitive discharge reactor driven over a wide range of frequencies (27220 MHz). At low rf power, a multiple-node structure of standing wave effect was observed at 130?MHz. The secondary density peak caused by the standing wave effect became pronounced and shifts toward the axis as the driving frequency further to increase, indicative of a much more shortened standing-wave wavelength. With increasing rf power, the secondary density peak shift toward the radial edge, namely, the standing-wave wavelength was increased, in good qualitative agreement with the previous theory and simulation results. At higher pressures and high frequencies, the rf power was primarily deposited at the periphery of the electrode, due to the fact that the waves were strongly damped as they propagated from the discharge edge into the center.

  1. The effect of temperature anisotropy on observations of Doppler dimming and pumping in the inner corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing Li; Shadia Rifai Habbal; John Kohl; Giancarlo Noci

    1998-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations of the spectral line profiles and intensity ratio of the O VI 1032 {\\AA} and 1037.6 {\\AA} doublet by the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), made in coronal holes below 3.5 $R_s$, provide evidence for Doppler dimming of the O VI 1037.6 {\\AA} line and pumping by the chromospheric C II 1037.0182 {\\AA} line. Evidence for a significant kinetic temperature anisotropy of O$^{5+}$ ions was also derived from these observations. We show in this Letter how the component of the kinetic temperature in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, for both isotropic and anisotropic temperature distributions, affects both the amount of Doppler dimming and pumping. Taking this component into account, we further show that the observation that the O VI doublet intensity ratio is less than unity can be accounted for only if pumping by C II 1036.3367 {\\AA} in addition to C II 1037.0182 {\\AA} is in effect. The inclusion of the C II 1036.3367 {\\AA} pumping implies that the speed of the O$^{5+}$ ions can reach 400 km/s around 3 $R_s$ which is significantly higher than the reported UVCS values for atomic hydrogen in polar coronal holes. These results imply that oxygen ions flow much faster than protons at that heliocentric distance.

  2. Hawking and Unruh radiation perception by different observers: applications of the effective temperature function (in Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbado, Luis C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the perception of the radiation phenomena of Hawking radiation and Unruh effect by using two main tools: the Unruh-DeWitt detectors and the effective temperature function (ETF), this last tool based on Bogoliubov transformations. Using the Unruh-DeWitt detectors we find an adiabatic expansion of the detection properties along linear trajectories with slowly varying acceleration in Minkowski, which allows us to calculate the spectrum detected, finding the thermal spectrum as the zeroth order contribution. Using the ETF we study the perception of Hawking radiation by observers following radial trajectories outside a Schwarzschild black hole. One of the most important results is that, in general, free-falling observers crossing the event horizon do detect some radiation, even when the field is in the Unruh vacuum state, due to a Doppler blue-shift that diverges at the horizon. We give a general expression for the ETF, which has a clear interpretation in terms of well-known physical phenomena. We discuss...

  3. Holographic Theory of Accelerated Observers, the S-matrix, and the Emergence of Effective Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Banks; Willy Fischler

    2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theory of accelerated observers in the formalism of holographic space time, and show how to define the analog of the Unruh effect for a one parameter set of accelerated observers in a causal diamond in Minkowski space. The key fact is that the formalism splits the degrees of freedom in a large causal diamond into particles and excitations on the horizon. The latter form a large heat bath for the particles, and different Hamiltonians, describing a one parameter family of accelerated trajectories, have different couplings to the bath. We argue that for a large but finite causal diamond the Hamiltonian describing a geodesic observer has a residual coupling to the bath and that the effect of the bath is finite over the long time interval in the diamond. We find general forms of the Hamiltonian, which guarantee that the horizon degrees of freedom will decouple in the limit of large diamonds, leaving over a unitary evolution operator for particles, with an asymptotically conserved energy. That operator converges to the S-matrix in the infinite diamond limit. The S-matrix thus arises from integrating out the horizon degrees of freedom, in a manner reminiscent of, but distinct from, Matrix Theory. We note that this model for the S-matrix implies that Quantum Gravity, as opposed to quantum field theory, has a natural adiabatic switching off of the interactions. We argue that imposing Lorentz invariance on the S-matrix is natural, and guarantees super-Poincare invariance in the HST formalism. Spatial translation invariance is seen to be the residuum of the consistency conditions of HST.

  4. A cost-effective adverse-weather precision guidance system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellerhoff, R.; Burgett, S.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This SAND report documents the results of an LDRD project undertaken to study the accuracy of terrain-aided navigation coupled with highly accurate topographic maps. A revolutionary new mapping technology, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR), has the ability to make terrain maps of extremely high accuracy and spatial resolution, more than an order of magnitude better than currently available DMA map products. Using a laser altimeter and the Sandia Labs Twin Otter Radar Testbed, fix accuracies of less than 3 meters CEP were obtained over urban and natural terrain regions.

  5. adverse environmental effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in benthic invertebrate communities across the country was one of mild to moderate eutrophication, particularly in riverine habitats, although more pronounced eutrophication was...

  6. adverse drug effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of alcohol and drugs. 6. Describe the personality traits of the alcoholic and drug addict. 7. Describe the treatment and rehabilitation of the alcoholic and drug addict. 8....

  7. adverse side effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    survival, chromosome aberration formation and repair capacity of radiation-induced damage have been applied to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. 5%-7% of cancer...

  8. Dark matter annihilation and its effect on CMB and Hydrogen 21 cm observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natarajan, Aravind

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If dark matter is made up of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, the annihilation of these particles in halos results in energy being released, some of which is absorbed by gas, causing partial ionization and heating. It is shown that early ionization results in a transfer of power to higher multipoles in the large angle CMB polarization power spectra. Future CMB experiments may be able to detect this effect in the case of certain light dark matter models. We also investigate the effect of gas heating on the expected H21 cm power spectrum. Heating by particle annihilation results in a decrease in the amplitude of the H21 cm power spectrum as the gas temperature $T$ becomes comparable to the CMB temperature $T_\\gamma$, and then an increase as $T > T_\\gamma$. The result is a minimum in the power spectrum at the redshift for which $T \\approx T_\\gamma$. Only certain models (low particle masses $\\sim$ 10 GeV, or favorable halo parameters) show this effect. Within these models, observations of the H21 cm power sp...

  9. Direct observations of the effects of aerosol loading on net ecosystem CO2 exchanges over different landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    radiation; effect of cloud cover; and effect of high and low aerosol optical depths (AOD). Results indicateDirect observations of the effects of aerosol loading on net ecosystem CO2 exchanges over different, and croplands) with collocated aerosol and surface radiation measurements were analyzed for high and low diffuse

  10. Very Small Array observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in nearby galaxy clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katy Lancaster; Ricardo Genova-Santos; Nelson Falcon; Keith Grainge; Carlos Gutierrez; Ruediger Kneissl; Phil Marshall; Guy Pooley; Rafael Rebolo; Jose-Alberto Rubino-Martin; Richard D. E. Saunders; Elizabeth Waldram; Robert A. Watson

    2004-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present VSA observations (~34GHz) on scales ~20 arcmin towards a complete, X-ray-flux-limited sample of seven clusters at redshift z<0.1. Four have significant SZ detections in the presence of CMB primordial anisotropy. We use a bayesian MCMC method for inference from the VSA data, with X-ray priors on cluster positions and temperatures, and radio priors on sources. We make assumptions of beta-model gas distributions and of hydrostatic equilibrium, to evaluate probability densities for the gas mass and total mass out to r_200. Our combined estimate of the gas fraction is 0.08^{+0.06}_{-0.04}h^{-1} The random errors are poor (note that the errors are higher than would have been obtained with the usual chi-squared method) but the control of bias is good. We have described the MCMC analysis method specifically in terms of SZ but hope the description will be of more general use. We find that the effects of primordial CMB contamination tend to be similar in the estimates of both the gas mass and total mass over our narrow range of angular scales, so that there is little effect of primordials on the gas fraction determination. Using our total mass estimates we find a normalisation of the mass-temperature relation based on the profiles from the VSA cluster pressure maps that is in good agreement with recent M-T determinations from X-ray cluster measurements.

  11. Urban and land surface effects on the 30 July 2003 mesoscale convective system event observed in the southern Great Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    Urban and land surface effects on the 30 July 2003 mesoscale convective system event observed/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS 1 ) to investigate the impact of urban and land vegetation processes on the prediction of the mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed on 30 July 2003 in the vicinity of Oklahoma City

  12. Doppler effect and Hubble effect in different models of space-time in the case of auto-parallel motion of the observer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawa Manoff

    2004-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Doppler effect and Hubble effect in different models of space-time in the case of auto-parallel motion of the observer are considered. The Doppler effect and shift frequency parameter are specialized for the case of auto-parallel motion of the observer. The Hubble effect and shift frequency parameter are considered for the same case. It is shown that by the use of the variation of the shift frequency parameter during a time perod, considered locally in the proper frame of reference of an observer, one can directly determine the centrifugal (centripetal) relative velocity and acceleration as well as the Coriolis relative velocity and acceleration of an astronomical object moving relatively to the observer. All results are obtained on purely kinematic basis without taking into account the dynamic reasons for the considered effect. PACS numbers: 98.80.Jk; 98.62.Py; 04.90.+e; 04.80.Cc

  13. Direct Observation of Nanoscale Peltier and Joule Effects at Metal-Insulator Domain Walls in Vanadium Dioxide Nanobeams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Direct Observation of Nanoscale Peltier and Joule Effects at Metal- Insulator Domain Walls localized alternating Peltier heating and cooling as well as Joule heating concentrated at the M-I domain the monoclinic phase identification. KEYWORDS: Vanadium dioxide, thermoreflectance microscopy, Peltier effect

  14. Observations of Stratocumulus Clouds and Their Effect on the Eastern Pacific Surface Heat Budget along 208S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuter, Sandra

    of cloud properties and drizzle statistics, and the effect of stratocumulus clouds on surface radiationObservations of Stratocumulus Clouds and Their Effect on the Eastern Pacific Surface Heat Budget gradients in boundary layer and cloud vertical structure, surface radiation and cloud radiative forcing

  15. Effect of the N. Delta. interaction on observables of the. pi. NN and. gamma. NN systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pena, M.T. (Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa (INIC), 1699 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)); Garcilazo, H. (Theoretical Physics, University of Hannover, D-3000 Hannover (Germany)); Oelfke, U. (TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)); Sauer, P.U. (Theoretical Physics, University of Hannover, D-3000 Hannover (Germany) Nuclear Theory Group, Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects on the hadronic and electromagnetic properties of the two-nucleon system above pion threshold, arising from the interaction of the {Delta} isobar with nucleons, are investigated. The instantaneous nucleon-{Delta} potential is based on the meson exchange. Two-body reactions connecting channels with at most one pion and one photon are studied. Processes leading to a three-body pion-two-nucleon final state are considered in the restricted kinematic domain in which the pion forms the {ital P}{sub 33} resonance with one of the nucleons. The nucleon-{Delta} potential is seen to increase the relative importance of the inelastic strength of two-nucleon spin-triplet states with respect to spin-singlet states, correcting a deficiency common in most existing models. Theoretical predictions are compared with recent experimental data for the various reactions. In particular, the differential cross section and the proton beam asymmetry for {ital pp}{r arrow}{ital n}{Delta}{sup ++} ({ital p}{pi}{sup +}) are calculated, the latter observable being especially sensitive to the nucleon-{Delta} interaction.

  16. Human-Centered Systems Analysis of Aircraft Separation from Adverse Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence

    Adverse weather significantly impacts the safety and efficiency of flight operations. Weather information

  17. Observation of relaxation resonance effects in the field spectrum of semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vahala, K.; Harder, C.; Yariv, A.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsidiary maxima are observed in the field spectra of single mode semiconductor lasers. Measurements of their power dependence show they are linked to the relaxation resonance. We attribute these maxima to combined phase and amplitude fluctuations at the relaxation resonance. A theoretical calculation of the field spectrum using the results of a noise analysisincorporating carrier dynamics agrees very well with observations.

  18. Weather induced effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carla Bleve; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of events measured with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is found to be modulated by the weather conditions. This effect is due to the increasing amount of matter traversed by the shower as the ground pressure increases and to the inverse proportionality of the Moliere radius to the air density near ground. Air-shower simulations with different realistic profiles of the atmosphere support this interpretation of the observed effects.

  19. Observations of dust acoustic waves driven at high frequencies: Finite dust temperature effects and wave interference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merlino, Robert L.

    be driven at a specified frequency in a dusty plasma due to an applied sinusoidal current on an electrode.4 frequency, pd. As will become evident shortly, however, it was not possible to observe the predicted

  20. High-speed observation of the piston effect near the gas-liquid critical point Yuichi Miura,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-speed observation of the piston effect near the gas-liquid critical point Yuichi Miura,1-critical fluid on acoustic time scales using an ultrasensitive interferometer. A sound emitted by very weak sounds are emitted from a heater and how applied heat is transformed into mechanical work. Our

  1. Direct electrical observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-based two-dimensional electron gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, W.; Li, W.; Zhu, M.; Yue, Y.; Song, B.; Encomendero, J.; Xing, H.; Fay, P., E-mail: pfay@nd.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Sensale-Rodriguez, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, signatures of plasma waves in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors were observed by direct electrical measurement at room temperature. Periodic grating-gate device structures were fabricated and characterized by on-wafer G-band (140220?GHz) s-parameter measurements as a function of gate bias voltage and device geometry. A physics-based equivalent circuit model was used to assist in interpreting the measured s-parameters. The kinetic inductance extracted from the measurement data matches well with theoretical predictions, consistent with direct observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-channel devices at room temperature. This observation of electrically significant room-temperature plasma-wave effects in GaN-channel devices may have implications for future millimeter-wave and THz device concepts and designs.

  2. The Critical Density and the Effective Excitation Density of Commonly Observed Molecular Dense Gas Tracers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Yancy L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optically thin critical densities and the effective excitation densities to produce a 1 K km/s (or 0.818 Jy km/s $(\\frac{\

  3. The relativistic Doppler effect: when a zero frequency shift or a red shift exists for sources approaching the observer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changbiao Wang

    2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown without making use of Lorentz transformation that there exists a phenomenon of relativistic zero-frequency shift in Doppler effect for a plane wave in free space, observed in two inertial frames of relative motion, and the zero shift takes place at a maximum aberration of light. When it is applied to analysis of a moving point light source, two unconventional physical implications result: (1) a light source, when it is approaching (moving closer to) the observer, may cause a red shift; (2) a zero-frequency-shift observation does not necessarily mean that the light source is not moving closer, and in contrast, the light source may be moving closer to the observer at a high speed. This fundamental result of special relativity may provide an alternative way to experimentally examine the principle of relativity, and might have a significant application in astrophysics.

  4. Temperature Profiles and the Effect of AGN on Submillimeter Emission from BLAST Observations of Resolved Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiebe, Donald V; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the course of two flights, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) made resolved maps of seven nearby (BLAST05), BLAST observed a single nearby galaxy, NGC 4565. During the December 2006 flight from Antarctica (BLAST06), BLAST observed the nearby galaxies NGC 1097, NGC 1291, NGC 1365, NGC 1512, NGC 1566, and NGC 1808. We fit physical dust models to a combination of BLAST observations and other available data for the the galaxies with Spitzer data. We fit a modified blackbody to the remaining galaxies to obtain total dust mass and mean dust temperature. For the four galaxies with Spitzer data, we also produce maps and radial profiles of dust column density and temperature. We measure the fraction of BLAST detected flux originating from the central cores of these galaxies and use this to calculate a "core fraction", an upper limit on the "AGN fraction" of submillimeter detected galaxies. Fin...

  5. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosse, Kyle L. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Pop, Eric [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); King, William P., E-mail: wpk@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 3 to 250 10 ?V K{sup ?1}. This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  6. Observations of beam-beam effects at high intensities in the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herr, W; Laface, E; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Giachino, R; Schaumann, M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    First observations with colliding beams in the LHC with bunch intensities close to nominal and above are reported. In 2010 the LHC initially operated with few bunches spaced around the circumference. Beam-beam tune shifts exceeding significantly the design value have been observed. In a later stage crossing angles were introduced around the experiments to allow the collisions of bunch trains. We report the first experience with head-on as well as long range interactions of high intensity bunches and discuss the possible performance reach

  7. Human-centered systems analysis of aircraft separation from adverse weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence, 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adverse weather significantly impacts the safety and efficiency of flight operations. Weather information plays a key role in mitigating the impact of adverse weather on flight operations by supporting air transportation ...

  8. Electroneutrality Breakdown and Specific Ion Effects in Nanoconfined Aqueous Electrolytes Observed by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhi-Xiang Luo; Yun-Zhao Xing; Yan-Chun Ling; Alfred Kleinhammes; Yue Wu

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion distribution in aqueous electrolytes near the interface plays critical roles in electrochemical, biological and colloidal systems and is expected to be particularly significant inside nanoconfined regions. Electroneutrality of the total charge inside nanoconfined regions is commonly assumed a priori in solving ion distribution of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined by uncharged hydrophobic surfaces with no direct experimental validation. Here, we use a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approach to investigate the properties of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined in graphitic-like nanoporous carbon. Substantial electroneutrality breakdown in nanoconfined regions and very asymmetric responses of cations and anions to the charging of nanoconfining surfaces are observed. The electroneutrality breakdown is shown to depend strongly on the propensity of anions toward the water-carbon interface and such ion-specific response follows generally the anion ranking of the Hofmeister series. The experimental observations are further supported by numerical evaluation using the generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation

  9. Effects of momentum conservation and flow on angular correlations observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Scott; Schlichting, Soeren; Gavin, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlations of azimuthal angles observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have gained great attention due to the prospect of identifying fluctuations of parity-odd regions in the field sector of QCD. Whereas the observable of interest related to parity fluctuations involves subtracting opposite-sign from same-sign correlations, the STAR collaboration reported the same-sign and opposite-sign correlations separately. It is shown here how momentum conservation combined with collective elliptic flow contributes significantly to this class of correlations, although not to the difference between the opposite- and same-sign observables. The effects are modeled with a crude simulation of a pion gas. Although the simulation reproduces the scale of the correlation, the centrality dependence is found to be sufficiently different in character to suggest additional considerations beyond those present in the pion gas simulation presented here.

  10. Numerical modeling of observed effective flow behavior in unsaturated heterogeneous sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    , and a stochastic theory were compared to effective retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics measured slow a response in the outflow rate. An alternative approach involving a combination of arithmetic, deterministic simulations would demand vast computa- tional resources by requiring an extremely dense numerical

  11. Defining and Modeling Known Adverse Outcome Pathways: Domoic Acid and Neuronal Signaling as a Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Karen H.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Basu, Nil; Carvan, Michael J.; Crofton, Kevin M.; King, Kerensa A.; Sunol, Cristina; Tiffany-Castiglioni, Evelyn; Schultz, Irvin R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a sequence of key events from a molecular-level initiating event and an ensuing cascade of steps to an adverse outcome with population level significance. To implement a predictive strategy for ecotoxicology, the multiscale nature of an AOP requires computational models to link salient processes (e.g., in chemical uptake, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, and population dynamics). A case study with domoic acid was used to demonstrate strategies and enable generic recommendations for developing computational models in an effort to move toward a toxicity testing paradigm focused on toxicity pathway perturbations applicable to ecological risk assessment. Domoic acid, an algal toxin with adverse effects on both wildlife and humans, is a potent agonist for kainate receptors (ionotropic glutamate receptors whose activation leads to the influx of Na+ and Ca2+). Increased Ca2+ concentrations result in neuronal excitotoxicity and cell death primarily in the hippocampus, which produces seizures, impairs learning and memory, and alters behavior in some species. Altered neuronal Ca2+ is a key process in domoic acid toxicity which can be evaluated in vitro. Further, results of these assays would be amenable to mechanistic modeling for identifying domoic acid concentrations and Ca2+ perturbations that are normal, adaptive, or clearly toxic. In vitro assays with outputs amenable to measurement in exposed populations can link in vitro to in vivo conditions, and toxicokinetic information will aid in linking in vitro results to the individual organism. Development of an AOP required an iterative process with three important outcomes: (1) a critically reviewed, stressor-specific AOP; (2) identification of key processes suitable for evaluation with in vitro assays; and (3) strategies for model development.

  12. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L., E-mail: bhg@uw.edu [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, Hutchinson Institute for Cancer Outcomes Research (HICOR), Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Ramsey, Scott D. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, Hutchinson Institute for Cancer Outcomes Research (HICOR), Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Parvathaneni, Upendra [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design.

  13. Observation and Nature of Non-statistical Dynamic Effects in Ordinary Organic Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quijano, Larisa Mae Mangaliman 1984-

    2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    of vinyl ethers. Ozonolysis of a homologous series of vinyl ethers in solution exhibit experimental product ratios wherein the selectivity among cleavage pathways increases with the size of the alkyl group to an extent that is far less than RRKM theory.... DYNAMIC EFFECTS ON PRODUCT SELECTIVITY IN OZONOLYSIS REACTIONS OF VINYL ETHERS ??????????? 12 2.1 Introduction ???????????????????????... 12 2.2 Design of Experiment and Experimental Results ?????????.. 13 2.3 NMR Peak Assignments...

  14. Electroneutrality Breakdown and Specific Ion Effects in Nanoconfined Aqueous Electrolytes Observed by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Zhi-Xiang; Ling, Yan-Chun; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wu, Yue

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion distribution in aqueous electrolytes near the interface plays critical roles in electrochemical, biological and colloidal systems and is expected to be particularly significant inside nanoconfined regions. Electroneutrality of the total charge inside nanoconfined regions is commonly assumed a priori in solving ion distribution of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined by uncharged hydrophobic surfaces with no direct experimental validation. Here, we use a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approach to investigate the properties of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined in graphitic-like nanoporous carbon. Substantial electroneutrality breakdown in nanoconfined regions and very asymmetric responses of cations and anions to the charging of nanoconfining surfaces are observed. The electroneutrality breakdown is shown to depend strongly on the propensity of anions toward the water-carbon interface and such ion-specific response follows generally the anion ranking of the Hofmeister series. The experimental observat...

  15. Pre-equilibrium evolution effects on heavy-ion collision observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia Liu; Chun Shen; Ulrich W. Heinz

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to investigate the importance of pre-equilibrium dynamics on relativistic heavy-ion collision observables, we match a highly non-equilibrium early evolution stage, modeled by free-streaming partons generated from the Monte Carlo Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (MC-KLN) and Monte Carlo Glauber (MC-Glb) models, to a locally approximately thermalized later evolution stage described by viscous hydrodynamics, and study the dependence of final hadronic transverse momentum distributions, in particular their underlying radial and anisotropic flows, on the switching time between these stages. Performing a 3-parameter fit of the measured values for the average transverse momenta $\\langle p_\\perp \\rangle$ for pions, kaons and protons as well as the elliptic and triangular flows of charged hadrons $v_{2,3}^\\mathrm{ch}$, with the switching time $\\tau_s$, the specific shear viscosity $\\eta/s$ during the hydrodynamic stage, and the kinetic decoupling temperature $T_\\mathrm{dec}$ as free parameters, we find that the preferred "thermalization" times $\\tau_s$ depend strongly on the model of the initial conditions. MC-KLN initial conditions require an earlier transition to hydrodynamic behavior (at $\\tau_s \\approx$ 0.13 fm/$c$) , followed by hydrodynamic evolution with a larger specific shear viscosity $\\eta/s\\approx$ 0.2, than MC-Glb initial conditions which prefer switching at a later time ($\\tau_s\\approx$ 0.6 fm/$c$) followed by a less viscous hydrodynamic evolution with $\\eta/s\\approx$ 0.16. These new results including pre-equilibrium evolution are compared to fits without a pre-equilbrium stage where all dynamic evolution before the onset of hydrodynamic behavior is ignored. In each case, the quality of the dynamical descriptions for the optimized parameter sets, as well as the observables which show the strongest constraining power for the thermalization time, are discussed.

  16. UNCORRECTED 2 Effects of dilution on the extinction characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Hong G.

    relevant to micro-combustor application, the effects of mixture dilution on the 10 lean extinction reactions is rather 15 insensitive to the surface thermal conditions. These observations are explained. For this type 29 of combustors, high combustion temperature is 30 undesirable since it adversely affect

  17. SUMER observations of the inverse Evershed effect in the transition region above a sunspot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teriaca, L; Solanki, S K; 10.1051/0004-6361:200810209

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims. We analyse SUMER spectral scans of a large sunspot within active region NOAA 10923, obtained on 14-15 November 2006, to determine the morphology and dynamics of the sunspot atmosphere at different heights/temperatures. Methods: The data analysed here consist of spectroheliograms in the continuum around 142.0 nm and in the Si iv 140.2 nm, O iii 70.3 nm, N iv 76.5 nm, and O iv 79.0 nm spectral lines. Gaussian-fitting of the observed profiles provides line-of-sight velocity and Doppler-width maps. Results: The data show an asymmetric downflow pattern compatible with the presence of the inverse Evershed flow in a region within roughly twice the penumbral radius at transition-region temperatures up to 0.18 MK. The motions, highly inhomogeneous on small scales, seem to occur in a collar of radially directed filamentary structures, with an average width less than the 1 Mm spatial resolution of SUMER and characterised by different plasma speeds. Assuming that the flows are directed along the field lines, we ded...

  18. High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration; S. Oser; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; D. A. Williams; J. A. Zweerink

    2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a new ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype experiment which uses 32 heliostat mirrors with a total mirror area of ~ 1200\\unit{m^2} has been constructed. This prototype, called STACEE-32, was used to search for high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and Pulsar. Observations taken between November 1998 and February 1999 yield a strong statistical excess of gamma-like events from the Crab, with a significance of $+6.75\\sigma$ in 43 hours of on-source observing time. No evidence for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar was found, and the upper limit on the pulsed fraction of the observed excess was energy threshold of E_{th} = 190 \\pm 60\\unit{GeV}, and a measured integral flux of I (E > E_{th}) = (2.2 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{-10}\\unit{photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}}. The observed flux is in agreement with a continuation to lower energies of the power law spectrum seen at TeV energies.

  19. High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oser, S; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schuette, D R; Theoret, C G; Tumer, T O; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a new ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype experiment which uses 32 heliostat mirrors with a total mirror area of ~ 1200\\unit{m^2} has been constructed. This prototype, called STACEE-32, was used to search for high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and Pulsar. Observations taken between November 1998 and February 1999 yield a strong statistical excess of gamma-like events from the Crab, with a significance of $+6.75\\sigma$ in 43 hours of on-source observing time. No evidence for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar was found, and the upper limit on the pulsed fraction of the observed excess was E_{th}) = (2.2 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{-10}\\unit{photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}}. The observed flux is in agreement with a continuation to lower energies of the power law spectrum seen at TeV energies...

  20. Effect of substrate compliance on the global unilateral post-buckling of coatings: AFM observations and finite element calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parry, G. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex, (France)]. E-mail: guillaume.parry@etu.univ-poitiers.fr; Colin, J. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Coupeau, C. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Foucher, F. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Cimetiere, A. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Grilhe, J. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France)

    2005-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The post-critical regime of straight-sided wrinkles on compliant substrates of polycarbonate has been observed by atomic force microscope and investigated by means of finite element simulations. The effect of coupling between the film and its substrate has revealed a global buckling phenomenon, characterized by critical loads lower than those found in the case of a rigid substrate. Characteristic shapes of the buckled structure have been also found to spread over a region wider than the delaminated zone itself. A law relating the film deflexion to the stress has finally been established for any film/substrate system.

  1. Exploring the effects of a double reconstruction on the geometrical parameters of coupled models, using observational data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solano, Freddy Cueva

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we study the effects of the non-gravitational exchange energy (Q) between dark matter (DM) fluid and dark energy (DE) fluid on the background evolution of the cosmological parameters. A varying equation of state (EOS) parameter, {\\omega}, for DE is proposed. Considering an universe spatially flat, two distinct coupled models were examined to explore the main cosmological effects generated by the simultaneous reconstruction of Q and {\\omega} on the shape of the jerk parameter, j, through a slight enhancement or suppression of their amplitudes with respect to noncoupled scenarios, during its evolution from the past to the near future. In consequence, j could be used to distinguish any coupled DE models. Otherwise, the observational data were used to put stringent constraints on Q and {\\omega}, respectively. In such a way, we used our results as evidences to search possible deviations from the standard concordance model ({\\Lambda}CDM), examining their predictions and improving our knowledge of the c...

  2. Data-driven Markov models and their application in the evaluation of adverse events in radiotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abler, Daniel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decision-making processes in medicine rely increasingly on modelling and simulation techniques; they are especially useful when combining evidence from multiple sources. Markov models are frequently used to synthesize the available evidence for such simulation studies, by describing disease and treatment progress, as well as associated factors such as the treatment's effects on a patient's life and the costs to society. When the same decision problem is investigated by multiple stakeholders, differing modelling assumptions are often applied, making synthesis and interpretation of the results difficult. This paper proposes a standardized approach towards the creation of Markov models. It introduces the notion of general Markov models, providing a common definition of the Markov models that underlie many similar decision problems, and develops a language for their specification. We demonstrate the application of this language by developing a general Markov model for adverse event analysis in radiotherapy ...

  3. Remarkable effects are observed ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in 2002. In the same year he received the innovation award "Synchrotron Radiation" of BESSY (Germany). After an interim professorship at the Technical University of Munich, he...

  4. Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring In Psychiatric OPD Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring In Psychiatric Outpatient Department Of A Tertiary Care Hospital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiren K. Prajapati; Nisarg D. Joshi; Hiren R. Trivedi; Manubhai C. Parmar; Shilpa P. Jadav; Dinesh M. Parmar; Jalpan G. Kareliya

    Abstracts Background:Pharmacovigilance in psychiatry units can play vital role in detecting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and alerting physician to such events, thereby protecting the user population from avoidable harm. Objective: To assess the suspected ADRs profile of psychotropic drugs in psychiatry OPD of a tertiary care hospital and its comparison with available literature data as well as to create awareness among the consultant psychiatrists to these ADRs profile. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the psychiatry OPD. Thirty five consecutive patients per day were screened irrespective of their psychiatric diagnosis for suspected ADRs on 3 fixed days in a week from January 2011 to December 2011. CDSCO form was used to record the ADRs. Causality was assessed by WHO causality assessment scale while severity was assessed using Hartwig and Siegel scale. Results: Out of 4410 patients were screened, 383 patients were suspected of having at least one ADR. Thus, 8.68 % of our study population reported ADRs. Of 407 events recorded, 369(90.60%) were probable and rest possible according to WHO-UMC causality assessment

  5. aging adversely impacts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mars has surely been scrutinised since the dawn of humankind. In the 16th century Tycho Brahe made accurate observations of the position of Mars that enabled Johannes...

  6. adverse cardiac remodeling: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pattern, although some minor discrepancies were observed in the morphology of the 12-lead electrocardiogram. Keywords: Bidomain theory, hybrid model, anisotropy, ventricles,...

  7. adverse cardiac events: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pattern, although some minor discrepancies were observed in the morphology of the 12-lead electrocardiogram. Keywords: Bidomain theory, hybrid model, anisotropy, ventricles,...

  8. SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT OBSERVATIONS OF THE BULLET CLUSTER (1E 0657-56) WITH APEX-SZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, N. W.; Bender, A. N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Lanting, T.; Dobbs, M.; Kennedy, J. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2T8 (Canada); Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, CF24 3YB Wales (United Kingdom); Basu, K.; Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Bonn (Germany); Benson, B. A.; Clarke, J.; Ferrusca, D.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Kermish, Z.; Lee, A. T.; Lueker, M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cho, H.-M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Chon, G.; Guesten, R.; Kovacs, A.; Kneissl, R. [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, 53121 Bonn (Germany)] (and others)

    2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1'. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23{sigma} significance within the central 1' radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical {beta} model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray-derived prior on the power-law index, {beta} = 1.04{sup +0.16} {sub -0.10}, we find a core radius r {sub c} = 142'' {+-} 18'', an axial ratio of 0.889 {+-} 0.072, and a central temperature decrement of -771 {+-} 71 {mu}K{sub CMB}, including a {+-}5.5% flux calibration uncertainty. Combining the APEX-SZ map with a map of projected electron surface density from Chandra X-ray observations, we determine the mass-weighted temperature of the cluster gas to be T {sub mg} = 10.8 {+-} 0.9 keV, significantly lower than some previously reported X-ray spectroscopic temperatures. Under the assumption of an isothermal cluster gas distribution in hydrostatic equilibrium, we compute the gas mass fraction for prolate and oblate spheroidal geometries and find it to be consistent with previous results from X-ray and weak-lensing observations. This work is the first result from the APEX-SZ experiment, and represents the first reported scientific result from observations with a large array of multiplexed superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers.

