National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for observed adverse effect

  1. Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haley, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of Air Pollution Robert W. Haley, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Division of Epidemiology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, Texas ? Texas Medical Association has adopted resolutions on clean air: ? 2007... of how to maintain energy efficiency while reducing air pollution. ? Supported legislation based on the findings. The Medical Professor Increasingly Concerned ? Asthma ? Emphysema ? Heart Attacks ? Stunted lung development ? Brain damage...

  2. Do physicians communicate the adverse effects of medications that older patients want to hear?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarn, DM; Wenger, A; Good, JS; Hoffing, M; Scherger, JE; Wenger, NS

    2015-01-01

    renal effects Four adverse effects Cough ? electrolytes ?renal effects ? other Cough ? renal effects ?dizziness ? other Cough ? electrolytes ? two others

  3. The issue of 'Adverse Effects and the Impacts of Response Measures' in UNFCCC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    of emission reduction activities on energy exporting countries. In negotiations the Organisation of Petroleum. This paper explores the political, economic and legal dimensions of this interlocked adverse effects to the impacts of climate change. This suggests that tacit G77-China support for OPEC's position may therefore

  4. Adverse Outcome Pathways and Ecological Risk Assessment: Bridging to Population-Level Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Vincent J.; Etterson, Matthew A.; Hecker, Markus; Murphy, Cheryl A.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Spade, Daniel J.; Spromberg, Julann A.; Wang, Magnus; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2010-11-24

    The viability of populations of plants and animals is a key focus for environmental regulation. Population-level responses integrate the cumulative effects of chemical stressors on individuals as those individuals interact with and are affected by their con-specifics, competitors, predators, prey, habitat and other biotic and abiotic factors. Models of population-level effects of contaminants can integrate information from lower levels of biological organization and feed that information into higher-level community and ecosystem models. As individual-level endpoints are utilized to predict population responses, this requires that biological responses at lower levels of organization be translated into a form that is useable by the population modeler. In this paper we describe how mechanistic data, as captured in adverse outcome pathways, can be translated into modeling focused on population-level risk assessments. First, we present a succinct overview of different approaches to population modeling, and discuss the types of data needed for these models. Then we discuss how toxicity data are used currently for population modeling, and provide recommendations as to how testing might be modified to better generate information to support modeling. From this we describe how different key processes measured at the level of the individual serve as the bridge between mechanistic toxicology data and predictions of population status, and provide case examples of how this linkage has been/can be achieved.

  5. OCCURRENCE AND POTENTIAL ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STREAMBED SEDIMENT, UNITED STATES, 1992-95

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 OCCURRENCE AND POTENTIAL ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STREAMBED SEDIMENT) in streambed sediment were assessed at 536 sites in 20 major river basins across the United States from 1992 density, and PAHs also correlated with physical/chemical properties. On the basis of sediment

  6. Human exposure to mercury: A critical assessment of the evidence of adverse health effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratcliffe, H.E.; Swanson, G.M.; Fischer, L.J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-25

    The ubiquitous nature of mercury in the environment, its global atmospheric cycling, and its toxicity to humans at levels that are uncomfortably close to exposures experienced by a proportion of the population are some of the current concerns associated with this pollutant. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the scientific quality of published reports involving human exposures to mercury and associated health outcomes as an aid in the risk evaluation of this chemical. A comprehensive review of the scientific literature involving human exposures to mercury was performed and each publication evaluated using a defined set of criteria that are considered standards in epidemiologic and toxicologic research. Severe, sometimes fatal, effects of mercury exposure at high levels were primarily reported as case studies. The disasters in Minamata, Japan, in the 1950s and in Iraq in 1971-1972 clearly demonstrated neurologic effects associated with ingestion of methylmercury both in adults and in infants exposed in utero. The effects were convincingly Associated with methylmercury ingestion, despite limitations of the study design. Several well-conducted studies have investigated the effects of methylmercury at levels below those in the Iraq incident but have not provided clear evidence of an effect. The lower end of the dose-response curve constructed from the Iraq data therefore still needs to be confirmed. The studies of mercury exposure in the workplace were mainly of elemental or inorganic mercury, and effects that were observed at relatively low exposure levels were primarily neurologic and renal. Several studies have investigated effects associated with dental amalgam but have been rated as inconclusive because of methodologic deficiencies. In our overall evaluation, 29 of 110 occupational studies and 20 of 54 studies where exposure occurred in the natural environment provided at least suggestive evidence of an exposure-related effect. 259 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heinen, Richard C. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ronckers, Cécile M. [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands)] [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands); Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands) [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands) [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD{sub 2} in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD{sub 2}, we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD{sub 2} instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience.

  8. Constraint effects observed in crack initiation stretch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.M.; Ernst, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    The current paper characterizes constraint in fracture: J-modified resistance (Jr) curves were developed for two tough structural materials, 6061-T651 (aluminum) and IN718-STA1 (nickel-base superalloy). A wide variety of configurations was tested to consider load configurations from bending to tension including three specimen types (compact tension, center-crack tension, and single-edge notched tension), and a range of ligament lengths and thicknesses, as well as side-grooved and smooth-sided ligaments. The Jr curves exhibited an inflection point after some crack extension, and the data were excluded beyond the inflection. Qualified Jr curves for the two materials showed similar behavior, but R-curves were identical for equal ligament length-to-thickness ratio (RL), for the aluminum alloy, with increasing slope for increasing RL, while for the nickel, the resistance curves aligned for equal ligament thickness, B, and the slope increased for decreasing B. Displacements at the original crack tip (CToD) were recorded throughout the test for several specimens. CToD-versus-crack extension curves were developed, and data were excluded beyond the inflection point (as with the Jr curves). The data collapsed into two distinct curves, thought to represent the surface, plane stress effect and the central, plane strain effect. This was observed for both materials. A technique called profiling is presented for the aluminum alloy only, where the crack face displacements are recorded at the final point of the test as a function of the position throughout the crack cavity, along with an effort to extract the observations in a usable form. Displacements were consistent throughout the cross-section at and behind the original crack tip. In the region where the crack grew, this displacement was developed by a combination of stretch and crack growth. The stretch required to initiate crack extension was a function of the depth beneath the surface into the cross-section.

  9. Observations of solute effects on bubble formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmeier, U.; Yaminsky, V.V.; Christenson, H.K.

    1995-09-01

    The authors have studied the effects of solute, in particular aqueous electrolyte, on bubble formation at capillary orifices and frits at varying gas flow rates. Using a stroboscope, video microscope, and rotating mirror, they have obtained pictures which show how bubble formation involves the interaction of bubbles at the orifice. These interactions depend on the value of the surface elasticity E due to positively (ethanol) or negatively (NaCl) adsorbed solute. At low flow rates consecutive bubbles do not interact. Each bubble detaches and leaves the orifice region before the next one starts forming. A intermediate flow rates the more closely spaced, consecutive bubbles begin to interact. In pure liquids there is no barrier to bubble coalescence and the detached bubble is fed by the subsequent bubble as this starts to grow. The process may be repeated several times before the original bubble has risen out of range. In solutions where E is large enough bubble coalescence is inhibited. Instead of feeding into the detached bubble the following bubble pushes it aside, and the bubbles appear to bounce off each other. Bouncing may give rise to a characteristic sequence of larger and smaller bubbles if the emerging bubbles break off prematurely from the orifice due to the inertia of the original bubble. The transition from feeding to bouncing depends critically on E of the solution and leads to a smaller average bubble size for large E values. At high flow rates detached bubbles are invariably fed by several subsequent ones. At very high flow rates the bubbling becomes chaotic, but the interaction of bubbles after leaving the orifice area produces smaller bubbles in solutions. Bouncing is more likely to occur with narrow and irregular capillaries. The dramatically different appearance of gas-sparged columns in salt water and freshwater has its origin in the difference between assemblies of pores showing mainly feeding (freshwater) or bouncing (salt water).

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF THE EFFECT OF ACID-IRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OBSERVATIONS OF THE EFFECT OF ACID-IRON WASTE DISPOSAL AT SEA ON ANIMAL POPULATIONS tj^iitinn p AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;OBSERVATIONS OF THE EFFECT OF ACID-IRON WASTE DISPOSAL AT SEA ON ANIMAL scope, intended to aid or direct management or utilization practices and as guides for administrative

  11. On O($a^2$) effects in gradient flow observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberto Ramos; Stefan Sint

    2015-04-18

    In lattice gauge theories, the gradient flow has been used extensively both, for scale setting and for defining finite volume renormalization schemes for the gauge coupling. Unfortunately, rather large cutoff effects have been observed in some cases. We here investigate these effects to leading order in perturbation theory, considering various definitions of the lattice observable, the lattice flow equation and the Yang Mills lattice action. These considerations suggest an improved set- up for which we perform a scaling test in the pure SU(3) gauge theory, demonstrating strongly reduced cutoff effects. We then attempt to obtain a more complete understanding of the structure of O($a^2$) effects by applying Symanzik's effective theory approach to the 4+1 dimensional local field theory with flow time as the fifth dimension. From these considerations we are led to a fully O($a^2$) improved set-up the study of which is left to future work.

  12. Observations of the first aerosol indirect effect in shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Barnard, James C.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.

    2011-02-08

    Data from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) are used to estimate the impact of both aerosol indirect effects and cloud dynamics on the microphysical and optical properties of shallow cumuli observed in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Not surprisingly, we find that the amount of light scattered by the clouds is dominated by their liquid water content (LWC), which in turn is driven by cloud dynamics. However, removing the effect of cloud dynamics by examining the scattering normalized by LWC shows a strong sensitivity of scattering to pollutant loading. These results suggest that even moderately sized cities, like Oklahoma City, can have a measureable impact on the optical properties of shallow cumuli.

  13. Research Article Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hameed, Sultan

    Research Article Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental Impact Symposium 2001 The, ecological risk assessment, recruitment, striped bass, Hudson River, adverse environmental impact the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment

  14. Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGasObservation of aof

  15. Observing Healthcare Interior Environments and the Effect on Patient Behavior 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Courtney R.

    2010-07-14

    and what aspects influence this feeling? II. What are the independent and dependent variables present in the interior environment that effect patient well-being? The results concluded that by adding simple elements to the interior environments of healthcare...

  16. Observation of the Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Record High...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Record High-Mobility Uniform Wafer-Scale Epitaxial Graphene Films Grown on the Si-Face of 6H-SiC(0001). Citation Details In-Document Search...

  17. Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2011-05-01

    The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

  18. Optimization of satellite coverage in observing cause and effect changes in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and solar wind. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loveless, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    Disturbances in the ionosphere sometimes cause adverse effects to communications systems, power grids, etc. on the earth. Currently, very little, if any, lead time is given to warn of an impending problem. If a forecast could be made of ionospheric occurrences, some lead time may be given to appropriate agencies and equipment may be saved. Most changes that occur in the ionosphere are a result of interaction of energy, currents, etc. between the magnetosphere and/or solar wind. Before a forecast can be made, however, improvement of ionospheric models currently in use need to be made. The models currently depict features in various regions of the ionosphere but not always where these features are actually observed. So an improvement to the model is needed to create an accurate baseline condition, or in other words an accurate depiction of the current ionosphere. Models could be improved by inputting real-time data from the ionosphere into the model. This data would come from satellites and/or ground-based stations.

  19. Observations of dust acoustic waves driven at high frequencies: Finite dust temperature effects and wave interference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merlino, Robert L.

    Observations of dust acoustic waves driven at high frequencies: Finite dust temperature effects An experiment has been performed to study the behavior of dust acoustic waves driven at high frequencies f 100 are observed--interference effects between naturally excited dust acoustic waves and driven dust acoustic waves

  20. Energy Department Announces Secretarial Determination of No Adverse...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium Transfers Energy Department Announces Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium...

  1. Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium Transfers Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium Transfers The determination covers...

  2. Surface plasmon standing waves on Ag nanorods: observations of finite size effects and size dependency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Surface plasmon standing waves on Ag nanorods: observations of finite size effects and size to have clear configuration of standing waves of the nanorod. The nm resolution of the electron probe standing wave on a string with fixed ends, we observed that the wavelength of the SP standing wave

  3. Introduction Risk associated with an adverse price

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    Introduction Risk associated with an adverse price change (price risk) is a normal part commodities are sold suggests price risk is an unavoidable part of being involved in the industry. Producers that have significant price variability. Recent domestic farm policy changes and trade barrier reductions

  4. Wind resources and wind farm wake effects offshore observed from satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind resources and wind farm wake effects offshore observed from satellite Charlotte Bay Hasager to quantify the wake effect at two large offshore wind farms in Denmark. It is found that the wake velocity further. There is fast progress on planning and installation of offshore wind farms in the European waters

  5. LABORATORY OBSERVATIONS AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE EFFECTS OF AN ARRAY OF WAVE ENERGY CONVERTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Merrick

    1 LABORATORY OBSERVATIONS AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE EFFECTS OF AN ARRAY OF WAVE ENERGY of wave energy converters (WECs) on water waves through the analysis of extensive laboratory experiments absorption is a reasonable predictor of the effect of WECs on the far field. Keywords: wave- energy; spectral

  6. Observations of Multi-Resonance Effect in ELM Control with Magnetic Perturbation Fields on the JET Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observations of Multi-Resonance Effect in ELM Control with Magnetic Perturbation Fields on the JET Tokamak

  7. Analysis of Hanle-effect signals observed in Si-channel spin accumulation devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamura, Yota, E-mail: takamura@spin.pe.titech.ac.jp [Imaging Science and Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Akushichi, Taiju; Sadano, Adiyudha; Okishio, Takao; Shuto, Yusuke; Sugahara, Satoshi, E-mail: sugahara@isl.titech.ac.jp [Imaging Science and Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    We reexamined curve-fitting analysis for spin-accumulation signals observed in Si-channel spin-accumulation devices, employing widely-used Lorentz functions and a new formula developed from the spin diffusion equation. A Si-channel spin-accumulation device with a high quality ferromagnetic spin injector was fabricated, and its observed spin-accumulation signals were verified. Experimentally obtained Hanle-effect signals for spin accumulation were not able to be fitted by a single Lorentz function and were reproduced by the newly developed formula. Our developed formula can represent spin-accumulation signals and thus analyze Hanle-effect signals.

  8. SUPPORTING INFORMATION FOR Using Microfluidics to Observe the Effect of Mixing on Nucleation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    -S 1 - SUPPORTING INFORMATION FOR Using Microfluidics to Observe the Effect of Mixing on Nucleation: Figure 1: The microfluidic devices were fabricated using soft lithography (McDonald, J. C.; Whitesides, G): the first part was a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with channels of 200 × 200 µm2 cross

  9. Policy on adverse weather conditions affecting Higher Education Review visits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Policy on adverse weather conditions affecting Higher Education Review visits This policy entered into owing to adverse weather conditions will be by mutual agreement of QAA and the provider. Attendance at the review visit by the QAA officer If adverse weather conditions prevent, or appear likely

  10. Hawking and Unruh radiation perception by different observers: applications of the effective temperature function (in Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis C. Barbado

    2015-01-12

    We study the perception of the radiation phenomena of Hawking radiation and Unruh effect by using two main tools: the Unruh-DeWitt detectors and the effective temperature function (ETF), this last tool based on Bogoliubov transformations. Using the Unruh-DeWitt detectors we find an adiabatic expansion of the detection properties along linear trajectories with slowly varying acceleration in Minkowski, which allows us to calculate the spectrum detected, finding the thermal spectrum as the zeroth order contribution. Using the ETF we study the perception of Hawking radiation by observers following radial trajectories outside a Schwarzschild black hole. One of the most important results is that, in general, free-falling observers crossing the event horizon do detect some radiation, even when the field is in the Unruh vacuum state, due to a Doppler blue-shift that diverges at the horizon. We give a general expression for the ETF, which has a clear interpretation in terms of well-known physical phenomena. We discuss which contribution to the perception comes from the radiation emitted by the black hole, and which contribution is due to the Unruh effect caused by the movement of the observer. We conclude that the Unruh effect is not only due to the observer's proper acceleration and cannot even be defined locally, but is due to the observer's acceleration with respect to the asymptotic region. We apply the ETF to the analysis of different physical situations, in particular to a possible buoyancy scenario near the horizon due to Hawking radiation pressure. Finally, we propose a non-stationary vacuum state, which we call pulsating vacuum, for the radiation field outside a stellar object hovering closely to form an event horizon. In this vacuum state, we get nearly Hawking radiation emitted by the object, while avoiding the known problems of the information paradox and the trans-planckian problem.

  11. Systematic effects in polarizing Fourier transform spectrometers for cosmic microwave background observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagler, Peter C; Kogut, Alan; Tucker, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing Fourier transform spectrometers, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS - emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects - and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.

  12. Experimental Observation of the Inverse Spin Hall Effect at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Baoli; Shi, Junren; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Hongming; Li, Dafang; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shoucheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Dongmin; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.

    2010-03-16

    We observe the inverse spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in Al-GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells. Specifically, they find that an inhomogeneous spin density induced by the optical injection gives rise to an electric current transverse to both the spin polarization and its gradient. The spin Hall conductivity can be inferred from such a measurement through the Einstein relation and the onsager relation, and is found to have the order of magnitude of 0.5(e{sup 2}/h). The observation is made at the room temperature and in samples with macroscopic sizes, suggesting that the inverse spin Hall effects is a robust macroscopic transport phenomenon.

  13. Hawking radiation as perceived by different observers: An analytic expression for the effective-temperature function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbado, Luis C; Garay, Luis J

    2012-01-01

    Given a field vacuum state in a black hole spacetime, this state can be analyzed in terms of how it is perceived (in terms of particle content) by different observers. This can be done by means of the effective-temperature function introduced by Barcel\\'o et al. in [1]. In Barbado et al. [2], this function was analyzed in a case by case basis for a number of interesting situations. In this work, we find a general analytic expression for the effective-temperature function which, apart from the vacuum state choice, depends on the position, the local velocity and the acceleration of the specific observer. We give a clear physical interpretation of the quantities appearing in the expression, and we illustrate its potentiality with a few examples.

  14. Observation of the 'head-tail' effect in nuclear recoils of low-energy neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Dujmic; H. Tomita; M. Lewandowska; S. Ahlen; P. Fisher; S. Henderson; A. Kaboth; G. Kohse; R. Lanza; J. Monroe; A. Roccaro; G. Sciolla; N. Skvorodnev; R. Vanderspek; H. Wellenstein; R. Yamamoto

    2007-10-09

    Directional detection of dark matter can provide unambiguous observation of dark matter interactions even in the presence of background. This article presents an experimental method to measure the direction tag ("head-tail") of the dark matter wind by detecting the scintillation light created by the elastic nuclear recoils in the scattering of dark matter particles with the detector material. The technique is demonstrated by tagging the direction of the nuclear recoils created in the scattering of low-energy neutrons with CF4 in a low-pressure time-projection chamber that is developed by the DMTPC collaboration. The measurement of the decreasing ionization rate along the recoil trajectory provides the direction tag of the incoming neutrons, and proves that the "head-tail" effect can be observed.

  15. The Effect of the LISA Response Function on Observations of Monochromatic Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vecchio, A

    2004-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to provide the largest observational sample of binary systems of faint sub-solar mass compact objects, in particular white-dwarfs, whose radiation is monochromatic over most of the LISA observational window. Current astrophysical estimates suggest that the instrument will be able to resolve about 10000 such systems, with a large fraction of them at frequencies above 3 mHz, where the wavelength of gravitational waves becomes comparable to or shorter than the LISA arm-length. This affects the structure of the so-called LISA transfer function which cannot be treated as constant in this frequency range: it introduces characteristic phase and amplitude modulations that depend on the source location in the sky and the emission frequency. Here we investigate the effect of the LISA transfer function on detection and parameter estimation for monochromatic sources. For signal detection we show that filters constructed by approximating the transfer function as a ...

  16. Simultaneous effect of modified gravity and primordial non-Gaussianity in large scale structure observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirzatuny, Nareg; Khosravi, Shahram; Baghram, Shant; Moshafi, Hossein E-mail: khosravi@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: hosseinmoshafi@iasbs.ac.ir

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the simultaneous effect of primordial non-Gaussianity and the modification of the gravity in f(R) framework on large scale structure observations. We show that non-Gaussianity and modified gravity introduce a scale dependent bias and growth rate functions. The deviation from ?CDM in the case of primordial non-Gaussian models is in large scales, while the growth rate deviates from ?CDM in small scales for modified gravity theories. We show that the redshift space distortion can be used to distinguish positive and negative f{sub NL} in standard background, while in f(R) theories they are not easily distinguishable. The galaxy power spectrum is generally enhanced in presence of non-Gaussianity and modified gravity. We also obtain the scale dependence of this enhancement. Finally we define galaxy growth rate and galaxy growth rate bias as new observational parameters to constrain cosmology.

  17. STRAY-LIGHT EFFECT ON MAGNETOGRAPH OBSERVATIONS JONGCHUL CHAE1, HONG SIK YUN2, TAKASHI SAKURAI3 and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STRAY-LIGHT EFFECT ON MAGNETOGRAPH OBSERVATIONS JONGCHUL CHAE1, HONG SIK YUN2, TAKASHI SAKURAI3 August 1998) Abstract. To examine the stray-light effect in magnetograph observations, we have determined: a blurring part which describes seeing and small-spread-angle stray light, and a scattering part which

  18. Experimental observation of standing wave effect in low-pressure very-high-frequency capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-07-28

    Radial uniformity measurements of plasma density were carried out by using a floating double probe in a cylindrical (21?cm in electrode diameter) capacitive discharge reactor driven over a wide range of frequencies (27–220 MHz). At low rf power, a multiple-node structure of standing wave effect was observed at 130?MHz. The secondary density peak caused by the standing wave effect became pronounced and shifts toward the axis as the driving frequency further to increase, indicative of a much more shortened standing-wave wavelength. With increasing rf power, the secondary density peak shift toward the radial edge, namely, the standing-wave wavelength was increased, in good qualitative agreement with the previous theory and simulation results. At higher pressures and high frequencies, the rf power was primarily deposited at the periphery of the electrode, due to the fact that the waves were strongly damped as they propagated from the discharge edge into the center.

  19. Possible observables for chiral electric separation effect in Cu + Au collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The quark-gluon plasma (QGP) generated in relativistic heavy-ion collisions could be locally P- and CP-odd. In P- and CP-odd QGP, the electric field may induce a chiral current which is called chiral electric separation effect (CESE). We propose two possible observables for CESE in Cu + Au collisions: The first one is the correlation $\\zeta_{\\alpha\\beta}=\\langle \\cos[2(\\phi_\\alpha+\\phi_\\beta-2\\Psi_{\\rm RP})]\\rangle$; the second one is the charge-dependent event-plane angle $\\Psi^{q}_2$ with $q=\\pm$ being charge. Nonzero $\\Delta\\zeta=\\zeta_{opp}-\\zeta_{same}$ and $\\Delta\\Psi=\\langle\\Psi_2^+-\\Psi_2^-\\rangle$ may signal the CESE in Cu + Au collisions. Within a multiphase transport (AMPT) model, we study how the final state interaction affects these observables. We find that the correlation $\\gamma_{\\alpha\\beta}=\\langle\\cos(\\phi_{\\alpha}+\\phi_{\\beta}-\\Psi_{\\rm RP})\\rangle$ is sensitive to the out-of-plane charge separation caused by chiral magnetic effect (CME) and the in-plane charge separation caused by the in-...

  20. Experimental observation of spin-dependent electron many-body effects in CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horodyská, P.; N?mec, P. Novotný, T.; Trojánek, F.; Malý, P.

    2014-08-07

    In semiconductors, the spin degree of freedom is usually disregarded in the theoretical treatment of electron many-body effects such as band-gap renormalization and screening of the Coulomb enhancement factor. Nevertheless, as was observed experimentally in GaAs, not only the single-particle phase-space filling but also many-body effects are spin sensitive. In this paper, we report on time- and polarization-resolved differential transmission pump-probe measurements in CdTe, which has the same zincblende crystal structure but different material parameters compared to that of GaAs. We show experimentally that at room temperature in CdTe—unlike in GaAs—the pump-induced decrease of transmission due to the band-gap renormalization can even exceed the transmission increase due to the phase-space filling, which enables to measure directly the spin-sensitivity of the band-gap renormalization. We also observed that the influence of the band-gap renormalization is more prominent at low temperatures.

  1. Hawking and Unruh radiation perception by different observers: applications of the effective temperature function (in Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbado, Luis C

    2015-01-01

    We study the perception of the radiation phenomena of Hawking radiation and Unruh effect by using two main tools: the Unruh-DeWitt detectors and the effective temperature function (ETF), this last tool based on Bogoliubov transformations. Using the Unruh-DeWitt detectors we find an adiabatic expansion of the detection properties along linear trajectories with slowly varying acceleration in Minkowski, which allows us to calculate the spectrum detected, finding the thermal spectrum as the zeroth order contribution. Using the ETF we study the perception of Hawking radiation by observers following radial trajectories outside a Schwarzschild black hole. One of the most important results is that, in general, free-falling observers crossing the event horizon do detect some radiation, even when the field is in the Unruh vacuum state, due to a Doppler blue-shift that diverges at the horizon. We give a general expression for the ETF, which has a clear interpretation in terms of well-known physical phenomena. We discuss...

  2. Holographic Theory of Accelerated Observers, the S-matrix, and the Emergence of Effective Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Banks; Willy Fischler

    2013-01-24

    We present a theory of accelerated observers in the formalism of holographic space time, and show how to define the analog of the Unruh effect for a one parameter set of accelerated observers in a causal diamond in Minkowski space. The key fact is that the formalism splits the degrees of freedom in a large causal diamond into particles and excitations on the horizon. The latter form a large heat bath for the particles, and different Hamiltonians, describing a one parameter family of accelerated trajectories, have different couplings to the bath. We argue that for a large but finite causal diamond the Hamiltonian describing a geodesic observer has a residual coupling to the bath and that the effect of the bath is finite over the long time interval in the diamond. We find general forms of the Hamiltonian, which guarantee that the horizon degrees of freedom will decouple in the limit of large diamonds, leaving over a unitary evolution operator for particles, with an asymptotically conserved energy. That operator converges to the S-matrix in the infinite diamond limit. The S-matrix thus arises from integrating out the horizon degrees of freedom, in a manner reminiscent of, but distinct from, Matrix Theory. We note that this model for the S-matrix implies that Quantum Gravity, as opposed to quantum field theory, has a natural adiabatic switching off of the interactions. We argue that imposing Lorentz invariance on the S-matrix is natural, and guarantees super-Poincare invariance in the HST formalism. Spatial translation invariance is seen to be the residuum of the consistency conditions of HST.

  3. Dark matter annihilation and its effect on CMB and Hydrogen 21 cm observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natarajan, Aravind

    2009-01-01

    If dark matter is made up of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, the annihilation of these particles in halos results in energy being released, some of which is absorbed by gas, causing partial ionization and heating. It is shown that early ionization results in a transfer of power to higher multipoles in the large angle CMB polarization power spectra. Future CMB experiments may be able to detect this effect in the case of certain light dark matter models. We also investigate the effect of gas heating on the expected H21 cm power spectrum. Heating by particle annihilation results in a decrease in the amplitude of the H21 cm power spectrum as the gas temperature $T$ becomes comparable to the CMB temperature $T_\\gamma$, and then an increase as $T > T_\\gamma$. The result is a minimum in the power spectrum at the redshift for which $T \\approx T_\\gamma$. Only certain models (low particle masses $\\sim$ 10 GeV, or favorable halo parameters) show this effect. Within these models, observations of the H21 cm power sp...