  9. The effects of coronal mass ejection on galactic cosmic rays in the high latitude heliosphere: Observations from Ulysses` first orbit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bothmer, V.; Heber, B.; Kunow, H.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Wibberenz, G. [Univ. of Kiel (Germany). Institut fuer Kernphysik; Gosling, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Balogh, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Raviart, A. [CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service d`Astrophysique; Paizis, C. [Univ. di Milano (Italy). Istituto di Fisica Cosmica CNR

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During its first solar orbit the Ulysses spacecraft detected several coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at high heliographic latitudes. The authors present first observations on the effects of these high latitude CMEs on galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) using measurements from the Kiel Electron Telescope (KET) which is part of the Cosmic Ray and Solar Particle Investigation (COSPIN) experiment, the Los Alamos SWOOPS (Solar Wind Observations Over the Poles of the Sun) experiment and the magnetic field experiments. They find the passage of these CMEs over the spacecraft to be associated with short term decreases of GCR intensities The relatively weak shocks in these events, driven by the CMEs` over-expansion, had no strong influence on the GCRs. The intensity minimums of GCRs occurred on closed magnetic field lines inside the CMEs themselves as indicated by bidirectional fluxes of suprathermal electrons. Short episodes of intensity increases of GCRs inside CMEs at times when the bidirectional fluxes of suprathermal electrons disappeared, can be interpreted as evidence that GCRs can easily access the interior of those CMEs in which open magnetic field lines are embedded.

  10. Detect adverse drug reactions for drug Atorvastatin Yihui Liu1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Detect adverse drug reactions for drug Atorvastatin Yihui Liu1,2 1 Institute of Intelligent Department of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, UK Abstract--Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is widely feature matrix and feature selection. The experiments are carried out on the drug Atorvastatin. Major side

  11. Detect adverse drug reactions for drug Simvastatin Yihui Liu1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Detect adverse drug reactions for drug Simvastatin Yihui Liu1,2 1 Institute of Intelligent Department of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, UK Abstract--Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is widely feature matrix and feature selection. The experiments are carried out on the drug Simvastatin. Major side

  12. Detect adverse drug reactions for drug Alendronate Yihui Liu1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Detect adverse drug reactions for drug Alendronate Yihui Liu1,2 1 Institute of Intelligent Department of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, UK Abstract--Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is widely feature matrix and feature selection. The experiments are carried out on the drug Alendronate. Major side

  13. Detect adverse drug reactions for drug Pioglitazone Yihui Liu1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Detect adverse drug reactions for drug Pioglitazone Yihui Liu1,2 1 Institute of Intelligent Department of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, UK Abstract--Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is widely feature matrix and feature selection. The experiments are carried out on the drug Pioglitazone. Major side

  14. The effect of a radial electric field on ripple-trapped ions observed by neutral particle fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heikkinen, J.A. [VTT Energy, Euratom-TEKES Association, P.O. Box 1604, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland)] [VTT Energy, Euratom-TEKES Association, P.O. Box 1604, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Herrmann, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik--EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik--EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kurki-Suonio, T. [Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Euratom-TEKES Association, FIN-02150 Espoo (Finland)] [Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Euratom-TEKES Association, FIN-02150 Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of a radial electric field on nonthermal ripple-trapped ions is investigated using toroidal Monte Carlo simulations for edge tokamak plasmas. The increase in the neutral particle flux from the ions trapped in local magnetic wells observed by the charge exchange (CX) detector at a low confinement to high confinement transition at ASDEX (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment). Upgrade tokamak [{ital Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics}, Lisbon (European Physical Society, Petit-Lancy, Switzerland, 1993), Vol. 17C, Part I, p. 267] is reproduced in the simulations by turning on a radial electric field near the plasma periphery. The poloidal and toroidal angles at which the CX detector signal is most sensitive to the radial electric field are determined. A fast response time of the signal in the range of 50{endash}100 {mu}s to the appearance of the electric field can be found in the simulations with a relatively large half-width of the negative electric field region. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. adverse survival factor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat treatment pH, recovery1 Survival curves of heated bacterial spores:1 Effect of environmental factors on Weibull heat13 resistance for non-log linear survival curves. One...

  16. A continuous GRASP to determine the relationship between drugs and adverse reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, Michael J. [Raytheon, Inc., Network Centric Systems, P.O. Box 12248, St. Petersburg, FL, 33733 (United States); Meneses, Claudio N.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Ragle, Michelle [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, 303 Weil Hall, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States); Resende, Mauricio G. C. [Algorithms and Optimization Research Department, AT and T Labs Research, 180 Park Avenue, Room C241, Florham Park, NJ 07932 (United States)

    2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Adverse drag reactions (ADRs) are estimated to be one of the leading causes of death. Many national and international agencies have set up databases of ADR reports for the express purpose of determining the relationship between drugs and adverse reactions that they cause. We formulate the drug-reaction relationship problem as a continuous optimization problem and utilize C-GRASP, a new continuous global optimization heuristic, to approximately determine the relationship between drugs and adverse reactions. Our approach is compared against others in the literature and is shown to find better solutions.

  17. Strategies for mitigating adverse environmental impacts due to structural building materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaturvedi, Swati, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis assesses the problem of adverse environmental impacts due to the use of Portland cement and structural steel in the construction industry. The thesis outlines three technology and policy strategies to mitigate ...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - adverse health risks Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Sample search results for: adverse health risks Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Health Care through the Lens of Risk Call for Papers for a four part special issue of...

  19. Edinburgh Research Explorer Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse reactions and costs. 2014 #12;Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse

  20. Procedures for Interagency Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate Adverse

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHA AdministrativeofDepartmentEnergyLoanEffects on Rivers in the

  1. Observations of Stratocumulus Clouds and Their Effect on the Eastern Pacific Surface Heat Budget along 20S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Szoeke, Simon P.; Yuter, Sandra E.; Mechem, David B.; Fairall, Chris W.; Burleyson, Casey D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Widespread stratocumulus clouds were observed on nine transects from seven research cruises to the southeastern tropical Pacific Ocean along 20S, 7585W in OctoberNovember of 200108. The nine transects sample a unique ...

  2. BLAST OBSERVATIONS OF RESOLVED GALAXIES: TEMPERATURE PROFILES AND THE EFFECT OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI ON FIR TO SUBMILLIMETER EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiebe, Donald V.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Pascale, Enzo [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, James J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de AstrofIsica Optica y Electronica, Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Martin, Peter G. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Olmi, Luca [Istituto di Radioastronomia, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Patanchon, Guillaume [Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet 75205 Paris (France)

    2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the course of two flights, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) made resolved maps of seven nearby (<25 Mpc) galaxies at 250, 350, and 500 mum. During its 2005 June flight from Sweden, BLAST observed a single nearby galaxy, NGC 4565. During the 2006 December flight from Antarctica, BLAST observed the nearby galaxies NGC 1097, NGC 1291, NGC 1365, NGC 1512, NGC 1566, and NGC 1808. We fit physical dust models to a combination of BLAST observations and other available data for the galaxies observed by Spitzer. We fit a modified blackbody to the remaining galaxies to obtain total dust mass and mean dust temperature. For the four galaxies with Spitzer data, we also produce maps and radial profiles of dust column density and temperature. We measure the fraction of BLAST detected flux originating from the central cores of these galaxies and use this to calculate a 'core fraction', an upper limit on the 'active galactic nucleus fraction' of these galaxies. We also find our resolved observations of these galaxies give a dust mass estimate 5-19 times larger than an unresolved observation would predict. Finally, we are able to use these data to derive a value for the dust mass absorption coefficient of kappa = 0.29 +- 0.03 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} at 250 mum. This study is an introduction to future higher-resolution and higher-sensitivity studies to be conducted by Herschel and SCUBA-2.

  3. Cloud Effects on Radiative Heating Rate Profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train Radar/Lidar Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of clouds from the ground-based U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) and satellite-based A-train are used to compute cloud radiative forcing profiles over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. Cloud properties are obtained from both radar (the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) and the CloudSat satellite in the A-train) and lidar (the ARM Micropulse lidar (MPL) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite in the A-train) observations. Cloud microphysical properties are taken from combined radar and lidar retrievals for ice clouds and radar only or lidar only retrievals for liquid clouds. Large, statistically significant differences of up to 1.43 K/day exist between the mean ARM and A-train net cloud radiative forcing profiles. The majority of the difference in cloud radiative forcing profiles is shown to be due to a large difference in the cloud fraction above 12 km. Above this altitude the A-train cloud fraction is significantly larger because more clouds are detected by CALIPSO than by the ground-based MPL. It is shown that the MPL is unable to observe as many high clouds as CALIPSO due to being more frequently attenuated and a poorer sensitivity even in otherwise clear-sky conditions. After accounting for cloud fraction differences and instrument sampling differences due to viewing platform we determined that differences in cloud radiative forcing due to the retrieved ice cloud properties is relatively small. This study demonstrates that A-train observations are better suited for the calculation cloud radiative forcing profiles. In addition, we find that it is necessary to supplement CloudSat with CALIPSO observations to obtain accurate cloud radiative forcing profiles since a large portion of clouds at Darwin are detected by CALIPSO only.

  4. Video Games and Aggression: the effects of violent game play on self-reported and peer-observed anger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Andrew R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continued upsurge in the popularity of video games has lead to persistent debate over the effects of play, particularly the use of violent video games. The present experimental study aimed to replicate the results of numerous research groups who...

  5. Explaining the observed long coherence effects by 2D photon echo experiments in photosynthetic EET : Two-Component Phonon Spectrum model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Navinder; Amritkar, R E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple stochastic model which successfully explains the long coherence effects observed in photosynthetic Excitation Energy Transport (EET) by 2D photon echo experiments of G. S. Engel et. al. (Nature, {\\bf 446} 782, (2007)). Our Two-Component Phonon Spectrum (TCPS) model is based upon the division of phonon degrees of freedom into a systematic component which is treated through polaron transformation and a stochastic component which is treated through dynamical disorder. This model successfully explains the observed long coherence upto $ \\sim 600 fsec$ in EET experiments.

  6. Explaining the observed long coherence effects by 2D photon echo experiments in photosynthetic EET : Two-Component Phonon Spectrum model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navinder Singh; V. M. Kenkre; R. E. Amritkar

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple stochastic model which successfully explains the long coherence effects observed in photosynthetic Excitation Energy Transport (EET) by 2D photon echo experiments of G. S. Engel et. al. (Nature, {\\bf 446} 782, (2007)). Our Two-Component Phonon Spectrum (TCPS) model is based upon the division of phonon degrees of freedom into a systematic component which is treated through polaron transformation and a stochastic component which is treated through dynamical disorder. This model successfully explains the observed long coherence upto $ \\sim 600 fsec$ in EET experiments.

  7. Observation of pressure gradient and related flow rate effect on the plasma parameters in plasma processing reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Aram; Chung, Chin-Wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Se Youn [Solar Energy Group, LG Electronics Advanced Research Institute, 16 Woomyeon-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-724 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In industrial plasma processes, flow rate has been known to a key to control plasma processing results and has been discussed with reactive radical density, gas residence time, and surface reaction. In this study, it was observed that the increase in the flow rate can also change plasma parameters (electron temperature and plasma density) and electron energy distribution function in plasma processing reactor. Based on the measurement of gas pressure between the discharge region and the pumping port region, the considerable differences in the gas pressure between the two regions were found with increasing flow rate. It was also observed that even in the discharge region, the pressure gradient occurs at the high gas flow rate. This result shows that increasing the flow rate results in the pressure gradient and causes the changes in the plasma parameters.

  8. Prospects for observing dynamical and anti- dynamical Casimir effects in circuit QED due to fast modulation of qubit parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Veloso; A. V. Dodonov

    2015-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the nonstationary circuit QED architecture, where a single artificial two-level atom interacts with a cavity field mode under external modulation of one or more system parameters. Two different approaches are employed to study the effects of Markovian dissipation on modulation-induced transitions between the atom-field dressed states: the standard master equation of Quantum Optics and the recently formulated dressed-picture master equation. We estimate the associated transition rates and show that photon generation from vacuum ("dynamical Casimir effect", DCE) and coherent photon annihilation from nonvacuum states ("Anti-DCE") are possible with the current state-of-the-art parameters.

  9. A COMPARISON OF SURFACE OBSERVATIONS AND ECHAM4-GCM EXPERIMENTS AND ITS RELEVANCE TO THE INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the indirect aerosol effect. The modeled annual cloud cover and solar radiation cycles for the present day at the surface, total cloud cover and precipitation rates have been used to evaluate aerosol. The model correctly predicts the annual mean total cloud cover in Germany and the US, whereas global solar

  10. Evaluation of Clouds and Their Radiative Effects Simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model CAM2 Against Satellite Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bretherton, Chris

    Evaluation of Clouds and Their Radiative Effects Simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model-4738 (Accepted) #12;1 ABSTRACT Cloud climatology and the cloud radiative forcing at the top cloud radiative forcing at the TOA at different latitudes. The differences of cloud vertical structures

  11. First observation of in-medium effects on phase space distributions of antikaons measured in proton-nucleus collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Scheinast; I. Boettcher; M. Debowski; F. Dohrmann; A. Foerster; E. Grosse; P. Koczon; B. Kohlmeyer; F. Laue; M. Menzel; L. Naumann; E. Schwab; P. Senger; Y. Shin; H. Stroebele; C. Sturm; G. Surowka; F. Uhlig; A. Wagner; W. Walus; B. Kampfer; H. W. Barz

    2006-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Differential production cross sections of $K^{\\pm}$ mesons have been measured in $p$ + C and $p$ + Au collisions at 1.6, 2.5 and 3.5 GeV proton beam energy. At beam energies close to the production threshold, the $K^-$ multiplicity is strongly enhanced with respect to proton-proton collisions. According to microscopic transport calculations, this enhancement is caused by two effects: the strangeness exchange reaction $NY \\to K^- NN$ and an attractive in-medium $K^-N$ potential at saturation density.

  12. Semantics-Driven Frequent Data Pattern Mining on Electronic Health Records for Effective Adverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jingshan

    Technology Siemens Corporation Princeton, New Jersey 08540-6632 Email: jiangbo.dang@siemens.com He Zhang & D cost for new drug discovery and on transforming current pharmacovigilance methods to reduce

  13. adverse neuro-developmental effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    medicine (CAM) preparations and dietary supplement (DS) products are frequently used by patients without the knowledge of their physicians. Such preparations can be purchased...

  14. amodiaquine-associated adverse effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    medicine (CAM) preparations and dietary supplement (DS) products are frequently used by patients without the knowledge of their physicians. Such preparations can be purchased...

  15. Phencyclidine Intoxication and Adverse Effects: A Clinical and Pharmacological Review of an Illicit Drug

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bey, Tareg; Patel, Anar

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. Philadelphia,patterns seen in street drug analysis. Clin Toxicol 1976; 9:Poklis A, Maginn D, Barr JL. Drug findings in Driving Under

  16. No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil Fauna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    exist. * E-mail: andreas.lindfeld@iee.unibe.ch Introduction Since the first commercialised GM crops were]. The global area cultivated with GM crops increased from 1.7 million ha in 1996 to 134 million ha in 2009 [3]. But the release of GM crops raises concerns about potential ecological and environmental risks. GM crops, planted

  17. Observed Gravitational Wave Effects: Amaldi 1980 Frascati-Rome Classical Bar Detectors, 2013 Perth-London Zener-Diode Quantum Detectors, Earth Oscillation Mode Frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reginald T Cahill

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Amaldi et al. in 1981 reported two key discoveries from the Frascati and Rome gravitational wave cryogenic bar detectors: (a) Rome events delayed by within a few seconds to tens of seconds from the Frascati events, and (b) the Frascati Fourier-analysed data frequency peaks being the same as the earth oscillation frequencies from seismology. The time delay effects have been dismissed as being inconsistent with gravitational waves having speed c. However using data from zener diode quantum detectors, from Perth and London, for January 1-3, 2013, we report the same effects, and in excellent agreement with the Amaldi results. The time delay effects appear to be gravitational wave reverberations, recently observed, and for gravitational wave speeds of some 500km/s, as detected in numerous experiments. We conclude that the Amaldi et al. discoveries were very significant.

  18. VOLUME 78, NUMBER 5 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 3 FEBRUARY 1997 Multifrequency Doppler Radar Observations of Electron Gyroharmonic Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppler Radar Observations of Electron Gyroharmonic Effects during Electromagnetic Pumping the first detailed mul- tifrequency HF Doppler radar (MDR) studies of elec- tron gyroharmonic effects) Experimental results of multifrequency HF Doppler radar studies during electromagnetic pumping

  19. Defining Molecular Initiating Events in the Adverse Outcome Pathway Framework for Risk Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Timothy E. H.; Goodman, Jonathan M.; Gutsell, Steve; Russell, Paul

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Template, and Guidance on Developing and Assessing the Completeness of Adverse Outcome Pathways, Appendix I, Collection of Working Definitions. http:/www.oecd.org/chemicalsafety/testingofchemicals/49963576.pdf. (2) Ankley, G. T., Bennett, R. S., Erickson, R... ) Research to strengthen the scientific basis for health risk assessment: a survey of the context and rationale for mechanistically based methods and models. Toxicology 102, 320. (17) Aardema, M. J., and MacGregor, J. T. (2002) Toxicology and genetic...

  20. Partial Observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Marlow

    2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We attempt to dissolve the measurement problem using an anthropic principle which allows us to invoke rational observers. We argue that the key feature of such observers is that they are rational (we need not care whether they are `classical' or `macroscopic' for example) and thus, since quantum theory can be expressed as a rational theory of probabilistic inference, the measurement problem is not a problem.

  1. A system to test the effects of materials on the electron drift lifetime in liquid argon and observations on the effect of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, R.; Jaskierny, W.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Pordes, S.; Tope, T.; /Fermilab; ,

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A materials test system (MTS) has been developed at FNAL to assess the suitability of materials for use in a large liquid argon time projection chamber. During development of the MTS, it was noted that controlling the cryostat pressure with a 'raining' condenser reduced the electron drift lifetime in the liquid argon. The effect of condensing has been investigated using a series of passive materials to filter the condensate. We report the results of these studies and of tests on different candidate materials for detector construction. The inferred reduction of electron drift lifetime by water concentrations in the parts per trillion is of particular interest.

  2. This fact sheet summarizes what is known about the adverse impacts of land-based

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23,EnergyChicopeeTechnologyfact sheet summarizes what is known about the adverse

  3. Association of adverse cardiovascular outcomes with weighted morphologic variability following non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarker, Joyatee Mudra

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at a relatively high risk of having subsequent adverse cardiac events. Several electrocardiographic (ECG) measures such as heart rate variability, heart rate ...

  4. Quantifying the Impact of Adverse Events on the Electricity Grid as a Function of Grid Topology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Garill A.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Du, Pengwei

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract--Traditional approaches to the study of grid vulnerability have taken an asset based approach, which seeks to identify those assets most likely to result in grid-wide failures or disruptions in the event that they are compromised. We propose an alternative approach to the study of grid vulnerability, one based on the topological structure of the entire grid. We propose a method that will identify topological parameters most closely related to the ability of the grid to withstand an adverse event. We compare these topological parameters in terms of their impact on the vulnerability metric we have defined, referred to as the grids survivability. Our approach is motivated by Paul Barans work on communications networks, which also studied vulnerability in terms of network-wide parameters. Our approach is useful both as a planning model for evaluating proposed changes to a grid and as a risk assessment tool.

  5. Correlation of Clinical and Dosimetric Factors With Adverse Pulmonary Outcomes in Children After Lung Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatramani, Rajkumar, E-mail: rvenkatramani@chla.usc.edu [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Kamath, Sunil [Department of Pulmonology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Wong, Kenneth [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Olch, Arthur J. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Malvar, Jemily [Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sposto, Richard [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Goodarzian, Fariba [Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Freyer, David R. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Keens, Thomas G. [Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Department of Pulmonology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); and others

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To identify the incidence and the risk factors for pulmonary toxicity in children treated for cancer with contemporary lung irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed clinical features, radiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and dosimetric parameters of children receiving irradiation to the lung fields over a 10-year period. Results: We identified 109 patients (75 male patients). The median age at irradiation was 13.8 years (range, 0.04-20.9 years). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years. The median prescribed radiation dose was 21 Gy (range, 0.4-64.8 Gy). Pulmonary toxic chemotherapy included bleomycin in 58.7% of patients and cyclophosphamide in 83.5%. The following pulmonary outcomes were identified and the 5-year cumulative incidence after irradiation was determined: pneumonitis, 6%; chronic cough, 10%; pneumonia, 35%; dyspnea, 11%; supplemental oxygen requirement, 2%; radiographic interstitial lung disease, 40%; and chest wall deformity, 12%. One patient died of progressive respiratory failure. Post-irradiation pulmonary function tests available from 44 patients showed evidence of obstructive lung disease (25%), restrictive disease (11%), hyperinflation (32%), and abnormal diffusion capacity (12%). Thoracic surgery, bleomycin, age, mean lung irradiation dose (MLD), maximum lung dose, prescribed dose, and dosimetric parameters between V{sub 22} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ?22 Gy) and V{sub 30} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ?30 Gy) were significant for the development of adverse pulmonary outcomes on univariate analysis. MLD, maximum lung dose, and V{sub dose} (percentage of volume of lung receiving the threshold dose or greater) were highly correlated. On multivariate analysis, MLD was the sole significant predictor of adverse pulmonary outcome (P=.01). Conclusions: Significant pulmonary dysfunction occurs in children receiving lung irradiation by contemporary techniques. MLD rather than prescribed dose should be used to perform risk stratification of patients receiving lung irradiation.

  6. Field observations and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, Joh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation outlines observations and lessons learned from the Megaports program. It provides: (1) details of field and technical observations collected during LANL field activities at ports around the world and details of observations collected during radiation detections system testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory; (2) provides suggestions for improvement and efficiency; and (3) discusses possible program execution changes for more effective operations.

  7. Hepatology . Author manuscript Beneficial paracrine effects of cannabinoid receptor 2 on liver injury and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    acute hepatitis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl ), CB2 were induced in the non-parenchymal cell ; pharmacology ; Carbon Tetrachloride ; adverse effects ; Cells, Cultured ; Disease Models, Animal ; Drug

  8. Determining the effect of seawater on the interfacial strength of an interlayer E-glass-graphite/epoxy composite using observations of transverse cracking made in-situ in an environmental SEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Catherine Ann

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINING THE EFFECT OF SEAWATER ON THE INTERFACIAL STRENGTH OF AN INTERLAYER K-GLASS-GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE USING OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSVERSE CRACKING MADE IN-SITU IN AN ENVIRONMENTAL SEM A Thesis by CATHERINE ANN WOOD Submitted... OF AN INTERLAYER E-GLASS-GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE USING OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSVERSE CRACKING MADE IN-SITU IN AN ENVIRONMENTAL SEM A Thesis by CATHERINE ANN WOOD Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  9. Collective flow effects on charge balance correlations and local parity-violation observables in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Hori; T. Gunji; H. Hamagaki; S. Schlichting

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effects of collective flow on charge dependent azimuthal correlations at LHC energies. We propose a series of correlations as a signature of the combined effects of azimuthal collective flow and local charge conservation and perform an analysis within a statistical freeze-out model. We find that present LHC measurements of charge dependent azimuthal correlations are consistent with local charge conservation on the kinetic freeze-out surface. In view of experimental searches for signatures of the chiral-magnetic effect, we provide an alternative explanation of the charge dependence of the observed signal and propose additional measurements to disentangle the effects.

  10. Spin transfer switching in current-perpendicular-to-plane spin valve observed by magneto-optical Kerr effect using visible light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otani, Yoshichika

    Spin transfer switching in current-perpendicular-to-plane spin valve observed by magneto-perpendicular-to-plane spin-valve device. The device consists of three spin-valve elements, each of which comprises-perpendicular-to- plane CPP spin-valve device has been directly observed by using a time resolved x-ray microscopy7 while

  11. Competition between pressure effects and airflow influence for the performance of plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriegseis, J., E-mail: kriegseis@kit.edu [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Barckmann, K.; Grundmann, S., E-mail: grundmann@csi.tu-darmstadt.de [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Frey, J. [Institute for Aerospace Engineering, Technische Universitt Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Tropea, C. [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work addresses the combined influence of pressure variations and different airflow velocities on the discharge intensity of plasma actuators. Power consumption, plasma length, and discharge capacitance were investigated systematically for varying pressure levels (p?=?0.11 bar) and airflow velocities (U{sub ?}=0?100 m/s) to characterize and quantify the favorable and adverse effects on the discharge intensity. In accordance with previous reports, an increasing plasma actuator discharge intensity is observed for decreasing pressure levels. At constant pressure levels, an adverse airflow influence on the electric actuator performance is demonstrated. Despite the improved discharge intensity at lower pressure levels, the seemingly improved performance of the plasma actuators is accompanied with a more pronounced drop of the relative performance. These findings demonstrate the dependency of the (kinematic and thermodynamic) environmental conditions on the electric performance of plasma actuators, which in turn affects the control authority of plasma actuators for flow control applications.

  12. Quantifying aerosol direct radiative effect with Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer observations: Top-of-atmosphere albedo change by aerosols based on land surface types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang; Li, Qinbin; Kahn, Ralph A; Randerson, James T; Diner, David J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coincident MISR and MODIS aerosol optical depths over land2003), Estimates of the spectral aerosol single scatteringalbedo and aerosol radiative effects during SAFARI 2000, J.

  13. Effect of Gas Sparging in Mammalian Cell Bioreactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Daniel I.C.

    One of the major problems in the operations of mammalian cell bioreactors is the detrimental effect of gas sparging. Since the most convenient way to oxygenate any bioreactor is by gas sparging, this adverse effect has ...

  14. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, suppl6ment au no 12, Tome 35, DPcembre 1974, page C6-221 MOSSBAUER EFFECT OBSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, suppl6ment au no 12, Tome 35, DPcembre 1974, page C6-221 MOSSBAUER shift observed in a Mossbauer experiment is the electric monopole interaction between the nucleus isotopes. In order to try and improve the current estimate of A for the principal Mossbauer

  15. The effect of task structure, practice schedule, and model type on the learning of relative and absolute timing by physical and observational practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Charles Beyer

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three experiments compared learning of relative and absolute timing of a sequential key-pressing task by physical and observational practice. Experiment 1 compared a task with a complex internal structure (goal proportions of 22.2, 44.4, 33...

  16. Climate Dynamics Observational, Theoretical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    1 23 Climate Dynamics Observational, Theoretical and Computational Research on the Climate System.6, and -22.5 Wm-2 , respectively, indicating a net cooling effect of clouds on the TOA radiation budget-2 , respectively, resulting in a larger net cooling effect of 2.9 Wm-2 in the model simu- lations

  17. OCCURRENCE AND POTENTIAL ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STREAMBED SEDIMENT, UNITED STATES, 1992-95

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Carson City, NV U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Laboratory, Box 25046, Denver Federal. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected most frequently and at the highest concentrations. Concentrations of PAHs and phthalates were about 10 times higher at sites influenced by urban activities than

  18. A Holistic Look at Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact Under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Veil, John A.; Puder, Markus G.; Littleton, Debra J.; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the coolingmorewater is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions.However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase minimizing adverse environmental impact in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms environmental and minimizing. Congress chose environmental in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like impingement and entrainment, water quality, or aquatic life. In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional electricity to achieve the same net output. This added production leads to additional environmental impacts associated with extraction and processing of the fuel, air emissions from burning the fuel, and additional evaporation of freshwater supplies during the cooling process. Wet towers also require the use of toxic biocides that are subsequently discharged or disposed. The other term under consideration, minimizing, does not equal eliminating. Technologies may be available to minimize but not totally eliminate adverse environmental impacts.less

  19. Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3.0, DCTD, NCI, NIH, DHHS March 31, 2003 (http://ctep.cancer.gov), Publish Date: December 12, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3.0 Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 (CTCAE) Publish Date: December 12, 2003 Quick Reference The NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 is a descriptive terminology which can be utilized

  20. air guiding effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this (more) Tabor, Caroline Mary 2011-01-01 33 Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Rice University study of how to maintain energy...

  1. Essays on the Effectiveness of Environmental Conservation and Water Management Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mezzatesta, Mariano

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An awareness of the effect of agricultural production on the environment has led to the development of policies to mitigate its adverse effects. This dissertation provides analyses of agri-environmental policies designed to protect environmental...

  2. High-throughput identification of off-targets for the mechanistic study of severe adverse drug reactions induced by analgesics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Jian-Bo [Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Ji, Nan; Pan, Wen; Hong, Ru [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102 (China); Wang, Hao [Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Ji, Zhi-Liang, E-mail: appo@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102 (China); Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drugs may induce adverse drug reactions (ADRs) when they unexpectedly bind to proteins other than their therapeutic targets. Identification of these undesired protein binding partners, called off-targets, can facilitate toxicity assessment in the early stages of drug development. In this study, a computational framework was introduced for the exploration of idiosyncratic mechanisms underlying analgesic-induced severe adverse drug reactions (SADRs). The putative analgesic-target interactions were predicted by performing reverse docking of analgesics or their active metabolites against human/mammal protein structures in a high-throughput manner. Subsequently, bioinformatics analyses were undertaken to identify ADR-associated proteins (ADRAPs) and pathways. Using the pathways and ADRAPs that this analysis identified, the mechanisms of SADRs such as cardiac disorders were explored. For instance, 53 putative ADRAPs and 24 pathways were linked with cardiac disorders, of which 10 ADRAPs were confirmed by previous experiments. Moreover, it was inferred that pathways such as base excision repair, glycolysis/glyconeogenesis, ErbB signaling, calcium signaling, and phosphatidyl inositol signaling likely play pivotal roles in drug-induced cardiac disorders. In conclusion, our framework offers an opportunity to globally understand SADRs at the molecular level, which has been difficult to realize through experiments. It also provides some valuable clues for drug repurposing. - Highlights: A novel computational framework was developed for mechanistic study of SADRs. Off-targets of drugs were identified in large scale and in a high-throughput manner. SADRs like cardiac disorders were systematically explored in molecular networks. A number of ADR-associated proteins were identified.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Observations of Hydrate Reformation during Depressurization in a Core-Scale Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Myshakin, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas hydrate has been predicted to reform around a wellbore during depressurization-based gas production from gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. This process has an adverse effect on gas production rates and it requires time and sometimes special measures to resume gas flow to producing wells. Due to lack of applicable field data, laboratory scale experiments remain a valuable source of information to study hydrate reformation. In this work, we report laboratory experiments and complementary numerical simulations executed to investigate the hydrate reformation phenomenon. Gas production from a pressure vessel filled with hydrate-bearing sand was induced by depressurization with and without heat flux through the boundaries. Hydrate decomposition was monitored with a medical X-ray CT scanner and pressure and temperature measurements. CT images of the hydrate-bearing sample were processed to provide 3-dimensional data of heterogeneous porosity and phase saturations suitable for numerical simulations. In the experiments, gas hydrate reformation was observed only in the case of no-heat supply from surroundings, a finding consistent with numerical simulation. By allowing gas production on either side of the core, numerical simulations showed that initial hydrate distribution patterns affect gas distribution and flow inside the sample. This is a direct consequence of the heterogeneous pore network resulting in varying hydraulic properties of the hydrate-bearing sediment.

  4. Atomic Collapse Observed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists Observe Atomic Collapse State Quantum Mechanics Prediction Confirmed in Graphene Using NERSC's Hopper April 26, 2013 | Tags: Hopper, Materials Science Contact: Linda...

  5. Hot Pot Field Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

  6. Hot Pot Field Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

  7. EFFECT OF PORE SIZE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of pore size on pumping efficiency and zinc vapor trapping efficiency. A simple pumping efficiency test was conducted for all five pore diameters where it was observed that evacuation times were adversely affected by reducing the pore size below 5 {micro}m. Common test conditions for the zinc trapping efficiency experiments were used. These conditions resulted in some variability, to ascribe different efficiencies to the filter media. However, the data suggest that there is no significant difference in trapping efficiency for filter media with pores from 0.2 to 20 {micro}m with a thickness of 0.065-inch. Consequently, the 20 {micro}m pore filter media that is currently used at SRS is a suitable filter material for to utilize for future extractions. There is evidence that smaller pore filter will adversely affect the pumping times for the TEF and little evidence to suggest that a smaller pore diameters have significant impact on the trapping efficiency.

  8. Towards observable signatures of other bubble universes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Johnson, Matthew C.; Shomer, Assaf [SCIPP, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the possibility of observable effects arising from collisions between vacuum bubbles in a universe undergoing false-vacuum eternal inflation. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that under certain assumptions most positions inside a bubble should have access to a large number of collision events. We calculate the expected number and angular size distribution of such collisions on an observer's 'sky', finding that for typical observers the distribution is anisotropic and includes many bubbles, each of which will affect the majority of the observer's sky. After a qualitative discussion of the physics involved in collisions between arbitrary bubbles, we evaluate the implications of our results, and outline possible detectable effects. In an optimistic sense, then, the present paper constitutes a first step in an assessment of the possible effects of other bubble universes on the cosmic microwave background and other observables.

  9. Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work4/11ComputationalEdNERSC:Effect of0/2002Effects of

  10. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; O`Reilly, Brian; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Landry, Michael; Sigg, Daniel; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this work we describe the first observation of parametric instability in an Advanced LIGO detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.

  11. Observational learning in horses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baer, Katherine Louise

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . One group served as control subjects while the other group functioned as a treated group (observers). The observers were allowed to watch a correctly performed discrimination task prior to testing of a learning response using the same task.... Discrimination testing was conducted on all horses daily for 14 days with criterion set at seven out of eight responses correct with the last five consecutively correct. The maximum number of trials performed without reaching set criterion was limited...

  12. Effectiveness of Shading Air-Cooled Condensers of Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ElSherbini, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the condenser and the high ambient temperatures can be detrimental for the energy performance. The effectiveness of shading the condensing unit to mitigate this adverse impact is investigated in this paper. A limiting analysis compares the performance of several...

  13. CX Lyrae 2008 Observing Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Ponthiere, Pierre; Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Blazhko effect in CX Lyr has been reported for the first time by Le Borgne et al. (2007). The authors have pointed out that the Blazhko period was not evaluated accurately due to dataset scarcity. The possible period values announced were 128 or 227 days. A newly conducted four-month observing campaign in 2008 (fifty-nine observation nights) has provided fourteen times of maximum. From a period analysis of measured times of maximum, a Blazhko period of 62 +/- 2 days can be suggested. However, the present dataset is still not densely sampled enough to exclude that the measured period is still a modulation of the real Blazhko period. Indeed the shape of the (O-C) curve does not repeat itself exactly during the campaign duration.

  14. Observing Massive Galaxy Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major goal of contemporary astrophysics is understanding the origin of the most massive galaxies in the universe, particularly nearby ellipticals and spirals. Theoretical models of galaxy formation have existed for many decades, although low and high redshift observations are only beginning to put constraints on different ideas. We briefly describe these observations and how they are revealing the methods by which galaxies form by contrasting and comparing fiducial rapid collapse and hierarchical formation model predictions. The available data show that cluster ellipticals must have rapidly formed at z > 2, and that up to 50% of all massive galaxies at z ~ 2.5 are involved in major mergers. While the former is consistent with the monolithic collapse picture, we argue that hierarchal formation is the only model that can reproduce all the available observations.

  15. Air Observe System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

  16. Academic Writing Observation Papers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a particular action and did not notice something about the people involved. Note what you did not notice observations. People: If the setting is crowded, choose a particular group (or groups) or focus on random paper around a research question: For example, you may be interested in power relations, interactions

  17. Academic Writing Observation Papers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a particular action and did not notice something about the people involved. Note what you did not notice observations. People: If the setting is crowded, choose a particular group (or groups) or focus on random in power relations, interactions between interpersonal communication processes and other media, or other

  18. Global Warming Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

  19. Odds of observing the multiverse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlen, A. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  20. Odds of observing the multiverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Dahlen

    2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Eternal inflation predicts our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light-cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound given by the bubble nucleation rate times ($H_{\\rm{O}}/H_{\\rm{I}})^2$, where $H_{\\rm{O}}$ is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and $H_{\\rm{I}}$ is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel \\emph{et al.} using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well. A significant error in a previous draft was corrected in order to arrive at this result.

  1. Fluid observers and tilting cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Coley; S. Hervik; W. C. Lim

    2006-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study perfect fluid cosmological models with a constant equation of state parameter $\\gamma$ in which there are two naturally defined time-like congruences, a geometrically defined geodesic congruence and a non-geodesic fluid congruence. We establish an appropriate set of boost formulae relating the physical variables, and consequently the observed quantities, in the two frames. We study expanding spatially homogeneous tilted perfect fluid models, with an emphasis on future evolution with extreme tilt. We show that for ultra-radiative equations of state (i.e., $\\gamma>4/3$), generically the tilt becomes extreme at late times and the fluid observers will reach infinite expansion within a finite proper time and experience a singularity similar to that of the big rip. In addition, we show that for sub-radiative equations of state (i.e., $\\gamma < 4/3$), the tilt can become extreme at late times and give rise to an effective quintessential equation of state. To establish the connection with phantom cosmology and quintessence, we calculate the effective equation of state in the models under consideration and we determine the future asymptotic behaviour of the tilting models in the fluid frame variables using the boost formulae. We also discuss spatially inhomogeneous models and tilting spatially homogeneous models with a cosmological constant.

  2. Observational Mishaps - a Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaspar von Braun; Kristin Chiboucas; Denise Hurley-Keller

    1999-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a World-Wide-Web-accessible database of astronomical images which suffer from a variety of observational problems, ranging from common occurences, such as dust grains on filters and/or the dewar window, to more exotic phenomena, such as loss of primary mirror support due to the deflation of the support airbags. Apart from its educational usefulness, the purpose of this database is to assist astronomers in diagnosing and treating errant images at the telescope, thus saving valuable telescope time. Every observational mishap contained in this on-line catalog is presented in the form of a GIF image, a brief explanation of the problem, and, when possible, a suggestion for improving the image quality.

  3. Toxicological effects of methylmercury on walleye (Sander vitreus) and perch (Perca flavescens) from lakes of the boreal forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    ) were studied in four Canadian boreal forest lakes representing a mercury (Hg) exposure gradient adverse effects on the physiology and cellular metabolism of walleye and perch at environmentally relevant

  4. Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors : comparison of long-term health effects and costs between proton therapy and IMRT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu, An T. (An Thien)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation therapy is an important component of pediatric brain tumor treatment. However, radiation-induced damage can lead to adverse long-term health effects. Proton therapy has the ability to reduce the dose delivered ...

  5. Mapping Climate Change Hazards: Using GIS to Identify Social Vulnerability to the Effects of Environmental Hazards in the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batool, Najya

    2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Research suggests that the precise nature and effects of climate change, including changes to the Earths climate patterns, can have an adverse environmental impact on localities, regions, and countries. Research shows that socially disadvantaged...

  6. ARM Observations Projected

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP Update Information on new, existing, andObservations Projected

  7. Observations of Edge Turbulence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeeding access(SC)Gas and OilPhaseObservation ofEdge

  8. Observing the Inflationary Reheating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerome Martin; Christophe Ringeval; Vincent Vennin

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Reheating is the the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot Big-Bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is however observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models taken in Encyclopaedia Inflationaris. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires to incorporate information about its reheating history.

  9. Conformal Relativity: Theory and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Pervushin; V. Zinchuk; A. Zorin

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical and observational arguments are listed in favor of a new principle of relativity of units of measurements as the basis of a conformal-invariant unification of General Relativity and Standard Model by replacement of all masses with a scalar (dilaton) field. The relative units mean conformal observables: the coordinate distance, conformal time, running masses, and constant temperature. They reveal to us a motion of a universe along its hypersurface in the field space of events like a motion of a relativistic particle in the Minkowski space, where the postulate of the vacuum as a state with minimal energy leads to arrow of the geometric time. In relative units, the unified theory describes the Cold Universe Scenario, where the role of the conformal dark energy is played by a free minimal coupling scalar field in agreement with the most recent distance-redshift data from type Ia supernovae. In this Scenario, the evolution of the Universe begins with the effect of intensive creation of primordial W-Z-bosons explaining the value of CMBR temperature, baryon asymmetry, tremendous deficit of the luminosity masses in the COMA-type superclusters and large-scale structure of the Universe.

  10. Observable signatures of general relativistic dynamics in compact binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Ryan N. (Ryan Nathan)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of general relativity (GR) in astrophysical systems are often difficult to calculate, but they can have important consequences for observables. This thesis considers the impact of previously-ignored GR effects ...

  11. Observing alternatives to inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Peter

    2009-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the possibility that the inflationary paradigm, undoubtfully today's best framework to understand all the present cosmological data, may still have some viable challengers. The underlying idea for such discussions is that although inflation already passed quite a large number of tests, indeed enough to make it part of the so-called ``standard model'' of cosmology, it has always been through indirect measurements: there is not a chance that we may ever directly check its validity, and therefore, in order to assert its factuality with increasing level of confidence, it is required that we compare its predictions not only to observations, but also to as many contenders as possible. Among other categories of possible models, we wish to put the emphasis in particular on bouncing cosmologies that, however not as complete as the inflation paradigm might be, could still represent a reasonnable way of explaining the current data. Hopefully, future data will be able to discriminate between these various sets of theories.

  12. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Chen, Guang-Hong [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD curves tended to be steeper. The CHO generated the best quantitative agreement with human observers with its CD curve overlapping with that of human observer. Statistical equivalence between CHO and humans can be claimed within 11% of the human observer results, including both the disk and lesion detection experiments.Conclusions: The model observer method can be used to accurately represent human observer performance with the stochastic DPC-CT noise for SKE tasks with sizes ranging from 8 to 128 pixels. The incorporation of the anatomical noise remains to be studied.

  13. An Observational Look at Rotating Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiita, Paul J.

    . The Doppler Effect induces a shift at each end of the star's spectrum as one limb recedes, while the other radial velocities and the resulting shifts in wavelength from the various parts of the star (Kaler 1989 be calculated, or perhaps even the angular velocity" (Abney 1877). The component of the radial velocity observed

  14. Effects of broadleaf woodland cover on streamwater chemistry and risk assessments of streamwater acidification in acid-sensitive catchments in the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gagkas, Zisis

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acidification of surface waters has been recognised as the major water quality problem in the UK uplands. The adverse effects of conifer afforestation on streamwater chemistry and ecology are well documented in ...

  15. Power Counting to Better Jet Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew J. Larkoski; Ian Moult; Duff Neill

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

  16. Radical radiotherapy for cervix cancer: The effect of waiting time on outcome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choan, E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: ce@ottawahospital.on.ca; Dahrouge, Simone [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Samant, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mirzaei, Ameneh [Elisabeth Bruyere Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Price, Julie [Elisabeth Bruyere Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the effect of treatment waiting time on clinical outcome for patients with cervix cancers treated with radical radiotherapy. Methods and materials: A retrospective analysis was conducted on all cervix cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy between 1990 and 2001 at the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre. Analyses were performed according to the three following separate definitions of waiting times: interval from start of radiotherapy to (1) date of initial biopsy (2) date of examination under anesthesia, and (3) date of radiation oncology consultation. Associations between waiting times and patient characteristics and disease control were investigated using t-tests, analyses of variance, and Cox regression analyses. Results: A total of 195 patients were studied. The vast majority of patients were treated within 5, 6, and 8 weeks of their consultation (91%), examination under anesthesia (88%), and biopsy (81%), respectively. On average, delays between initial biopsy and treatment start were greater for older patients (p = 0.025) (5.8 weeks for <40 years old vs. 6.6 weeks for >70 years old) and those with smaller tumors (p < 0.001) (5.0 weeks for >4 cm vs. 6.3 weeks for {<=}4 cm). Univariate analysis revealed no adverse effect of treatment delay on tumor control. Multivariate analysis, with the inclusion of multiple prognostic tumor and treatment parameters, revealed an adverse effect of treatment delay on survival outcomes. Conclusions: Longer radiotherapy waiting times were found to be associated with diminished survival outcomes for patients treated radically for cervix cancer. The significance of this observed association requires further investigation.

  17. Lightlike simultaneity, comoving observers and distances in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. J. Bols

    2006-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We state a condition for an observer to be comoving with another observer in general relativity, based on the concept of lightlike simultaneity. Taking into account this condition, we study relative velocities, Doppler effect and light aberration. We obtain that comoving observers observe the same light ray with the same frequency and direction, and so gravitational redshift effect is a particular case of Doppler effect. We also define a distance between an observer and the events that it observes, that coincides with the known affine distance. We show that affine distance is a particular case of radar distance in the Minkowski space-time and generalizes the proper radial distance in the Schwarzschild space-time. Finally, we show that affine distance gives us a new concept of distance in Robertson-Walker space-times, according to Hubble law.

  18. Observation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found TheHotSpeedingSpeedingSpeedingSpeedingSpeedingSpeedingOTYa

  19. Observation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found

  20. Observation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeeding access(SC)Gas and Oil ResearchPublictearing mode

  1. Observation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeeding access(SC)Gas and Oil ResearchPublictearing

  2. NS&T MANAGEMENT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianotto, David

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of managements observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&Ts MOP.

  3. 8, 88178846, 2008 Observed boundary-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 8817­8846, 2008 Observed boundary- layer/mesoscale impacts on Saharan dust J. H. Marsham et and Enviroment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK 2 Institut f¨ur Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Universit@env.leeds.ac.uk) 8817 #12;ACPD 8, 8817­8846, 2008 Observed boundary- layer/mesoscale impacts on Saharan dust J. H

  4. Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilo Steinmetz; Tobias Wilken; Constanza Araujo-Hauck; Ronald Holzwarth; Theodor W. Hnsch; Luca Pasquini; Antonio Manescau; Sandro D'Odorico; Michael T. Murphy; Thomas Kentischer; Wolfgang Schmidt; Thomas Udem

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct measurement of the universe's expansion history could be made by observing in real time the evolution of the cosmological redshift of distant objects. However, this would require measurements of Doppler velocity drifts of about 1 centimeter per second per year, and astronomical spectrographs have not yet been calibrated to this tolerance. We demonstrate the first use of a laser frequency comb for wavelength calibration of an astronomical telescope. Even with a simple analysis, absolute calibration is achieved with an equivalent Doppler precision of approximately 9 meters per second at about 1.5 micrometers - beyond state-of-the-art accuracy. We show that tracking complex, time-varying systematic effects in the spectrograph and detector system is a particular advantage of laser frequency comb calibration. This technique promises an effective means for modeling and removal of such systematic effects to the accuracy required by future experiments to see direct evidence of the universe's putative acceleration.

  5. BOWHUNTER OBSERVATIONS VERSUS SPOTLIGHTING AS AN INDEX TO DEER ABUNDANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arboretum (MFCA) in southeastern New York State since 1970 (Davis 1975, Winchcombe 1993). The objective and observations of deer by bowhunters) were used at the MFCA to assess effectiveness in reaching the objective

  6. Effect of Collection Method and Archiving Conditions on the Survivability of Vegetative and Spore Forming Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassab, Asmaa S.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    and Schafer, 1998). Aerosols play a large role in a multiplicity of different production processes. Airborne particles, especially pathogenic microorganisms and other biological materials, are potential public and industrial health hazards. To ensure... the effective protection of This thesis followed the style and format of Aerosol Science and Technology. 2 both general and occupational populations from the adverse effects of airborne hazards, reliable...

  7. Kalman Filtering with Intermittent Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Michael I.

    1 Kalman Filtering with Intermittent Observations Bruno Sinopoli, Luca Schenato, Massimo within sensor networks, we consider the prob- lem of performing Kalman filtering with intermittent be neglected. We address this problem starting from the discrete Kalman filtering formulation, and modelling

  8. Radio Observations of Supernova Remnants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Reich

    2002-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Supernovae release an enormous amount of energy into the interstellar medium. Their remnants can observationally be traced up to several ten-thousand years. So far more than 230 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) have been identified in the radio range. Detailed studies of the different types of SNRs give insight into the interaction of the blast wave with the interstellar medium. Shock accelerated particles are observed, but also neutron stars left from the supernova explosion make their contribution. X-ray observations in conjunction with radio data constrain models of supernova evolution. A brief review of the origin and evolution of SNRs is given, which are compared with supernova statistics and observational limitations. In addition the morphology and characteristics of the different types of SNRs are described, including some recent results and illustrated by SNRs images mostly obtained with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope.

  9. Baryon Resonances Observed at BES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. S. Zou

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The $\\psi$ decays provide a novel way to explore baryon spectroscopy and baryon structure. The baryon resonances observed from $\\psi$ decays at BES are reviewed. The implications and prospects at upgraded BESIII/BEPCII are discussed.

  10. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertolini, Daniele

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but ...

  11. Adventure and Adversity Issue 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    . I desire only to have a roof over my head, some decent food and a warm bed provided by servants who know me, and know that their master would wish to pro vide for me. A few days in my lovers' house, even if they are not there to soothe me, and I.... "Ibelieve your mind is more willing that your body tonight, my dearest Jamie," Ed ward cautions me with a little smile, and a soft kiss to the forehead. "You must sleep now." I am frustrated by my own desire, and the knowledge of how little time we...

  12. Electron Cloud observation in the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rumolo, G; Baglin, V; Bartosik, H; Biancacci, N; Baudrenghien, P; Bregliozzi, G; Chiggiato, P; Claudet, S; De Maria, R; Esteban-Muller, J; Favier, M; Hansen, C; Hfle, W; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Lanza, G; Li, K S B; Maury Cuna, G H I; Mtral, E; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Roncarolo, F; Salvant, B; Shaposhnikova, E N; Steinhagen, R J; Tavian, L J; Valuch, D; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Zimmermann, F; Iriso, U; Dominguez, O; Koukovini-Platia, E; Mounet, N; Zannini, C; Bhat, C M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation of LHC with bunch trains at different spacings has revealed the formation of an electron cloud inside the machine. The main observations of electron cloud build up are the pressure rise measured at the vacuum gauges in the warm regions, as well as the increase of the beam screen temperature in the cold regions due to an additional heat load. The effects of the electron cloud were also visible as instability and emittance growth affecting the last bunches of longer trains, which could be improved running with higher chromaticity or larger transverse emittances. A summary of the 2010 and 2011 observations and measurements and a comparison with models will be presented. The efficiency of scrubbing to improve the machine running performance will be briefly discussed.

  13. Kalman filter data assimilation: Targeting observations and parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellsky, Thomas, E-mail: bellskyt@asu.edu; Kostelich, Eric J.; Mahalov, Alex [School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)] [School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper studies the effect of targeted observations on state and parameter estimates determined with Kalman filter data assimilation (DA) techniques. We first provide an analytical result demonstrating that targeting observations within the Kalman filter for a linear model can significantly reduce state estimation error as opposed to fixed or randomly located observations. We next conduct observing system simulation experiments for a chaotic model of meteorological interest, where we demonstrate that the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with targeted observations based on largest ensemble variance is skillful in providing more accurate state estimates than the LETKF with randomly located observations. Additionally, we find that a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter parameter estimation method accurately updates model parameters within the targeted observation context to further improve state estimation.

  14. Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suttie, J.S.; Dickie, R.; Clay, A.B.; Nielsen, P.; Mahan, W.E.; Baumann, D.P.; Hamilton, R.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases in skeletal fluoride of less than two-fold were observed in deer obtained from Medway Plantation which has its nearest boundary 1.6 km from the smelter site. No dental fluorosis was observed in deer collected at Medway Plantation, but mild dental fluorosis was observed in a significant number of deer collected at Mount Holly Plantation. The dental fluorosis that was observed was not associated with incisor wear or with fluoride-induced molar wear. Osteofluorosis of mandibles or metacarpals was not observed in any of the deer obtained from either plantation. The data obtained from this study indicated that the presence of a modern aluminum smelter caused a detectable increase in concentration of skeletal fluoride in the resident population of white-tailed deer, but that no adverse health effects were seen.

  15. The TIME-WAIT state in TCP and Its Effect on Busy Servers Theodore Faber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faber, Ted

    and other sharing methods will not alleviate it. We have observed HTTP throughput reductions of as much such as HTTP and FTP incur a per-connection memory load from TCP that can adversely affect their connection as 50% under SunOS 4.1.3 due to this loading. This paper advocates off-loading the memory requirements

  16. The TIME-WAIT state in TCP and Its Effect on Busy Servers Theodore Faber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faber, Ted

    and other sharing methods will not alleviate it. We have observed HTTP throughput reductions of as much such as HTTP and FTP incur a perconnection memory load from TCP that can adversely affect their connection as 50% under SunOS 4.1.3 due to this loading. This paper advocates offloading the memory requirements

  17. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.J.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota.

  18. Observation of ?cJ decays to ??????

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Bennett, J. V.; et al

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decays of the ?cJ states (J=0, 1, 2) to ??????, including processes with intermediate ?(1385), are studied through the E1 transition ?'???cJ using 10610? ?' events collected with the BESIII detector at BEPCII. This is the first observation of ?cJ decays to the final state ??????. The branching ratio of the intermediate process ?cJ??(1385)?(1385)? is also measured for the first time, and the results agree with the theoretical predictions based on the color-octet effect.

  19. Observing the next galactic supernova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Scott M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Beacom, John F.; Stanek, K. Z. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Vagins, Mark R. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No supernova (SN) in the Milky Way has been observed since the invention of the optical telescope, instruments for other wavelengths, neutrino detectors, or gravitational wave observatories. It would be a tragedy to miss the opportunity to fully characterize the next one. To aid preparations for its observations, we model the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions of a successful Galactic core-collapse supernova (ccSN), its shock breakout radiation, and its massive star progenitor. We find, at very high probability (? 100%), that the next Galactic SN will easily be detectable in the near-IR and that near-IR photometry of the progenitor star very likely (? 92%) already exists in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Most ccSNe (98%) will be easily observed in the optical, but a significant fraction (43%) will lack observations of the progenitor due to a combination of survey sensitivity and confusion. If neutrino detection experiments can quickly disseminate a likely position (?3), we show that a modestly priced IR camera system can probably detect the shock breakout radiation pulse even in daytime (64% for the cheapest design). Neutrino experiments should seriously consider adding such systems, both for their scientific return and as an added and internal layer of protection against false triggers. We find that shock breakouts from failed ccSNe of red supergiants may be more observable than those of successful SNe due to their lower radiation temperatures. We review the process by which neutrinos from a Galactic ccSN would be detected and announced. We provide new information on the EGADS system and its potential for providing instant neutrino alerts. We also discuss the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions for the next Galactic Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Based on our modeled observability, we find a Galactic ccSN rate of 3.2{sub ?2.6}{sup +7.3} per century and a Galactic SN Ia rate of 1.4{sub ?0.8}{sup +1.4} per century for a total Galactic SN rate of 4.6{sub ?2.7}{sup +7.4} per century is needed to account for the SNe observed over the last millennium, which implies a Galactic star formation rate of 3.6{sub ?3.0}{sup +8.3} M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}.

  20. The effect of local geologic conditions on observed seismic intensities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moran, David Rick

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions. . 6 Earthquakes selected for attenuation study in the Gulf of Corinth - Saronikos province of Greece. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 46 7 The parameter values and data used for the comparison of attenuation...R+ c Iog(R+ iO) (2) We may derive the attenuation equation from a point source model where the amplitude of body waves in a homogeneous medium is given by an equation of the form (Chandra, I982a): A-(A /R) exp(-pR) (3) where R Aa, 2 ~ h2...

  1. Observation of Coherent Beam-beam Effects in the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buffat, X; Giachino, R; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Calaga, R; White, S M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early collisions in the LHC with a very limited number of bunches with high intensities indicated the presence of coherent beam-beam driven oscillations. Here we discuss the experimental results and compare with the expectations.

  2. Some observations and physiologic effects of adrenalectomy in the dog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, James Gilbert

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . James D. McCrady Bilaterally adrenalectomized dogs were studied to identify and quantitate changes in plasma concentra- tions of sodium and potassium, in the electrocardio- gram (ECG), and in physical state Results were ana- lyzed to evaluate... relationships present among the ob- served changes. The five day period immediately prior to death was selected as the post-operative evaluation period. Dur- ing this period plasma sodium concentration decreased and plasma potassium concentrations increased...

  3. Observing Healthcare Interior Environments and the Effect on Patient Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Courtney R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Healthcare facilities are recognizable as organized, clean, and functional environments that enable health practices to be carried out easily. However, most healthcare facilities do not take into account how design may affect patient welfare...

  4. Synergistic effects of MoDTC and ZDTP on frictional behaviour of tribofilms at the nanometer scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    conditions in automotive engines, lubricating oils contain several additives, among which there are detergent ways resulting either in synergies or in adverse effects affecting the oil performance regarding anti1 Synergistic effects of MoDTC and ZDTP on frictional behaviour of tribofilms at the nanometer

  5. Observations of the Icy Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boogert, Adwin; Whittet, Douglas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Freeze-out of the gas phase elements onto cold grains in dense interstellar and circumstellar media builds up ice mantles consisting of molecules that are mostly formed in situ (H2O, NH3, CO2, CO, CH3OH, and more). This review summarizes the detected infrared spectroscopic ice features and compares the abundances across Galactic, extragalactic, and solar system environments. A tremendous amount of information is contained in the ice band profiles. Laboratory experiments play a critical role in the analysis of the observations. Strong evidence is found for distinct ice formation stages, separated by CO freeze out at high densities. The ice bands have proven to be excellent probes of the thermal history of their environment. The evidence for the long-held idea that processing of ices by energetic photons and cosmic rays produces complex molecules is weak. Recent state of the art observations show promise for much progress in this area with planned infrared facilities.

  6. Observation of an Antimatter Hypernucleus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear collisions recreate conditions in the universe microseconds after the Big Bang. Only a very small fraction of the emitted fragments are light nuclei, but these states are of fundamental interest. We report the observation of antihypertritons - composed of an antiproton, antineutron, and antilambda hyperon - produced by colliding gold nuclei at high energy. Our analysis yields 70 {+-} 17 antihypertritons ({sub {bar {Lambda}}}{sup 3}{bar H}) and 157 {+-} 30 hypertritons ({sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H). The measured yields of {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H ({sub {bar {Lambda}}}{sup 3}{bar H}) and {sup 3}He ({sup 3}{ovr He}) are similar, suggesting an equilibrium in coordinate and momentum space populations of up, down, and strange quarks and antiquarks, unlike the pattern observed at lower collision energies. The production and properties of antinuclei, and nuclei containing strange quarks, have implications spanning nuclear/particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

  7. Novel Isotope Effects and Organic Reaction Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Kelmara K.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to account for the observed isotope effects. In the dimerization of cyclopentadiene, novel "dynamic" isotope effects are observed on the 13C distribution in the product, and a method for the prediction of these isotope effects is developed here...

  8. Observation of the Goos-Haenchen Shift with Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haan, Victor-O. de; Plomp, Jeroen; Rekveldt, Theo M.; Kraan, Wicher H.; Well, Ad A. van; Dalgliesh, Robert M.; Langridge, Sean [Department Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); STFC, ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Goos-Haenchen effect is a spatial shift along an interface resulting from an interference effect that occurs for total internal reflection. This phenomenon was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton, but it was not until 1947 that the effect was experimentally observed by Goos and Haenchen. We provide the first direct, absolute, experimental determination of the Goos-Haenchen shift for a particle experiencing a potential well as required by quantum mechanics: namely, wave-particle duality. Here, the particle is a spin-polarized neutron reflecting from a film of magnetized material. We detect the effect through a subtle change in polarization of the neutron. Here, we demonstrate, through experiment and theory, that neutrons do exhibit the Goos-Haenchen effect and postulate that the associated time shift should also be observable.

  9. Spitzer observations of hydrogen deuteride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David A. Neufeld; Joel D. Green; David J. Hollenbach; Paule Sonnentrucker; Gary J. Melnick; Edwin A. Bergin; Ronald L. Snell; William J. Forrest; Dan M. Watson; Michael J. Kaufman

    2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the detection of interstellar hydrogen deuteride (HD) toward the supernova remnant IC443, and the tentative detection of HD toward the Herbig Haro objects HH54 and HH7 and the star forming region GGD37 (Cepheus A West). Our detections are based upon spectral line mapping observations of the R(3) and R(4) rotational lines of HD, at rest wavelengths of 28.502 and 23.034 micron respectively, obtained using the Infrared Spectrograph onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The HD R(4)/R(3) line intensity ratio promises to be a valuable probe of the gas pressure in regions where it can be observed. The derived HD/H2 abundance ratios are 1.19(+0.35/-0.24)E-5, 1.80(+0.54/-0.32)E-5, and 1.41(+0.46/-0.33)E-5 respectively (68.3% confidence limits, based upon statistical errors alone) for IC443 (clump C), HH54, and HH7. If HD is the only significant reservoir of gas-phase deuterium in these sources, the inferred HD/H2 ratios are all consistent with a gas-phase elemental abundance [n(D)/n(H)](gas) ~ 7.5E-6, a factor 2 - 3 below the values obtained previously from observations of atomic deuterium in the local bubble and the Galactic halo. However, similarly low gas-phase deuterium abundances have been inferred previously for molecular gas clouds in the Orion region, and in atomic clouds along sight-lines within the Galactic disk to stars more distant than 500 pc from the Sun.

  10. The linear power spectrum of observed source number counts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Challinor, Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We relate the observable number of sources per solid angle and redshift to the underlying proper source density and velocity, background evolution and line-of-sight potentials. We give an exact result in the case of linearized perturbations assuming general relativity. This consistently includes contributions of the source density perturbations and redshift distortions, magnification, radial displacement, and various additional linear terms that are small on sub-horizon scales. In addition we calculate the effect on observed luminosities, and hence the result for sources observed as a function of flux, including magnification bias and radial-displacement effects. We give the corresponding linear result for a magnitude-limited survey at low redshift, and discuss the angular power spectrum of the total count distribution. We also calculate the cross-correlation with the CMB polarization and temperature including Doppler source terms, magnification, redshift distortions and other velocity effects for the sources...

  11. Magnetars: the physics behind observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turolla, Roberto; Watts, Anna

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetars are the strongest magnets in the present universe and the combination of extreme magnetic field, gravity and density makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the strong field limit. Magnetars are observed as peculiar, burst--active X-ray pulsars, the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and the Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs); the latter emitted also three "giant flares," extremely powerful events during which luminosities can reach up to 10^47 erg/s for about one second. The last five years have witnessed an explosion in magnetar research which has led, among other things, to the discovery of transient, or "outbursting," and "low-field" magnetars. Substantial progress has been made also on the theoretical side. Quite detailed models for explaining the magnetars' persistent X-ray emission, the properties of the bursts, the flux evolution in transient sources have been developed and confronted with observations. New insight on neu...

  12. Spitzer observations of hydrogen deuteride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, D A; Hollenbach, D J; Sonnentrucker, P; Melnick, G J; Bergin, E A; Snell, R L; Forrest, W J; Watson, D M; Kaufman, M J; Neufeld, David A.; Green, Joel D.; Hollenbach, David J.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Melnick, Gary J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Snell, Ronald L.; Forrest, William J.; Watson, Dan M.; Kaufman, and Michael J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the detection of interstellar hydrogen deuteride (HD) toward the supernova remnant IC443, and the tentative detection of HD toward the Herbig Haro objects HH54 and HH7 and the star forming region GGD37 (Cepheus A West). Our detections are based upon spectral line mapping observations of the R(3) and R(4) rotational lines of HD, at rest wavelengths of 28.502 and 23.034 micron respectively, obtained using the Infrared Spectrograph onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The HD R(4)/R(3) line intensity ratio promises to be a valuable probe of the gas pressure in regions where it can be observed. The derived HD/H2 abundance ratios are 1.19(+0.35/-0.24)E-5, 1.80(+0.54/-0.32)E-5, and 1.41(+0.46/-0.33)E-5 respectively (68.3% confidence limits, based upon statistical errors alone) for IC443 (clump C), HH54, and HH7. If HD is the only significant reservoir of gas-phase deuterium in these sources, the inferred HD/H2 ratios are all consistent with a gas-phase elemental abundance [n(D)/n(H)](gas) ~ 7.5E-6, a facto...