  4. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ? 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  5. Urban and land surface effects on the 30 July 2003 mesoscale convective system event observed in the southern Great Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    Urban and land surface effects on the 30 July 2003 mesoscale convective system event observed/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS 1 ) to investigate the impact of urban and land vegetation processes on the prediction of the mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed on 30 July 2003 in the vicinity of Oklahoma City

  6. VLF wave activity in the solar wind and the photoelectron effect in electric field measurements: Ulysses observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    solar wind streams, Ulysses observed nearly continuous electric wave activity with peak power belowVLF wave activity in the solar wind and the photoelectron effect in electric field measurements present observations of very low frequency (VLF) waves (0.2 to 448 Hz) made by Ulysses during the solar

  7. The Effect of the LISA Response Function on Observations of Monochromatic Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vecchio; E. D. L. Wickham

    2004-06-25

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to provide the largest observational sample of binary systems of faint sub-solar mass compact objects, in particular white-dwarfs, whose radiation is monochromatic over most of the LISA observational window. Current astrophysical estimates suggest that the instrument will be able to resolve about 10000 such systems, with a large fraction of them at frequencies above 3 mHz, where the wavelength of gravitational waves becomes comparable to or shorter than the LISA arm-length. This affects the structure of the so-called LISA transfer function which cannot be treated as constant in this frequency range: it introduces characteristic phase and amplitude modulations that depend on the source location in the sky and the emission frequency. Here we investigate the effect of the LISA transfer function on detection and parameter estimation for monochromatic sources. For signal detection we show that filters constructed by approximating the transfer function as a constant (long wavelength approximation) introduce a negligible loss of signal-to-noise ratio -- the fitting factor always exceeds 0.97 -- for f below 10mHz, therefore in a frequency range where one would actually expect the approximation to fail. For parameter estimation, we conclude that in the range 3mHz to 30mHz the errors associated with parameter measurements differ from about 5% up to a factor of 10 (depending on the actual source parameters and emission frequency) with respect to those computed using the long wavelength approximation.

  8. The Welfare Effects of Adverse Selection in Privatized Medicare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lustig, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    Cost Marginal Cost of Generosity Per Capita Income / 1000 #Cost Marginal Cost of Generosity Per Capita Income / 1000 #

  9. A characteristic observable signature of preferred frame effects in relativistic binary pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Wex; M. Kramer

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we develop a consistent, phenomenological methodology to measure preferred-frame effects (PFEs) in binary pulsars that exhibit a high rate of periastron advance. We show that in these systems the existence of a preferred frame for gravity leads to an observable characteristic `signature' in the timing data, which uniquely identifies this effect. We expand the standard Damour-Deruelle timing formula to incorporate this `signature' and show how this new PFE timing model can be used to either measure or constrain the parameters related to a violation of the local Lorentz invariance of gravity in the strong internal fields of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that in the presence of PFEs we expect a set of the new timing parameters to have a unique relationship that can be measured and tested incontrovertibly. This new methodology is applied to the Double Pulsar, which turns out to be the ideal test system for this kind of experiments.The currently available dataset allows us only to study the impact of PFEs on the orbital precession rate, d omega/dt, providing limits that are, at the moment, clearly less stringent than existing limits on PFE strong-field parameters. However, simulations show that the constraints improve fast in the coming years, allowing us to study all new PFE timing parameters and to check for the unique relationship between them. Finally, we show how a combination of several suitable systems in a "PFE antenna array", expected to be availabe for instance with the Square-Kilometre-Array (SKA), provides full sensitivity to possible violations of local Lorentz invariance in strong gravitational fields in all directions of the sky. This PFE antenna array may eventually allow us to determine the direction of a preferred frame should it exist.

  10. Direct Observation of Nanoscale Peltier and Joule Effects at Metal-Insulator Domain Walls in Vanadium Dioxide Nanobeams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Direct Observation of Nanoscale Peltier and Joule Effects at Metal- Insulator Domain Walls localized alternating Peltier heating and cooling as well as Joule heating concentrated at the M-I domain the monoclinic phase identification. KEYWORDS: Vanadium dioxide, thermoreflectance microscopy, Peltier effect

  11. Is the effect of the Sun's gravitational potential on dark matter particles observable?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Schwetz, Thomas E-mail: schwetz@fysik.su.se

    2014-08-01

    We consider the effect of the Sun's gravitational potential on the local phase space distribution of dark matter particles, focusing on its implication for the annual modulation signal in direct detection experiments. We perform a fit to the modulation signal observed in DAMA/LIBRA and show that the allowed region shrinks if Solar gravitational focusing (GF) is included compared to the one without GF. Furthermore, we consider a possible signal in a generic future direct detection experiment, irrespective of the DAMA/LIBRA signal. Even for scattering cross sections close to the current bound and a large exposure of a xenon target with 270 ton yr it will be hard to establish the presence of GF from data. In the region of dark matter masses below 40 GeV an annual modulation signal can be established for our assumed experimental setup, however GF is negligible for low masses. In the high mass region, where GF is more important, the significance of annual modulation itself is very low. We obtain similar results for lighter targets such as Ge and Ar. We comment also on inelastic scattering, noting that GF becomes somewhat more important for exothermic scattering compared to the elastic case.

  12. The influence of selection effects on the observed cataclysmic variable population: modelling and application to the Palomar-Green sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magaretha L. Pretorius; Christian Knigge; Ulrich Kolb

    2006-11-06

    Large differences between the properties of the known sample of cataclysmic variable stars (CVs) and the predictions of the theory of binary star evolution have long been recognised. However, because all existing CV samples suffer from strong selection effects, observational biases must be taken into account before it is possible to tell whether there is an inconsistency. In order to address this problem, we have modelled the impact of selection effects on observed CV samples using a Monte Carlo approach. By simulating the selection criteria of the Palomar-Green (PG) Survey, we show that selection effects cannot reconcile the predictions of standard CV evolution theory with the observed sample. More generally, we illustrate the effect of the biases that are introduced by magnitude limits, selection cuts in U-B, and restrictions in galactic latitude.

  13. Quantum Dynamical Effects as a Singular Perturbation for Observables in Open Quasi-Classical Nonlinear Mesoscopic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gennady P. Berman; Fausto Borgonovi; Diego A. R. Dalvit

    2008-01-29

    We review our results on a mathematical dynamical theory for observables for open many-body quantum nonlinear bosonic systems for a very general class of Hamiltonians. We show that non-quadratic (nonlinear) terms in a Hamiltonian provide a singular "quantum" perturbation for observables in some "mesoscopic" region of parameters. In particular, quantum effects result in secular terms in the dynamical evolution, that grow in time. We argue that even for open quantum nonlinear systems in the deep quasi-classical region, these quantum effects can survive after decoherence and relaxation processes take place. We demonstrate that these quantum effects in open quantum systems can be observed, for example, in the frequency Fourier spectrum of the dynamical observables, or in the corresponding spectral density of noise. Estimates are presented for Bose-Einstein condensates, low temperature mechanical resonators, and nonlinear optical systems prepared in large amplitude coherent states. In particular, we show that for Bose-Einstein condensate systems the characteristic time of deviation of quantum dynamics for observables from the corresponding classical dynamics coincides with the characteristic time-scale of the well-known quantum nonlinear effect of phase diffusion.

  14. Weather induced effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carla Bleve; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2007-06-11

    The rate of events measured with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is found to be modulated by the weather conditions. This effect is due to the increasing amount of matter traversed by the shower as the ground pressure increases and to the inverse proportionality of the Moliere radius to the air density near ground. Air-shower simulations with different realistic profiles of the atmosphere support this interpretation of the observed effects.

  15. Self-Assembled Monolayers on Pt(111): Molecular Packing Structure and Strain Effects Observed by Scanning Tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Self-Assembled Monolayers on Pt(111): Molecular Packing Structure and Strain Effects Observed@uci.edu Abstract: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octanethiol and benzeneethanethiol were deposited on clean Pt° unit cell for the octanethiol SAMs and a 4( 3 × 3)R30° periodicity based on 2 × 2 basic molecular

  16. Observation of the Dynamic Beta Effect at Cornell ElectronPositron Storage Ring with the CLEO Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    , Champaign­Urbana, Illinois 61801 R. Janicek McGill University, Montr'eal, Qu'ebec, Canada H3A 2T8 observation of the effect. In a high energy colliding beam storage ring when two beams of oppositely charged

  17. Direct electrical observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-based two-dimensional electron gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, W.; Li, W.; Zhu, M.; Yue, Y.; Song, B.; Encomendero, J.; Xing, H.; Fay, P.; Sensale-Rodriguez, B.

    2014-10-27

    In this work, signatures of plasma waves in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors were observed by direct electrical measurement at room temperature. Periodic grating-gate device structures were fabricated and characterized by on-wafer G-band (140–220?GHz) s-parameter measurements as a function of gate bias voltage and device geometry. A physics-based equivalent circuit model was used to assist in interpreting the measured s-parameters. The kinetic inductance extracted from the measurement data matches well with theoretical predictions, consistent with direct observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-channel devices at room temperature. This observation of electrically significant room-temperature plasma-wave effects in GaN-channel devices may have implications for future millimeter-wave and THz device concepts and designs.

  18. Observation of the stabilizing effect of a laminated ablator on the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masse, L.; Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Huser, G.; Liberatore, S.; Theobald, M. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); CEA, DAM, VALDUC, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2011-05-15

    A laminated ablator is explored as an alternative concept for stabilizing the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability which develops in inertial fusion targets. Experiments measuring the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of laminated planar foils are reported. Consistent with both theory and simulations, a significant reduction of the perturbation growth is experimentally observed for laminated ablators in comparison to what is observed for classical uniform ablators. Such an enhanced hydrodynamic stability opens opportunities for the design of high-gain inertial fusion targets.

  19. Effects on UV line observations of stationary plasma flows confined in coronal loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    hosting a siphon flow as a diagnostic tool to interpret solar UV and X--ray observations in selected bands be different at the two footpoints and could drive a significant plasma flow (siphon flow) along the loop case, the detection of possible asymmetries may be the key to show or to exclude evidence of a siphon

  20. Human-Centered Systems Analysis of Aircraft Separation from Adverse Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence

    Adverse weather significantly impacts the safety and efficiency of flight operations. Weather information

  1. Observations of the frequency tuning effect in the 14 GHz CAPRICE ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Maimone, F.; Mascali, D.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Barbarino, S.; Catalano, R. S.

    2008-02-15

    A set of measurements with the CAPRICE ion source at the GSI test bench has been carried out to investigate its behavior in terms of intensity and shape of the extracted beam when the microwaves generating the plasma sweep in a narrow range of frequency ({+-}40 MHz) around the klystron center frequency (14.5 GHz). Remarkable variations have been observed depending on the source and the beamline operating parameters, confirming that a frequency dependent electromagnetic distribution is preserved even in the presence of plasma inside the source. Moreover, these observations confirm that the frequency tuning is a powerful method to optimize the electron cyclotron resonance ion source performances. A description of the experimental setup and of the obtained results is given in the following.

  2. Electroneutrality Breakdown and Specific Ion Effects in Nanoconfined Aqueous Electrolytes Observed by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhi-Xiang Luo; Yun-Zhao Xing; Yan-Chun Ling; Alfred Kleinhammes; Yue Wu

    2015-02-24

    Ion distribution in aqueous electrolytes near the interface plays critical roles in electrochemical, biological and colloidal systems and is expected to be particularly significant inside nanoconfined regions. Electroneutrality of the total charge inside nanoconfined regions is commonly assumed a priori in solving ion distribution of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined by uncharged hydrophobic surfaces with no direct experimental validation. Here, we use a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approach to investigate the properties of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined in graphitic-like nanoporous carbon. Substantial electroneutrality breakdown in nanoconfined regions and very asymmetric responses of cations and anions to the charging of nanoconfining surfaces are observed. The electroneutrality breakdown is shown to depend strongly on the propensity of anions toward the water-carbon interface and such ion-specific response follows generally the anion ranking of the Hofmeister series. The experimental observations are further supported by numerical evaluation using the generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation

  3. Hawking radiation as perceived by different observers: An analytic expression for the effective-temperature function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis C. Barbado; Carlos Barceló; Luis J. Garay

    2012-03-24

    Given a ?eld vacuum state in a black hole spacetime, this state can be analysed in terms of how it is perceived (in terms of particle content) by di?erent observers. This can be done by means of the e?ective-temperature function introduced by Barcel\\'o et al. in [1]. In Barbado et al. [2], this function was analysed in a case by case basis for a number of interesting situations. In this work, we ?nd a general analytic expression for the e?ective-temperature function which, apart from the vacuum state choice, depends on the position, the local velocity and the acceleration of the speci?c observer. We give a clear physical interpretation of the quantities appearing in the expression, and illustrate its potentiality with a few examples.

  4. Measurement of observables sensitive to coherence effects in hadronic Z decays with the OPAL detector at LEP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Nadine; Kluth, Stefan; Plätzer, Simon; Skands, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A study of QCD coherence is presented based on a sample of about 397000 $e^+e^-$ hadronic annihilation events collected at $\\sqrt{s}=91$ GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The study is based on four recently proposed observables that are sensitive to coherence effects in the perturbative regime. The measurement of these observables is presented, along with a comparison with the predictions of different parton shower models. The models include both conventional parton shower models and dipole antenna models. Different ordering variables are used to investigate their influence on the predictions.

  5. Temperature Profiles and the Effect of AGN on Submillimeter Emission from BLAST Observations of Resolved Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiebe, Donald V; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P

    2009-01-01

    Over the course of two flights, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) made resolved maps of seven nearby (<25 Mpc) galaxies at 250, 350, and 500 microns. During its June 2005 flight from Sweden (BLAST05), BLAST observed a single nearby galaxy, NGC 4565. During the December 2006 flight from Antarctica (BLAST06), BLAST observed the nearby galaxies NGC 1097, NGC 1291, NGC 1365, NGC 1512, NGC 1566, and NGC 1808. We fit physical dust models to a combination of BLAST observations and other available data for the the galaxies with Spitzer data. We fit a modified blackbody to the remaining galaxies to obtain total dust mass and mean dust temperature. For the four galaxies with Spitzer data, we also produce maps and radial profiles of dust column density and temperature. We measure the fraction of BLAST detected flux originating from the central cores of these galaxies and use this to calculate a "core fraction", an upper limit on the "AGN fraction" of submillimeter detected galaxies. Fin...

  6. Observation of noise correlated by the Hawking effect in a water tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. -P. Euvé; F. Michel; R. Parentani; T. G. Philbin; G. Rousseaux

    2015-12-16

    We measure the power spectrum and two-point correlation function for the fluctuating free surface on the downstream side of a stationary flow above an obstacle with high Froude number $F \\approx 0.85$. On such a flow the scattering of incident long wavelength modes is analogous to that responsible for black hole radiation (the Hawking effect). Our measurements of the correlations clearly indicate a steady conversion of incident modes into pairs of modes of opposite energies. We then use a wave maker to measure the scattering coefficients responsible for this effect.

  7. Observation of noise correlated by the Hawking effect in a water tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Euvé, L -P; Parentani, R; Philbin, T G; Rousseaux, G

    2015-01-01

    We measure the power spectrum and two-point correlation function for the fluctuating free surface on the downstream side of a stationary flow above an obstacle with high Froude number $F \\approx 0.85$. On such a flow the scattering of incident long wavelength modes is analogous to that responsible for black hole radiation (the Hawking effect). Our measurements of the correlations clearly indicate a steady conversion of incident modes into pairs of modes of opposite energies. We then use a wave maker to measure the scattering coefficients responsible for this effect.

  8. Observation of noise correlated by the Hawking effect in a water tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. -P. Euvé; F. Michel; R. Parentani; T. G. Philbin; G. Rousseaux

    2015-11-27

    We measure the power spectrum and two-point correlation function for the fluctuating free surface on the downstream side of a stationary flow above an obstacle with high Froude number $F \\approx 0.85$. On such a flow the scattering of incident long wavelength modes is analogous to that responsible for black hole radiation (the Hawking effect). Our measurements of the correlations clearly indicate a steady conversion of incident modes into pairs of modes of opposite energies. We then use a wave maker to measure the scattering coefficients responsible for this effect.

  9. ENTRAINMENT AND MIXING AND THEIR EFFECTS ON CLOUD DROPLET SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE STRATOCUMULUS CLOUDS OBSERVED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENTRAINMENT AND MIXING AND THEIR EFFECTS ON CLOUD DROPLET SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE STRATOCUMULUS clouds due to entrainment and mixing of the clear air, which then affect the cloud droplet size distribution. How the entrained clear air mixes with cloudy air has been of great interest for the last several

  10. Observations of the Pulsar PSR B1951+32 with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kildea; J. Zweerink; J. Ball; J. E. Carson; C. E. Covault; D. D. Driscoll; P. Fortin; D. M. Gingrich; D. S. Hanna; A. Jarvis; T. Lindner; C. Mueller; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; K. Ragan; D. A. Williams

    2007-10-25

    We present the analysis and results of 12.5 hours of high-energy gamma-ray observations of the EGRET-detected pulsar PSR B1951+32 using the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE). STACEE is an atmospheric Cherenkov detector, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, that detects cosmic gamma rays using the shower-front-sampling technique. STACEE's sensitivity to astrophysical sources at energies around 100 GeV allows it to investigate emission from gamma-ray pulsars with expected pulsed emission cutoffs below 100 GeV. We discuss the observations and analysis of STACEE's PSR 1951+32 data, accumulated during the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons.

  11. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design.

  12. Equatorial fountain effect and dynamo drift signatures from AE-E observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coley, W.R.; McClure, J.P.; Hanson, W.B. (Univ. of Texas, Richardson (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Vertical and horizontal ion drift velocities for 1977-1979 from the Unified Abstract files of the satellite Atmosphere Explorer E were used in preliminary studies of the behavior of the low-latitude ({minus}20{degree} to 20{degree} dip latitude) F region. Sample diurnal variations obtained during 1978-1979 equinox time periods are very similar to those measured by the incoherent scatter radar at Jicamarca, Peru. Latitude profiles of the vector drift values clearly show the classic fountain effect responsible for the Appleton anomaly during the day. Investigation of longitude effects revealed that the average perpendicular (approximately vertical) drift velocity V{sub perp} is independent of longitude, implying that the average east-west electric field is proportional to B and thus is likely derived from classical dynamo winds.

  13. Effect of neutron composition and excitation energy of primary fragments on isospin observables in multifragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Shetty; A. S. Botvina; S. J. Yennello; A. Keksis; E. Martin; G. A. Souliotis

    2004-01-12

    The isospin properties of primary and secondary fragments produced in multifragmentation of Fe + Ni and Fe + Fe systems with respect to Ni + Ni system are analyzed within the statistical multifragmentation model framework. The reduced neutron and proton densities show an asymmetry in the primary fragments, that is lessened after secondary decay. with increasing isospin (N/Z) this effect increases, while the sensitivity of fragment isospin towards excitation energy and N/Z of the primary fragments remains unchanged.

  14. Observation of localized states in atomically thin MoS{sub 2} field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatak, Subhamoy; Pal, Atindra Nath; Ghosh, Arindam

    2013-12-04

    We present electrical transport and low frequency (1/f) noise measurements on mechanically exfoliated single, bi and trilayer MoS{sub 2}-based FET devices on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate. We find that the electronic states in MoS{sub 2} are localized at low temperatures (T) and conduction happens through variable range hopping (VRH). A steep increase of 1/f noise with decreasing T, typical for localized regime was observed in all of our devices. From gate voltage dependence of noise, we find that the noise power is inversely proportional to square of the number density (? 1/n{sup 2}) for a wide range of T, indicating number density fluctuations to be the dominant source of 1/f noise in these MoS{sub 2} FETs.

  15. Observation and Nature of Non-statistical Dynamic Effects in Ordinary Organic Reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quijano, Larisa Mae Mangaliman 1984-

    2012-10-17

    .2%), 5.01 (?0.5%), 4.55 (?0.1%), 4.44 (t, ?0.2%), 3.59 (m, ?0.2%), 3.49 (d of d, ?0.4%), 3.39 (?0.3%), 2.77 (<0.1%), 2.52 (<0.1%), 2.16 (<0.1%), 2.01 (<0.1%), and 1.99 (<0.1%). At 500 MHz, 13C satellite peaks were observed at ? 8.29, 7.83, 5.02, 4... of the spectrum devoid of other peaks. The peaks at ? 4.44 and 3.49 were assigned to S4. These peaks exhibit an ABX pattern that was simulated with reasonable accuracy with JAX and JBX = 5.3 Hz, JAB = 12 Hz and a separation of the diastereotopic A and B peaks...

  16. Observable effects caused by vacuum pair creation in the field of high-power optical lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David B. Blaschke; Andrey V. Filatov; Irina A. Egorova; Alexander V. Prozorkevich; Stanislav A. Smolyansky

    2008-11-29

    We consider the possibility of an experimental proof of vacuum e+e- pair creation in the focus of two counter-propagating optical laser beams with an intensity of the order of 10^20 - 10^22 W/cm^2. Our approach is based on the collisionless kinetic equation for the distribution function of the e+e- pairs with the source term for particle production. As a possible experimental signal of vacuum pair production we consider the refraction of a high-frequency probe laser beam by the produced e+e- plasma to be observed by an interference filter. The generation of higher harmonics of the laser frequency in the self-consistent electric field is also investigated.

  17. In-orbit background of X-ray microcalorimeters and its effects on observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotti, S; Macculi, C; Mineo, T; Natalucci, L; Perinati, E; Piro, L; Federici, M; Martino, B

    2014-01-01

    Methods.There are no experimental data about the background experienced by microcalorimeters in the L2 orbit, and thus the particle background levels were calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations: we considered the original design configuration and an improved configuration aimed to reduce the unrejected background, and tested them in the L2 orbit and in the low Earth orbit, comparing the results with experimental data reported by other X-ray instruments.To show the results obtainable with the improved configuration we simulated the observation of a faint, high-redshift, point source (F[0.5-10 keV]~6.4E-16 erg cm-2 s-1, z=3.7), and of a hot galaxy cluster at R200 (Sb[0.5-2 keV]=8.61E-16 erg cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2,T=6.6 keV). Results.First we confirm that implementing an active cryogenic anticoincidence reduces the particle background by an order of magnitude and brings it close to the required level.The implementation and test of several design solutions can reduce the particle background level by a further ...

  18. Effect of experimentally observed hydrogenic fractionation on inertial confinement fusion ignition target performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenty, P. W.; Wittman, M. D.; Harding, D. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The need of cryogenic hydrogenic fuels in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition targets has been long been established. Efficient implosion of such targets has mandated keeping the adiabat of the main fuel layer at low levels to ensure drive energies are kept at reasonable minima. The use of cryogenic fuels helps meet this requirement and has therefore become the standard in most ICF ignition designs. To date most theoretical ICF ignition target designs have assumed a homogeneous layer of deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel kept slightly below the triple point. However, recent work has indicated that, as cryogenic fuel layers are formed inside an ICF capsule, isotopic dissociation of the tritium (T), deuterium (D), and DT takes place leading to a 'fractionation' of the final ice layer. This paper will numerically investigate the effects that various scenarios of fractionation have on hot-spot formation, ignition, and burn in ICF ignition target designs.

  19. Their Reputations Precede Them: The CEO Successor's Reputation and Shareholders' Assessment of Adverse Selection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trahms, Cheryl Ann

    2014-08-05

    has potential to enhance the market value of the firm (i.e., increase the share price). A CEO selection may have a significant effect on a firm’s performance (Mackey, 2008). The success of this CEO selection is predicated on the ability of the CEO... the costs to minimize information asymmetry and the potential costs of adverse selection. The choice of CEO can serve as a highly profitable or costly endeavor to the shareholders. Through the use of variance decomposition, Mackey (2008) re...

  20. High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oser, S; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schuette, D R; Theoret, C G; Tumer, T O; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a new ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype experiment which uses 32 heliostat mirrors with a total mirror area of ~ 1200\\unit{m^2} has been constructed. This prototype, called STACEE-32, was used to search for high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and Pulsar. Observations taken between November 1998 and February 1999 yield a strong statistical excess of gamma-like events from the Crab, with a significance of $+6.75\\sigma$ in 43 hours of on-source observing time. No evidence for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar was found, and the upper limit on the pulsed fraction of the observed excess was E_{th}) = (2.2 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{-10}\\unit{photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}}. The observed flux is in agreement with a continuation to lower energies of the power law spectrum seen at TeV energies...

  1. Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect observations of the bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) with APEX-SZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, N.W.; Lanting, T.; Ade, P.A.R.; Basu, K.; Bender, A.N.; Benson, B.A.; Bertoldi, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Chon, G.; Clarke, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ferrusca, D.; Gusten, R.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Kovacs, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kermish, Z.; Kneissl, R.; Lee, A.T.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K.M.; Muders, D.; Nord, M.; Pacaud, F.; Plagge, T.; Reichardt, C.; Richards, P.L.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Schuller, F.; Schwan, D.; Spieler, H.; Tucker, C.; Weiss, A.; Zahn, O.

    2008-07-25

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1'. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23 sigma significance within the central 1' radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical beta model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray derived prior on the power-law index, beta = 1.04+0.16-0.10, we find a core radius rc = 142" +- 18", an axial ratio of 0.889 +- 0.072, and a central temperature decrement of -771 +- 71 muKCMB, including a +-5.5percent flux calibration uncertainty. Combining the APEX-SZ map with a map of projected electron surface density from Chandra X-ray observations, we determine the mass-weighted temperature of the cluster gas to be Tmg = 10.8 +- 0.9 keV, significantly lower than some previously reported X-ray spectroscopic temperatures. Under the assumption of an isothermal cluster gas distribution in hydrostatic equilibrium, we compute the gas mass fraction for prolate and oblate spheroidal geometries and find it to be consistent with previous results from X-ray and weak-lensing observations. This work is the first result from the APEX-SZ experiment and represents the first reported scientific result from observations with a large array of multiplexed superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers.

  2. Exploring the effects of a double reconstruction on the geometrical parameters of coupled models, using observational data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solano, Freddy Cueva

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the effects of the non-gravitational exchange energy (Q) between dark matter (DM) fluid and dark energy (DE) fluid on the background evolution of the cosmological parameters. A varying equation of state (EOS) parameter, {\\omega}, for DE is proposed. Considering an universe spatially flat, two distinct coupled models were examined to explore the main cosmological effects generated by the simultaneous reconstruction of Q and {\\omega} on the shape of the jerk parameter, j, through a slight enhancement or suppression of their amplitudes with respect to noncoupled scenarios, during its evolution from the past to the near future. In consequence, j could be used to distinguish any coupled DE models. Otherwise, the observational data were used to put stringent constraints on Q and {\\omega}, respectively. In such a way, we used our results as evidences to search possible deviations from the standard concordance model ({\\Lambda}CDM), examining their predictions and improving our knowledge of the c...

  3. Human-centered systems analysis of aircraft separation from adverse weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Adverse weather significantly impacts the safety and efficiency of flight operations. Weather information plays a key role in mitigating the impact of adverse weather on flight operations by supporting air transportation ...