  13. Effects of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) on in vitro human erythrocyte membranes and molecular models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwalsky, Mario, E-mail: msuwalsk@udec.cl [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)] [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Zambrano, Pablo; Mennickent, Sigrid [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)] [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Villena, Fernando [Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)] [Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Sotomayor, Carlos P.; Aguilar, Luis F. [Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)] [Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Bolognin, Silvia [CNR-Institute for Biomedical Technologies, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)] [CNR-Institute for Biomedical Technologies, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} PPA is a common ingredient in cough-cold medication and appetite suppressants. {yields} Reports on its effects on human erythrocytes are very scarce. {yields} We found that PPA induced in vitro morphological changes to human erythrocytes. {yields} PPA interacted with isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes. {yields} PPA interacted with class of lipid present in the erythrocyte membrane outer monolayer. -- Abstract: Norephedrine, also called phenylpropanolamine (PPA), is a synthetic form of the ephedrine alkaloid. After reports of the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage and other adverse effects, including several deaths, PPA is no longer sold in USA and Canada. Despite the extensive information about PPA toxicity, reports on its effects on cell membranes are scarce. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of PPA with cell membranes, ranges of concentrations were incubated with intact human erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM), and molecular models of cell membranes. The latter consisted in bilayers built-up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), phospholipid classes present in the outer and inner monolayers of most plasmatic cell membranes, respectively. The capacity of PPA to perturb the bilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was assessed by X-ray diffraction, DMPC large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study presents evidence that PPA affects human red cell membranes as follows: (a) in SEM studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that 0.5 mM PPA induced shape changes; (b) in IUM PPA induced a sharp decrease in the fluorescence anisotropy in the lipid bilayer acyl chains in a concentration range lower than 100 {mu}M; (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that PPA in the 0.1-0.5 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation to DMPC, but no effects on DMPE multibilayers were detected.

  14. Quintom Cosmology: Theoretical implications and observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi-Fu Cai; Emmanuel N. Saridakis; Mohammad R. Setare; Jun-Qing Xia

    2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the paradigm of quintom cosmology. This scenario is motivated by the observational indications that the equation of state of dark energy across the cosmological constant boundary is mildly favored, although the data are still far from being conclusive. As a theoretical setup we introduce a no-go theorem existing in quintom cosmology, and based on it we discuss the conditions for the equation of state of dark energy realizing the quintom scenario. The simplest quintom model can be achieved by introducing two scalar fields with one being quintessence and the other phantom. Based on the double-field quintom model we perform a detailed analysis of dark energy perturbations and we discuss their effects on current observations. This type of scenarios usually suffer from a manifest problem due to the existence of a ghost degree of freedom, and thus we review various alternative realizations of the quintom paradigm. The developments in particle physics and string theory provide potential clues indicating that a quintom scenario may be obtained from scalar systems with higher derivative terms, as well as from non-scalar systems. Additionally, we construct a quintom realization in the framework of braneworld cosmology, where the cosmic acceleration and the phantom divide crossing result from the combined effects of the field evolution on the brane and the competition between four and five dimensional gravity. Finally, we study the outsets and fates of a universe in quintom cosmology. In a scenario with null energy condition violation one may obtain a bouncing solution at early times and therefore avoid the Big Bang singularity. Furthermore, if this occurs periodically, we obtain a realization of an oscillating universe. Lastly, we comment on several open issues in quintom cosmology and their connection to future investigations.

  15. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earths radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  16. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene Print Wednesday, 30 June 2010 00:00 An international team of scientists performing...

  17. The ionizing radiation environment in space and its effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Jim; Falconer, David; Fry, Dan [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), UA Huntsville (United States); Space Radiation Analysis Group, NASA Johnson Space Center (United States)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The ionizing radiation environment in space poses a hazard for spacecraft and space crews. The hazardous components of this environment are reviewed and those which contribute to radiation hazards and effects identified. Avoiding the adverse effects of space radiation requires design, planning, monitoring and management. Radiation effects on spacecraft are avoided largely though spacecraft design. Managing radiation exposures of space crews involves not only protective spacecraft design and careful mission planning. Exposures must be managed in real time. The now-casting and forecasting needed to effectively manage crew exposures is presented. The techniques used and the space environment modeling needed to implement these techniques are discussed.

  18. Observation of Bloch oscillations in molecular rotation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes Flo; Andrei Kamalov; Ilya Sh. Averbukh; Philip H. Bucksbaum

    2015-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The periodically kicked quantum rotor is known for non-classical effects such as quantum localisation in angular momentum space or quantum resonances in rotational excitation. These phenomena have been studied in diverse systems mimicking the kicked rotor, such as cold atoms in optical lattices, or coupled photonic structures. Recently, it was predicted that several solid state quantum localisation phenomena - Anderson localisation, Bloch oscillations, and Tamm-Shockley surface states - may manifest themselves in the rotational dynamics of laser-kicked molecules. Here, we report the first observation of rotational Bloch oscillations in a gas of nitrogen molecules kicked by a periodic train of femtosecond laser pulses. A controllable detuning from the quantum resonance creates an effective accelerating potential in angular momentum space, inducing Bloch-like oscillations of the rotational excitation. These oscillations are measured via the temporal modulation of the refractive index of the gas. Our results introduce room-temperature laser-kicked molecules as a new laboratory for studies of localisation phenomena in quantum transport.

  19. INTEGRAL observations of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldoni, P; Laurent, P; Cass, M; Paul, J; Sarazin, C L

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cluster of galaxies are the largest concentrations of visible mass in the Universe and therefore a fundamental topic of cosmology and astrophysics. Recent radio, EUV, and X-ray observations suggest that clusters contain large populations of diffuse nonthermal relativistic and/or superthermal particles. These particles may be produced by acceleration in cluster merger shocks, AGNs, and/or supernovae in cluster galaxies. Models for the nonthermal populations in clusters indicate that they should produce substantial hard X-ray and $\\gamma$ luminosities. The possible role of nonthermal particles in the dynamics of clusters is one of the greatest uncertainties in their use as cosmological probes. INTEGRAL offers, for the first time, the possibility of simultaneous medium resolution imaging (~ 12 arcmin) and high resolution spectroscopy (DeltaE/E ~ 2 keV @ 1.3 MeV) with exceptional sensitivity in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray band. The spatial resolution will allow discrete sources, such as AGNs, to be separated fr...

  20. 12 August 2005 Observing Optical Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    12 August 2005 Observing Optical Transition Radiation from 10keV Electrons 1 #12;12 August 2005 Observing Optical Transition Radiation from 10keV Electrons 2 #12;12 August 2005 Observing Optical Transition Radiation from 10keV Electrons 3 #12;12 August 2005 Observing Optical Transition Radiation from 10

  1. Programming Infinite Objects by Observations Andreas Abel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    ), and observe its result (behavior). Application is the defining principle of functions [Granstrom

  2. Programming Infinite Objects by Observations Andreas Abel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    (experiment), and observe its result (behavior). Application is the defining principle of functions [Granstrom

  3. A cooperative control algorithm for camera based observational systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last several years, there has been considerable growth in camera based observation systems for a variety of safety, scientific, and recreational applications. In order to improve the effectiveness of these systems, we frequently desire the ability to increase the number of observed objects, but solving this problem is not as simple as adding more cameras. Quite often, there are economic or physical restrictions that prevent us from adding additional cameras to the system. As a result, we require methods that coordinate the tracking of objects between multiple cameras in an optimal way. In order to accomplish this goal, we present a new cooperative control algorithm for a camera based observational system. Specifically, we present a receding horizon control where we model the underlying optimal control problem as a mixed integer linear program. The benefit of this design is that we can coordinate the actions between each camera while simultaneously respecting its kinematics. In addition, we further improve the quality of our solution by coupling our algorithm with a Kalman filter. Through this integration, we not only add a predictive component to our control, but we use the uncertainty estimates provided by the filter to encourage the system to periodically observe any outliers in the observed area. This combined approach allows us to intelligently observe the entire region of interest in an effective and thorough manner.

  4. Observation of the Nernst signal generated by fluctuating Cooper pairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    . The Nernst effect, the generation of a transverse electric field by a longitudinal thermal gradient, has with the quanta of electric1 (e2 /h) or thermal11 (2 k2 BT/3h) conductance. However, in the notation used by USHLETTERS Observation of the Nernst signal generated by fluctuating Cooper pairs A. POURRET1 , H

  5. Dark energy and dark matter from cosmological observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steen Hannestad

    2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present status of our knowledge about the dark matter and dark energy is reviewed. Bounds on the content of cold and hot dark matter from cosmological observations are discussed in some detail. I also review current bounds on the physical properties of dark energy, mainly its equation of state and effective speed of sound.

  6. SAD effects on grantmanship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano, George A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a state of depression induced by a lack of sufficient sunlight that occurs at high latitudes during the fall and winter. One effect of SAD is that causes people to be more risk-adverse, an effect that should be considered by granting agencies of high latitude countries. Funding agencies often have programmes aimed at high-risk, innovative research. However, the time of the year during which these purposefully high-risk proposals are evaluated usually does not take into consideration the effects of SAD. In high-latitude countries (e.g., Canada, UK, Nordic and Baltic countries), evaluating proposals for high-risk programmes during the late fall might significantly detract from the very purpose of such programmes. At this time of the year, grant evaluators might be in a darkness-induced state of mild depression. As such, evaluators might be more likely to opt for safe investments, more of the same, the well established, which is the antithesis of innovative research.

  7. A Method for Weak Lensing Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick Kaiser; Gordon Squires; Tom Broadhurst

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop and test a method for measuring the gravitational lensing induced distortion of faint background galaxies. We first describe how we locate the galaxies and measure a 2-component `polarisation' or ellipticity statistic $e_\\alpha$ whose expectation value should be proportional to the gravitational shear $\\gamma_\\alpha$. We then show that an anisotropic instrumental psf perturbs the polarisation by $\\delta e_\\alpha = P^s_{\\alpha\\beta} p_\\beta$, where $p_\\alpha$ is a measure of the psf anisotropy and $P^s_{\\alpha\\beta}$ is the `linearised smear polarisability tensor'. By estimating $P^s_{\\alpha\\beta}$ for each object we can determine $p_\\alpha$ from the foreground stars and apply a correction $-P^s_{\\alpha\\beta}p_\\beta$ to the galaxies. We test this procedure using deep high-resolution images from HST which are smeared with an anisotropic psf and then have noise added to simulate ground-based observations. We find that the procedure works very well. A similar analysis yields a linear shear polarisability tensor $P^\\gamma_{\\alpha\\beta}$ which describes the response to a gravitational shear. This calibrates the polarisation-shear relation, but only for galaxies which are well resolved. To empirically calibrate the effect of seeing on the smaller galaxies we artificially stretch HST images to simulate lensing and then degrade them as before. These experiments provide a rigorous and exacting test of the method under realistic conditions. They show that it is possible to remove the effect of instrumental psf anisotropy, and that the method provides an efficient and quantitative measurement of the gravitational shear.

  8. Ornithological Observations 1 GUIDELINES TO AUTHORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Villiers, Marienne

    Ornithological Observations 1 GUIDELINES TO AUTHORS Ornithological Observations is a semi flush left (no tabs or indents) and paragraphs must be separated by a line space. Authors are requested

  9. Terrestrial Carbon Observations: Protocols for Vegetation Sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GTOS GTOS 55 Terrestrial Carbon Observations: Protocols for Vegetation Sampling and Data Submission Shashi Verma #12;(intentionally blank) #12;Terrestrial Carbon Observations: Protocols for Vegetation Forestry University, Bejing 100083, China 5 University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 6 Microsoft Research

  10. Observation and Control for Debugging Distributed Computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Vijay

    Observation and Control for Debugging Distributed Computations Vijay K. Garg \\Lambda Parallel and Distributed Systems Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department The University of Texas for observing and controlling a distributed computation and its applications to distributed debugging

  11. Observation and Control for Debugging Distributed Computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Vijay

    Observation and Control for Debugging Distributed Computations Vijay K. Garg Parallel and Distributed Systems Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department The University of Texas for observing and controlling a distributed computation and its applications to distributed debugging

  12. Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite{reg_sign} and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone.

  13. JAXA's Earth Observation Program Osamu Ochiai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JAXA's Earth Observation Program Osamu Ochiai Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency #12;1 Disasters Health Energy Climate Water 1 Japanese Main Activities of Earth Observation Weather MTSAT (JMA) Eco Earth Observation Targets (JFY) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

  14. Belief space planning assuming maximum likelihood observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano-Perez, Tomas

    observations are modelled as Gaussian noise. Given this model of the dynamics, two planning and control methods-locating the sensors with the contacts this way complicates planning and control because it forces the system to trade of the partially observable control problem, often modeled as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP

  15. Autonomous observing strategies for the ocean carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, James K.; Davis, Russ E.

    2000-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the exchanges of carbon between the atmosphere and ocean and the fate of carbon delivered to the deep sea is fundamental to the evaluation of ocean carbon sequestration options. An additional key requirement is that sequestration must be verifiable and that environmental effects be monitored and minimized. These needs can be addressed by carbon system observations made from low-cost autonomous ocean-profiling floats and gliders. We have developed a prototype ocean carbon system profiler based on the Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO; Davis et al., 1999). The SOLO/ carbon profiler will measure the two biomass components of the carbon system and their relationship to physical variables, such as upper ocean stratification and mixing. The autonomous observations within the upper 1500 m will be made on daily time scales for periods of months to seasons and will be carried out in biologically dynamic locations in the world's oceans that are difficult to access with ships (due to weather) or observe using remote sensing satellites (due to cloud cover). Such an observational capability not only will serve an important role in carbon sequestration research but will provide key observations of the global ocean's natural carbon cycle.

  16. Searching for Novel Gravitational Effects

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Christopher Stubb

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stubbs, Chair of the Physics Department at Harvard University, discusses experiments that search for novel gravitational effect and scientific observations about it.

  17. Natural geometric representation for electron local observables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minogin, V.G., E-mail: minogin@isan.troitsk.ru

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An existence of the quartic identities for the electron local observables that define orthogonality relations for the 3D quantities quadratic in the electron observables is found. It is shown that the joint solution of the quartic and bilinear identities for the electron observables defines a unique natural representation of the observables. In the natural representation the vector type electron local observables have well-defined fixed positions with respect to a local 3D orthogonal reference frame. It is shown that the natural representation of the electron local observables can be defined in six different forms depending on a choice of the orthogonal unit vectors. The natural representation is used to determine the functional dependence of the electron wave functions on the local observables valid for any shape of the electron wave packet. -- Highlights: Quartic identities that define the orthogonality relations for the electron local observables are found. Joint solution of quartic and bilinear identities defines a unique natural representation of the electron local observables. Functional dependence of the electron wave functions on the electron local observables is determined.

  18. Observation of the negative muonium ion in vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang, Yunan

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The negative muonium ion (M/sup /minus//), which is the bound system of a positive muon and two electrons, has been produced and observed for the first time. Its counterpart H/sup /minus// is well known, and spectroscopy and collision studies with H/sup /minus// have yielded many fruitful results. Noteworthy are recent investigations of the photoionization of a relativistic H/sup /minus// beam. The negative positronium ion has also been formed and observed. The discovery of M/sup /minus// provides us with a new leptonic system for spectroscopy and collision studies, which may reveal interesting physics associated with mass effects. Since M/sup /minus// is a charged particle, it can also be used to produce a beam of exotic atoms with a small phase space. This dissertation is a detailed account of the observation of M/sup /minus//. 93 refs., 54 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young-Sik Ra; Malte C. Tichy; Hyang-Tag Lim; Osung Kwon; Florian Mintert; Andreas Buchleitner; Yoon-Ho Kim

    2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The coherence time constitutes one of the most critical parameters that determines whether or not interference is observed in an experiment. For photons, it is traditionally determined by the effective spectral bandwidth of the photon. Here we report on multi-photon interference experiments in which the multi-photon coherence time, defined by the width of the interference signal, depends on the number of interfering photons and on the measurement scheme chosen to detect the particles. A theoretical analysis reveals that all multi-photon interference with more than two particles features this dependence, which can be attributed to higher-order effects in the mutual indistinguishability of the particles. As a striking consequence, a single, well-defined many-particle quantum state can exhibit qualitatively different degrees of interference, depending on the chosen observable. Therefore, optimal sensitivity in many-particle quantum interferometry can only be achieved by choosing a suitable detection scheme.

  20. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterSP response during hydraulic fracturing. Citation: Moore, J.observations during hydraulic fracturing, J. Geophys. Res. ,

  1. EA-1964: National Ecological Observation Network (NEON)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) prepared an EA that evaluated potential environmental impacts of the proposed National Ecological Observation Network (NEON), a continental-scale network of...

  2. Observational Window Functions in Planet Transit Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaspar von Braun; David R. Ciardi

    2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Window functions describe, as a function of orbital period, the probability that an existing planetary transit is detectable in one's data for a given observing strategy. We show the dependence of this probability upon several strategy and astrophysical parameters, such as length of observing run, observing cadence, length of night, and transit duration. The ability to detect a transit is directly related to the intrinsic noise of the observations. In our simulations of the window function, we explicitly address non-correlated (gaussian or white) noise and correlated (red) noise and discuss how these two different noise components affect window functions in different manners.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Marginal Ice Zone Observations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment mission Sierra Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Begin Flights Over Arctic Sea Ice On July 25, 2013, in Climate, Customers &...

  4. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size...

  5. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene Print An international team of scientists performing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments at ALS Beamline 7.0.1...

  6. CCD Observing Manual 49 Bay State Road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    Stars 5.6. Supernovae/Novae Patrols 5.7. Designing Your Own: Using AAVSO VSX 6.0 Observing Techniques 6

  7. A general perspective on time observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan W. Roberts

    2014-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    I propose a general geometric framework in which to discuss the existence of time observables. This frameworks allows one to describe a local sense in which time observables always exist, and a global sense in which they can sometimes exist subject to a restriction on the vector fields that they generate. Pauli's prohibition on quantum time observables is derived as a corollary to this result. I will then discuss how time observables can be regained in modest extensions of quantum theory beyond its standard formulation.

  8. CAN REMOTE OBSERVING BE GOOD OBSERVING? REFLECTIONS ON PROCRUSTES AND ANTAEUS 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockman, Jay

    CAN REMOTE OBSERVING BE GOOD OBSERVING? REFLECTIONS ON PROCRUSTES AND ANTAEUS 1 Felix J. Lockman National Radio Astronomy Observatory Green Bank, WV 24944 USA ABSTRACT Remote observing seeks to simulate, written in 1992 for a conference proceedings on remote observing, is reprinted here with only slight

  9. Direct Observation of Polymer Sheathing in Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Direct Observation of Polymer Sheathing in Carbon Nanotube-Polycarbonate Composites W. Ding, A (MWCNT)-polycarbonate composites are presented. This sheathing was observed in images of the composite properties, increases in electrical conductivity3 and improved thermal properties4 are obtained with small

  10. ISO SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF SHORTPERIOD COMETS \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demoulin, Pascal

    1 ISO SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF SHORTPERIOD COMETS \\Lambda J. Crovisier 1 , T. Encrenaz 1 , E 4 , E. van Dishoeck 5 , R. Knacke 6 , T.Y. Brooke 7 1 Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France 2 ISO are found in a shortperiod comet. The ISO observations of the Jupiterfamily comet P/Hartley 2, presum

  11. Progress re-evaluating Puget Sound sediment apparent effects threshold values (AETs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gries, T.H.; Waldow, K.H. [Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis agencies (US Army Corps of Engineers and Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington Departments of Ecology and Natural Resources) are committed to re-evaluating AETs for Puget Sound sediments, upon which regulatory guideline values and criteria are based. On behalf of the PSDDA agencies, the Department of Ecology used an expanded sediment quality database to calculate 1994 AETs. Those AETs were based on the 10-day Rhepoxinius abronius mortality and 48--96 hour echinoderm larval bioassays. Both abnormality and effective mortality (abnormality + mortality) endpoints were used as indicators of biological effects in the latter test. The echinoderm AETs derived from the abnormality endpoint were more sensitive predictors of significant adverse effects, so those AETs were examined more closely. Results showed most of the 1994 dry weight-normalized amphipod AETs remained the same as 1988 values, but some increased and one decreased. Fewer changes were observed for organic carbon-normalized amphipod AETS. Echinoderm larval abnormality AETs were generally lower than 1986 oyster larval AETS, whether dry weight or organic carbon-normalized. Amphipod values were among the highest and echinoderm values were among the lowest in the suite of Puget Sound AETs. Whether any new AETs lead to corresponding changes to the guideline values used in the PSDDA program or the criteria of the Washington`s Sediment Management Standards (173-204 WAC) will depend on several factors. The new Puget Sound amphipod and echinoderm AETs, some measures of their reliability, and potential changes to sediment quality guidelines and criteria will be presented.

  12. Cytotoxic effects and aromatase inhibition by xenobiotic endocrine disrupters alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benachour, Nora [Laboratoire de Biochimie, EA2608, IBFA, Universite de Caen, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen (France); Moslemi, Safa [Laboratoire de Biochimie, EA2608, IBFA, Universite de Caen, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen (France); Laboratoire de Biochimie du Tissu Conjonctif, EA3214, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Sipahutar, Herbert [Laboratoire de Biochimie, EA2608, IBFA, Universite de Caen, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen (France); Department of Biology, State University of Medan (Indonesia); Seralini, Gilles-Eric [Laboratoire de Biochimie, EA2608, IBFA, Universite de Caen, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen (France)]. E-mail: criigen@unicaen.fr

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Xenobiotics may cause long-term adverse effects in humans, especially at the embryonic level, raising questions about their levels of exposure, combined effects, and crucial endpoints. We are interested in the possible interactions between xenobiotic endocrine disrupters, cellular viability and androgen metabolism. Accordingly, we tested aroclor 1254 (A1254), atrazine (AZ), o,p'-DDT, vinclozolin (VZ), p,p'-DDE, bisphenol A (BPA), chlordecone (CD), nonylphenol (NP), tributylin oxide (TBTO), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) for cellular toxicity against human embryonic 293 cells, and activity against cellular aromatase, but also on placental microsomes and on the purified equine enzyme. Cellular viability was affected in 24 h by all the xenobiotics with a threshold at 50 {mu}M (except for TBTO and DES, 10 {mu}M threshold), and aromatase was inhibited at non-toxic doses. In combination synergism was observed reducing the threshold values of toxicity to 4-10 {mu}M, and aromatase activity by 50% in some cases. In placental microsomes the most active xenobiotics rapidly inhibited microsomal aromatase in a manner independent of NADPH metabolism. Prolonged exposures to low doses in cells generally amplified by 50 times aromatase inhibition. These xenobiotics may act by inhibition of the active site or by allosteric effects on the enzyme. Bioaccumulation is a feature of some xenobiotics, especially chlordecone, DDT and DDE, and low level chronic exposures can also affect cell signaling mechanisms. This new information about the mechanism of action of these xenobiotics will assist in improved molecular design with a view to providing safer compounds for use in the (human) environment.

  13. Submitted to the Journal of the American Water Resources Association Potential Human Health Effects Associated with Pathogens in Urban Wet Weather Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    Effects Associated with Pathogens in Urban Wet Weather Flows Robert Pitt1 , Melinda Lalor2 , and John stormwater conveyance systems, or wet weather sewage overflows, may adversely impact many of the desired uses. Urban runoff or wet weather flows include not only precipitation and washoff from lawns and landscaped

  14. Rossiter-McLaughlin Observations of 55 Cnc e

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Rodler, Florian; Dumusque, Xavier; Buchhave, Lars A; Harutyunyan, A; Hoyer, Sergio; Alonso, Roi; Gillon, Michael; Kaib, Nathan A; Latham, David W; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Queloz, Didier; Raymond, Sean N; Segransan, Damien; Waldmann, Ingo P; Udry, Stephane

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of the transiting super-Earth 55 Cnc e collected during six transit events between January 2012 and November 2013 with HARPS and HARPS-N. We detect no radial-velocity signal above 35 cm/s (3-sigma) and confine the stellar v sin i to 0.2 +/- 0.5 km/s. The star appears to be a very slow rotator, producing a very low amplitude Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Given such a low amplitude, the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect of 55 Cnc e is undetected in our data, and any spin-orbit angle of the system remains possible. We also performed Doppler tomography and reach a similar conclusion. Our results offer a glimpse of the capacity of future instrumentation to study low amplitude Rossiter-McLaughlin effects produced by super-Earths.

  15. Designing a Stochastic Adaptive Impulsive Observer for Stochastic Linear and Nonlinear Impulsive Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayati, Moosa [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alwan, Mohamad; Liu Xinzhi [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Khaloozadeh, Hamid [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    State observation (estimation) is a very important issue in system analysis and control. This paper develops a new observer called Stochastic Adaptive Impulsive Observer (SAIO) for the state estimation of impulsive systems. The proposed observer is applicable to linear and nonlinear stochastic impulsive systems. In addition, the effect of parametric uncertainty is considered and unknown parameters of the system are estimated by suitable adaptation laws. Impulsive system theory, particularly stochastic Lyapunov-like function, is used to analyze the stability and convergence of the state estimations. The main advantages of the proposed observer are: 1) it gives continuous estimation from discrete time measurements of the system output, and 2) it is useful for state estimation when continuous measurements are impossible or expensive. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed observer and we believe that it has many applications in control and estimation theories.

  16. Observing and modeling Earths energy flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens B.; Schwartz S.

    2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reviews, from the authors perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within {+-}2 W m{sup -2}. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds contribute importantly to this adjustment and thus contribute both to uncertainty in estimates of radiative forcing and to uncertainty in the response. Models are indispensable to calculation of the adjustment of the system to a compositional change but are known to be flawed in their representation of clouds. Advances in tracking Earth's energy flows and compositional changes on daily through decadal timescales are shown to provide both a critical and constructive framework for advancing model development and evaluation.

  17. Observation of magnetic field lines in the vicinity of a superconductor with the naked eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshihiko Saito

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Meissner effect and pinning effect are clearly observed with the naked eye. A GdBaCuO high-temperature superconductor (HTS) disk fabricated by Nippon Steel Corporation, a 100mm cubic NdFeB sintered magnet, and iron wires coated by colored are used. When the HTS is put in the magnetic field of the magnet, it can be observed by the wires that the magnetic field lines are excluded from the superconductor (Meissner effect) as well as are pinned in the superconductor (pinning effect).

  18. Retrieval of Non-Spherical Dust Aerosol Properties from Satellite Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xin

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An accurate and generalized global retrieval algorithm from satellite observations is a prerequisite to understand the radiative effect of atmospheric aerosols on the climate system. Current operational aerosol retrieval algorithms are limited...

  19. Time changes in gradient and observed winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ronald Dale

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TIME CHANGES IN GRADIENT AND OBSERVED WINDS A Thesis by RONALD DALE CARLSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillm=n of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 1972 Major Subject...: Meteorology TIME CHANGES IN GRADIENT AND OBSERVED WINDS A Thesis by RONALD D. CARLSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Co , ee) (Member) (Member) May 1972 ABSTRACT Time Changes in Gradient and Observed Winds. (May 1972) Ronald Dale...

  20. SU-E-I-12: Characterization of Edge Effects in a Commercial Low-Dose Image Processing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, R; Silosky, M [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Minimizing radiation dose while preserving image quality is critical in fluoroscopic imaging. One recent development is a noise reduction system (Allura Clarity) offered by Philips. Others have reported approximately 50% reduction in air kerma when using Clarity. These studies, however, provide only a cursory look at how the Clarity system affects image quality. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of Clarity on the appearance of high-frequency image information. Methods: A lead attenuator with a smooth edge was imaged on two Philips Allura FD20 detectors: one with Clarity and one without. The edge was positioned in the center of the field of view and images were obtained under the following conditions: 40cm and 11cm fields of view, single shot and continuous fluoroscopy modes, and using abdomen and cardiac protocols, for a total of sixteen imaging conditions. Profiles were drawn perpendicular to the edge across 80% of its length, averaged to reduce noise, normalized to the maximum pixel value, and plotted as a function of distance. Results: For all single-shot acquisitions and most fluoroscopic images, overshoot of the edge was observed. This effect was more substantial for single-shot acquisitions (?20%) than for fluoroscopic images (?50%). For fluoroscopic acquisition, the overshoot decayed more quickly with the Clarity system. However, the system with Clarity introduced a ringing effect for both single-shot and fluoroscopic images that is not present on the non-Clarity system. Conclusion: Previous reports have demonstrated a substantial dose reduction when using Clarity but the impact this has on image appearance has not been characterized. One demonstrated difference is the change in appearance of high-frequency image information. It remains to be determined whether this effect may impact clinical images adversely.

  1. STATUS, EVALUATION AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AUTOMATED CLOUD OBSERVATIONS IN THE NETHERLANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    STATUS, EVALUATION AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AUTOMATED CLOUD OBSERVATIONS IN THE NETHERLANDS Wiel infrared radiometer. The evaluation of the automated cloud observations will address: (i) effects every 10 minutes. In 2006 and 2007 LD-40 sensors will replace the ceilometers at 7 Dutch Royal Air Force

  2. Observing motor learning produces somatosensory change Nicol F. Bernardi,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malfait, Nicole

    Observing motor learning produces somatosensory change Nicol F. Bernardi,1,2 Mohammad Darainy,1, Darainy M, Bricolo E, Ostry DJ. Observing motor learning produces somatosensory change. J Neurophysiol 110 of others has been shown to affect motor learning, but does it have effects on sensory systems as well

  3. Extraplanar Dust in Spiral Galaxies: Observations and Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Christopher Howk

    1999-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent optical and submillimeter observations have begun to probe the existence of dust grains in the halos of spiral galaxies. I review our own work in this area which employs high-resolution optical images of edge-on spiral galaxies to trace high-z dust in absorption against the background stellar light of the galaxies. We have found that a substantial fraction of such galaxies (>50%) show extensive webs of dust-bearing clouds to heights z>2 kpc. Extraplanar dust in galaxies is statistically correlated with extraplanar diffuse ionized gas, though there is no evidence for a direct, physical relationship between these two phases of the high-z interstellar medium. The dense high-z clouds individually have masses estimated to be >10^5} to 10^6 solar masses. The detailed properties of the observed dust structures suggest the clouds seen in our images may represent the dense phase of a multiphase ISM at high-z. Such dense clouds can have an important effect on the observed light distribution in spiral galaxies. I discuss the effects such high-z dust can have on quantitative measures of the vertical structure of stars and ionized gas in edge-on systems.

  4. Initial Helioseismic Observations by Hinode/SOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Sekii; Alexander G. Kosovichev; Junwei Zhao; Saku Tsuneta; Hiromoto Shibahashi; Thomas E. Berger; Kiyoshi Ichimoto; Yukio Katsukawa; Bruce W. Lites; Shin'ichi Nagata; Toshifumi Shimizu; Richard A. Shine; Yoshinori Suematsu; Theodore D. Tarbell; Alan M. Title

    2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from initial helioseismic observations by Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode are reported. It has been demonstrated that intensity oscillation data from Broadband Filter Imager can be used for various helioseismic analyses. The k-omega power spectra, as well as corresponding time-distance cross-correlation function that promises high-resolution time-distance analysis below 6-Mm travelling distance, were obtained for G-band and CaII-H data. Subsurface supergranular patterns have been observed from our first time-distance analysis. The results show that the solar oscillation spectrum is extended to much higher frequencies and wavenumbers, and the time-distance diagram is extended to much shorter travel distances and times than they were observed before, thus revealing great potential for high-resolution helioseismic observations from Hinode.

  5. Near-Infrared Observations April 9, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Thomas

    idea: correct wavefront distortions using a deformable secondary mirror · can achieve better correction;Energy Generation · what are we seeing when we observe solar system objects in the NIR? · reflected

  6. OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRANSIENT LUMINOUS EVENT-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRANSIENT LUMINOUS EVENT- PRODUCING MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS Timothy LangC by positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning can lead to transient luminous events (TLEs; Williams 1998; Lyons

  7. NASA Launches New Earth Observation Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    Goddard View The Weekly 2 NASA Launches New Earth Observation Satellite 3 3-D printing Creates Complex free online access to the information. This revolution has al- lowed scientists to detect changes over

  8. Spectrum of Controlling and Observing Complex Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Gang; Barzel, Baruch; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observing and controlling complex networks are of paramount interest for understanding complex physical, biological and technological systems. Recent studies have made important advances in identifying sensor or driver nodes, through which we can observe or control a complex system. Yet, the observation uncertainty induced by measurement noise and the energy cost required for control continue to be significant challenges in practical applications. Here we show that the control energy cost and the observation uncertainty vary widely in different directions of the state space. In particular, we find that if all nodes are directly driven, control is energetically feasible, as the maximum energy cost increases sublinearly with the system size. If, however, we aim to control a system by driving only a single node, control in some directions is energetically prohibitive, increasing exponentially with the system size. For the cases in between, the maximum energy decays exponentially if we increase the number of driv...

  9. INTEGRAL observations of HER X-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Klochkov; R. Staubert; S. Tsygankov; A. Lutovinov; K. P. Postnov; N. I. Shakura; S. A. Potanin; C. Ferrigno; I. Kreykenbohm; J. Wilms

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    First results of observations of the low mass X-ray binary Her X-1/HZ Her performed by the INTEGRAL satellite in July-August 2005 are presented. A significant part of one 35 day main-on state was covered. The cyclotron line in the X-ray spectrum is well observed and its position and shape, as well as its variability with time and phase of the 1.24 s pulsation are explored. X-ray pulse profiles for different energy bands are studied throughout the observation. The pulse period is found to vary on short time scales revealing a dynamical spin-up/spin-down behavior. Results of simultaneous optical observations of HZ Her are also discussed.