  4. The effects of structure anisotropy on lensing observables in an exact general relativistic setting for precision cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troxel, M. A.; Ishak, Mustapha; Peel, Austin, E-mail: troxel@utdallas.edu, E-mail: mishak@utdallas.edu, E-mail: austin.peel@utdallas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The study of relativistic, higher order, and nonlinear effects has become necessary in recent years in the pursuit of precision cosmology. We develop and apply here a framework to study gravitational lensing in exact models in general relativity that are not restricted to homogeneity and isotropy, and where full nonlinearity and relativistic effects are thus naturally included. We apply the framework to a specific, anisotropic galaxy cluster model which is based on a modified NFW halo density profile and described by the Szekeres metric. We examine the effects of increasing levels of anisotropy in the galaxy cluster on lensing observables like the convergence and shear for various lensing geometries, finding a strong nonlinear response in both the convergence and shear for rays passing through anisotropic regions of the cluster. Deviation from the expected values in a spherically symmetric structure are asymmetric with respect to path direction and thus will persist as a statistical effect when averaged over some ensemble of such clusters. The resulting relative difference in various geometries can be as large as approximately 2%, 8%, and 24% in the measure of convergence (1??) for levels of anisotropy of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, as a fraction of total cluster mass. For the total magnitude of shear, the relative difference can grow near the center of the structure to be as large as 15%, 32%, and 44% for the same levels of anisotropy, averaged over the two extreme geometries. The convergence is impacted most strongly for rays which pass in directions along the axis of maximum dipole anisotropy in the structure, while the shear is most strongly impacted for rays which pass in directions orthogonal to this axis, as expected. The rich features found in the lensing signal due to anisotropic substructure are nearly entirely lost when one treats the cluster in the traditional FLRW lensing framework. These effects due to anisotropic structures are thus likely to impact lensing measurements and must be fully examined in an era of precision cosmology.

  5. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Observations of the Bullet Cluster (1E 0657-56) with APEX-SZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. W. Halverson; T. Lanting; P. A. R. Ade; K. Basu; A. N. Bender; B. A. Benson; F. Bertoldi; H. -M. Cho; G. Chon; J. Clarke; M. Dobbs; D. Ferrusca; R. Guesten; W. L. Holzapfel; A. Kovacs; J. Kennedy; Z. Kermish; R. Kneissl; A. T. Lee; M. Lueker; J. Mehl; K. M. Menten; D. Muders; M. Nord; F. Pacaud; T. Plagge; C. Reichardt; P. L. Richards; R. Schaaf; P. Schilke; F. Schuller; D. Schwan; H. Spieler; C. Tucker; A. Weiss; O. Zahn

    2009-06-06

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657--56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1 arcmin. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23 sigma significance within the central 1 arcmin radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical beta model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray derived prior on the power-law index, beta = 1.04 +0.16 -0.10, we find a core radius r_c =142 +/- 18 arcsec, an axial ratio of 0.889 +/- 0.072, and a central temperature decrement of -771 +/- 71 micro-K_CMB, including a +/-5.5% flux calibration uncertainty. Combining the APEX-SZ map with a map of projected electron surface density from Chandra X-ray observations, we determine the mass-weighted temperature of the cluster gas to be T_mg=10.8 +/- 0.9 keV, significantly lower than some previously reported X-ray spectroscopic temperatures. Under the assumption of an isothermal cluster gas distribution in hydrostatic equilibrium, we compute the gas mass fraction for prolate and oblate spheroidal geometries and find it to be consistent with previous results from X-ray and weak lensing observations. This work is the first result from the APEX-SZ experiment, and represents the first reported scientific result from observations with a large array of multiplexed superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers.

  6. Search for effects beyond the Born approximation in polarization transfer observables in $\\vec{e}p$ elastic scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Meziane; E. J. Brash; R. Gilman; M. K. Jones; W. Luo; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; A. J. R. Puckett; V. Punjabi; F. R. Wesselmann; A. Ahmidouch; I. Albayrak; K. A. Aniol; J. Arrington; A. Asaturyan; O. Ates; H. Baghdasaryan; F. Benmokhtar; W. Bertozzi; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; W. Boeglin; C. Butuceanu; P. Carter; S. Chernenko; E. Christy; M. Commisso; J. C. Cornejo; S. Covrig; S. Danagoulian; A. Daniel; A. Davidenko; D. Day; S. Dhamija; D. Dutta; R. Ent; S. Frullani; H. Fenker; E. Frlez; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; S. Gilad; Y. Goncharenko; K. Hafidi; D. Hamilton; D. W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; B. Hu; J. Huang; G. M. Huber; E. Jensen; H. Kang; C. Keppel; M. Khandaker; P. King; D. Kirillov; M. Kohl; V. Kravtsov; G. Kumbartzki; Y. Li; V. Mamyan; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; A. Marsh; Y. Matulenko; J. Maxwell; G. Mbianda; D. Meekins; Y. Melnik; J. Miller; A. Mkrtchyan; H. Mkrtchyan; B. Moffit; O. Moreno; J. Mulholland; A. Narayan; Nuruzzaman; S. Nedev; E. Piasetzky; W. Pierce; N. M. Piskunov; Y. Prok; R. D. Ransome; D. S. Razin; P. E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; O. Rondon; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; K. Shestermanov; S. Sirca; I. Sitnik; L. Smykov; G. Smith; L. Solovyev; P. Solvignon; R. Subedi; R. Suleiman; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson; A. Vasiliev; M. Vanderhaeghen; M. Veilleux; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; S. Wood; Z. Ye; Y. Zanevsky; X. Zhang; Y. Zhang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2011-02-28

    Intensive theoretical and experimental efforts over the past decade have aimed at explaining the discrepancy between data for the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio, $G_{E}/G_{M}$, obtained separately from cross section and polarization transfer measurements. One possible explanation for this difference is a two-photon-exchange (TPEX) contribution. In an effort to search for effects beyond the one-photon-exchange or Born approximation, we report measurements of polarization transfer observables in the elastic $H(\\vec{e},e'\\vec{p})$ reaction for three different beam energies at a fixed squared momentum transfer $Q^2 = 2.5$ GeV$^2$, spanning a wide range of the virtual photon polarization parameter, $\\epsilon$. From these measured polarization observables, we have obtained separately the ratio $R$, which equals $\\mu_p G_{E}/G_{M}$ in the Born approximation, and the longitudinal polarization transfer component $P_\\ell$, with statistical and systematic uncertainties of $\\Delta R \\approx \\pm 0.01 \\mbox{(stat)} \\pm 0.013 \\mbox{(syst)}$ and $\\Delta P_\\ell/P^{Born}_{\\ell} \\approx \\pm 0.006 \\mbox{(stat)}\\pm 0.01 \\mbox{(syst)}$. The ratio $R$ is found to be independent of $\\epsilon$ at the 1.5% level, while the $\\epsilon$ dependence of $P_\\ell$ shows an enhancement of $(2.3 \\pm 0.6) %$ relative to the Born approximation at large $\\epsilon$.

  7. Exploring the effects of a double reconstruction on the geometrical parameters of coupled models, using observational data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freddy Cueva Solano

    2015-04-19

    In this work we study the effects of the non-gravitational exchange energy (Q) between dark matter (DM) fluid and dark energy (DE) fluid on the background evolution of the cosmological parameters. A varying equation of state (EOS) parameter, {\\omega}, for DE is proposed. Considering an universe spatially flat, two distinct coupled models were examined to explore the main cosmological effects generated by the simultaneous reconstruction of Q and {\\omega} on the shape of the jerk parameter, j, through a slight enhancement or suppression of their amplitudes with respect to noncoupled scenarios, during its evolution from the past to the near future. In consequence, j could be used to distinguish any coupled DE models. Otherwise, the observational data were used to put stringent constraints on Q and {\\omega}, respectively. In such a way, we used our results as evidences to search possible deviations from the standard concordance model ({\\Lambda}CDM), examining their predictions and improving our knowledge of the cosmic evolution of the universe.

  8. The validation of an invitro colonic motility assay as a biomarker for gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keating, Christopher, E-mail: C.Keating@sheffield.ac.u [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Martinez, Vicente; Ewart, Lorna [Department of Safety Pharmacology, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park (United Kingdom); Gibbons, Stephen; Grundy, Luke [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Valentin, Jean-Pierre [Department of Safety Pharmacology, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park (United Kingdom); Grundy, David [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Motility-related gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions (GADRs), such as constipation and diarrhea, are some of the most frequently reported adverse events associated with the clinical development of new chemical entities, and for marketed drugs. However, biomarkers capable of detecting such GADRs are lacking. Here, we describe an in vitro assay developed to detect and quantify changes in intestinal motility as a surrogate biomarker for constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. In vitro recordings of intraluminal pressure were used to monitor the presence of colonic peristaltic motor complexes (CPMCs) in mouse colonic segments. CPMC frequency, contractile and total mechanical activity were assessed. To validate the assay, two experimental protocols were conducted. Initially, five drugs with known gastrointestinal effects were tested to determine optimal parameters describing excitation and inhibition as markers for disturbances in colonic motility. This was followed by a 'blinded' evaluation of nine drugs associated with or without clinically identified constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. Concentration-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the effects were compared with their maximal free therapeutic plasma concentration in humans. The assay detected stimulatory and inhibitory responses, likely correlating to the occurrence of diarrhea or constipation. Concentration-related effects were identified and potential mechanisms of action were inferred for several drugs. Based on the results from the fourteen drugs assessed, the sensitivity of the assay was calculated at 90%, with a specificity of 75% and predictive capacity of 86%. These results support the potential use of this assay in screening for motility-related GADRs during early discovery phase, safety pharmacology assessment.

  9. A Multiband Generalization of the Analysis of Variance Period Estimation Algorithm and the Effect of Inter-band Observing Cadence on Period Recovery Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mondrik, Nicholas; Marshall, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method of extending the single band Analysis of Variance period estimation algorithm to multiple bands. We use SDSS Stripe 82 RR Lyrae to show that in the case of low number of observations per band and non-simultaneous observations, improvements in period recovery rates of up to $\\approx$60\\% are observed. We also investigate the effect of inter-band observing cadence on period recovery rates. We find that using non-simultaneous observation times between bands is ideal for the multiband method, and using simultaneous multiband data is only marginally better than using single band data. These results will be particularly useful in planning observing cadences for wide-field astronomical imaging surveys such as LSST. They also have the potential to improve the extraction of transient data from surveys with few ($\\lesssim 30$) observations per band across several bands, such as the Dark Energy Survey.

  10. Fast-Ion Deuterium Alpha spectroscopic observations of the effects of fishbones in the Mega-Amp\\`ere Spherical Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, O M; McClements, K G; Conway, N J; Crowley, B; Akers, R J; Lake, R J; Pinches, S D

    2013-01-01

    Using the recently-installed Fast-Ion Deuterium Alpha (FIDA) spectrometer, the effects of low-frequency (20-50 kHz) chirping energetic particle modes with toroidal mode number n \\geq 1 on the fast-ion population in MAST plasmas are considered. Results from the FIDA diagnostic are presented and discussed in the light of the present theoretical understanding of these modes, known as fishbones, in plasmas with reversed shear. Measurements of the fast-ion population reveal losses of fast ions as well as strong redistribution in both real and velocity space as a result of the fishbones. Time-resolved measurements throughout the evolution of a fishbone show radial redistribution of fast ions with energies up to 95% of the primary beam injection energy. Correlations between fast-ion losses and the peak time derivative of the magnetic field perturbation are observed in a limited range of operating scenarios. The transient reduction in signal caused by a fishbone may in some cases reach 50% of the signal intensity bef...

  11. The effect of a radial electric field on ripple-trapped ions observed by neutral particle fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heikkinen, J.A. [VTT Energy, Euratom-TEKES Association, P.O. Box 1604, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland)] [VTT Energy, Euratom-TEKES Association, P.O. Box 1604, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Herrmann, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik--EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik--EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kurki-Suonio, T. [Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Euratom-TEKES Association, FIN-02150 Espoo (Finland)] [Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Euratom-TEKES Association, FIN-02150 Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of a radial electric field on nonthermal ripple-trapped ions is investigated using toroidal Monte Carlo simulations for edge tokamak plasmas. The increase in the neutral particle flux from the ions trapped in local magnetic wells observed by the charge exchange (CX) detector at a low confinement to high confinement transition at ASDEX (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment). Upgrade tokamak [{ital Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics}, Lisbon (European Physical Society, Petit-Lancy, Switzerland, 1993), Vol. 17C, Part I, p. 267] is reproduced in the simulations by turning on a radial electric field near the plasma periphery. The poloidal and toroidal angles at which the CX detector signal is most sensitive to the radial electric field are determined. A fast response time of the signal in the range of 50{endash}100 {mu}s to the appearance of the electric field can be found in the simulations with a relatively large half-width of the negative electric field region. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. A SNPshot of PubMed to associate genetic variants with drugs, diseases, and adverse reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baral, Chitta

    A SNPshot of PubMed to associate genetic variants with drugs, diseases, and adverse reactions Jörg, drug efficacy, and drug responses between individuals and sub-populations. Wrong dosages of drugs can lead to severe adverse drug reac- tions in individuals whose drug metabolism drastically differs from

  13. Using Microfluidics to Observe the Effect of Mixing on Nucleation of Protein Delai L. Chen, Cory J. Gerdts, and Rustem F. Ismagilov*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Using Microfluidics to Observe the Effect of Mixing on Nucleation of Protein Crystals Delai L. Chen and labor required presents another barrier. Here we show that a plug-based microfluidic system6 is suitable in single-phase microfluidic devices.9 The use of two-phase flows in plugs is attractive because it can

  14. Cloud Effects on Radiative Heating Rate Profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train Radar/Lidar Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2013-06-11

    Observations of clouds from the ground-based U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) and satellite-based A-train are used to compute cloud radiative forcing profiles over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. Cloud properties are obtained from both radar (the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) and the CloudSat satellite in the A-train) and lidar (the ARM Micropulse lidar (MPL) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite in the A-train) observations. Cloud microphysical properties are taken from combined radar and lidar retrievals for ice clouds and radar only or lidar only retrievals for liquid clouds. Large, statistically significant differences of up to 1.43 K/day exist between the mean ARM and A-train net cloud radiative forcing profiles. The majority of the difference in cloud radiative forcing profiles is shown to be due to a large difference in the cloud fraction above 12 km. Above this altitude the A-train cloud fraction is significantly larger because more clouds are detected by CALIPSO than by the ground-based MPL. It is shown that the MPL is unable to observe as many high clouds as CALIPSO due to being more frequently attenuated and a poorer sensitivity even in otherwise clear-sky conditions. After accounting for cloud fraction differences and instrument sampling differences due to viewing platform we determined that differences in cloud radiative forcing due to the retrieved ice cloud properties is relatively small. This study demonstrates that A-train observations are better suited for the calculation cloud radiative forcing profiles. In addition, we find that it is necessary to supplement CloudSat with CALIPSO observations to obtain accurate cloud radiative forcing profiles since a large portion of clouds at Darwin are detected by CALIPSO only.