  10. Possible energy effects of a US ban on Libyan oil imports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peach, J.D.

    1982-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Under current slack market conditions, a ban on trade with Libya is not likely to have a major impact on US oil supplies or prices. Current US oil imports from Libya are small, and oil is readily available from other sources. Libya could experience a temporary loss of oil revenues until it found new customers. Tight market conditions - unlikely in 1982 - would maximize the potential adverse effects on the United States and minimize those on Libya. US oil companies - both those producing and refining Libyan oil - are more likely to feel the adverse effects of a trade ban than the United States as a whole. Although a ban would probably prevent direct imports of Libyan oil from entering the United States, some Libyan oil could still enter the country as products refined elsewhere.

  11. Endothelial-constitutive nitric oxide synthase exists in airways and diesel exhaust particles inhibit the effect of nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muto, Emiko; Hayashi, Toshio; Yamada, Kazuyoshi [Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others] [Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are an important cause of air pollution and are thought to be responsible for some respiratory ailments, but the exact mechanism is not known. We evaluated whether DEP inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in bronchi as No is present in the exhaled air and has a physiological role in the respiratory tract. Aortic rings were also examined for comparison. We observed that acetylcholine (ACh) induced contraction of the bronchi was partially attenuated by the simultaneous release of NO. When bronchial rings were incubated either with N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA): an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) or with DEP, the contraction to ACh was abolished. The source of the NOS was the bronchial epithelium and this endothelial-constitutive NOS was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. DEP like L-NMA inhibited the ACh induced endothelium dependent relaxation in the aortic rings. The inhibition of NO release by DEP and L-NMA from bronchial and aortic rings was also confirmed by a selective NO electrode. We conclude that inhibition of NO availability by DEP may in part be responsible for the adverse respiratory effects seen by inhalation of these particles in polluted air. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Gamma-Ray Line Observations with RHESSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David M. Smith

    2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has been observing gamma-ray lines from the Sun and the Galaxy since its launch in February 2002. Here I summarize the status of RHESSI observations of solar lines (nuclear de-excitation, neutron capture, and positron annihilation), the lines of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe from the inner Galaxy, and the search for positron annihilation in novae.

  13. Infrasonic observations of the Northridge, California, earthquake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrasonic waves from the Northridge, California, earthquake of 17 January 1994 were observed at the St. George, Utah, infrasound array of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The distance to the epicenter was 543 kilometers. The signal shows a complex character with many peaks and a long duration. An interpretation is given in terms of several modes of signal propagation and generation including a seismic-acoustic secondary source mechanism. A number of signals from aftershocks are also observed.

  14. Mass Parameterizations and Predictions of Isotopic Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. R. Souza; P. Danielewicz; S. Das Gupta; R. Donangelo; W. A. Friedman; W. G. Lynch; W. P. Tan; M. B. Tsang

    2003-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the accuracy of mass models for extrapolating to very asymmetric nuclei and the impact of such extrapolations on the predictions of isotopic observables in multifragmentation. We obtain improved mass predictions by incorporating measured masses and extrapolating to unmeasured masses with a mass formula that includes surface symmetry and Coulomb terms. We find that using accurate masses has a significant impact on the predicted isotopic observables.

  15. Photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs II: evolutionary models and observable properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. D. Alexander; C. J. Clarke; J. E. Pringle

    2006-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new model for protoplanetary disc evolution. This model combines viscous evolution with photoevaporation of the disc, in a manner similar to Clarke, Gendrin & Sotomayor (2001). However in a companion paper (Alexander, Clarke & Pringle 2006a) we have shown that at late times such models must consider the effect of stellar radiation directly incident on the inner disc edge, and here we model the observational implications of this process. We find that the entire disc is dispersed on a time-scale of order $10^5$yr after a disc lifetime of a few Myr, consistent with observations of T Tauri (TT) stars. We use a simple prescription to model the spectral energy distribution of the evolving disc, and demonstrate that the model is consistent with observational data across a wide range of wavelengths. We note also that the model predicts a short ``inner hole'' phase in the evolution of all TT discs, and make predictions for future observations at mid-infrared and millimetre wavelengths.

  16. Centrifugal force reversal from the perspective of rigidly rotating observer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giorgi Dalakishvili

    2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In previous studies the dynamics of the relativistic particle moving along the rotating pipe was investigated. The simple gedanken experiment was considered. It was shown that at large enough velocities a centrifugal force acting on the bead changes its usual sign and attracts towards the rotation axis. The authors studied motion of the particle along the rotating straight pipe in the frame of the observer located in the center of rotation, also dynamics of centrifugally accelerated relativistic particle was studied in the laboratory frame. In the both cases it was shown that centrifugal force changes sign. Recently the problem was studied in the frame of stationary observers. It was argued that centrifugal acceleration reversal is not frame invariant effect. In the present paper we consider motion of particle along the rotating straight line in the frame of an arbitrary stationary observer located at certain distance form the center of rotation and rigidly rotating with constant angular velocity. It is shown that any stationary observer could detect reversal of centrifugal acceleration.

  17. Observational constraints on gauge field production in axion inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meerburg, P.D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Pajer, E., E-mail: meerburg@princeton.edu, E-mail: enrico.pajer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models of axion inflation are particularly interesting since they provide a natural justification for the flatness of the potential over a super-Planckian distance, namely the approximate shift-symmetry of the inflaton. In addition, most of the observational consequences are directly related to this symmetry and hence are correlated. Large tensor modes can be accompanied by the observable effects of a the shift-symmetric coupling ?F F-tilde to a gauge field. During inflation this coupling leads to a copious production of gauge quanta and consequently a very distinct modification of the primordial curvature perturbations. In this work we compare these predictions with observations. We find that the leading constraint on the model comes from the CMB power spectrum when considering both WMAP 7-year and ACT data. The bispectrum generated by the non-Gaussian inverse-decay of the gauge field leads to a comparable but slightly weaker constraint. There is also a constraint from ?-distortion using TRIS plus COBE/FIRAS data, but it is much weaker. Finally we comment on a generalization of the model to massive gauge fields. When the mass is generated by some light Higgs field, observably large local non-Gaussianity can be produced.

  18. USAGE OF RADARS FOR WIND ENERGY APPICATIONS Determine the benefit of using radar observations for wind energy applications by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USAGE OF RADARS FOR WIND ENERGY APPICATIONS TASK: Determine the benefit of using radar observations for wind energy applications by analyzing i) the resolution effects and ii) sensitivity effects of weather radar systems. MOTIVATION: Wind energy applications strongly focus high-resolution wind observations

  19. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Kuzin, Sergey [P. N. Lebedev Physical institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prospekt, 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Walsh, Robert [University of Central Lancashire, Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); DeForest, Craig, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  20. The web-PLOP observation prioritisation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin Snodgrass; Yiannis Tsapras; Rachel Street; Daniel Bramich; Keith Horne; Martin Dominik; Alasdair Allan

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a description of the automated system used by RoboNet to prioritise follow up observations of microlensing events to search for planets. The system keeps an up-to-date record of all public data from OGLE and MOA together with any existing RoboNet data and produces new PSPL fits whenever new data arrives. It then uses these fits to predict the current or future magnitudes of events, and selects those to observe which will maximise the probability of detecting planets for a given telescope and observing time. The system drives the RoboNet telescopes automatically based on these priorities, but it is also designed to be used interactively by human observers. The prioritisation options, such as telescope/instrument parameters, observing conditions and available time can all be controlled via a web-form, and the output target list can also be customised and sorted to show the parameters that the user desires. The interactive interface is available at http://www.artemis-uk.org/web-PLOP/

  1. Observation of ?cJ decays to ??????

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales Morales, C.; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schaefer, B. D.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decays of the ?cJ states (J=0, 1, 2) to ??????, including processes with intermediate ?(1385), are studied through the E1 transition ?'???cJ using 10610? ?' events collected with the BESIII detector at BEPCII. This is the first observation of ?cJ decays to the final state ??????. The branching ratio of the intermediate process ?cJ??(1385)?(1385)? is also measured for the first time, and the results agree with the theoretical predictions based on the color-octet effect.

  2. Workshop on observations of recent comets (1990)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huebner, W.F.; Wehinger, P.A.; Rahe, J.; Konno, I.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential interpretations are presented for observations of four comets: Brorsen-Metcalf (1989o), Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko (1989r), Aarseth-Brewington (1989a1), and Austin (1989o1). The relationship of minor species with each other and possible parents as well as with dust are being pursued in a number of investigations. Of particular interest are the abundance ratios of CH{sub 4} to CO and NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2}. The need for closer collaboration betwen observing teams and modelers is examined. The need for dust size distribution as a function of cometocentric distance to be analyzed in closer collaboration between observers and modelers is discussed.

  3. GUIDANCE ON CONDUCTING ADVERSE DIVERSITY ANALYSIS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Uniform Guidelines for Employee Selection Procedures adopted by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), Department of Labor's Office of Federal Contract...

  4. GUIDANCE ON CONDUCTING ADVERSE DIVERSITY ANALYSIS

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf0 Budget Fossil EnergyFullGO 2009 Annual

  5. Adverse Diversity Analysis Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s Reply Comments AT&T,FACT S HEET FACT S HEETInformation Resources

  6. Black Holes: from Speculations to Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas W. Baumgarte

    2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a brief review of the history of our understanding and knowledge of black holes. Starting with early speculations on ``dark stars'' I discuss the Schwarzschild "black hole" solution to Einstein's field equations and the development of its interpretation from "physically meaningless" to describing the perhaps most exotic and yet "most perfect" macroscopic object in the universe. I describe different astrophysical black hole populations and discuss some of their observational evidence. Finally I close by speculating about future observations of black holes with the new generation of gravitational wave detectors.

  7. Observation of superdeformation in sup 191 Hg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, E.F.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Chasman, R.R.; Ahmad, I.; Khoo, T.L.; Wolfs, F.L.H. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (US)); Ye, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (US)); Beard, K.B. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (US)); Garg, U. (University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556); Drigert, M.W. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415); and others

    1989-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The first observation of superdeformation in the mass region {ital A}{congruent}190 is reported. A rotational band of twelve transitions with an average energy spacing of 37 keV, an average moment of inertia {ital scrF}{sup (2)} of 110 {h bar}{sup 2} MeV{sup {minus}1}, and an average quadrupole moment of 18{plus minus}3 {ital e} b has been observed in {sup 191}Hg; this band persists at low rotational frequency. These results are in excellent agreement with a calculation that predicts an ellipsoidal axis ratio of 1.65:1 for the superdeformed shape in this nucleus.

  8. Belief Revision with Unreliable Observations Craig Boutilier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halpern, Joseph Y.

    Belief Revision with Unreliable Observations Craig Boutilier Dept. Computer Science University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Canada, V6T 1W5 cebly@cs.ubc.ca Nir Friedman ¡£¢ Computer Research in belief revision has been dominated by work that lies firmly within the classic AGM paradigm

  9. Satellite Observations towards the Agriculture applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satellite Observations towards the Agriculture applications Osamu Ochiai Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency #12;7/30/2006 IGARSS_2006 Integrated Systems for Agriculture 2 Convergence of Evidence, All Gov't Policy Makers Reference Model: USDA Foreign Agricultural Service PECAD:Production Estimates

  10. OH Maser Observations of Planetary Nebulae Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. M. Deacon; J. M. Chapman; A. J. Green

    2004-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present OH maser observations at 1612, 1665, 1667, and 1720 MHz for 86 post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars selected from a survey of 1612 MHz maser sources in the Galactic Plane. The observations were taken with the Parkes Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array between 2002 September and 2003 August. Post-AGB stars are the precursors to planetary nebulae, the diverse morphological range of which is unexplained. The maser observations were taken to investigate the onset and incidence of wind asymmetries during the post-AGB phase. We re-detected all 86 sources at 1612 MHz while 27 sources were detected at 1665 and 45 at 1667 MHz. One source was re-detected at 1720 MHz. We present a classification scheme for the maser profiles and show that 25% of sources in our sample are likely to have asymmetric or bipolar outflows. From a comparison of the maser and far-infrared properties we find that there is a likely trend in the shape of the maser profiles with some sources evolving from double-peaked to irregular to fully bipolar profiles. A subset of higher-mass sources stand out as having almost no mainline emission and mostly double-peaked profiles. At least 25% of sources in the sample are variable at one or more of the frequencies observed. We also confirm a previously-noted 1667 MHz overshoot phenomenon.

  11. SEU induced errors observed in microprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asenek, V.; Underwood, C.; Oldfield, M. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Surrey Space Centre] [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Surrey Space Centre; Velazco, R.; Rezgui, S.; Cheynet, P. [TIMA Lab., Grenoble (France)] [TIMA Lab., Grenoble (France); Ecoffet, R. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse (France)] [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse (France)

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the authors present software tools for predicting the rate and nature of observable SEU induced errors in microprocessor systems. These tools are built around a commercial microprocessor simulator and are used to analyze real satellite application systems. Results obtained from simulating the nature of SEU induced errors are shown to correlate with ground-based radiation test data.

  12. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT WITH PARTIALLY OBSERVED NONSTATIONARY DEMAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludkovski, Mike

    INVENTORY MANAGEMENT WITH PARTIALLY OBSERVED NONSTATIONARY DEMAND ERHAN BAYRAKTAR AND MICHAEL LUDKOVSKI Abstract. We consider a continuous-time model for inventory management with Markov mod- ulated non inventory level. We then solve this equivalent formulation and directly characterize an optimal inventory

  13. 8) Stratospheric equatorial variability a) Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lott, Francois

    speed. Phase lines inclined eastward when altitude increases indicating upward propation Signal field) Westward phase propagation but eastward group propagation Phase lines inclined westward Signal;5 Satellites wind observations (UARS, Swinbak et Ortland 1997) The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (low stratosphere

  14. Observation of energetic electrons within magnetic islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    that energetic electron fluxes peak at sites of compressed density within islands, which imposes a new constraintLETTERS Observation of energetic electrons within magnetic islands L.-J. CHEN1 *, A. BHATTACHARJEE1, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824, USA 2 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2

  15. Finding slowly decaying observables Gary Froyland \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Froyland, Gary

    Finding slowly decaying observables Gary Froyland \\Lambda Department of Mathematical Engineering initial transient behaviour to disappear. We present a rigorous numerical method for (i) estimating distribution on M ; that is, if you plot the orbit on a computer, you see the same distribution of dots. We

  16. Uncertain Probabilistic Roadmaps with Observations Richard Dearden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Xin

    Uncertain Probabilistic Roadmaps with Observations Richard Dearden School of Computer Science Science University of Birmingham Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK mlk@cs.bham.ac.uk Abstract Probabilistic roadmaps. Introduction Probabilistic Roadmaps (PRM) are a popular technique for path planning in high dimensional spaces

  17. Energy flow observables in hadronic collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Hautmann

    2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present recent QCD calculations of energy flow distributions associated with the production of jets at wide rapidity separations in high-energy hadron collisions, and discuss the role of these observables to analyze contributions from parton showering and from multiple parton collisions.

  18. Observation-based test set generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobb, Jeffrey Lee

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    . Current test set generation relies primarily on the "stuck-at" model, which both excites and observes every site of the circuit. However, a test set with good stuck-at fault coverage will not necessarily find all the defects in a circuit. Other models...

  19. 7, 79077932, 2007 ACE-FTS observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , D. Hauglustaine5 , C. D. Boone6 , and P. F. Bernath6,7 1 Spectroscopie de l'atmosph`ere, Chimie Center, Mail Stop 401A, Hampton, VA 23681-2199, USA 4 Earth Observation Science, Space Research Centre Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)/Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, CEA-CNRS, F

  20. Atmospheric Noise in Single Dish Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    the errors in a wideband total power measurement. Noise con tributions come from thermal noise consider total power measurements with a single dish radiometer. The measured total power, p[K] = g \\Theta for extended sources. For wideband total power observations, the maximum integration time 0.1 s in order

  1. Observations and simulations improve space weather models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Observations and simulations improve space weather models June 25, 2014 Los Alamos with fast-moving particles and a space weather system that varies in response to incoming energy computer simulations of the space weather that can affect vital technology, communication and navigation

  2. Relativistic particle: Dirac observables and Feynman propagator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freidel, Laurent; Girelli, Florian; Livine, Etera R. [Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline St North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); SISSA, Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS UMR 5672, 46 Allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the algebra of Dirac observables of the relativistic particle in four space-time dimensions. We show that the position observables become noncommutative and the commutation relations lead to a structure very similar to the noncommutative geometry of deformed special relativity (DSR). In this framework, it appears natural to consider the 4D relativistic particle as a five-dimensional massless particle. We study its quantization in terms of wave functions on the 5D light cone. We introduce the corresponding five-dimensional action principle and analyze how it reproduces the physics of the 4D relativistic particle. The formalism is naturally subject to divergences (due to the 5D representation), and we show that DSR arises as a natural regularization: the 5D light cone is regularized as the de Sitter space. We interpret the fifth coordinate as the particle's proper time while the fifth moment can be understood as the mass. Finally, we show how to formulate the Feynman propagator and the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory in this context in terms of Dirac observables. This provides new insights for the construction of observables and scattering amplitudes in DSR.

  3. Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs (Invited Paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs (Invited Paper) Andrew J. Whalen*t, Sean N. Brennan Engineering, + Engineering Science and Mechanics, Neurosurgery, and Physics, Penn State University, University) neuronal networks as a function of 1) the connection topology and sym metry, 2) the measured nodes, and 3

  4. INTEGRAL observations of Her X-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Klochkov; R. Staubert; K. Postnov; N. Shakura; A. Santangelo; S. Tsygankov; A. Lutovinov; I. Kreykenbohm; J. Wilms

    2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: We investigate the X-ray spectral and timing properties of the accreting X-ray pulsar Her X-1 observed with the INTEGRAL satellite in July-August 2005. Methods: The data analyzed in this work cover a substantial part of one main-on state of the source. The short-time scale pulse period development is measured. X-ray pulse profiles for different energy ranges and time intervals are constructed. Pulse-averaged and pulse-phase resolved broad band X-ray spectra are studied. Spectral changes during X-ray dips are explored. Results: The X-ray pulse profiles are found to change significantly during the period of observations. For the first time a strong spinup is measured within one 35 d cycle. Spectral characteristics observed during the X-ray dips are consistent with their interpretaion as due to partial covering as has been reported by several authors. The fundamental cyclotron absorption line is firmly observed in both pulse-averaged and pulse-phase resolved X-ray spectra. The energy, width, and the depth of the line are found to vary significantly with pulse phase.

  5. Observing Conditions and Mid-IR Data Quality Rachel Masona, Andre Wonga, b, Tom Geballea, Kevin Volka, Tom Haywardc, Matt Dillmana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Thomas

    . These data can be used to illustrate the effect of factors such as water vapour column, airmass, cloud cover these effects is important for the efficiency of mid-IR queue observing, the ability of classical observers imaging observations, and which can safely be neglected. Keywords: infrared radiation, infrared

  6. ISO observations of four active galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Dennefeld; Thomas Boller; Dimitra Rigopoulou; Henrik Spoon

    2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ISO PHOT-S spectra of four galaxies known or suspected to host a central AGN, selected from the initial Iras/Rosat sample of Boller et al. (1992). Two of them had no obvious Seyfert features in their previous optical spectra: IRAS 14201+2956, and IRAS 21582+1018. The latter was bright enough to also allow SWS observations around selected neon lines, to establish its excitation. While both PHOT-S spectra are characteristic of starburst-dominated galaxies, the neon line ratios in IRAS 21582+1018 indicate the presence of a hard excitation source. New, high-resolution, optical spectra show only a weak, broad component around Halpha, classifying now these two objects as Sey 1.9 galaxies. The two other galaxies observed are the NLS1 galaxies Mrk 359 and Mrk 1388. Their ISO spectra however do not reveal the typical, strong PAH features found in the starburst galaxies and are more like those of standard Seyferts. These results show therefore that, although IR observations were expected to be able to always reveal the presence of an active nucleus by piercing through the central obscuration, the result may be ambiguous: the broad band IR energy distribution can still be dominated by starburts located in a circumnuclear region, and the AGN appear only in specific observations (high-excitation lines in the IR, or optical spectra with better quality than classification spectra). The obscuration needs however to be patchy rather than complete, to explain the detection of the high-excitation lines or broad Balmer wings. Only high-energy observations can then establish the strength of the central AGN and the amount of extinction with certainty.

  7. Dust properties inside molecular clouds from coreshine modeling and observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefvre, Charlne; Juvela, Mika; Paladini, Roberta; Lallement, Rosine; Marshall, D J; Andersen, Morten; Bacmann, Aurore; Mcgee, Peregrine M; Montier, Ludovic; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Pelkonen, V -M; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Steinacker, Jrgen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. Using observations to deduce dust properties, grain size distribution, and physical conditions in molecular clouds is a highly degenerate problem. Aims. The coreshine phenomenon, a scattering process at 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m that dominates absorption, has revealed its ability to explore the densest parts of clouds. We want to use this effect to constrain the dust parameters. The goal is to investigate to what extent grain growth (at constant dust mass) inside molecular clouds is able to explain the coreshine observations. We aim to find dust models that can explain a sample of Spitzer coreshine data. We also look at the consistency with near-infrared data we obtained for a few clouds. Methods. We selected four regions with a very high occurrence of coreshine cases: Taurus-Perseus, Cepheus, Chameleon and L183/L134. We built a grid of dust models and investigated the key parameters to reproduce the general trend of surface bright- nesses and intensity ratios of both coreshine and near-infrared observation...

  8. HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON LASER ENGINEERED NET SHAPE (LENS) REPAIRED WELDMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P; Thad Adams, T

    2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    New methods of repairing mis-machined components are always of interest. In this study, an innovative method using Laser Engineered Net Shape{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) forming was used to repair intentionally mis-machined test articles. The components were repaired and subsequently hydrogen charged and burst tested. The LENS repair did not have an adverse effect on the solid state weld process that was used to repair the components. Hydrogen charged samples failed in a similar manner to the uncharged samples. Overall, the prospects for LENS repairing similar products are favorable and further work is encouraged.

  9. Observability of the General Relativistic Precession of Periastra in Exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andres Jordan; Gaspar A. Bakos

    2008-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The general relativistic precession rate of periastra in close-in exoplanets can be orders of magnitude larger than the magnitude of the same effect for Mercury. The realization that some of the close-in exoplanets have significant eccentricities raises the possibility that this precession might be detectable. We explore in this work the observability of the periastra precession using radial velocity and transit light curve observations. Our analysis is independent of the source of precession, which can also have significant contributions due to additional planets and tidal deformations. We find that precession of the periastra of the magnitude expected from general relativity can be detectable in timescales of <~ 10 years with current observational capabilities by measuring the change in the primary transit duration or in the time difference between primary and secondary transits. Radial velocity curves alone would be able to detect this precession for super-massive, close-in exoplanets orbiting inactive stars if they have ~100 datapoints at each of two epochs separated by ~20 years. We show that the contribution to the precession by tidal deformations may dominate the total precession in cases where the relativistic precession is detectable. Studies of transit durations with Kepler might need to take into account effects arising from the general relativistic and tidal induced precession of periastra for systems containing close-in, eccentric exoplanets. Such studies may be able to detect additional planets with masses comparable to that of Earth by detecting secular variations in the transit duration induced by the changing longitude of periastron.

  10. A review and rationale for studying the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwok, Richard K., E-mail: rkwok@rti.org

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drinking water arsenic has been shown to be associated with a host of adverse health outcomes at exposure levels > 300 {mu}g of As/L. However, the results are not consistent at exposures below this level. We have reviewed selected articles that examine the effects of drinking water arsenic on cardiovascular outcomes and present a rationale for studying these effects on women of reproductive age, and also over the course of pregnancy when they would potentially be more susceptible to adverse cardiovascular and reproductive outcomes. It is only recently that reproductive effects have been linked to drinking water arsenic. However, there is a paucity of information about the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic on women of reproductive age. Under the cardiovascular challenge of pregnancy, we hypothesize that women with a slightly elevated exposure to drinking water arsenic may exhibit adverse cardiovascular outcomes at higher rates than in the general population. Studying sensitive clinical and sub-clinical indicators of disease in susceptible sub-populations may yield important information about the potentially enormous burden of disease related to low-level drinking water arsenic exposure.

  11. WTERT-India Observations from India's Crisis Ranjith Annepu Observations from India's Crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the city could not find a new landfill site. Author Ranjith Annepu, WTERT India Date February 04, 2013WTERT- India Observations from India's Crisis Ranjith Annepu Observations from India's Crisis Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT) India, 89-B, NEERI Mumbai Zonal Lab, Worli

  12. CAN REMOTE OBSERVING BE GOOD OBSERVING? REFLECTIONS ON PROCRUSTES AND ANTAEUS 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    CAN REMOTE OBSERVING BE GOOD OBSERVING? REFLECTIONS ON PROCRUSTES AND ANTAEUS 1 Felix J. Lockman 2 National Radio Astronomy Observatory 520 Edgemont Rd. Charlottesville, Va. 22903 USA ABSTRACT Remote tales of Procrustes and Antaeus. This article considers some of the human factors involved in remote

  13. Observation of Single Top Quark Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan State U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report first observation of the electroweak production of single top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 2.3 fb{sup ?1} of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse energy, together with jets originating from the fragmentation of b quarks, we measure a cross section of {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10{sup ?7}, corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance for the observation.

  14. Fermi Observations of Gamma-ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohno, Masanori [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The gamma-ray emission mechanism of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are still unknown. Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope successfully detected high-energy (> 100 MeV) emission from 17 GRBs since its launch. Fermi revealed the distinct temporal behaviors and extra spectral component from high-energy emission. These new observational results are driving many theoretical implications, such as leptonic, hadronic and afterglow origin. The highest energy photon detected by Fermi gives a constraint on the bulk Lorentz factor of the ultra-relativistic jets of GRBs. The impact of the Fermi GRB observations extends not only to the GRB-related issues but also to the outside GRB physics, such as quantum gravity and model of the extra galactic background light.

  15. Observable Proxies For 26 Al Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Young, Patrick A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ellinger, Carola I [ASU; Arnett, William D [UNIV ARIZONA

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the cospatial production of elements in supernova explosions to find observationally detectable proxies for enhancement of {sup 26}Al in supernova ejecta and stellar systems. Using four progenitors we explore a range of 1D explosions at different energies and an asymmetric 3D explosion. We find that the most reliable indicator of the presence of {sup 26}Al in unmixed ejecta is a very low S/Si ratio ({approx} 0.05). Production of N in O/S/Si-rich regions is also indicative. The biologically important element P is produced at its highest abundance in the same regions. Proxies should be detectable in supernova ejecta with high spatial resolution multi wavelength observations, but the small absolute abundance of material injected into a proto-planetary disk makes detection unlikely in existing or forming stellar/planetary systems.

  16. Observational constraints on braneworld chaotic inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew R Liddle; Anthony J Smith

    2003-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine observational constraints on chaotic inflation models in the Randall-Sundrum Type II braneworld. If inflation takes place in the high-energy regime, the perturbations produced by the quadratic potential are further from scale-invariance than in the standard cosmology, in the quartic case more or less unchanged, while for potentials of greater exponent the trend is reversed. We test these predictions against a data compilation including the WMAP measurements of microwave anisotropies and the 2dF galaxy power spectrum. While in the standard cosmology the quartic potential is at the border of what the data allow and all higher powers excluded, we find that in the high-energy regime of braneworld inflation even the quadratic case is under strong observational pressure. We also investigate the intermediate regime where the brane tension is comparable to the inflationary energy scale, where the deviations from scale-invariance prove to be greater.

  17. Constraining the Braneworld with Gravitational Wave Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, Sean T. [Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Some braneworld models may have observable consequences that, if detected, would validate a requisite element of string theory. In the infinite Randall-Sundrum model (RS2), the AdS radius of curvature, l, of the extra dimension supports a single bound state of the massless graviton on the brane, thereby reproducing Newtonian gravity in the weak-field limit. However, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, it has been suggested that one possible consequence of RS2 is an enormous increase in Hawking radiation emitted by black holes. We utilize this possibility to derive two novel methods for constraining l via gravitational wave measurements. We show that the EMRI event rate detected by LISA can constrain l at the {approx}1 {mu}m level for optimal cases, while the observation of a single galactic black hole binary with LISA results in an optimal constraint of l{<=}5 {mu}m.

  18. SALT observations of southern post-novae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomov, T; Mikolajewski, M; Ilkiewicz, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on recent optical observations of the stellar and the nebular remnants of 22 southern post-novae. In this study, for each of our targets, we obtained and analysed long-slit spectra in the spectral range 3500-6600 A and in H$\\alpha$+NII narrow-band images. The changes in the emission lines' equivalent widths with the time since the outburst agree with earlier published results of other authors. We estimated an average value $\\alpha$=2.37 for the exponent of the power law fitted to the post-novae continua. Our observations clearly show the two-component structure of the V842 Cen expanding nebulae, owing to the different velocities of the ejected matter. We discovered an expanding shell around V382 Vel with an outer diameter of about 12 arcsec.

  19. First direct observation of muon antineutrino disappearance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adamson, P [Fermilab; Andreopoulos, C [Rutherford; Auty, D J [Sussex U.; Ayres, D S [Argonne; Backhouse, C [Oxford U.; Barr, G [Oxford U.; Bishai, M [Brookhaven; Blake, A [Cambridge U.; Bock, G J [Fermilab; Boehnlein, D J [/Fermilab; Bogert, D [Fermilab; Harvard U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This letter reports the first direct observation of muon antineutrino disappearance. The MINOS experiment has taken data with an accelerator beam optimized for ??? production, accumulating an exposure of 1.71 x 1020 protons on target. In the Far Detector, 97 charged current ??? events are observed. The no-oscillation hypothesis predicts 156 events and is excluded at 6.3?. The best fit to oscillation yields |?m?2| = (3.36-0.40 +0.46(stat.) 0.06(syst.)) x 10-3 eV2, sin2(2 ??) = 0.86-0.12+0.11 (stat.) 0.01(syst.). The MINOS ?? and ??? measurements are consistent at the 2.0% confidence level, assuming identical underlying oscillation parameters.

  20. Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) climate research site. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet. The Surface Meteorological Observation Systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other model output. They are also used to ground-truth other remote sensing equipment.

  1. RHESSI and SphinX Common Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrozek, Tomasz

    ) energy range: 3-8 keV (16 energy bands, E=0.3 keV) #12;Fluxes comparison SphinX DRM conversion factors possible. In 2009 we had three instruments that observed the Sun in similar energy band: SphinX, RHESSI, design & manufacture - energy range: 1.2 ­ 15 keV - time resolution: ~0.00001 s - sensitivity: 100x

  2. LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

  3. Posters Ground-Based Radiometric Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project Office PressPostdoctoraldecadal observations719 Posters117

  4. Correlation between model observer and human observer performance in CT imaging when lesion location is uncertain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Zhang, Yi; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Carter, Rickey [Department of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Toledano, Alicia Y. [Biostatistics Consulting, LLC, 10606 Wheatley Street, Kensington, Maryland 20895 (United States)] [Biostatistics Consulting, LLC, 10606 Wheatley Street, Kensington, Maryland 20895 (United States)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between model observer and human observer performance in CT imaging for the task of lesion detection and localization when the lesion location is uncertain.Methods: Two cylindrical rods (3-mm and 5-mm diameters) were placed in a 35 26 cm torso-shaped water phantom to simulate lesions with ?15 HU contrast at 120 kV. The phantom was scanned 100 times on a 128-slice CT scanner at each of four dose levels (CTDIvol = 5.7, 11.4, 17.1, and 22.8 mGy). Regions of interest (ROIs) around each lesion were extracted to generate images with signal-present, with each ROI containing 128 128 pixels. Corresponding ROIs of signal-absent images were generated from images without lesion mimicking rods. The location of the lesion (rod) in each ROI was randomly distributed by moving the ROIs around each lesion. Human observer studies were performed by having three trained observers identify the presence or absence of lesions, indicating the lesion location in each image and scoring confidence for the detection task on a 6-point scale. The same image data were analyzed using a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO) with Gabor channels. Internal noise was added to the decision variables for the model observer study. Area under the curve (AUC) of ROC and localization ROC (LROC) curves were calculated using a nonparametric approach. The Spearman's rank order correlation between the average performance of the human observers and the model observer performance was calculated for the AUC of both ROC and LROC curves for both the 3- and 5-mm diameter lesions.Results: In both ROC and LROC analyses, AUC values for the model observer agreed well with the average values across the three human observers. The Spearman's rank order correlation values for both ROC and LROC analyses for both the 3- and 5-mm diameter lesions were all 1.0, indicating perfect rank ordering agreement of the figures of merit (AUC) between the average performance of the human observers and the model observer performance.Conclusions: In CT imaging of different sizes of low-contrast lesions (?15 HU), the performance of CHO with Gabor channels was highly correlated with human observer performance for the detection and localization tasks with uncertain lesion location in CT imaging at four clinically relevant dose levels. This suggests the ability of Gabor CHO model observers to meaningfully assess CT image quality for the purpose of optimizing scan protocols and radiation dose levels in detection and localization tasks for low-contrast lesions.

  5. Health Effects Support Document for Hexachlorobutadiene Health Effects Support Document

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    For Hexachlorobutadiene

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), as amended in 1996, requires the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish a list of contaminants to aid the agency in regulatory priority setting for the drinking water program. In addition, SDWA requires EPA to make regulatory determinations for no fewer than five contaminants by August 2001. The criteria used to determine whether or not to regulate a chemical on the CCL are the following: The contaminant may have an adverse effect on the health of persons. The contaminant is known to occur or there is a substantial likelihood that the contaminant will occur in public water systems with a frequency and at levels of public health concern. In the sole judgment of the administrator, regulation of such contaminant presents a meaningful opportunity for health risk reduction for persons served by public water systems. The Agencys findings for the three criteria are used in making a determination to regulate a contaminant. The Agency may determine that there is no need for regulation when a contaminant fails to meet one of the criteria. This document provides the health effects basis for the regulatory determination for hexachlorobutadiene. In arriving at the regulatory determination, data on toxicokinetics, human

  6. X-ray Observations of Mrk 231

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Turner

    1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents new X-ray observations of Mrk 231, an active galaxy of particular interest due to its large infrared luminosity and the presence of several blueshifted broad absorption line (BAL) systems, a phenomenon observed in a small fraction of QSOs. A ROSAT HRI image of Mrk 231 is presented, this shows an extended region of soft X-ray emission, covering several tens of kpc, consistent with the extent of the host galaxy. An ASCA observation of Mrk 231 is also presented. Hard X-rays are detected but the data show no significant variability in X-ray flux. The hard X-ray continuum is heavily attenuated and X-ray column estimates range from ~ 2 x 10^{22} - 10^{23} cm^{-2} depending on whether the material is assumed to be neutral or ionized, and on the model assumed for the extended X-ray component. These ASCA data provide only the second hard X-ray spectrum of a BAL AGN presented to date. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution of the source is discussed. While Mrk 231 is X-ray weak compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies, it has an optical-to-X-ray spectrum typical of a QSO.

  7. Apparatus for observing a hostile environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Thomas A. (Aiken, SC); Boylston, Micah L. (Williston, SC); Robinson, Casandra W. (Trenton, SC); Sexton, William C. (Aiken, SC); Heckendorn, Frank M. (Aiken, SC)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is provided for observing a hostile environment, comprising a housing and a camera capable of insertion within the housing. The housing is a double wall assembly with an inner and outer wall with an hermetically sealed chamber therebetween. A housing for an optical system used to observe a hostile environment is provided, comprising a transparent, double wall assembly. The double wall assembly has an inner wall and an outer wall with an hermetically sealed chamber therebetween. The double wall assembly has an opening and a void area in communication with the opening. The void area of the housing is adapted to accommodate the optical system within said void area. An apparatus for protecting an optical system used to observe a hostile environment is provided comprising a housing; a tube positioned within the housing; and a base for supporting the housing and the tube. The housing comprises a double wall assembly having an inner wall and an outerwall with an hermetically sealed chamber therebetween. The tube is adapted to house the optical system therein.

  8. Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effect on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington: Final Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert

    2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of mine-waste contamination effects on Methow River habitat on the eastern slopes of the north Cascade Mountains in Washington state, U.S.A., revealed impacts at ecosystem, community, population, individual, tissue, and cellular levels. Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's, but the mines are now inactive. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to compare potentially impacted to control sites. The concentrations of eleven trace elements (i.e., Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Methow River sediments downstream from the abandoned mine sites were higher than background levels. Exposed trout and caddisfly larvae in the Methow River showed reduced growth compared to controls. Samples of liver from juvenile trout and small intestine from exposed caddisfly larvae were examined for evidence of metal accumulation, cytopathological change, and chemical toxicity. Morphological changes that are characteristic of nuclear apoptosis were observed in caddisfly small intestine columnar epithelial and trout liver nuclei where extensive chromatin condensation and margination was observed. Histopathological studies revealed glycogen bodies were present in the cytosol and nuclei, which are indicators of Type IV Glycogen Storage Disease (GSD IV). This suggests food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body resulting in poor growth. Examination of trout hepatocytes by transmission electron microscopy revealed the accumulation of electron dense granules in the mitochondrial matrix. Matrix granules contain mixtures of Cd, Cu, Au, Pb, Ni, and Ti. Contaminated sediments caused adverse biological effects at different levels of biological organization, from the cellular to ecosystem-level responses, even where dissolved metal concentrations in the corresponding surface water met water-quality criteria.

  9. Assessing effects of highway bridge deck runoff on near-by recieving waters in coastal margins using remote monitoring techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nwaneshiudu, Oke

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    point sources), highway runnoff can be considered a serious problem if not handeled properly (FHWA 1999). If the required best management practices are not taken for excess contaminant removal, highway runnoff can have adverse effects. The most... waters, is rainfall. The main objective of this runoff study was to characterize and assess the quantity and quality of the storm water runoff of a bridge deck that discharged into a receiving water body. The bridge deck and the creek were located...

  10. The effects of a suboptimal intake of magnesium with soy protein concentrate on parturition, growth, and viability in the rat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, Sonja D'Awn

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    % casein or 20% soy concentrate as the protein source, and supplemented with 700 ppm, 650 ppm, 75 ppm or 0 ppm magnesium. The experiment was conducted from growth throughout lactation. Maternal performance postpartum was adversely affected by sub... prompted research of soy products (23). Few have reported on the effects of feeding rats a suboptimal level of magnesium in a diet based on casein or soy protein concentrate from weanling through gestation and lactation. The objectives of this study...

  11. Can Remote Observing be Good Observing? Reflections on Procrustes and Antaeus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix J. Lockman

    2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Remote observing seeks to simulate the presence of the astronomer at the telescope. While this is useful, and necessary in some circumstances, simulation is not reality. The drive to abstract the astronomer from the instrument can have unpleasant consequences, some of which are prefigured in the ancient tales of Procrustes and Antaeus. This article, written in 1992 for a conference proceedings on remote observing, is reprinted here with only slight editorial changes and the addition of a short Afterword. I consider some of the human factors involved in remote observing, and suggest that our aim be to enhance rather than supplant the astronomer at the telescope.

  12. Magnetic changes observed in a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, R.L.; Hurford, G.J.; Jones, H.P.; Kane, S.R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of a fairly large impulsive flare (1B/M4, starting 17:22 UT, 1980 April 10). Observations of the microwave/hard X-ray burst show the time development of the impulsive energy release. Chromospheric (H..cap alpha..) and photospheric (Fe I lambda5324) filtergrams and photospheric (Fe I lambda8688) magnetograms, intensitygrams, and velocitygrams show magnetic strucutre, flare emission, mass motion, and magnetic changes. From these observations, we conclude: 1. The flare was triggered by a small emerging magnetic bipole. 2. The peak impulsive energy release occurred in the explosive eruption of a filament from over the magnetic inversion line. Hence: a) The filament eruption was the magnetic transient in the heart of the primary energy release in the chromosphere and corona. b) The primary energy release did not occur in approximately stationary magnetic loops, but on field lines undergoing violet motion and drastic changes in direction. 3. In the photospheric magnetograph lines. Fe I lambda5324 and Fe I lambda8688, the impulsive peak of the flare produced emission in a unipolar area of a sunspot. In synchrony with the emission, the polarity of this area transiently reversed in the lambda8688 magnetigrams; apparently, this was an artifact of the line emission. 4. Within a few minutes after the explosive filament eruption. a) A permanent decrease in magnetic flux accompanied the truncation of an umbra. b) A permanent increase in magnetic flux accompanied the severance of the penumbral bridge to a satellite sunspot. Apparently, thee genuine photospheric magnetic changes were consequences of strong flare-wrought magnetic changes in the chromospher and corona.

  13. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SS 433 JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Herman L.; Canizares, Claude R.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Nowak, Michael [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hillwig, Todd [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Mioduszewski, Amy; Rupen, Michael [NRAO, P.O. Box 2, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Heinz, Sebastian, E-mail: hermanm@space.mit.edu, E-mail: crc@space.mit.edu, E-mail: nss@space.mit.edu, E-mail: mnowak@space.mit.edu, E-mail: todd.hillwig@valpo.edu, E-mail: amiodusz@nrao.edu, E-mail: mrupen@aoc.nrao.edu, E-mail: heinzs@astro.wisc.edu [Astronomy Department, 5408 Sterling Hall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of the SS 433 jets using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer with contemporaneous optical and Very Long Baseline Array observations. The X-ray and optical emission line regions are found to be related but not coincident as the optical line emission persists for days while the X-ray emission lines fade in less than 5000 s. The line Doppler shifts from the optical and X-ray lines match well, indicating that they are less than 3 10{sup 14} cm apart. The jet Doppler shifts show aperiodic variations that could result from shocks in interactions with the local environment. These perturbations are consistent with a change in jet direction but not jet speed. The proper motions of the radio knots match the kinematic model only if the distance to SS 433 is 4.5 0.2 kpc. Observations during eclipse show that the occulted emission is very hard, seen only above 2 keV and rising to comprise >50% of the flux at 8 keV. The soft X-ray emission lines from the jet are not blocked, constraining the jet length to ?> 2 10{sup 12} cm. The base jet density is in the range 10{sup 10-13} cm{sup 3}, in contrast to our previous estimate based on the Si XIII triplet, which is likely to have been affected by UV de-excitation. There is a clear overabundance of Ni by a factor of about 15 relative to the solar value, which may have resulted from an unusual supernova that formed the compact object.

  14. Gamma-Ray Burst observations with Fermi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Omodei, Nicola; Vianello, Giacomo; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After seven years of science operation, the Fermi mission has brought great advances in the study of Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs). Over 1600 GRBs have been detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and more than 100 of these are also detected by the Large Area Telescope above 30 MeV. We will give an overview of these observations, presenting the common properties in the GRB temporal and spectral behavior at high energies. We will also highlight the unique characteristics of some individual bursts. The main physical implications of these results will be discussed, along with open questions regarding GRB modeling in their prompt and temporally-extended emission phases.

  15. GLAST observation of high-redshift GRBs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34100, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34100, Trieste (Italy); Calura, Francesco [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Matteucci, Francesca [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Omodei, Nicola [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Edificio C - Polo Fibonacci, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127, Pisa (Italy)

    2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare predicted Type Ib/c supernova (SNIb/c) rates with the observed long-duration Gamma-Ray-Burst (GRB) rates both locally and as a function of redshift, by assuming different star formation histories in galaxies of different morphological types. Due to the high star formation in spheroids at high redshift, we predict a large number of GRBs beyond z > 7. Moreover, based on our studies and on the current LAT performance, an estimate of the detection possibility of this burst population is presented.

  16. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Lemonick

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus?the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  17. Time changes in gradient and observed winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ronald Dale

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - cal purposes, represents the changes in the components of the gradient wind speed, as calculated from Eqs. (9) and (10). Equations (9) and (10) were solved by the use of finite dif- ference methods. Due to the long incremental time steps, 3 to 12... hours, the changes in the components of the gradient wind speed obtained numerically from Eqs. (9) and (10) may differ slightly from the changes observed due to the numerical techniques employed. How- ever, the patterns obtained by the two methods...

  18. Direct Observation of Paramagnons in Palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doubble, R. [University of Bristol, UK; Hayden, S M. [University of Bristol, UK; Dai, Pengcheng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mook Jr, Herbert A [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Frost, C. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an inelastic neutron scattering study of the spin fluctuations in the nearly ferromagnetic element palladium. Dispersive over-damped collective magnetic excitations or 'paramagnons' are observed up to 128 meV. We analyze our results in terms of a Moriya-Lonzarich-type spin-fluctuation model and estimate the contribution of the spin fluctuations to the low-temperature heat capacity. In spite of the paramagnon excitations being relatively strong, their relaxation rates are large. This leads to a small contribution to the low-temperature electronic specific heat.

  19. AGN fueling: the observational point of view

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations at multiple wavelengths are reviewed to search for evidence for fueling mechanisms in galaxies, both for nuclear starbursts and AGN activity. Although it is undisputed that dynamical perturbations such as bars or tidal interactions accumulate gas in the central regions and sometimes trigger nuclear starbursts, the evidence remains scarce that these are necessary to fuel AGNs. Interpretations in terms of time-scales, feed-back, and black hole evolution are discussed. It is suggested that the AGN phase corresponds to the early-type phases of galaxies.

  20. Observing AAPI Heritage Month | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment of Order No.ofUseIowaWeatherization FundingObserving

  1. Observations and simulations improve space weather models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access to scienceScientificObservation of a

  2. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  3. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  4. Category:Observation Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  5. Observations and simulations improve space weather models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeeding access(SC)Gas and OilPhaseObservation of

  6. Observing the CMB at High-l using the VSA and AMI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angela C. Taylor

    2003-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss two experiments - the Very Small Array (VSA) and the Arcminute MicroKelvin Imager (AMI) - and their prospects for observing the CMB at high angular multipoles. Whilst the VSA is primarily designed to observe primary anisotropies in the CMB, AMI is designed to image secondary anisotropies via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The combined l-range of these two instruments is between l = 150 and ~10000.

  7. Observation of Magnetic Resonances in Electron Clouds in a Positron Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivi, M.T.F.; Ng, J.S.T.; Cooper, F.; Kharakh, D.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Kuekan, B.; Spencer, Cherrill M.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Wang, L.F.; /SLAC

    2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The first experimental observation of magnetic resonances in electron clouds is reported. The resonance was observed as a modulation in cloud intensity for uncoated as well as TiN-coated aluminum surfaces in the positron storage ring of the PEP-II collider at SLAC. Electron clouds frequently arise in accelerators of positively charged particles, and severely impact the machines performance. The TiN coating was found to be an effective remedy, reducing the cloud intensity by three orders of magnitude.

  8. VERITAS Observations of the Galactic Center Ridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to its extraordinarily high concentration of known relativistic particle accelerators such as pulsar wind nebula, supernova remnants, dense molecular cloud regions, and the supermassive black hole (Sgr A*); the center of the Milky Way galaxy has long been an ideal target for high energy (HE, 0.1-100 GeV) and very high energy ( VHE, 50 GeV-50 TeV) gamma-ray emission. Indeed, detections of Sgr A* and other nearby regions of gamma-ray emission have been reported by EGRET and Fermi-LAT in the HE band, as well as CANGAROO, Whipple, HESS, VERITAS, and MAGIC in the VHE band. Here we report on the results of extended observations of the region with VERITAS between 2010-2014. Due to the visibility of the source for VERITAS in the Northern Hemisphere, these observations provide the most sensitive probe of gamma-ray emission above 2 TeV in one of the most complicated and interesting regions of our home galaxy.

  9. METHYL CYANIDE OBSERVATIONS TOWARD MASSIVE PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58090 (Mexico); Bieging, J. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of a survey in the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition toward a sample of massive proto-stellar candidates. The observations were carried out with the 10 m Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham, AZ. We detected this molecular line in 9 out of 21 observed sources. In six cases this is the first detection of this transition. We also obtained full beam sampled cross-scans for five sources which show that the lower K-components can be extended on the arcminute angular scale. The higher K-components, however, are always found to be compact with respect to our 36'' beam. A Boltzmann population diagram analysis of the central spectra indicates CH{sub 3}CN column densities of about 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}, and rotational temperatures above 50 K, which confirms these sources as hot molecular cores. Independent fits to line velocity and width for the individual K-components resulted in the detection of an increasing blueshift with increasing line excitation for four sources. Comparison with mid-infrared (mid-IR) images from the SPITZER GLIMPSE/IRAC archive for six sources show that the CH{sub 3}CN emission is generally coincident with a bright mid-IR source. Our data clearly show that the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition is a good probe of the hot molecular gas near massive protostars, and provide the basis for future interferometric studies.

  10. Photometric defocus observations of transiting extrasolar planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinse, Tobias C; Yoon, Jo-Na; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Yong-Gi; Kim, Chun-Hwey

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out photometric follow-up observations of bright transiting extrasolar planets using the CbNUOJ 0.6m telescope. We have tested the possibility of obtaining high photometric precision by applying the telescope defocus technique allowing the use of several hundred seconds in exposure time for a single measurement. We demonstrate that this technique is capable of obtaining a root-mean-square scatter of order sub-millimagnitude over several hours for a V $\\sim$ 10 host star typical for transiting planets detected from ground-based survey facilities. We compare our results with transit observations with the telescope operated in in-focus mode. High photometric precision is obtained due to the collection of a larger amount of photons resulting in a higher signal compared to other random and systematic noise sources. Accurate telescope tracking is likely to further contribute to lowering systematic noise by probing the same pixels on the CCD. Furthermore, a longer exposure time helps reducing the eff...

  11. Fermi LAT Observations of LS 5039

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard /CSST, Baltimore /DAPNIA, Saclay /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /CSST, Baltimore /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Grenoble Observ. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U.; /more authors..

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The first results from observations of the high-mass X-ray binary LS 5039 using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope data between 2008 August and 2009 June are presented. Our results indicate variability that is consistent with the binary period, with the emission being modulated with a period of 3.903 {+-} 0.005 days; the first detection of this modulation at GeV energies. The light curve is characterized by a broad peak around superior conjunction in agreement with inverse Compton scattering models. The spectrum is represented by a power law with an exponential cutoff, yielding an overall flux (100 MeV-300 GeV) of 4.9 {+-} 0.5(stat) {+-} 1.8(syst) x 10{sup -7} photon cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, with a cutoff at 2.1 {+-} 0.3(stat) {+-} 1.1(syst) GeV and photon index {Gamma} = 1.9 {+-} 0.1(stat) {+-} 0.3(syst). The spectrum is observed to vary with orbital phase, specifically between inferior and superior conjunction. We suggest that the presence of a cutoff in the spectrum may be indicative of magnetospheric emission similar to the emission seen in many pulsars by Fermi.

  12. Observing the Multiverse with Cosmic Wakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Kleban; Thomas S. Levi; Kris Sigurdson

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Current theories of the origin of the Universe, including string theory, predict the existence of a multiverse containing many bubble universes. These bubble universes will generically collide, and collisions with ours produce cosmic wakes that enter our Hubble volume, appear as unusually symmetric disks in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and disturb large scale structure (LSS). There is preliminary observational evidence consistent with one or more of these disturbances on our sky. However, other sources can produce similar features in the CMB temperature map and so additional signals are needed to verify their extra-universal origin. Here we find, for the first time, the detailed three-dimensional shape and CMB temperature and polarization signals of the cosmic wake of a bubble collision in the early universe consistent with current observations. The predicted polarization pattern has distinctive features that when correlated with the corresponding temperature pattern are a unique and striking signal of a bubble collision. These features represent the first verifiable prediction of the multiverse paradigm and might be detected by current experiments such as Planck and future CMB polarization missions. A detection of a bubble collision would confirm the existence of the Multiverse, provide compelling evidence for the string theory landscape, and sharpen our picture of the Universe and its origins.

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF A CORONAL MORETON WAVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harra, Louise K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Sterling, Alphonse C. [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Goemoery, Peter [Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-05960 Tatranska Lomnica (Slovakia); Veronig, Astrid, E-mail: lkh@mssl.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: alphonse.sterling@nasa.gov, E-mail: gomory@astro.s, E-mail: astrid.veronig@uni-graz.at [Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We observed a coronal wave (EIT wave) on 2011 February 16, using EUV imaging data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and EUV spectral data from the Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). The wave accompanied an M1.6 flare that produced a surge and a coronal mass ejection (CME). EIS data of the wave show a prominent redshifted signature indicating line-of-sight velocities of {approx}20 km s{sup -1} or greater. Following the main redshifted wave front, there is a low-velocity period (and perhaps slightly blueshifted), followed by a second redshift somewhat weaker than the first; this progression may be due to oscillations of the EUV atmosphere set in motion by the initial wave front, although alternative explanations may be possible. Along the direction of the EIS slit the wave front's velocity was {approx}500 km s{sup -1}, consistent with its apparent propagation velocity projected against the solar disk as measured in the AIA images, and the second redshifted feature had propagation velocities between {approx}200 and 500 km s{sup -1}. These findings are consistent with the observed wave being generated by the outgoing CME, as in the scenario for the classic Moreton wave. This type of detailed spectral study of coronal waves has hitherto been a challenge, but is now possible due to the availability of concurrent AIA and EIS data.

  14. Is the Use of Fullerene in Photodynamic Therapy Effective for Atherosclerosis?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitta, Norihisa, E-mail: r34nitta@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp; Seko, Ayumi; Sonoda, Akinaga; Ohta, Shinichi; Tanaka, Toyohiko; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan); Takemura, Shizuki [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Pathology (Japan); Sakamoto, Tsutomu [Koka General Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Tabata, Yasuhiko [Kyoto University, Department of Biomaterials, Field of Tissue Engineering (Japan)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Fullerene as a therapeutic photosensitizer in the treatment of atherosclerosis. An atherosclerotic experimental rabbit model was prepared by causing intimal injury to bilateral external iliac arteries using balloon expansion. In four atherosclerotic rabbits and one normal rabbit, polyethylene glycol-modified Fullerene (Fullerene-PEG) was infused into the left external iliac artery and illuminated by light emitting diode (LED), while the right external iliac artery was only illuminated by LED. Two weeks later, the histological findings for each iliac artery were evaluated quantitatively and comparisons were made among atherosclerotic Fullerene+LED artery (n = 4), atherosclerotic light artery (n = 4), normal Fullerene+LED artery (n = 1), and normal light artery (n = 1). An additional two atherosclerotic rabbits were studied by fluorescence microscopy, after Fullerene-PEG-Cy5 complex infusion into the left external iliac artery, for evaluation of Fullerene-PEG incorporated within the atherosclerotic lesions. The degree of atherosclerosis in the atherosclerotic Fullerene+LED artery was significantly (p < 0.05) more severe than that in the atherosclerotic LED artery. No pathological change was observed in normal Fullerene+LED and LED arteries. In addition, strong accumulation of Fullerene-PEG-Cy5 complex within the plaque of the left iliac artery of the two rabbits was demonstrated, in contrast to no accumulation in the right iliac artery. We conclude that infusion of a high concentration of Fullerene-PEG followed by photo-illumination resulted not in a suppression of atherosclerosis but in a progression of atherosclerosis in experimental rabbit models. However, this intervention showed no adverse effects on the normal iliac artery.

  15. Towards observable signatures of other bubble universes. II. Exact solutions for thin-wall bubble collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguirre, Anthony [SCIPP, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Johnson, Matthew C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We assess the effects of a collision between two vacuum bubbles in the thin-wall limit. After describing the outcome of a generic collision possessing the expected hyperbolic symmetry, we focus on collisions experienced by a bubble containing positive vacuum energy, which could in principle contain our observable universe. We provide criteria governing whether the post-collision domain wall accelerates towards or away from this observation bubble, and discuss the implications for observers located at various positions inside of the bubble. Then, we identify the class of solutions which have minimal impact on the interior of the observation bubble, and derive a simple formula for the energy density of a shell of radiation emitted from such a collision. In the context of a universe undergoing false-vacuum eternal inflation, these solutions are perhaps the most promising candidates for collisions that could exist within our past light cone, and therefore in principle be observable.

  16. Mueller Matrix Parameters for Radio Telescopes and their Observational Determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carl Heiles; Phil Perillat; Michael Nolan; Duncan Lorimer; Ramesh Bhat; Tapasi Ghosh; Murray Lewis; Karen O'Neil; Chris Salter; Snezana Stanimirovic

    2001-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern digital crosscorrelators permit the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters. However, the results must be calibrated to correct for the polarization transfer function of the receiving system. The transfer function for any device can be expressed by its Mueller matrix. We express the matrix elements in terms of fundamental system parameters that describe the voltage transfer functions (known as the Jones matrix) of the various system devices in physical terms and thus provide a means for comparing with engineering calculations and investigating the effects of design changes. We describe how to determine these parameters with astronomical observations. We illustrate the method by applying it to some of the receivers at the Arecibo Observatory.

  17. Transition redshift in $f(T)$ cosmology and observational constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Saridakis, Emmanuel N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We extract constraints on the transition redshift $z_{tr}$, determining the onset of cosmic acceleration, predicted by an effective cosmographic construction, in the framework of $f(T)$ gravity. In particular, employing cosmography we obtain bounds on the viable $f(T)$ forms and their derivatives. Since this procedure is model independent, as long as the scalar curvature is fixed, we are able to determine intervals for $z_{tr}$. In this way we guarantee that the Solar-System constraints are preserved and moreover we extract bounds on the transition time and the free parameters of the scenario. We find that the transition redshifts predicted by $f(T)$ cosmology, although compatible with the standard $\\Lambda$CDM predictions, are slightly smaller. Finally, in order to obtain observational constraints on $f(T)$ cosmology, we perform a Monte Carlo fitting using supernova data, involving the most recent union 2.1 data set.

  18. Recurrence properties of quantum observables in wave packet dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudheesh, C; Balakrishnan, V

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the recurrence properties of the time series of quantum mechanical expectation values, in terms of two representative models for a single-mode radiation field interacting with a nonlinear medium. From recurrence-time distributions, return maps and recurrence plots, we conclude that the dynamics of appropriate observables pertaining to the field can vary from quasiperiodicity to hyperbolicity, depending on the extent of the nonlinearity and of the departure from coherence of the initial state of the field. We establish that, in a simple bipartite model in which the field is effectively an open quantum system, a decaying exponential recurrence-time distribution, characteristic of a hyperbolic dynamical system, is associated with chaotic temporal evolution as characterized by a positive Liapunov exponent.

  19. Recurrence properties of quantum observables in wave packet dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Sudheesh; S. Lakshmibala; V. Balakrishnan

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the recurrence properties of the time series of quantum mechanical expectation values, in terms of two representative models for a single-mode radiation field interacting with a nonlinear medium. From recurrence-time distributions, return maps and recurrence plots, we conclude that the dynamics of appropriate observables pertaining to the field can vary from quasiperiodicity to hyperbolicity, depending on the extent of the nonlinearity and of the departure from coherence of the initial state of the field. We establish that, in a simple bipartite model in which the field is effectively an open quantum system, a decaying exponential recurrence-time distribution, characteristic of a hyperbolic dynamical system, is associated with chaotic temporal evolution as characterized by a positive Liapunov exponent.

  20. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR CORONAL CAVITY OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, Katharine K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gibson, Sarah E. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kucera, Therese A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratories, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kano, Ryouhei, E-mail: kreeves@cfa.harvard.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during 2008 July that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity 'cores' with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK, and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21, and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  1. The History of Galaxy Formation in Groups: An Observational Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a pedagogical review on the formation and evolution of galaxies in groups, utilizing observational information from the Local Group to galaxies at z~6. The majority of galaxies in the nearby universe are found in groups, and galaxies at all redshifts up to z~6 tend to cluster on the scale of nearby groups (~1 Mpc). This suggests that the group environment may play a role in the formation of most galaxies. The Local Group, and other nearby groups, display a diversity in star formation and morphological properties that puts limits on how, and when, galaxies in groups formed. Effects that depend on an intragroup medium, such as ram-pressure and strangulation, are likely not major mechanisms driving group galaxy evolution. Simple dynamical friction arguments however show that galaxy mergers should be common, and a dominant process for driving evolution. While mergers between L_* galaxies are observed to be rare at z < 1, they are much more common at earlier times. This is due to the increased density of the universe, and to the fact that high mass galaxies are highly clustered on the scale of groups. We furthermore discus why the local number density environment of galaxies strongly correlates with galaxy properties, and why the group environment may be the preferred method for establishing the relationship between properties of galaxies and their local density.

  2. Black hole accretion versus star formation rate: theory confronts observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volonteri, Marta; Netzer, Hagai; Bellovary, Jillian; Dotti, Massimo; Governato, Fabio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy mergers to compare star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR) for galaxies before the interaction ('stochastic' phase), during the 'merger' proper, lasting ~0.2-0.3 Gyr, and in the 'remnant' phase. We calculate the bi-variate distribution of SFR and BHAR and define the regions in the SFR-BHAR plane that the three phases occupy. No strong correlation between BHAR and galaxy-wide SFR is found. A possible exception are galaxies with the highest SFR and the highest BHAR. We also bin the data in the same way used in several observational studies, by either measuring the mean SFR for AGN in different luminosity bins, or the mean BHAR for galaxies in bins of SFR. We find that the apparent contradiction or SFR versus BHAR for observed samples of AGN and star forming galaxies is actually caused by binning effects. The two types of samples use different projections of the full bi-variate distribution, and the full information would lead to unamb...

  3. Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program. The VOS project is coordinated by the UNESCO International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP). The international groups from 14 countries have been outfitting research ships and commercial vessels with automated CO2 sampling equipment to analyze the carbon exchange between the ocean and atmosphere. [copied from http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/genInfo.html] CDIAC provides a map interface with the shipping routes of the 14 countries involved marked in different colors. Clicking on the ship's name on that route brings up information about the vessel, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, and, most important, the links to the data files themselves. The 14 countries are: United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, Australia, Canada, Spain, Norway, New Zealand, China (including Taiwan), Iceland, and the Netherlands. Both archived and current, underway data can be accessed from the CDIAC VOS page.

  4. Guidelines for axion identification in astrophysical observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Zioutas; Y. Semertzidis; Th. Papaevangelou

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of various celestial phenomena have remained mysterious for conventional astrophysics. Therefore, alternative solutions should be considered, taking into account the involvement of unstable dark-matter particle candidates, such as the celebrated axions or other as yet unforeseen axion-like particles. Their spontaneous and induced decay by the ubiquitous solar magnetic fields can be at the origin of persisting enigmatic X-ray emission, giving rise to a steady and a transient/local solar activity, respectively. The (coherent) conversion of photons into axion(-like) particles in intrinsic magnetic fields may modify the solar axion spectrum. The reversed process can be behind transient (solar) luminosity deficits in the visible. Then, the Sun might be also a strong source of ~eV-axions. Thus, enigmatic observations might be the as yet missing direct signature for axion(-like) particles in earth-bound detectors.

  5. Dark Energy: Observational Evidence and Theoretical Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novosyadlyj, B; Shtanov, Yu; Zhuk, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The book elucidates the current state of the dark energy problem and presents the results of the authors, who work in this area. It describes the observational evidence for the existence of dark energy, the methods and results of constraining of its parameters, modeling of dark energy by scalar fields, the space-times with extra spatial dimensions, especially Kaluza---Klein models, the braneworld models with a single extra dimension as well as the problems of positive definition of gravitational energy in General Relativity, energy conditions and consequences of their violation in the presence of dark energy. This monograph is intended for science professionals, educators and graduate students, specializing in general relativity, cosmology, field theory and particle physics.

  6. Head Observation Organizer (HObO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Predmore

    2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Head Observation Organizer, HObO, is a computer program that stores and manages measured ground-water levels. HObO was developed to help ground-water modelers compile, manage, and document water-level data needed to calibrate ground-water models. Well-construction and water-level data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Database (NWIS) easily can be imported into HObO from the NWIS web site (NWISWeb). The water-level data can be flagged to determine which data will be included in the calibration data set. The utility program HObO_NWISWeb was developed to simplify the down loading of well and water-level data from NWISWeb. An ArcGIS NWISWeb Extension was developed to retrieve site information from NWISWeb. A tutorial is presented showing the basic elements of HObO.