  15. Observation of interference effects via four photon excitation of highly excited Rydberg states in thermal cesium vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondo, Jorge M; Guttridge, Alex; Wade, Christopher G; De Melo, Natalia R; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    We report on the observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) and Absorption (EIA) of highly-excited Rydberg states in thermal Cs vapor using a 4-step excitation scheme. The advantage of this 4-step scheme is that the final transition to the Rydberg state has a large dipole moment and one can achieve similar Rabi frequencies to 2 or 3 step excitation schemes using two orders of magnitude less laser power. Consequently each step is driven by a relatively low power infra-red diode laser opening up the prospect for new applications. The observed lineshapes are in good agreement with simulations based on multilevel optical Bloch equations.

  16. NEWS & VIEWS NATURE|Vol 438|10 November 2005 analogue of an effect observed by Edwin H.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckling, Angus

    ) is obeyed by electrons in a semiconductor. c, The energy­momentum relation of electrons in graphene is quite Novoselov et al.2 and Zhang et al.3 observed quantized steps in the Hall resistance of graphene -- a result px a b c Figure 1 | Slim, strong and a live wire. a, The honeycomb lattice pattern of graphene

  17. Edinburgh Research Explorer Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse reactions and costs. 2014 #12;Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse

  18. Video Games and Aggression: the effects of violent game play on self-reported and peer-observed anger 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Andrew R

    2009-01-01

    The continued upsurge in the popularity of video games has lead to persistent debate over the effects of play, particularly the use of violent video games. The present experimental study aimed to replicate the results of ...

  19. Observables on Quantum Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anatolij Dvure?enskij; Mária Kuková

    2012-04-29

    An observable on a quantum structure is any $\\sigma$-homomorphism of quantum structures from the Borel $\\sigma$-algebra into the quantum structure. We show that our partial information on an observable known only for all intervals of the form $(-\\infty,t)$ is sufficient to determine uniquely the whole observable defined on quantum structures like $\\sigma$-MV-algebras, $\\sigma$-effect algebras, Boolean $\\sigma$-algebras, monotone $\\sigma$-complete effect algebras with the Riesz Decomposition Property, the effect algebra of effect operators of a Hilbert space, and a system of functions, and an effect-tribe.

  20. Strategies for mitigating adverse environmental impacts due to structural building materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaturvedi, Swati, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis assesses the problem of adverse environmental impacts due to the use of Portland cement and structural steel in the construction industry. The thesis outlines three technology and policy strategies to mitigate ...

  1. A University's Resilience in the Face of Adversity September 2010 Earthquake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    A University's Resilience in the Face of Adversity The 4th September 2010 Earthquake Shakenbutnot.................................................................................................................. 7 2 The September 4th Earthquake ....................................................................... 10 3.2 Prior Understanding of the Earthquake Risk

  2. Observation of memory effect in germanium nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon oxide matrix of a metalinsulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at the silicon­tunnel oxide interface, forming trap sites that can degrade device performance. Recently, we. The memory effect was manifested by the hysteresis in the C­V curve. Transmission electron microscope and C electronics and embedded systems has resulted in a need for low-power high-density nonvolatile memories

  3. Observation of negative-frequency waves in a water tank: A classical analogue to the Hawking effect?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Germain Rousseaux; Christian Mathis; Philippe Maissa; Thomas G. Philbin; Ulf Leonhardt

    2008-03-01

    The conversion of positive-frequency waves into negative-frequency waves at the event horizon is the mechanism at the heart of the Hawking radiation of black holes. In black-hole analogues, horizons are formed for waves propagating in a medium against the current when and where the flow exceeds the wave velocity. We report on the first direct observation of negative-frequency waves converted from positive-frequency waves in a moving medium. The measured degree of mode conversion is significantly higher than expected from theory.

  4. Procedures for Interagency Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate Adverse

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudget | Department Primus PowerEffects on Rivers in the

  5. Direct observation of the effective bending moduli of a fluid membrane: Free-energy cost due to the reference-plane deformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshihiro Nishiyama

    2003-07-10

    Effective bending moduli of a fluid membrane are investigated by means of the transfer-matrix method developed in our preceding paper. This method allows us to survey various statistical measures for the partition sum. The role of the statistical measures is arousing much attention, since Pinnow and Helfrich claimed that under a suitable statistical measure, that is, the local mean curvature, the fluid membranes are stiffened, rather than softened, by thermal undulations. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to observe the effective bending moduli directly: We subjected a fluid membrane to a curved reference plane, and from the free-energy cost due to the reference-plane deformations, we read off the effective bending moduli. Accepting the mean-curvature measure, we found that the effective bending rigidity gains even in the case of very flexible membrane (small bare rigidity); it has been rather controversial that for such non-perturbative regime, the analytical prediction does apply. We also incorporate the Gaussian-curvature modulus, and calculated its effective rigidity. Thereby, we found that the effective Gaussian-curvature modulus stays almost scale-invariant. All these features are contrasted with the results under the normal-displacement measure.

  6. Simulating the Compton-Getting effect for hydrogen flux measurements: Implications for IBEX-Hi and -Lo observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX), launched in 2008 October, has improved our understanding of the solar wind-local interstellar medium interaction through its detection of neutral atoms, particularly that of hydrogen (H). IBEX is able to create full maps of the sky in six-month intervals as the Earth orbits the Sun, detecting H with energies between ?0.01 and 6 keV. Due to the relative motion of IBEX to the solar inertial frame, measurements made in the spacecraft frame introduce a Compton-Getting (CG) effect, complicating measurements at the lowest energies. In this paper we provide results from a numerical simulation that calculates fluxes of H atoms at 1 AU in the inertial and spacecraft frames (both ram and anti-ram), at energies relevant to IBEX-Hi and -Lo. We show theory behind the numerical simulations, applying a simple frame transformation to derived flux equations that provides a straightforward way to simulate fluxes in the spacecraft frame. We then show results of H energetic neutral atom fluxes simulated at IBEX-Hi energy passbands 2-6 in all frames, comparing with IBEX-Hi data along selected directions, and also show results simulated at energies relevant to IBEX-Lo. Although simulations at IBEX-Hi energies agree reasonably well with the CG correction method used for IBEX-Hi data, we demonstrate the importance of properly modeling low energy H fluxes due to inherent complexities involved with measurements made in moving frames, as well as dynamic radiation pressure effects close to the Sun.

  7. Partial Observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Marlow

    2006-10-20

    We attempt to dissolve the measurement problem using an anthropic principle which allows us to invoke rational observers. We argue that the key feature of such observers is that they are rational (we need not care whether they are `classical' or `macroscopic' for example) and thus, since quantum theory can be expressed as a rational theory of probabilistic inference, the measurement problem is not a problem.

  8. A Systematic Review of Adverse Effects Associated with Topical Treatments for Psoriasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruner, Christine R. MD; Feldman, Steven R. MD PhD; Ventrapragada, Madhuri BS; Fleischer, Alan B. Jr MD

    2003-01-01

    Topical Treatments for Psoriasis Christine R. Bruner, MD,Abstract Mild to moderate psoriasis is a disease that canwith different topical psoriasis treatments. A review of

  9. Observation of the inverse spin Hall effect in ZnO thin films: An all-electrical approach to spin injection and detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prestgard, Megan C.; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-03-24

    The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) is a newly discovered, quantum mechanical phenomenon where an applied spin current results in the generation of an electrical voltage in the transverse direction. It is anticipated that the ISHE can provide a more simple way of measuring spin currents in spintronic devices. The ISHE was first observed in noble metals that exhibit strong spin-orbit coupling. However, recently, the ISHE has been detected in conventional semiconductors (such as Si and Ge), which possess weak spin-orbit coupling. This suggests that large-spin orbit coupling is not a requirement for observing the ISHE. In this paper, we are reporting the observation of the ISHE in an alternative semiconductor material, zinc oxide (ZnO) using all-electrical means. In our study, we found that when a spin-polarized current is injected into the ZnO film from a NiFe ferromagnetic injector via an MgO tunnel barrier layer, a voltage transverse to both the direction of the current as well as its spin-polarization is generated in the ZnO layer. The polarity of this voltage signal was found to flip on reversing the direction of the injected current as well as on reversing the polarization of the current, consistent with the predictions of the ISHE process. Through careful analysis of the ISHE data, we determined a spin-Hall angle of approximately 1.651 × 10{sup ?2} for ZnO, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that of silicon. Observation of a detectable room-temperature ISHE signal in ZnO via electrical injection and detection is a groundbreaking step that opens a path towards achieving transparent spin detectors for next-generation spintronic device technology.

  10. Elimination of Adverse Leakage Flow in a Miniature Pediatric Centrifugal Blood Pump by Computational Fluid Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paden, Brad

    Elimination of Adverse Leakage Flow in a Miniature Pediatric Centrifugal Blood Pump levitated centrifugal blood pump intended to deliver 0.3­1.5 l/min of support to neo- nates and infants by centrifugal force to flow radially outwards toward the outlet of the impeller against an unfavorable pressure

  11. Large-scale prediction of adverse drug reactions using chemical, biological, and phenotypic properties of drugs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mei; Wu, Yonghui; Chen, Yukun; Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming; Chen, Xue-wen; Matheny, Michael Edwin; Xu, Hua

    2012-06-19

    Abstract Objective Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is one of the major causes of failure in drug development. Severe ADRs that go undetected until the post-marketing phase of a drug often lead to patient morbidity. Accurate prediction of potential ADRs...

  12. Adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veterans: The feasibility of epidemiologic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This is an outstanding report from a distinguished academy committee, which in 71 pages of text provides the scientific basis for the carefully crafted 8-page executive summary. The principles and issues of the required epidemiological study are presented calmly and concisely, as are the ensuing short chapters on radiation biology, genetics and risk estimation, and all other adverse reproductive outcomes. The committee was mandated by Congress to determine the feasibility, cost and duration of a study on adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veteran. The committee found that a scientifically adequate and epidemiologically valid study could not be mounted and the cost would be tens of millions of dollars lasting a decade. The Committee presents a number of well-discussed approaches in support of their position.

  13. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Events on Temporal Summation of Second Pain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, Dokyoung Sophia

    2012-10-19

    ACE Adverse Childhood Experience AUC Area Under the Curve BNST Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale ETISR-SR Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form FPQ Fear of Pain... indicates more negative affect. The scale was administered to measure affect at the moment of the experiment. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is widely used to assess depressive symptomatology during the past week.95...

  14. Synthesis of Remote Sensing and Field Observations to Model and Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of Oregon & Northern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly Law; David Turner; Warren Cohen; Mathias Goeckede

    2008-05-22

    The goal is to quantify and explain the carbon (C) budget for Oregon and N. California. The research compares "bottom -up" and "top-down" methods, and develops prototype analytical systems for regional analysis of the carbon balance that are potentially applicable to other continental regions, and that can be used to explore climate, disturbance and land-use effects on the carbon cycle. Objectives are: 1) Improve, test and apply a bottom up approach that synthesizes a spatially nested hierarchy of observations (multispectral remote sensing, inventories, flux and extensive sites), and the Biome-BGC model to quantify the C balance across the region; 2) Improve, test and apply a top down approach for regional and global C flux modeling that uses a model-data fusion scheme (MODIS products, AmeriFlux, atmospheric CO2 concentration network), and a boundary layer model to estimate net ecosystem production (NEP) across the region and partition it among GPP, R(a) and R(h). 3) Provide critical understanding of the controls on regional C balance (how NEP and carbon stocks are influenced by disturbance from fire and management, land use, and interannual climate variation). The key science questions are, "What are the magnitudes and distributions of C sources and sinks on seasonal to decadal time scales, and what processes are controlling their dynamics? What are regional spatial and temporal variations of C sources and sinks? What are the errors and uncertainties in the data products and results (i.e., in situ observations, remote sensing, models)?