  7. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF HOTSPOTS IN RADIO LOBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, Michael W.; Murphy, David W.; Livingston, John H.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jones, Dayton L.; Meier, David L.; Lawrence, Charles R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out a systematic search with Spitzer Warm Mission and archival data for infrared emission from the hotspots in radio lobes that have been described by Hardcastle et al. These hotspots have been detected with both radio and X-ray observations, but an observation at an intermediate frequency in the infrared can be critical to distinguish between competing models for particle acceleration and radiation processes in these objects. Between the archival and warm mission data, we report detections of 18 hotspots; the archival data generally include detections at all four IRAC bands, the Warm Mission data only at 3.6 {mu}m. Using a theoretical formalism adopted from Godfrey et al., we fit both archival and warm mission spectral energy distributions (SEDs)-including radio, X-ray, and optical data from Hardcastle as well as the Spitzer data-with a synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, in which the X-rays are produced by Compton scattering of the radio frequency photons by the energetic electrons which radiate them. With one exception, an SSC model requires that the magnetic field be less or much less than the equipartition value which minimizes total energy and has comparable amounts of energy in the magnetic field and in the energetic particles. This conclusion agrees with those of comparable recent studies of hotspots, and with the analysis presented by Hardcastle et al. We also show that the infrared data rule out the simplest synchrotron-only models for the SEDs. We briefly discuss the implications of these results and of alternate interpretations of the data.

  8. Mitigation of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) effects from commerical electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)); Vance, E.F. (Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large nuclear detonation at altitudes of several hundred kilometers above the earth distorts the earth's magnetic field and produces a strong magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). This can adversely affect electrical power systems. In this report, the effects of this nuclear environment on critical facilities connected to the commercial power system are considered. Methods of mitigating the MHD-EMP impacts are investigated, and recommended protection schemes are presented. Guidelines for testing facilities to determine the effects of MHD-EMP and to validate the mitigation methods also are discussed.

  9. Common Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Observed in Control System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Common Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Observed in Control System Assessments by the INL NSTB Program Common Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Observed in Control System Assessments by...

  10. Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations Presentation at Waste-to-Energy using...

  11. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Abstract: The...

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Observations and Modeling of the Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsObservations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon: SKIP Pre-campaign Measurements Related Campaigns Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON...

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - Observations and Modeling of the Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsObservations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon: CCN Activity of Aerosols Related Campaigns Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON 2014)...

  14. No Confinement Needed: Observation of a Metastable Hydrophobic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Confinement Needed: Observation of a Metastable Hydrophobic Wetting Two-Layer Ice on Graphene. No Confinement Needed: Observation of a Metastable Hydrophobic Wetting Two-Layer Ice...

  15. If physics is an information science, what is an observer?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Fields

    2012-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Interpretations of quantum theory have traditionally assumed a "Galilean" observer, a bare "point of view" implemented physically by a quantum system. This paper investigates the consequences of replacing such an informationally-impoverished observer with an observer that satisfies the requirements of classical automata theory, i.e. an observer that encodes sufficient prior information to identify the system being observed and recognize its acceptable states. It shows that with reasonable assumptions about the physical dynamics of information channels, the observations recorded by such an observer will display the typical characteristics predicted by quantum theory, without requiring any specific assumptions about the observer's physical implementation.

  16. The effect of a low dosage of parathion upon DRL performance and acquisition in the albino rat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Marion Stockton

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studied extensively. Prenatal effects studied by Al Hachim and Fink (1968) may be related to hormone factors since the f'etal environment is largely dependent upon various hormone levels of the mother for its stability. It was re- ported that rats... that this agent, when used in normal con- centrations for pest control, does not pose a significant threat to the integrity of small animal populations through adverse effects on complex behaviors. REFERENCES Al Hachim, G. M. , and Fink, G. B. , "The effect...

  17. Estimation of precipitable water from surface observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahan, Archie Marion

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for estimating the precipitable water at Lake Charles, Louisiana. P red ic tors employed were surface vapor p re s ? sure, ceiling, cloud cover , cloud type, wind, pressure change and iv season. E rrors of estimate averaged approximately one tenth o f... of the photocells and the intense radiation of the noon sun leads one to accept the reality of a ce ll temperature greater than the ambient air temperature. The ce lls are, in effect, miniature green ? houses, The epoxy resin cylinder encasing the crysta l...

  18. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  19. Observation of negative differential capacitance (NDC) in Ti Schottky diodes on SiGe islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio; Jantsch, Wolfgang [Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler Universitt, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Tonkikh, Alexander; Zakharov, Nikolay; Werner, Peter [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2 D-06120, Halle (Germany)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Negative Differential Capacitance (NDC) effect on Ti Schottky diodes formed on n-type Silicon samples with embedded Germanium Quantum Dots (QDs) is observed and reported. The NDC-effect is detected using capacitance-voltage (CV) method at temperatures below 200 K. It is explained by the capture of electrons in Germanium QDs. Our measurements reveal that each Ge QD captures in average eight electrons.

  20. EFFECT OF THERMAL PROCESSES ON COPPER-TIN ALLOYS FOR ZINC GETTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Golyski, M.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A contamination mitigation plan was initiated to address the discovery of radioactive zinc‐65 in a glovebox. A near term solution was developed, installation of heated filters in the glovebox piping. This solution is effective at retaining the zinc in the currently contaminated area, but the gamma emitting contaminant is still present in a system designed for tritium beta. A project was initiated to develop a solution to contain the {sup 65}Zn in the furnace module. Copper and bronze (a Cu/Sn alloy) were found to be candidate materials to combine with zinc‐65 vapor, using thermodynamic calculations. A series of binary Cu/Sn alloys were developed (after determining that commercial alloys were unacceptable), that were found to be effective traps of zinc vapor. The task described in this report was undertaken to determine if the bronze substrates would retain their zinc gettering capability after being exposed to simulated extraction conditions with oxidizing and reducing gases. Pure copper and three bronze alloys were prepared, exposed to varying oxidation conditions from 250 to 450{degree}C, then exposed to varying reduction conditions in He-H{sub 2} from 250-450{degree}C, and finally exposed to zinc vapor at 350{degree}C for four hours. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, mass change, and visual observation. It was observed that the as fabricated samples and the reduced samples all retained their zinc gettering capacity while samples in the "as-oxidized" condition exhibited losses in zinc gettering capacity. Over the range of conditions tested, i.e., composition, oxidation temperature, and reduction temperature, no particular sample composition appeared better. Samples reduced at 350{degree}C exhibited the greatest zinc capacity, although there were some testing anomalies associated with these samples. This work clearly demonstrated that the zinc gettering was not adversely affected by exposure to simulated process conditions and a full scale lithium and zinc trap should be fabricated for testing in the Tritium Extraction Facility.

  1. Observational evidence favors a static universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David F. Crawford

    2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The common attribute of all Big Bang cosmologies is that they are based on the assumption that the universe is expanding. However examination of the evidence for this expansion clearly favours a static universe. The major topics considered are: Tolman surface brightness, angular size, type 1a supernovae, gamma ray bursts, galaxy distributions, quasar distributions, X-ray background radiation, cosmic microwave background radiation, radio source counts, quasar variability and the Butcher--Oemler effect. An analysis of the best raw data for these topics shows that they are consistent with expansion only if there is evolution that cancels the effects of expansion. An alternate cosmology, curvature cosmology, is in full agreement with the raw data. This tired-light cosmology predicts a well defined static and stable universe and is fully described. It not only predicts accurate values for the Hubble constant and the temperature of cosmic microwave background radiation but shows excellent agreement with most of the topics considered. Curvature cosmology also predicts the deficiency in solar neutrino production rate and can explain the anomalous acceleration of {\\it Pioneer} 10.

  2. License renewal demonstration program: NRC observations and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prato, R.J.; Kuo, P.T.; Newberry, S.F.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff`s observations and lessons learned from the five License Renewal Demonstration Program (LRDP) site visits performed by the staff from March 25, 1996, through August 16, 1996. The LRDP was a Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) program intended to assess the effectiveness of the guidance provided by NEI 95-10, Revision 0, {open_quotes}Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10 CFR Part 54 - The License Renewal Rule,{close_quotes} to implement the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 54 (10 CFR Part 54), {open_quotes}Requirements for Renewal of Operating Licenses for Nuclear Power Plants.{close_quotes} In general, NEI 95-10 appeared to contain the basic guidance needed for scoping, screening, identifying aging effects, developing aging management programs, and performing time-limited aging analyses. However, inconsistent implementation of this guidance in some areas was an indication that clarification of existing guidance and/or the inclusion-of some new guidance may be needed for applicants to develop a license renewal program that is consistent with the intent of the rule.

  3. X-ray Observations of Galaxies: The Importance of Deep High-Resolution Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fabbiano

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray observations of galaxies have grown from a curiosity into a full-fledged field of astronomy. These observations provide unique information on black holes, binary stars, and the hot phase of the ISM, which can be used to constrain the chemical evolution of the Universe, and the joint evolution of galaxies and massive black holes. These exciting results are due in large part to the high-resolution capability of {\\it Chandra}. To follow on {\\it Chandra} and push forward this science past the present capabilities, our community must build a high-resolution (sub-arcsecond) large-area (several square meters) X-ray telescope.

  4. Fragmenting protostellar disks: properties and observational signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vorobyov, Eduard; Dunham, Michael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we study the gravitational fragmentation of an unstable protostellar disc formed during the collapse of a pre-stellar core with a mass of 1.2 M_sun. The forming fragments span a mass range from about a Jupiter mass to very-low-mass protostars and are located at distances from a few tens to a thousand AU, with a dearth of objects at < 100 AU. We explore the possibility of observational detection of the fragments in discs viewed through the outflow cavity at a distance of 250 pc. We demonstrate that one hour of integration time with the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) is sufficient to detect the fragments with masses as low as 1.5 M_Jup at orbital distances up to 800 AU from the protostar. The ALMA resolution sets the limit on the minimum orbital distance of detectable fragments. For the adopted resolution of our simulated ALMA images of 0.1", the fragments can be detected at distances down to 50 AU. At smaller distances, the fragments usually me...

  5. Nonperturbative QCD corrections to electroweak observables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dru B Renner, Xu Feng, Karl Jansen, Marcus Petschlies

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonperturbative QCD corrections are important to many low-energy electroweak observables, for example the muon magnetic moment. However, hadronic corrections also play a significant role at much higher energies due to their impact on the running of standard model parameters, such as the electromagnetic coupling. Currently, these hadronic contributions are accounted for by a combination of experimental measurements and phenomenological modeling but ideally should be calculated from first principles. Recent developments indicate that many of the most important hadronic corrections may be feasibly calculated using lattice QCD methods. To illustrate this, we will examine the lattice computation of the leading-order QCD corrections to the muon magnetic moment, paying particular attention to a recently developed method but also reviewing the results from other calculations. We will then continue with several examples that demonstrate the potential impact of the new approach: the leading-order corrections to the electron and tau magnetic moments, the running of the electromagnetic coupling, and a class of the next-to-leading-order corrections for the muon magnetic moment. Along the way, we will mention applications to the Adler function, the determination of the strong coupling constant and QCD corrections to muonic-hydrogen.

  6. Prospect for UV observations from the Moon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safonova, Margarita; Mohan, Rekhesh; Sreejith, A G; Murthy, Jayant; Brosch, Noah; Kappelmann, Norbert; Sharma, Arpit; Narayan, Rahul

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space astronomy in the last 40 years has largely been done from spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) for which the technology is proven and delivery mechanisms are readily available. However, new opportunities are arising with the surge in commercial aerospace missions. We describe here one such possibility: deploying a small instrument on the Moon. This can be accomplished by flying onboard the Indian entry to the Google Lunar X PRIZE competition, Team Indus mission, which is expected to deliver a nearly 30 kgs of payloads to the Moon, with a rover as its primary payload. We propose to mount a wide-field far-UV (130--180 nm) imaging telescope as a payload on the Team Indus lander. Our baseline operation is a fixed zenith pointing but with the option of a mechanism to allow observations of different attitudes. Pointing towards intermediate ecliptic latitude (50 deg or above) ensures that the Sun is at least 40 deg off the line of sight at all times. In this position, the telescope can cover higher galactic lat...

  7. Optical monitor for observing turbulent flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg F. (Livermore, CA); Moore, Thomas R. (Rochester, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method for non-invasively monitoring turbulent fluid flows including anisotropic flows. The present invention uses an optical technique to filter out the rays travelling in a straight line, while transmitting rays with turbulence induced fluctuations in time. The output is two dimensional, and can provide data regarding the spectral intensity distribution, or a view of the turbulence in real time. The optical monitor of the present invention comprises a laser that produces a coherent output beam that is directed through a fluid flow, which phase-modulates the beam. The beam is applied to a temporal filter that filters out the rays in the beam that are straight, while substantially transmitting the fluctuating, turbulence-induced rays. The temporal filter includes a lens and a photorefractive crystal such as BaTiO.sub.3 that is positioned in the converging section of the beam near the focal plane. An imaging system is used to observe the filtered beam. The imaging system may take a photograph, or it may include a real time camera that is connected to a computer. The present invention may be used for many purposes including research and design in aeronautics, hydrodynamics, and combustion.

  8. Oscillations in Beta UMi - Observations with SMEI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. J. Tarrant; W. J. Chaplin; Y. Elsworth; S. A. Spreckley; I. R. Stevens

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: From observations of the K4III star Beta UMi we attempt to determine whether oscillations or any other form of variability is present. Methods: A high-quality photometric time series of approximately 1000 days in length obtained from the SMEI instrument on the Coriolis satellite is analysed. Various statistical tests were performed to determine the significance of features seen in the power density spectrum of the light curve. Results: Two oscillations with frequencies 2.44 and 2.92 microhertz have been identified. We interpret these oscillations as consecutive overtones of an acoustic spectrum, implying a large frequency spacing of 0.48 microhertz. Using derived asteroseismic parameters in combination with known astrophysical parameters, we estimate the mass of Beta UMi to be 1.3 +/- 0.3 solar masses. Peaks of the oscillations in the power density spectrum show width, implying that modes are stochastically excited and damped by convection. The mode lifetime is estimated at 18 +/- 9 days.

  9. MAGIC observation of the GRB080430 afterglow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksi?, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Balestra, S; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; Gonzlez, J Becerra; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berdyugin, A; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Tridon, D Borla; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bose, D; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Britzger, D; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; del Pozo, E de Cea; Reyes, R De los; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domnguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsaesser, D; Errando, M; Ferenc, D; Fernndez, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; Lpez, R J Garca; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Godinovic, N; Goebel, F; Hadasch, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hhne-Mnch, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Hsu, C C; Jogler, T; Klepser, S; Krhenbhl, T; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; Lpez, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martnez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Miyamoto, H; Moldn, J; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Orito, R; Oya, I; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Prada, F; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Rhode, W; Rib, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Rgamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Snchez-Conde, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanp, A; Sitarek, J; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Strah, N; Struebig, J C; Suric, T; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Wagner, R M; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J; de Ugarte-Postigo, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Context: Gamma-ray bursts are cosmological sources emitting radiation from the gamma-rays to the radio band. Substantial observational efforts have been devoted to the study of gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase, i.e. the initial burst of high-energy radiation, and during the long-lasting afterglows. In spite of many successes in interpreting these phenomena, there are still several open key questions about the fundamental emission processes, their energetics and the environment. Aim: Independently of specific gamma-ray burst theoretical recipes, spectra in the GeV/TeV range are predicted to be remarkably simple, being satisfactorily modeled with power-laws, and therefore offer a very valuable tool to probe the extragalactic background light distribution. Furthermore, the simple detection of a component at very-high energies, i.e. at $\\sim 100$\\,GeV, would solve the ambiguity about the importance of various possible emission processes, which provide barely distinguishable scenarios at lower energies. Me...

  10. Observational constraints on Visser's cosmological model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alves, M. E. S.; Araujo, J. C. N. de; Miranda, O. D.; Wuensche, C. A. [INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - Divisao de Astrofisica, Av.dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Carvalho, F. C. [INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - Divisao de Astrofisica, Av.dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); UERN - Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Mossoro, 59610-210, RN (Brazil); Santos, E. M. [UFRJ - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Theories of gravity for which gravitons can be treated as massive particles have presently been studied as realistic modifications of general relativity, and can be tested with cosmological observations. In this work, we study the ability of a recently proposed theory with massive gravitons, the so-called Visser theory, to explain the measurements of luminosity distance from the Union2 compilation, the most recent Type-Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) data set, adopting the current ratio of the total density of nonrelativistic matter to the critical density ({Omega}{sub m}) as a free parameter. We also combine the SNe Ia data with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. We find that, for the allowed interval of values for {Omega}{sub m}, a model based on Visser's theory can produce an accelerated expansion period without any dark energy component, but the combined analysis (SNe Ia+BAO+CMB) shows that the model is disfavored when compared with the {Lambda}CDM model.

  11. Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Jeff

    Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two An air-bridged, 120-nm-thick semiconductor slab with a two-dimensional 2D square array of through holes dramatic effects have been observed in semiconductor microcavity structures in which the physical structure

  12. On the impact of power corrections in the prediction of B->K*mu+mu- observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sbastien Descotes-Genon; Lars Hofer; Joaquim Matias; Javier Virto

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent LHCb angular analysis of the exclusive decay B->K^*mu+mu- has indicated significant deviations from the Standard Model expectations. Accurate predictions can be achieved at large K*-meson recoil for an optimised set of observables designed to have no sensitivity to hadronic input in the heavy-quark limit at leading order in alpha_s. However, hadronic uncertainties reappear through non-perturbative Lambda_QCD/m_b power corrections, which must be assessed precisely. In the framework of QCD factorisation we present a systematic method to include factorisable power corrections and point out that their impact on angular observables depends on the scheme chosen to define the soft form factors. Associated uncertainties are found to be under control, contrary to earlier claims in the literature. We also discuss the impact of possible non-factorisable power corrections, including an estimate of charm-loop effects. We provide results for angular observables at large recoil for two different sets of inputs for the form factors, spelling out the different sources of theoretical uncertainties. Finally, we comment on a recent proposal to explain the anomaly in B->K*mu+mu- observables through charm-resonance effects, and we propose strategies to test this proposal identifying observables and kinematic regions where either the charm-loop model can be disentangled from New Physics effects or the two options leave different imprints.

  13. Reduced Order Dead-Beat Observers for a Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karafyllis, Iasson

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper studies the strong observability property and the reduced-order dead-beat observer design problem for a continuous bioreactor. New relationships between coexistence and strong observability, and checkable sufficient conditions for strong observability, are established for a chemostat with two competing microbial species. Furthermore, the dynamic output feedback stabilization problem is solved for the case of one species.

  14. Observability Criteria and Estimator Design for Stochastic Linear Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    . Alessandri and Coletta [5] proposed a Luenberger observer design methodology for deterministic linear hybrid

  15. Observable Equivalence between General Relativity and Shape Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim Koslowski

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this conceptual paper we construct a local version of Shape Dynamics that is equivalent to General Relativity in the sense that the algebras of Dirac observables weakly coincide. This allows us to identify Shape Dynamics observables with General Relativity observables, whose observables can now be interpreted as particular representative functions of observables of a conformal theory at fixed York time. An application of the observable equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics is to define the quantization of General Relativity through quantizing Shape Dynamics and using observable equivalence. We investigate this proposal explicitly for gravity in 2+1 dimensions.

  16. Biological assessment of the effects of petroleum production at maximum efficient rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California, on the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Gambelia silus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, T.T.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surveys to determine the distribution and relative abundance of blunt-nosed leopard lizards on Naval Petroleum Reserve-1 were conducted in 1980 and 1981. In 1982 radiotelemetry and pitfall trapping techniques were used to gain additional information on the species and develop alternative methods of study. Incidental observations of blunt-nosed leopard lizards were recorded and used in the distribution information for NPR-1. DOE determined during this biological assessment that the construction projects and operational activities necessary to achieve and sustain MER have not adversely affected the blunt-nosed leopard lizard and its habitat, because only approximately 6% of the potential blunt-nosed leopard lizard habitat on NPR-1 was disturbed by construction and operational activities. DOE believes that the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of MER will not jeopardize the continued existence of the species, because results of surveys indicated that blunt-nosed leopard lizards are mainly distributed near the periphery of Elk Hills where few petroleum developments occurred in the past and where they are unlikely to occur in the future. A policy of conducting preconstruction surveys to protect blunt-nosed leopard lizard habitat was initiated, a habitat restoration plan was developed and implemented, and administrative policies to reduce vehicle speeds, contain oil spills, restrict off-road vehicle (ORV) travel, and to prohibit public access, livestock grazing, and agricultural activities were maintained.

  17. Longwave radiative forcing of Saharan dust aerosols estimated from MODIS, MISR, and CERES observations on Terra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) [Ackerman and Chung, 1992] and the Total's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments onboard the Terra satellite; we present a new technique prevalent in the tropics [Prospero, 1999], dust aerosols are effective in reflecting solar energy back

  18. Deep observations of PSR J0357+3205 with GTC A. Kirichenko1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standard cooling theory which assumes the modified Urca processes as the main neutrino emission mechanism eV, than the minimal cooling scenario would be practically excluded and more effective cooling would be necessary. Future UV observations may allow us to detect thermal emission from the entire surface

  19. Fracture Model, Ground Displacements and Tracer Observations: Fruitland Coals, San Juan Basin, New Mexico,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    that the coal reservoirs consist of six separate coal beds rather than three. Perfluorocarbon tracer monitoring the site consist of two coal beds, each separated by a shale parting. This observation indicates will improve our understanding of Fruitland coal reservoirs; help develop more effective strategies to enhance

  20. Observation of Star-Shaped Surface Gravity Waves Jean Rajchenbach,1,* Didier Clamond,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clamond, Didier

    and dispersive effects in water waves give rise to remarkable phenomena, such as solitary and freak waves, which, like water, displays a Newtonian rheological behavior. The kinematic viscosity is 10?5 m2 =s (iObservation of Star-Shaped Surface Gravity Waves Jean Rajchenbach,1,* Didier Clamond,2 and Alphonse

  1. A geostatistical data fusion technique for merging remote sensing and groundbased observations of aerosol optical thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalak, Anna M.

    A geostatistical data fusion technique for merging remote sensing and groundbased observations. Braverman, and C. E. Miller (2010), A geostatistical data fusion technique for merging remote sensing cloud properties (the aerosol indirect effect), producing a net cooling of the Earth surface, and can

  2. The Radiative Properties of Small Clouds: Multi-Scale Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feingold, Graham [NOAA ESRL; McComiskey, Allison [CIRES, University of Colorado

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm, liquid clouds and their representation in climate models continue to represent one of the most significant unknowns in climate sensitivity and climate change. Our project combines ARM observations, LES modeling, and satellite imagery to characterize shallow clouds and the role of aerosol in modifying their radiative effects.

  3. The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 STACEE Observations of Extra-galactic Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    -2002 observ- ing season. 1. Introduction STACEE is one of four `solar farm' detectors that have been built, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA Abstract The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect in central-tower solar power arrays to collect and focus Cherenkov light from gamma-induced air

  4. OBSERVATIONS OF RECENT NEW PARTICLE FORMATION IN HOUSTON DURING TEXAQS-2000.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUZORIUS,G.; BRECHTEL,F.; ZELENYUK,A.; IMRE,D.; ANGEVINE,W.M.

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle number size distribution measurements were conducted at a tall building site and on a research aircraft during the TexAQS-2000 study. High concentrations of nucleation mode particles were observed during the early morning hours at the same time as the top of the developing boundary layer reached the sampling altitude. Transport of primary emissions from traffic and other local sources, as well as secondary formation processes, was observed. Growth of particles from the nucleation to Aitken modes appears to significantly impact the observed diurnal variation in the number size distribution. As these particles grow to larger sizes they may become more effective at scattering radiation and could act as cloud condensation nuclei, resulting in visibility and climate effects.

  5. Users' Requirements for Environmental Effects From Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Their Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carreter, M.; Gray, M.; Falck, E.; Bonne, A.; Bell, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, P.O. Box 100, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the needs of the 21. century. The first part of the project focusses on the development of an understanding of the requirements of possible users of innovative concepts for reactors and fuel cycle applications. This paper reports progress made on the identification of user requirements as they relate to the environment and environmental protection. The user requirements being formulated are intended to limit adverse environmental effects from the different facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycles to be well below maximum acceptable levels. To determine if the user requirements are met, it is necessary to identify those factors that are relevant to assessment of the environmental performance of innovative nuclear systems. To this effect, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Material Flow accounting (MFA) methodologies are being appraised for the suitability for application. This paper develops and provides the rationale for the 'users' requirements' as they are currently defined. Existing Environmental Impact Assessment and Materials Flow Accounting methodologies that can be applied to determine whether or not innovative technologies conform to the User Requirements are briefly described. It is concluded that after establishing fundamental principles, it is possible to formulate sets of general and specific users' requirements against which, the potential adverse environmental effects to be expected from innovative nuclear energy systems (INES) can be assessed. The application of these users' requirements should keep the adverse environmental effects from INES's within acceptable limits. (authors)

  6. Probing the Impact of Stellar Duplicity on Planet Occurrence with Spectroscopic and Imaging Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggenberger, A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although it is commonly agreed that the presence of a close stellar companion is likely to affect planet formation and evolution, the precise effects and their actual impact on planet occurrence and properties are still debated. In particular, observational constraints are sparse, a consequence of the discrimination against close binaries in Doppler planet searches. To bring observational constraints on the occurrence and properties of planets in binaries and multiple stars, we have been conducting two dedi. observing programs using both adaptive optics imaging and radial-velocity monitoring. In this chapter we explain our approach and present preliminary results from these two programs. A simplified statistical analysis of the data from our VLT/NACO imaging survey brings the first observational evidence that the occurrence of planets is reduced in binaries closer than ~120 AU. On the radial-velocity side, current results confirm that the use of two-dimensional correlation allows to search for circumprimary g...

  7. Observable spectra of induced gravitational waves from inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alabidi, Laila; Sasaki, Misao [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics Group, Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Sendouda, Yuuiti, E-mail: laila@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sendouda@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring the primordial power spectrum on small scales is a powerful tool in inflation model building, yet constraints from Cosmic Microwave Background measurements alone are insufficient to place bounds stringent enough to be appreciably effective. For the very small scale spectrum, those which subtend angles of less than 0.3 degrees on the sky, an upper bound can be extracted from the astrophysical constraints on the possible production of primordial black holes in the early universe. A recently discovered observational by-product of an enhanced power spectrum on small scales, induced gravitational waves, have been shown to be within the range of proposed space based gravitational wave detectors; such as NASA's LISA and BBO detectors, and the Japanese DECIGO detector. In this paper we explore the impact such a detection would have on models of inflation known to lead to an enhanced power spectrum on small scales, namely the Hilltop-type and running mass models. We find that the Hilltop-type model can produce observable induced gravitational waves within the range of BBO and DECIGO for integral and fractional powers of the potential within a reasonable number of e?folds. We also find that the running mass model can produce a spectrum within the range of these detectors, but require that inflation terminates after an unreasonably small number of e?folds. Finally, we argue that if the thermal history of the Universe were to accomodate such a small number of e?folds the Running Mass Model can produce Primordial Black Holes within a mass range compatible with Dark Matter, i.e. within a mass range 10{sup 20}g?

  8. An urban weather generator coupling a building simulation program with an urban canopy model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bueno Unzeta, Bruno

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in air temperature observed in urban environments compared to the undeveloped rural surroundings, known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, is being intensely studied, due to its adverse environmental and ...

  9. Statistical Analysis and Time Series Models for Minimum/Maximum Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorov, Nikita

    temperatures, thereby reducing the adverse effect of global warming in the Antarctic Peninsula. Keywords that the observed increase in the minimum temperatures is a consequence of human activity rather than natural causes

  10. Observing Air Showers from Cosmic Superluminal Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis Gonzalez-Mestres

    1997-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Poincar\\'e relativity principle has been tested at low energy with great accuracy, but its extrapolation to very high-energy phenomena is much less well established. Lorentz symmetry can be broken at Planck scale due to the renormalization of gravity or to some deeper structure of matter: we expect such a breaking to be a very high energy and very short distance phenomenon. If textbook special relativity is only an approximate property of the equations describing a sector of matter above some critical distance scale, an absolute local frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF) can possibly be found and superluminal sectors of matter may exist related to new degrees of freedom not yet discovered experimentally. The new superluminal particles ("superbradyons", i.e. bradyons with superluminal critical speed) would have positive mass and energy, and behave kinematically like "ordinary" particles (those with critical speed in vacuum equal to c, the speed of light) apart from the difference in critical speed (c_i >> c where c_i is the critical speed of a superluminal sector). They may be the ultimate building blocks of matter At speed v > c, they are expected to release "Cherenkov" radiation ("ordinary" particles) in vacuum. Superluminal particles could provide most of the cosmic (dark) matter and produce very high-energy cosmic rays. We discuss: a) the possible relevance of superluminal matter to the composition, sources and spectra of high-energy cosmic rays; b) signatures and experiments allowing to possibly explore such effects. Very large volume and unprecedented background rejection ability are crucial requirements for any detector devoted to the search for cosmic superbradyons. Future cosmic-ray experiments using air-shower detectors (especially from space) naturally fulfil both requirements.

  11. In situ TEM observation of two-step martensitic transformation in aged NiTi shape memory alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crone, Wendy C.

    In situ TEM observation of two-step martensitic transformation in aged NiTi shape memory alloy L transformation; Ageing; TEM; DSC 1. Introduction Shape memory effect, first discovered in binary alloys of Cu [2]. In addition to the shape memory effect giving the material the ability to return

  12. Effect of Ti doping on high pressure behavior of BiMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, K. K., E-mail: kkpandey@barc.gov.in; Poswal, H. K., E-mail: kkpandey@barc.gov.in; Sharma, Surinder M. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 40008 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Materials Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur-177005 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Our high pressure x-ray diffraction studies on BiMn{sub 1.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 5} show iso-structural phase transition above 12 GPa similar to the one observed in undoped BiMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}; however anisotropic compressional behavior is found to be more enhanced in the doped case. Unlike undoped system, an anomalous lattice expansion along c axis has been observed in BiMn{sub 1.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 5} above 12 GPa; whereas the b lattice parameter has been found to be more compressible as compared to BiMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. As doping with Ti reduces the magnetic interactions among Mn ions, the observed changes are suggestive of having adverse magnetic implications in the observed iso-structural phase transition.

  13. Optimization of the transmission of observable expectation values and observable statistics in Continuous Variable Teleportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Albano Farias; J. Stephany

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the statistics of observables in continuous variable quantum teleportation in the formalism of the characteristic function. We derive expressions for average values of output state observables in particular cumulants which are additive in terms of the input state and the resource of teleportation. Working with Squeezed Bell-like states, which may be optimized in a free parameter for better teleportation performance we discuss the relation between resources optimal for fidelity and for different observable averages. We obtain the values of the free parameter which optimize the central momenta and cumulants up to fourth order. For the cumulants the distortion between in and out states due to teleportation depends only on the resource. We obtain optimal parameters for the second and fourth order cumulants which do not depend on the squeezing of the resource. The second order central momenta which is equal to the second order cumulants and the photon number average are optimized by the same resource. We show that the optimal fidelity resource, found in reference (Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 76}, 022301 (2007)) to depend also on the characteristics of input, tends for high squeezing to the resource which optimizes the second order momenta. A similar behavior is obtained for the resource which optimizes the photon statistics which is treated here using the sum of the squared differences in photon probabilities of input and output states as the distortion measure. This is interpreted to mean that the distortions associated to second order momenta dominates the behavior of the output state for large squeezing of the resource. Optimal fidelity and optimal photon statistics resources are compared and is shown that for mixtures of Fock states they are equivalent.

  14. PoGOLite -The Polarised Gamma-ray Observer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    PoGOLite - The Polarised Gamma-ray Observer CECILIA MARINI BETTOLO Licentiate Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2008 #12;#12;Licentiate Thesis PoGOLite - The Polarised Gamma-ray Observer Cecilia Marini Bettolo

  15. Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality Biomass burning and desert dust observations from GOME and SCIAMACHY Conclusions and Outlook #12; Absorbing Aerosol

  16. Real-time Coastal Observation Network (ReCON)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    research. Deploy observations systems on portable, low cost buoys and fixed platforms of opportunity systems. The project will establish a test bed for observing system network design studies and develop

  17. The edge observed : island landscape for a marine biology facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stringer, Geraldine A

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the concept of edges through observation and design. The intent of the observation/design is to understand and to illustrate possibilities for design that will enrich the experience of the built ...

  18. Antenna system characteristic and solar radio burst observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Sha; Chen, Zhijun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Donghao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese Spectral Radio Heliograph (CSRH) is an advanced aperture synthesis solar radio heliograph, developed by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences independently. It consists of 100 reflector antennas, which are grouped into two antenna arrays (CSRH-I and CSRH-II) for low and high frequency bands respectively. The frequency band of CSRH-I is 0.4-2GHz and for CSRH-II, the frequency band is 2-15GHz. In the antenna and feed system, CSRH uses an Eleven feed to receive signals coming from the Sun, the radiation pattern with lower side lobe and back lobe of the feed is well radiated. The characteristics of gain G and antenna noise temperature T effect the quality of solar radio imaging. For CSRH, measured G is larger than 60 dBi and $ T $ is less than 120K, after CSRH-I was established, we have successfully captured a solar radio burst between 1.2-1.6GHz on November 12, 2010 through this instrument and this event was confirmed through the observation of Solar Broadband Radio Spectromete...