  15. Assessment of the Effect of Air Pollution Controls on Trends in Shortwave Radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from Multiple Observation Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Chuen-Meei; Pleim, Jonathan; Mathur, Rohit; Hogrefe, Christian; Long, Charles N.; Xing, Jia; Roselle, Shawn; Wei, Chao

    2014-02-14

    Long term datasets of total (all-sky) and clear-sky downwelling shortwave (SW) radiation, cloud cover fraction (cloudiness) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are analyzed together with aerosol concentration from several networks (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) in the United States (US). Seven states with varying climatology are selected to better understand the effect of aerosols and clouds on SW radiation. This analysis aims to test the hypothesis that the reductions in anthropogenic aerosol burden resulting from substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides over the past 15 years across the US has caused an increase in surface SW radiation. We show that the total and clear-sky downwelling SW radiation from seven sites have increasing trends except Penn State which shows no tendency in clear-sky SW radiation. After investigating several confounding factors, the causes can be due to the geography of the site, aerosol distribution, heavy air traffic and increasing cloudiness. Moreover, we assess the relationship between total column AOD with surface aerosol concentration to test our hypothesis. In our findings, the trends of clear-sky SW radiation, AOD, and aerosol concentration from the sites in eastern US agree well with our hypothesis. However, the sites in western US demonstrate increasing AOD associated with mostly increasing trends in surface aerosol concentration. At these sites, the changes in aerosol burden and/or direct aerosol effects alone cannot explain the observed changes in SW radiation, but other factors need to be considered such as cloudiness, aerosol vertical profiles and elevated plumes.

  16. The role of the (111) texture on the exchange bias and interlayer coupling effects observed in sputtered NiFe/IrMn/Co trilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, I. L.; Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Takeuchi, A. Y.; Larica, C.; Tafur, M.; Pelegrini, F.

    2013-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered NiFe/IrMn/Co trilayers grown on different seed layers (Cu or Ta) deposited on Si (100) substrates were investigated by magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance measurements. Exchange bias effect and magnetic spring behavior have been studied by changing the IrMn thickness. As shown by X-ray diffraction, Ta and Cu seed layers provoke different degrees of (111) fcc-texture that directly affect the exchange bias and indirectly modify the exchange spring coupling behavior. Increasing the IrMn thickness, it was observed that the coupling angle between the Co and NiFe ferromagnetic layers increases for the Cu seed system, but it reduces for the Ta case. The results were explained considering (i) different anisotropies of the Co and IrMn layers induced by the different degree of the (111) texture and (ii) the distinct exchange bias set at the NiFe/IrMn and IrMn/Co interfaces in both systems. The NiFe and Co interlayer coupling angle is strongly correlated with both exchange bias and exchange magnetic spring phenomena. It was also shown that the highest exchange bias field occurs when an unstressed L1{sub 2} IrMn structure is stabilized.

  17. Spin transfer switching in current-perpendicular-to-plane spin valve observed by magneto-optical Kerr effect using visible light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otani, Yoshichika

    Spin transfer switching in current-perpendicular-to-plane spin valve observed by magneto-perpendicular-to-plane spin-valve device. The device consists of three spin-valve elements, each of which comprises-perpendicular-to- plane CPP spin-valve device has been directly observed by using a time resolved x-ray microscopy7 while

  18. Collective flow effects on charge balance correlations and local parity-violation observables in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Hori; T. Gunji; H. Hamagaki; S. Schlichting

    2012-08-02

    We study the effects of collective flow on charge dependent azimuthal correlations at LHC energies. We propose a series of correlations as a signature of the combined effects of azimuthal collective flow and local charge conservation and perform an analysis within a statistical freeze-out model. We find that present LHC measurements of charge dependent azimuthal correlations are consistent with local charge conservation on the kinetic freeze-out surface. In view of experimental searches for signatures of the chiral-magnetic effect, we provide an alternative explanation of the charge dependence of the observed signal and propose additional measurements to disentangle the effects.

  19. A review of helium-hydrogen synergistic effects in radiation damage observed in fusion energy steels and an interaction model to guide future understanding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marian, J; Marian, J; Hoang, T; Hoang, T; Fluss, M; Hsiung, LL

    2015-01-01

    of the 24th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, San Diego, USA,127–147. DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, Washington,damage observed in fusion energy steels and an interaction

  20. Quantifying the Impact of Adverse Events on the Electricity Grid as a Function of Grid Topology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Garill A.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Du, Pengwei

    2011-11-30

    Abstract--Traditional approaches to the study of grid vulnerability have taken an asset based approach, which seeks to identify those assets most likely to result in grid-wide failures or disruptions in the event that they are compromised. We propose an alternative approach to the study of grid vulnerability, one based on the topological structure of the entire grid. We propose a method that will identify topological parameters most closely related to the ability of the grid to withstand an adverse event. We compare these topological parameters in terms of their impact on the vulnerability metric we have defined, referred to as the grid’s “survivability”. Our approach is motivated by Paul Baran’s work on communications networks, which also studied vulnerability in terms of network-wide parameters. Our approach is useful both as a planning model for evaluating proposed changes to a grid and as a risk assessment tool.

  1. Correlation of Clinical and Dosimetric Factors With Adverse Pulmonary Outcomes in Children After Lung Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Kamath, Sunil; Wong, Kenneth; Malvar, Jemily; Sposto, Richard; Goodarzian, Fariba; Freyer, David R.; Keens, Thomas G.; and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To identify the incidence and the risk factors for pulmonary toxicity in children treated for cancer with contemporary lung irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed clinical features, radiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and dosimetric parameters of children receiving irradiation to the lung fields over a 10-year period. Results: We identified 109 patients (75 male patients). The median age at irradiation was 13.8 years (range, 0.04-20.9 years). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years. The median prescribed radiation dose was 21 Gy (range, 0.4-64.8 Gy). Pulmonary toxic chemotherapy included bleomycin in 58.7% of patients and cyclophosphamide in 83.5%. The following pulmonary outcomes were identified and the 5-year cumulative incidence after irradiation was determined: pneumonitis, 6%; chronic cough, 10%; pneumonia, 35%; dyspnea, 11%; supplemental oxygen requirement, 2%; radiographic interstitial lung disease, 40%; and chest wall deformity, 12%. One patient died of progressive respiratory failure. Post-irradiation pulmonary function tests available from 44 patients showed evidence of obstructive lung disease (25%), restrictive disease (11%), hyperinflation (32%), and abnormal diffusion capacity (12%). Thoracic surgery, bleomycin, age, mean lung irradiation dose (MLD), maximum lung dose, prescribed dose, and dosimetric parameters between V{sub 22} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ?22 Gy) and V{sub 30} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ?30 Gy) were significant for the development of adverse pulmonary outcomes on univariate analysis. MLD, maximum lung dose, and V{sub dose} (percentage of volume of lung receiving the threshold dose or greater) were highly correlated. On multivariate analysis, MLD was the sole significant predictor of adverse pulmonary outcome (P=.01). Conclusions: Significant pulmonary dysfunction occurs in children receiving lung irradiation by contemporary techniques. MLD rather than prescribed dose should be used to perform risk stratification of patients receiving lung irradiation.

  2. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 4 P HY S I CA L REV I E W L E T T ER S 23 JULY 2001 Observation of the Quantum Zeno and AntiZeno Effects in an Unstable System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in an unstable system. Cold sodium atoms are trapped in a far­detuned standing wave of light that is accelerated measurement­induced suppression of the dy­ namics of a two­state driven system has been observed [15 Zeno and Anti­Zeno Effects in an Unstable System M.C. Fischer, B. Gutiérrez­Medina, and M.G. Raizen

  3. The effect of task structure, practice schedule, and model type on the learning of relative and absolute timing by physical and observational practice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Charles Beyer

    2004-11-15

    Three experiments compared learning of relative and absolute timing of a sequential key-pressing task by physical and observational practice. Experiment 1 compared a task with a complex internal structure (goal proportions of 22.2, 44.4, 33...

  4. Loop quantum gravity and observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Barrau; J. Grain

    2015-10-28

    Quantum gravity has long been thought to be completely decoupled from experiments or observations. Although it is true that smoking guns are still missing, there are now serious hopes that quantum gravity phenomena might be tested. We review here some possible ways to observe loop quantum gravity effects either in the framework of cosmology or in astroparticle physics.

  5. Observable primordial vector modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antony Lewis

    2004-06-04

    Primordial vector modes describe vortical fluid perturbations in the early universe. A regular solution exists with constant non-zero radiation vorticities on super-horizon scales. Baryons are tightly coupled to the photons, and the baryon velocity only decays by an order unity factor by recombination, leading to an observable CMB anisotropy signature via the Doppler effect. There is also a large B-mode CMB polarization signal, with significant power on scales larger than l~2000. This B-mode signature is distinct from that expected from tensor modes or gravitational lensing, and makes a primordial vector to scalar mode power ratio ~10^(-6) detectable. Future observations aimed at detecting large scale B-modes from gravitational waves will also be sensitive to regular vector modes at around this level.

  6. Investigating the Detection of Adverse Drug Events in a UK General Practice Electronic Health-Care Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    -Care Database Jenna Reps1, Jan Feyereisl1, Jonathan M. Garibaldi1, Uwe Aickelin1, Jack E. Gibson2, Richard B databases. These techniques aim to find adverse drug events accurately and efficiently. Spon- taneous reporting databases are prone to missing information, under reporting and incorrect entries. This often

  7. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

    2010-06-01

    GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites, reanalysis meteorology and various remote sensing products to generate statewide estimates of biosphere carbon exchange from the atmospheric point of view.

  8. Based on staff policy from KAP (with assistance from Helen Hymers (POD), February 2010. Approved IB SEVERE/ADVERSE WEATHER GUIDANCE FOR STUDENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    SEVERE/ADVERSE WEATHER GUIDANCE FOR STUDENTS Introduction There will be occasions where severe or adverse weather creates difficulties in attending the University on time or at all. There are so many potential situations resulting from severe weather, all of which will have a different impact, that detailed

  9. Eruption of bullae within psoriatic plaques: A rare adverse effect of narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corey, Kristen; Levin, Nikki A; Hure, Michelle; Deng, April; Mailhot, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    of phototherapy protocols for psoriasis treatment. J Am Acadof moderate-to-severe psoriasis in patients compared with01) UVB phototherapy for psoriasis: a report of four cases.

  10. Recreational Use of Erectile Dysfunction Medications and Its Adverse Effects on Erectile Function in Young Healthy Men

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meston, Cindy

    for the treatment of ED (sildenafil [Viagra, Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, USA], tadalafil [Cialis, Lilly, ICOS

  11. Fluctuations of fragment observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gulminelli; M. D'Agostino

    2006-11-09

    This contribution presents a review of our present theoretical as well as experimental knowledge of different fluctuation observables relevant to nuclear multifragmentation. The possible connection between the presence of a fluctuation peak and the occurrence of a phase transition or a critical phenomenon is critically analyzed. Many different phenomena can lead both to the creation and to the suppression of a fluctuation peak. In particular, the role of constraints due to conservation laws and to data sorting is shown to be essential. From the experimental point of view, a comparison of the available fragmentation data reveals that there is a good agreement between different data sets of basic fluctuation observables, if the fragmenting source is of comparable size. This compatibility suggests that the fragmentation process is largely independent of the reaction mechanism (central versus peripheral collisions, symmetric versus asymmetric systems, light ions versus heavy ion induced reactions). Configurational energy fluctuations, that may give important information on the heat capacity of the fragmenting system at the freeze out stage, are not fully compatible among different data sets and require further analysis to properly account for Coulomb effects and secondary decays. Some basic theoretical questions, concerning the interplay between the dynamics of the collision and the fragmentation process, and the cluster definition in dense and hot media, are still open and are addressed at the end of the paper. A comparison with realistic models and/or a quantitative analysis of the fluctuation properties will be needed to clarify in the next future the nature of the transition observed from compound nucleus evaporation to multi-fragment production.

  12. Observability and Computability in Physical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subhash Kak

    2012-06-26

    This paper considers the relevance of the concepts of observability and computability in physical theory. Observability is related to verifiability which is essential for effective computing and as physical systems are computational systems it is important even where explicit computation is not the goal. Specifically, we examine two problems: observability and computability for quantum computing, and remote measurement of time and frequency.

  13. Chopping effect observed at cathodic arc initiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2000-01-01

    generation by vacuum arc plasma guns,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. ,probe L L SCR C C D I arc plasma source and filter cathode Rto IEEE Trans. Plasma Science Cathodic arcs or “vacuum” arcs

  14. Essays on the Effectiveness of Environmental Conservation and Water Management Policies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mezzatesta, Mariano

    2012-10-19

    An awareness of the effect of agricultural production on the environment has led to the development of policies to mitigate its adverse effects. This dissertation provides analyses of agri-environmental policies designed to protect environmental...

  15. A Holistic Look at Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact Under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Veil, John A.; Puder, Markus G.; Littleton, Debra J.; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that “the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact.” As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the coolingmore »water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase “minimizing adverse environmental impact” in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms “environmental” and “minimizing.” Congress chose “environmental” in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like “impingement and entrainment,” “water quality,” or “aquatic life.” In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional electricity to achieve the same net output. This added production leads to additional environmental impacts associated with extraction and processing of the fuel, air emissions from burning the fuel, and additional evaporation of freshwater supplies during the cooling process. Wet towers also require the use of toxic biocides that are subsequently discharged or disposed. The other term under consideration, “minimizing,” does not equal “eliminating.” Technologies may be available to minimize but not totally eliminate adverse environmental impacts.« less

  16. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG VIII: Observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and characterisation of the transiting planetary systems HAT-P-36 and WASP-11/HAT-P-10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mancini, L; Covino, E; Raia, G; Southworth, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Biazzo, K; Bonomo, A; Desidera, S; Lanza, A F; Maciejewski, G; Poretti, E; Sozzetti, A; Borsa, F; Bruni, I; Ciceri, S; Claudi, R; Cosentino, R; Gratton, R; Fiorenzano, A F Martinez; Lodato, G; Lorenzi, V; Marzari, F; Murabito, S; Affer, L; Bignamini, A; Bedin, L R; Boccato, C; Damasso, M; Henning, Th; Maggio, A; Micela, G; Molinari, E; Pagano, I; Piotto, G; Rainer, M; Scandariato, G; Smareglia, R; Sanchez, R Zanmar

    2015-01-01

    We determine the true and the projected obliquity of HAT-P-36 and WASP-11/HAT-P-10 systems, respectively, which are both composed of a relatively cool star and a hot-Jupiter planet. Thanks to the high-resolution spectrograph HARPS-N, we observed the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for both the systems by acquiring precise radial-velocity measurements during planetary transit events. We also present photometric observations comprising six light curves covering five transit events, obtained using three medium-class telescopes and the telescope-defocussing technique. One transit of WASP-11/HAT-P-10 was followed contemporaneously from two observatories. The three transit light curves of HAT-P-36b show anomalies attributable to starspot complexes on the surface of the parent star, in agreement with the analysis of its spectra that indicate a moderate activity. By analysing the complete HATNet data set of HAT-P-36, we estimated the stellar rotation period by detecting a periodic photometric modulation in the light curve...