  19. PMU Placement for Enhancing Dynamic Observability of a Power Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Pengwei; Huang, Zhenyu; Diao, Ruisheng; Lee, Barry; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Power grids are operated in an increasingly complicated environment. However, operators lack effective and accurate tools for real-time monitoring and control of power systems. The U.S. Department of Energy, along with several utilities and system operators, is making a major $108 million investment in the Western Interconnection for phasor measurement unit (PMU) installation and phasor application development. This phasor measurement network opens up many opportunities for the estimation and prediction of power system states in real time, which enable operators to evaluate the system dynamic security in advance and allow them more time to respond to disturbances. Kalman filter based dynamic state estimation offers a solution suitable for this purpose. Our work indicates that the performance of Kalman filters in dynamic state estimation would degrade if PMU measurements cannot adequately capture the system dynamics. This paper develops a framework to identify how to place PMUs to improve dynamic observability of the power grid. Simulation results validate the concept, and the guidelines for PMU placement are derived.

  20. Observed Holiday Aerosol Reduction and Temperature Cooling over East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Daoyi; Wang, Wenshan; Qian, Yun; Bai, Wenbing; Guo, Yuanxi; Mao, Rui

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spring Festival air pollution in China was investigated using the long-term observations from 2001-2012 over 323 stations. During the Spring Festival with nearly half of urban population leaving the cities for holidays, the particulate matter (PM10) concentration is about 24.5?gm-3 (23%) lower than normal days. Associated with the national-wide burning of firework, the PM10 concentration sharply increases to 123.8?gm-3 at Chinese New Year Day (increment of 35%). Similar to PM10, the SO2 and NO2 decrease from high values in normal days to a holiday minimum with reduction of 23.3% and 30.6%, respectively. The NO2 has no peak in New Year Day because of the different emission source. The night mean and minimum temperature co-vary with PM10. Both nighttime mean and minimum temperature decrease by about 2.1C during the holidays. And in association with the pollution jump at New Year Day the night temperature simultaneously increase by about 0.89C. The in-phase co-variations between PM10 and night temperature suggest an overall warming effect of holiday aerosol during winter in China.

  1. Solar and Galactic Cosmic Rays observed by SOHO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curdt, Werner

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both the Cosmic Ray Flux (CRF) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) have left an imprint on SOHO technical systems. While the solar array efficiency degraded irreversibly down to ~77% of its original level over roughly 1 1/2 solar cycles, Single Event Upsets (SEUs) in the solid state recorder (SSR) have been reversed by the memory protection mechanism. We compare the daily CRF observed by the Oulu station with the daily SOHO SEU rate and with the Degradation curve of the solar arrays. The Oulu CRF and the SOHO SSR SEU rate are both modulated by the solar cycle and are highly correlated, except for sharp spikes in the SEU rate, caused by isolated SEP events, which also show up as discontinuities in the otherwise slowly decreasing solar ray efficiency. This allows to discriminate between effects with solar and non-solar origin and to compare the relative strength of both. We find that during solar cycle 23 (1996 Apr 1 -- 2008 Aug 31) only 6% of the total number of SSR SEUs were caused by SEPs; the remaining 94%...

  2. Mitigation of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) effects from commerical electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States); Vance, E.F. [Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large nuclear detonation at altitudes of several hundred kilometers above the earth distorts the earth`s magnetic field and produces a strong magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). This can adversely affect electrical power systems. In this report, the effects of this nuclear environment on critical facilities connected to the commercial power system are considered. Methods of mitigating the MHD-EMP impacts are investigated, and recommended protection schemes are presented. Guidelines for testing facilities to determine the effects of MHD-EMP and to validate the mitigation methods also are discussed.

  3. Navigation System for Ground Vehicles using Temporally Interconnected Observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    navigation technique for an automotive vehicle. This method involves several observers, each designed for a particular type of trajectory, that are turned on and off according to a switching policy. Each observer of observer design of vehicular systems. A typical example of such practices1 is found in the navigation

  4. Spectral learning of linear dynamics from generalised-linear observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a non-linear and non-Gaussian observation process. We use this approach to obtain estimates to the generalised-linear regression model [8]), where the expected value of an observation is given by a monotonicSpectral learning of linear dynamics from generalised-linear observations with application

  5. AN ALTERNATIVE OBSERVER FOR ZERO DEFICIENCY CHEMICAL NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaves, Madalena

    for detectability, and went on to explicitly construct a full-state observer that is guaranteed to converge 1 Email by a construction di#11;erent from the one employed in a previous paper. The new observer exhibits slower (Sontag, 2001) for background material on stability), which dealt with the construction of observers

  6. Experimental Observation of Nuclear Reactions in Palladium and Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Dufour; D. Murat; X. Dufour; J. Foos

    2001-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    By submitting various metals (Pd, U) containing hydrogen (from 2000 to 700 000 atoms of hydrogen for 1 000 000 atoms of the host metal) to the combined action of electrical currents and magnetic fields, we have observed a sizeable exothermal effect (from 0.1 to 8 W for 500 mg of metal used). This effect is beyond experimental errors, the energy output being typically 130 to 250{percent} of the energy input and not of chemical origin (exothermal effect in the range of 7000 MJ/mol of metal in the case of palladium and of 60 MJ/mol in the case of uranium). New chemical species also appear in the processes metals. It has been shown by a QED calculation that resonances of long lifetime (s), nuclear dimensions (fm), and low energy of formation (eV) could exist. This concept seems to look like the 'shrunken hydrogen atoms' proposed by various authors. It is indeed very different in two ways (a) being a metastable state, it needs energy to be formed (a few eV) and reverts to normal hydrogen after a few seconds, liberating back its energy of formation (it is thus not the source of the energy observed); (b) its formation can be described as the electron spin/proton nuclear spin interaction becoming first order in the lattice environment (whereas it is third order in a normal hydrogen atom). Moreover, we consider that the hydrex cannot yield a neutron because this reaction is strongly endothermic. To explain our results, we put forward the following working hypothesis: In a metal lattice and under proper conditions, the formation of such resonances (metastable state) could be favored. We propose to call them HYDREX, and we assume that they are actually formed in cold fusion (CF) and low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. Once formed, a number of HYDREX could gather around a nucleus of the lattice to form a cluster of nuclear size and of very long life time compared to nuclear time (10{sup -22} s). In this cluster, nuclear rearrangements could take place, yielding mainly {sup 4}He, nuclei of atomic masses smaller than that of the host metal and small amounts of {sup 3}He and tritium. Because this nuclear rearrangement is a many-body reaction, the products formed should be stable products in their ground states, most of the reaction energy being carried away as kinetic energy by the alpha particles formed. The HYDREX hypothesis describes CF and LENR as fundamentally the same phenomenon, which we propose to call NUCLEAR CATALYSIS. Depending on the conditions of a CF or LENR experiment, the products formed may look very different, but the initial step is always the synthesis of HYDREX. When this synthesis is mastered, CF and LENR experiments should become fully reproducible.

  7. A metabolomic investigation of the effects of vitamin E supplementation in humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Max; Lodge, John K

    2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    using partial loop mode. The column oven was main- tained at 40C and the autosampler at 4C. The mobile Wong and Lodge Nutrition & Metabolism 2012, 9:110 Page 3 of 9 http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/9/1/110phase consisted of: (A) 0... , Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E: Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all- cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 2005, 142:3746. 12. Brigelius-Flohe R: Adverse effects of vitamin E by induction of drug...

  8. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  9. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Diego State University; Bard Center for Environmental Policy at Bard College; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    With increasing numbers of communities considering wind power developments, empirical investigations regarding related community concerns are needed. One such concern is that proximate property values may be adversely affected, yet relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models, and a variety of robustness tests, the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on sales prices, yet further research is warranted.

  10. Photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatiev, A. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains study results about photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation. The studies show that high flux photoirradiation of materials can result in significant changes in the stability of materials. Photodesorption and photo-enhanced oxidation were determined to be the major mechanisms. These mechanisms were shown to affect, in extremely adverse ways, the expected thermal stability of solar relevant materials, especially stainless steels, (It is expected that related high temperature alloy steels will be similarly affected.) An analytical expression was generated to predict the flux behavior of the steels using {number_sign}304 as a prototypical stainless steel system.

  11. Photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatiev, A [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains study results about photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation. The studies show that high flux photoirradiation of materials can result in significant changes in the stability of materials. Photodesorption and photo-enhanced oxidation were determined to be the major mechanisms. These mechanisms were shown to affect, in extremely adverse ways, the expected thermal stability of solar relevant materials, especially stainless steels, (It is expected that related high temperature alloy steels will be similarly affected.) An analytical expression was generated to predict the flux behavior of the steels using {number sign}304 as a prototypical stainless steel system.

  12. Bragg cell laser intensity modulation: effect on laser Doppler velocimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mychkovsky, Alexander G.; Chang, Natasha A.; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2009-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In most laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) systems, the frequency of one of the two laser beams that intersect to create the probe volume is shifted with an acousto-optic element. It is shown here that Bragg shifting can impose a problematic fluctuation in intensity on the frequency-shifted beam, producing spurious velocity measurements. This fluctuation occurs at twice the Bragg cell frequency, and its relative amplitude to the time average intensity is a function of the ratio of the laser beam diameter to the Bragg cell acoustic wavelength. A physical model and a configuration procedure to minimize adverse effects of the intensity modulations are presented.

  13. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2007-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

  14. Partial and Complete Observables for Canonical General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Dittrich

    2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we will consider the concepts of partial and complete observables for canonical general relativity. These concepts provide a method to calculate Dirac observables. The central result of this work is that one can compute Dirac observables for general relativity by dealing with just one constraint. For this we have to introduce spatial diffeomorphism invariant Hamiltonian constraints. It will turn out that these can be made to be Abelian. Furthermore the methods outlined here provide a connection between observables in the space--time picture, i.e. quantities invariant under space--time diffeomorphisms, and Dirac observables in the canonical picture.

  15. Observations of Space Charge effects in the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potts III, Robert E [ORNL] [ORNL; Cousineau, Sarah M [ORNL] [ORNL; Holmes, Jeffrey A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring was designed to allow independent control of the transverse beam distribution in each plane. However, at high beam intensities, nonlinear space charge forces can strongly influence the final beam distribution and compromise our ability to independently control the transverse distributions. In this study we investigate the evolution of the beam at intensities of up to ~8x10^13 ppp through both simulation and experiment. Specifically, we analyze the evolution of the beam distribution for beams with different transverse aspect ratios and tune splits. We present preliminary results of simulations of our experiments.

  16. The effect of massive neutrinos on the SZ and X-ray observables of galaxy clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roncarelli, M; Moscardini, L

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive neutrinos are expected to influence the formation of the large-scale structure of the Universe, depending on the value of their total mass, $\\Sigma m_\

  17. Observation of an enhanced AharonovBohm effect K. Kobayashia,*, H. Aikawaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    277-8581, Japan b CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Mejiro, Tokyo 171-0031, Japan account of the role played by the probe leads. This makes an essential distinction between mesoscopic

  18. Modeling and interpreting the observed effects of ash on diesel particulate filter performance and regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yujun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are devices that physically capture diesel particulates to prevent their release to the atmosphere. Diesel particulate filters have seen widespread use in on- and off-road applications as ...

  19. Observations and Modeling of Shallow Convective Clouds: Implications for the Indirect Aerosol Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfiresImpurity Transport,12, 20103,University1_3355 Revisionand

  20. An Observed Signature of Aerosol Effect on Cloud Droplet Radii from a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta FeAuthorization|

  1. First Direct Observation of CO2's Greenhouse Effect at the Earth's

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget »TraveleBooks Find eBooksNorth

  2. VIII. The observational strategy: What are the issues; What must be done?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout its development, the observational strategy of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and its precursor programs has been consistent with that of the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) to detect and quantify climate change, document natural climate variability, understand variation and change, determine the causes and impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion, determine the impact of change on ecosystems and mitigate them. Space based observation can contribute significantly to each of these objectives, although its contribution will have to be carefully integrated with aircraft, in situ, international and other contributions and carefully transitioned to long-term operational observations to achieve its maximum potential impact. The interaction between space ad in situ can be in calibration, in interpretation, or in suggesting ways to make important new measurements from space. In atmospheric chemistry is largely involves calibration and global surveys. In ecosystems it involves calibration of EOS and improved sensors. In seasonal to interannual change it involves the testing and calibration of new sensors. In decadal to century change it requires the invention of new sensors. These roles are complementary and reinforcing. Taking full advantage of the synergisms and tradeoffs between space- and ground-based measurements is a potential vehicle for major savings in what is effectively a constant resource program. This paper presents a discussion of the principles guiding the space-based observational strategy, and the interplay between spaced-based and in situ measurements. The paper then discusses international issues, how they might be addressed, and integrated space-based observational strategy.

  3. The effects of two different environments upon the density, diameter, and length of the hair of Brahman cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Armas, Hector

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to adverse climatic conditions is characterised by a series of responses which enable them to maintain a normal equilibrium of their physiological functionso One cf these responses is manifested by changes in hair coat characteristics, Very litt1e... information is available at present regarding the reaction of the hair coats oi' Bos taurus and Bos indicus to hot and cold climate", This study was conceived with the idea of observing the x'caution of den- sity, diameter, and length of hair coat of two...

  4. The effects of two different environments upon the density, diameter, and length of the hair of Brahman cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Armas, Hector

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to adverse climatic conditions is characterised by a series of responses which enable them to maintain a normal equilibrium of their physiological functionso One cf these responses is manifested by changes in hair coat characteristics, Very litt1e... information is available at present regarding the reaction of the hair coats oi' Bos taurus and Bos indicus to hot and cold climate", This study was conceived with the idea of observing the x'caution of den- sity, diameter, and length of hair coat of two...

  5. Disentangling the EMC Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piasetzky, E; Weinstein, L B

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The deep inelastic scattering cross section for scattering from bound nucleons differs from that of free nucleons.This phenomena, first discovered 30 years ago, is known as the EMC effect and is still not fully understood. Recent analysis of world data showed that the strength of the EMC effect is linearly correlated with the relative amount of Two-Nucleon Short Range Correlated pairs (2N-SRC) in nuclei. The latter are pairs of nucleons whose wave functions overlap, giving them large relative momentum and low center of mass momentum, where high and low is relative to the Fermi momentum of the nucleus. The observed correlation indicates that the EMC effect, like 2N-SRC pairs, is related to high momentum nucleons in the nucleus. This paper reviews previous studies of the EMC-SRC correlation and studies its robustness. It also presents a planned experiment aimed at studying the origin of this EMC-SRC correlation.

  6. Disentangling the EMC Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Piasetzky; O. Hen; L. B. Weinstein

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The deep inelastic scattering cross section for scattering from bound nucleons differs from that of free nucleons.This phenomena, first discovered 30 years ago, is known as the EMC effect and is still not fully understood. Recent analysis of world data showed that the strength of the EMC effect is linearly correlated with the relative amount of Two-Nucleon Short Range Correlated pairs (2N-SRC) in nuclei. The latter are pairs of nucleons whose wave functions overlap, giving them large relative momentum and low center of mass momentum, where high and low is relative to the Fermi momentum of the nucleus. The observed correlation indicates that the EMC effect, like 2N-SRC pairs, is related to high momentum nucleons in the nucleus. This paper reviews previous studies of the EMC-SRC correlation and studies its robustness. It also presents a planned experiment aimed at studying the origin of this EMC-SRC correlation.

  7. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) for the Mid-Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Waight, K; Manobianco, J; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region, which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area (Figure 1) that includes the Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. There are two tasks in the current project effort designed to validate the Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) observational system deployment approach in order to move closer to the overall goal: (1) Perform an Observing System Experiment (OSE) using a data denial approach. The results of this task are presented in a separate report. (2) Conduct a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for the Mid-Colombia basin region. This report presents the results of the OSSE task. The specific objective is to test strategies for future deployment of observing systems in order to suggest the best and most efficient ways to improve wind forecasting at BPA wind farm locations. OSSEs have been used for many years in meteorology to evaluate the potential impact of proposed observing systems, determine tradeoffs in instrument design, and study the most effective data assimilation methodologies to incorporate the new observations into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (Atlas 1997; Lord 1997). For this project, a series of OSSEs will allow consideration of the impact of new observing systems of various types and in various locations.

  8. Helioseismology of Sunspots: Confronting Observations with Three-Dimensional MHD Simulations of Wave Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Cameron; L. Gizon; T. L. Duvall Jr

    2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation of solar waves through the sunspot of AR 9787 is observed using temporal cross-correlations of SOHO/MDI Dopplergrams. We then use three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations to compute the propagation of wave packets through self-similar magneto-hydrostatic sunspot models. The simulations are set up in such a way as to allow a comparison with observed cross-covariances (except in the immediate vicinity of the sunspot). We find that the simulation and the f-mode observations are in good agreement when the model sunspot has a peak field strength of 3 kG at the photosphere, less so for lower field strengths. Constraining the sunspot model with helioseismology is only possible because the direct effect of the magnetic field on the waves has been fully taken into account. Our work shows that the full-waveform modeling of sunspots is feasible.

  9. Observable measures of critical behavior in high-energy nuclear collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudolph C. Hwa

    2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Critical behaviors of quark-hadron phase transition in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are investigated with the aim of identifying hadronic observables. The surface of the plasma cylinder is mapped onto a 2D lattice. The Ising model is used to simulate configurations corresponding to cross-over transitions in accordance to the findings of QCD lattice gauge theory. Hadrons are formed in clusters of all sizes. Various measures are examined to quantify the fluctuations of the cluster sizes and of the voids among the clusters. The canonical power-law behaviors near the critical temperature are found for appropriately chosen measures. Since the temperature is not directly observable, attention is given to the problem of finding observable measures. It is demonstrated that for the measures considered the dependence on the final-state randomization is weak. Thus the critical behavior of the measures proposed is likely to survive the scattering effect of the hadron gas in the final state.

  10. Relativistic Binary Pulsar B1913+16: Thirty Years of Observations and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Weisberg; J. H. Taylor

    2004-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe results derived from thirty years of observations of PSR B1913+16. Together with the Keplerian orbital parameters, measurements of the relativistic periastron advance and a combination of gravitational redshift and time dilation yield the stellar masses with high accuracy. The measured rate of change of orbital period agrees with that expected from the emission of gravitational radiation, according to general relativity, to within about 0.2 percent. Systematic effects depending on the pulsar distance and on poorly known galactic constants now dominate the error budget, so tighter bounds will be difficult to obtain. Geodetic precession of the pulsar spin axis leads to secular changes in pulse shape as the pulsar-observer geometry changes. This effect makes it possible to model the two-dimensional structure of the beam. We find that the beam is elongated in the latitude direction and appears to be pinched in longitude near its center.

  11. Parallax-Shifted Microlensing Events from Ground-Based Observations of the Galactic Bulge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Buchalter; Marc Kamionkowski

    1996-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The parallax effect in ground-based microlensing (ML) observations consists of a distortion to the standard ML light curve arising from the Earth's orbital motion. In most cases, the resolution in current ML surveys is not accurate enough to observe this effect, but parallax could conceivably be detected with frequent followup observations of ML events in progress. We calculate the expected fraction of events where parallax distortions will be detected by such observations, adopting Galactic models consistent with the observed ML timescale ($t_0$) distributions. We study the dependence of the rates for parallax-shifted events on the sampling frequency and on the photometric precision. For example, we find that for hourly observations with typical photometric errors of 0.01 mag, 6\\% of events where the lens is in the bulge, and 31\\% of events where the lens is in the disk, (or $\\approx 10$\\% of events overall) will give rise to a measurable parallax shift at the 95\\% confidence level. These fractions may be increased by improved photometric accuracy and increased sampling frequency. Parallax measurements yield the reduced transverse speed, $\\tilde{v}$, which gives both the relative transverse speed and lens mass as functions of distance. We give examples of the accuracies with which $\\tilde{v}$ may be measured in typical parallax events. Using only the 3 standard ML parameters to fit ML light curves which may be shape-distorted by parallax or blending, can result in incorrect inferred values for these quantities. We find that the inferred timescales from such fits tend to shift the event duration distribution by $\\approx 10$\\% towards shorter $t_0$ for events with disk lenses, but do not affect bulge lenses. In both cases, the impact-parameter distribution is depressed slightly at the low and high ends.

  12. Model of a sunspot chromosphere based on OSO 8 observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lites, B.W.; Skumanich, A.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OSO 8 observations of the profiles of the resonance lines of H I, Mg II, and Ca II obtained with the Laboratorie de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire de Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (LPSP-CNRS) spectrometer (by A.S.) and of C IV obtained with the University of Colorado (CU) spectrometer (by B.W.L.) for a large quiet sunspot (1975 November 16--17) are analyzed along with near-simultaneous ground-based Stokes measurements obtained in a collaborative arrangement with L. L. House and T. Baur (HAO-NCAR) to yield an umbral chromosphere and transition region model. Features of this model include: (1) a chromosphere that is effectively thin in the important chromsopheric resonance lines of H I and Mg II and saturated in Ca II; (2) an upper chromospheric structure similar to quiet-Sun models; (3) penetration of the sunspot photospheric ''cooling wave'' to higher altitudes in the sunspot chromosphere than in quiet-Sun models, i.e., a more extended temperature minimum region in the sunspot atomphere; (4) a lower pressure corona above the sunspot umbra than above a typical quiet region; (5) very low nonthermal broadening in the umbral chromosphere; (6) a moderately strong downdraft; (7) chromospheric radiative loss rates not significantly different from their corresponding quiet-Sun values; (8) a temperature gradient in the transitons region near 10/sup 5/ Kapprox.0.1 times the corresponding quiet-Sun value. The Balmer continuum radiation from the photospheric areas outside the sunspot umbra controls the hydrogen ionization, and hence the electron density, in the chromosphere above the umbra.

  13. Many-Body Interactions of Neutrinos with Nuclei - Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Lalakulich; K. Gallmeister; U. Mosel

    2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: The total inclusive cross sections obtained for quasielastic (QE) scattering in the Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (MiniBooNE) are significantly larger than those calculated by all models based on the impulse approximation and using the world average value for the axial mass of $M_A \\approx 1 \\GeV$. This discrepancy has led to various, quite different explanations in terms of increased axial masses, changes in the functional form of the axial form factor, increased vector strength in nuclei, and initial two-particle interactions. This is disconcerting since the neutrino energy reconstruction depends on the reaction mechanism. Purpose: We investigate whether exclusive observables, such as nucleon knock-out, can be used to distinguish between the various proposed reaction mechanisms. We determine the influence of 2p-2h excitations on the energy reconstruction. Method: We use the Giessen Boltzmann--Uehling--Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) model to predict numbers and spectra of knock-out nucleons. The model is extended by incorporating a simple, but realistic treatment of initial 2p-2h excitations. Results: We show numbers and spectra of knock-out nucleons and show their sensitivity to the presence of 2p-2h initial excitations. We also discuss the influence of 2p-2h excitations on the neutrino energy reconstruction. Conclusions: 2p-2h excitations do lead to an increase in the number $n$ of knock-out nucleons for $n \\ge 2$ while only the $n=1$ knock-out remains a clean signal of true QE scattering. The spectra of knock-out nucleons do also change, but their qualitative shape remains as before. In the energy reconstruction 2p-2h interactions lead to a downward shift of the reconstructed energy; this effect of 2p-2h excitations disappears at higher energies because the 2p-2h influence is spread out over a wider energy range.

  14. Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12??m{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

  15. Meteorological Observations for Renewable Energy Applications at Site 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Alai, M; Myers, K

    2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In early October 2010, two Laser and Detection Ranging (LIDAR) units (LIDAR-96 and LIDAR-97), a 3 m tall flux tower, and a 3 m tall meteorological tower were installed in the northern section of Site 300 (Figure 1) as a first step in development of a renewable energy testbed facility. This section of the SMS project is aimed at supporting that effort with continuous maintenance of atmospheric monitoring instruments capable of measuring vertical profiles of wind speed and wind direction at heights encountered by future wind power turbines. In addition, fluxes of energy are monitored to estimate atmospheric mixing and its effects on wind flow properties at turbine rotor disk heights. Together, these measurements are critical for providing an accurate wind resource characterization and for validating LLNL atmospheric prediction codes for future renewable energy projects at Site 300. Accurate, high-resolution meteorological measurements of wind flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and surface-atmosphere energy exchange are required for understanding the properties and quality of available wind power at Site 300. Wind speeds at heights found in a typical wind turbine rotor disk ({approx} 40-140 m) are driven by the synergistic impacts of atmospheric stability, orography, and land-surface characteristics on the mean wind flow in the PBL and related turbulence structures. This section of the report details the maintenance and labor required in FY11 to optimize the meteorological instruments and ensure high accuracy of their measurements. A detailed look at the observations from FY11 is also presented. This portion of the project met the following milestones: Milestone 1: successful maintenance and data collection of LIDAR and flux tower instruments; Milestone 2: successful installation of solar power for the LIDAR units; and Milestone 3: successful implementation of remote data transmission for the LIDAR units.

  16. The 3 micron spectrum of R Doradus observed with the ISO-SWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Ryde; K. Eriksson

    2002-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We have modeled the 2.6 - 3.7 um spectrum of the red semiregular variable R Doradus observed with the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. The wavelength resolution of the observations varies between R = 2000 - 2500. We have calculated a synthetic spectrum using a hydrostatic model photosphere in spherical geometry. The agreement between the synthetic spectrum and the ISO observations is encouraging, especially in the wavelength region of 2.8 - 3.7 um, suggesting that a hydrostatic model photosphere is adequate for the calculation of synthetic spectra in the near infrared for this moderately varying red giant star. However, an additional absorption component is needed at 2.6- 2.8 um and this discrepancy is discussed. The spectral signatures are dominated by water vapour in the stellar photosphere, but several photospheric OH, CO, and SiO features are also present. The effective temperature and surface gravity derived for R Dor, based on the 2.6 - 3.7 um ISO spectrum and the modeling of it with a hydrostatic model photosphere, are 3000 +- 100 K and log g = 0 +- 1 (cgs), respectively. The spectral region observed is found to be temperature sensitive. The effective temperature given here is slightly higher than those reported in the literature. We also discuss possible reasons for this.

  17. NS&T Managment Observations - 1st Quarter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Gianotto

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of managements observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&Ts MOP.

  18. Solar Coronal Heating and Limb Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi-Jia Zheng

    2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The quiet solar coronal heating problem and the observed center-to-limb wavelength variations of the solar lines (limb effect) can be explained. In this paper the quantitative calculations for these two phenomena are presented.

  19. Spin effects in single-electron transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granger, Ghislain

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic electron transport phenomena observed in single-electron transistors (SETs) are introduced, such as Coulomb-blockade diamonds, inelastic cotunneling thresholds, the spin-1/2 Kondo effect, and Fano interference. With ...

  20. The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Observations of Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; lvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velzquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De Len, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Daz-Vlez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; Gonzlez, L X; Gonzlez, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H Len; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martnez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostaf, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Prez-Prez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivire, C; Rosa-Gonzlez, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe measurements of GeV and TeV cosmic rays with the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory, or HAWC. The measurements include the observation of the shadow of the moon; the observation of small-scale and large-scale angular clustering of the TeV cosmic rays; the prospects for measurement of transient solar events with HAWC; and the observation of Forbush decreases with the HAWC engineering array and HAWC-30.

  1. Analysis of The Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed in Spacecraft Flybys of Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roger Ellman

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 2008 anomalous behavior in spacecraft flybys of Earth was reported in Physical Review Letters, Volume 100, Issue 9, March 7, 2008, in an article entitled "Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed during Spacecraft Flybys of Earth". The data indicate unaccounted for changes in spacecraft speed, both increases and decreases, for six different spacecraft involved in Earth flybys from December 8, 1990 to August 2, 2005. The article states that, "All ... potential sources of systematic error .... [have been] modeled. None can account for the observed anomalies.... Like the Pioneer anomaly ... the Earth flybys anomaly is a real effect .... Its source is unknown." In the present article it is shown that the Earth flybys anomaly would be caused by a very small acceleration [in addition to that of natural gravitation], centrally directed and independent of distance, the same effect as that which the Pioneer anomaly exhibits. How that effect operates to produce the observed results is analyzed. A cause of the centrally directed accelerations is presented.

  2. In Situ Observation of the Electrochemical Lithiation of a Single...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (TEM) observations of the structural evolution and phase transformation of lithium-ion battery anode during the battery charging process. A nanobattery consisting of a single...

  3. ORNL researchers make first observation of atoms moving inside...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    observation of atoms moving inside bulk material Selected frames from a sequence of scanning transmission electron microscope images showing the diffusion pathway of a Ce dopant...

  4. Observation of green emission from Ce3+ doped gadolinium oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    green emission from Ce3+ doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles. Observation of green emission from Ce3+ doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles. Abstract: Green emission at around 500...

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Observations and Modeling of the Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Related Campaigns Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON 2014) 2014.01.01, Martin, AMF Comments? We would love to hear...

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Observations and Modeling of the Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Gas chromatograph (SVTAG) Related Campaigns Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON 2014) 2014.01.01, Martin, AMF Comments? We would love to hear...

  7. Airborne observations of the kinematics and statistics of breaking waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleiss, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for 12 sequential images sam- pled at 7.5Hz. Observations 2,distributions of six sam- ple image sequences selected from

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Observations and Modeling of the Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments...

  9. ISSN 18458319 COMMON SPHINX AND RHESSI OBSERVATIONS OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrozek, Tomasz

    with a use of the BESSY synchrotron. In space observations were made in the range 1.2-15 keV with 480 e

  10. AAO support observations for the Hubble Deep Field Sout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. J. Boyle

    1998-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present proposed ground-based support observations at the AAO for the forthcoming Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) campaign.

  11. agile grb observations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the XRT observations, are consistent with the afterglow emission from an interstellar medium (ISM) environment. Bing Zhang; Y. Z. Fan; Jaroslaw Dyks; Shiho Kobayashi; Peter...

  12. The Observers' Paradox: Apparent Computational Complexity in Physical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    The Observers' Paradox: Apparent Computational Complexity in Physical Systems John F. Kolen Research Department of Computer and Information Sciences The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 kolen

  13. average observational quantities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an...

  14. airborne radar observations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of ionospheric modication by high power radio waves Physics Websites Summary: with the Finland component of CUTLASS, and the rst observations of articial irregularities by...

  15. Transport Regulation from Theory to Practice: General Observations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transport Regulation from Theory to Practice: General Observations and a Case Study Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Transport Regulation from Theory to...

  16. Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S. [JSC 'SPII Gidroproekt' (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

  17. Electrodes mitigating effects of defects in organic electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heller, Christian Maria Anton (Albany, NY)

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound electrode for organic electronic devices comprises a thin first layer of a first electrically conducting material and a second electrically conducting material disposed on the first layer. In one embodiment, the second electrically conducting material is formed into a plurality of elongated members. In another embodiment, the second material is formed into a second layer. The elongated members or the second layer has a thickness greater than that of the first layer. The second layer is separated from the first layer by a conducting material having conductivity less than at least the material of the first layer. The compound electrode is capable of mitigating adverse effects of defects, such as short circuits, in the construction of the organic electronic devices, and can be included in light-emitting or photovoltaic devices.

  18. Measuring Transactions Costs from Observed Behavior: Market Choices in Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Measuring Transactions Costs from Observed Behavior: Market Choices in Peru Renos Vakis, Elisabeth Sadoulet, and Alain de Janvry October 2003 Abstract Farmers incur proportional and fixed transactions costs these transactions costs. When opportunities exist to sell a crop on alternative markets, the observed choice

  19. Infrared Observations of Soft GammaRay Repeaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ian Andrew

    Infrared Observations of Soft Gamma­Ray Repeaters I. A. Smith Department of Space Physics been found for SGR 0525--66. This paper gives a brief overview of some recent and ongoing infrared observing programs. For a more detailed review article, see Smith (1997) [2]. INFRARED SPECTRA OF SGR 1806

  20. Observations of non-conjugate theta aurora N. stgaard,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Observations of non-conjugate theta aurora N. stgaard,1 S. B. Mende,1 H. U. Frey,1 L. A. Frank,2 particle measurements we report two events where a theta aurora was observed in one hemisphere for the occurrence of non-conjugate theta aurora. INDEX TERMS: 2475 Ionosphere: Polar cap ionosphere; 2704