  17. Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear Profile 2010MesoscopyStaff »VehicleEffective TeachingEffects of

  18. Geo-neutrino Observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-12-17

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  19. Hot Pot Field Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

  20. Hot Pot Field Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

  1. Atomic Collapse Observed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists Observe Atomic Collapse State Quantum Mechanics Prediction Confirmed in Graphene Using NERSC's Hopper April 26, 2013 | Tags: Hopper, Materials Science Contact: Linda...

  2. Physical observability of horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matt Visser

    2014-11-25

    Event horizons are (generically) not physically observable. In contrast, apparent horizons (and the closely related trapping horizons) are generically physically observable --- in the sense that they can be detected by observers working in finite-size regions of spacetime. Consequently event horizons are inappropriate tools for defining astrophysical black holes, or indeed for defining any notion of evolving}black hole, (evolving either due to accretion or Hawking radiation). The only situation in which an event horizon becomes physically observable is for the very highly idealized stationary or static black holes, when the event horizon is a Killing horizon which is degenerate with the apparent and trapping horizons; and then it is the physical observability of the apparent/trapping horizons that is fundamental --- the event horizon merely comes along for the ride.

  3. Physical observability of horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Event horizons are (generically) not physically observable. In contrast, apparent horizons (and the closely related trapping horizons) are generically physically observable --- in the sense that they can be detected by observers working in finite-size regions of spacetime. Consequently event horizons are inappropriate tools for defining astrophysical black holes, or indeed for defining any notion of evolving}black hole, (evolving either due to accretion or Hawking radiation). The only situation in which an event horizon becomes physically observable is for the very highly idealized stationary or static black holes, when the event horizon is a Killing horizon which is degenerate with the apparent and trapping horizons; and then it is the physical observability of the apparent/trapping horizons that is fundamental --- the event horizon merely comes along for the ride.

  4. EFFECT OF PORE SIZE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of pore size on pumping efficiency and zinc vapor trapping efficiency. A simple pumping efficiency test was conducted for all five pore diameters where it was observed that evacuation times were adversely affected by reducing the pore size below 5 {micro}m. Common test conditions for the zinc trapping efficiency experiments were used. These conditions resulted in some variability, to ascribe different efficiencies to the filter media. However, the data suggest that there is no significant difference in trapping efficiency for filter media with pores from 0.2 to 20 {micro}m with a thickness of 0.065-inch. Consequently, the 20 {micro}m pore filter media that is currently used at SRS is a suitable filter material for to utilize for future extractions. There is evidence that smaller pore filter will adversely affect the pumping times for the TEF and little evidence to suggest that a smaller pore diameters have significant impact on the trapping efficiency.

  5. High-throughput identification of off-targets for the mechanistic study of severe adverse drug reactions induced by analgesics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Jian-Bo [Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Ji, Nan; Pan, Wen; Hong, Ru [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102 (China); Wang, Hao [Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Ji, Zhi-Liang, E-mail: appo@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102 (China); Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Drugs may induce adverse drug reactions (ADRs) when they unexpectedly bind to proteins other than their therapeutic targets. Identification of these undesired protein binding partners, called off-targets, can facilitate toxicity assessment in the early stages of drug development. In this study, a computational framework was introduced for the exploration of idiosyncratic mechanisms underlying analgesic-induced severe adverse drug reactions (SADRs). The putative analgesic-target interactions were predicted by performing reverse docking of analgesics or their active metabolites against human/mammal protein structures in a high-throughput manner. Subsequently, bioinformatics analyses were undertaken to identify ADR-associated proteins (ADRAPs) and pathways. Using the pathways and ADRAPs that this analysis identified, the mechanisms of SADRs such as cardiac disorders were explored. For instance, 53 putative ADRAPs and 24 pathways were linked with cardiac disorders, of which 10 ADRAPs were confirmed by previous experiments. Moreover, it was inferred that pathways such as base excision repair, glycolysis/glyconeogenesis, ErbB signaling, calcium signaling, and phosphatidyl inositol signaling likely play pivotal roles in drug-induced cardiac disorders. In conclusion, our framework offers an opportunity to globally understand SADRs at the molecular level, which has been difficult to realize through experiments. It also provides some valuable clues for drug repurposing. - Highlights: • A novel computational framework was developed for mechanistic study of SADRs. • Off-targets of drugs were identified in large scale and in a high-throughput manner. • SADRs like cardiac disorders were systematically explored in molecular networks. • A number of ADR-associated proteins were identified.

  6. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gras, Slawek

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale ...

  7. MARS OBSERVER Mission Failure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    of Mars Observer Mission Failure.. ................... D-12 a. Most Probable Cause: Leakage of NT0 Through Check Valves .................................................................. D-14 b. Potential Cause: Pressure Regulator Failure....................... D-28 c. Potential Cause: Failure of a Pyro Valve Charge

  8. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; O`Reilly, Brian; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Landry, Michael; Sigg, Daniel; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong

    2015-01-01

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this work we describe the first observation of parametric instability in an Advanced LIGO detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.

  9. CX Lyrae 2008 Observing Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Ponthiere, Pierre; Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The Blazhko effect in CX Lyr has been reported for the first time by Le Borgne et al. (2007). The authors have pointed out that the Blazhko period was not evaluated accurately due to dataset scarcity. The possible period values announced were 128 or 227 days. A newly conducted four-month observing campaign in 2008 (fifty-nine observation nights) has provided fourteen times of maximum. From a period analysis of measured times of maximum, a Blazhko period of 62 +/- 2 days can be suggested. However, the present dataset is still not densely sampled enough to exclude that the measured period is still a modulation of the real Blazhko period. Indeed the shape of the (O-C) curve does not repeat itself exactly during the campaign duration.

  10. Platinum nanoparticle during electrochemical hydrogen evolution: Adsorbate distribution, active reaction species, and size effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Teck L.; Wang, Lin -Lin; Zhang, Jia; Johnson, Duane D.; Bai, Kewu

    2015-03-13

    For small Pt nanoparticles (NPs), catalytic activity is, as observed, adversely affected by size in the 1–3 nm range. We elucidate, via first-principles-based thermodynamics, the operation H* distribution and cyclic voltammetry (CV) during the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across the electrochemical potential, including the underpotential region (U ? 0) that is difficult to assess in experiment. We consider multiple adsorption sites on a 1 nm Pt NP model and show that the characteristic CV peaks from different H* species correspond well to experiment. We next quantify the activity contribution from each H* species to explain the adverse effect of size.more »From the resolved CV peaks at the standard hydrogen electrode potential (U = 0), we first deduce that the active species for the HER are the partially covered (100)-facet bridge sites and the (111)-facet hollow sites. Upon evaluation of the reaction barriers at operation H* distribution and microkinetic modeling of the exchange current, we find that the nearest-neighbor (100)-facet bridge site pairs have the lowest activation energy and contribute to ~75% of the NP activity. Edge bridge sites (fully covered by H*) per se are not active; however, they react with neighboring (100)-facet H* to account for ~18% of the activity, whereas (111)-facet hollow sites contribute little. As a result, extrapolating the relative contributions to larger NPs in which the ratio of facet-to-edge sites increases, we show that the adverse size effect of Pt NP HER activity kicks in for sizes below 2 nm.« less

  11. Air Observe System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10

    This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

  12. Quantum Mechanics Without Observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. H. Sulis

    2013-03-03

    The measurement problem and the role of observers have plagued quantum mechanics since its conception. Attempts to resolve these have introduced anthropomorphic or non-realist notions into physics. A shift of perspective based upon process theory and utilizing methods from combinatorial games, interpolation theory and complex systems theory results in a novel realist version of quantum mechanics incorporating quasi-local, nondeterministic hidden variables that are compatible with the no-hidden variable theorems and relativistic invariance, and reproduce the standard results of quantum mechanics to a high degree of accuracy without invoking observers.

  13. Effectiveness of Shading Air-Cooled Condensers of Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ElSherbini, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    of the condenser and the high ambient temperatures can be detrimental for the energy performance. The effectiveness of shading the condensing unit to mitigate this adverse impact is investigated in this paper. A limiting analysis compares the performance of several...

  14. Global Warming Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

  15. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian J M

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics & circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly-imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  16. Observations on European Agriculture. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1911-01-01

    AS ACKICUL-I-uRAL EXPE RIMENT STATIONS bLLETIN No. 14-1 DECEMBER, 1911 Division of Chemistry Observations on European Agriculture BY G. S. FRAPS, Chemist 0 Postoffice : CULLEGE STATION; TEXAS AUSTIN. TEXAS I AUSTIN PRINTING CO:. PRINTERS... ............................................... and Conclusions 35 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] rrvations on European Agriculture By C. S. FRAPS ie object of this Bulletin is to present such abservadons on :ulture in Europe as may offer suggestions of value to Texas - :ulturists. The writer...

  17. Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

    1994-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

  18. ARM Observations Projected

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation Data Management Facility PlotsProductsObservations Projected

  19. Bayesian Inference for Radio Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lochner, Michelle; Zwart, Jonathan T L; Smirnov, Oleg; Bassett, Bruce A; Oozeer, Nadeem; Kunz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) New telescopes like the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will push into a new sensitivity regime and expose systematics, such as direction-dependent effects, that could previously be ignored. Current methods for handling such systematics rely on alternating best estimates of instrumental calibration and models of the underlying sky, which can lead to inaccurate uncertainty estimates and biased results because such methods ignore any correlations between parameters. These deconvolution algorithms produce a single image that is assumed to be a true representation of the sky, when in fact it is just one realisation of an infinite ensemble of images compatible with the noise in the data. In contrast, here we report a Bayesian formalism that simultaneously infers both systematics and science. Our technique, Bayesian Inference for Radio Observations (BIRO), determines all parameters directly from the raw data, bypassing image-making entirely, by sampling from the joint posterior probability distribution. Thi...

  20. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 4 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 23 JULY 2001 Observation of the Quantum Zeno and Anti-Zeno Effects in an Unstable System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    system. Our experiment consists of ultracold sodium atoms in an accelerated standing wave of light which measurement-induced suppression of the dy- namics of a two-state driven system has been observed [15 of the Quantum Zeno and Anti-Zeno Effects in an Unstable System M. C. Fischer, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, and M

  1. Observations of Accreting Pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars Bildsten; Deepto Chakrabarty; John Chiu; Mark H. Finger; Danny T. Koh; Robert W. Nelson; Thomas A. Prince; Bradley C. Rubin; D. Matthew Scott; Mark Stollberg; Brian A. Vaughan; Colleen A. Wilson; Robert B. Wilson

    1997-07-22

    We summarize five years of continuous monitoring of accretion-powered pulsars with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Our 20-70 keV observations have determined or refined the orbital parameters of 13 binaries, discovered 5 new transient accreting pulsars, measured the pulsed flux history during outbursts of 12 transients (GRO J1744-28, 4U 0115+634, GRO J1750-27, GS 0834-430, 2S 1417-624, GRO J1948+32, EXO 2030+375, GRO J1008-57, A 0535+26, GRO J2058+42, 4U 1145-619 and A 1118-616), and also measured the accretion torque history of during outbursts of 6 of those transients whose orbital parameters were also known. We have also continuously measured the pulsed flux and spin frequency for eight persistently accreting pulsars (Her X-1, Cen X-3, Vela X-1, OAO 1657-415, GX 301-2, 4U 1626-67, 4U 1538-52, and GX 1+4). Because of their continuity and uniformity over a long baseline, BATSE observations have provided new insights into the long-term behavior of accreting magnetic stars. We have found that all accreting pulsars show stochastic variations in their spin frequencies and luminosities, including those displaying secular spin-up or spin-down on long time scales, blurring the conventional distinction between disk-fed and wind-fed binaries. Pulsed flux and accretion torque are strongly correlated in outbursts of transient accreting pulsars, but uncorrelated, or even anticorrelated, in persistent sources.

  2. Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors : comparison of long-term health effects and costs between proton therapy and IMRT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu, An T. (An Thien)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important component of pediatric brain tumor treatment. However, radiation-induced damage can lead to adverse long-term health effects. Proton therapy has the ability to reduce the dose delivered ...

  3. Toxicological effects of methylmercury on walleye (Sander vitreus) and perch (Perca flavescens) from lakes of the boreal forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    ) were studied in four Canadian boreal forest lakes representing a mercury (Hg) exposure gradient adverse effects on the physiology and cellular metabolism of walleye and perch at environmentally relevant

  4. Mapping Climate Change Hazards: Using GIS to Identify Social Vulnerability to the Effects of Environmental Hazards in the UK 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batool, Najya

    2010-11-24

    Research suggests that the precise nature and effects of climate change, including changes to the Earth’s climate patterns, can have an adverse environmental impact on localities, regions, and countries. Research shows that socially disadvantaged...

  5. Determining the effect of seawater on the interfacial strength of an interlayer E-glass-graphite/epoxy composite using observations of transverse cracking made in-situ in an environmental SEM 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Catherine Ann

    1996-01-01

    The oil industry is interested in drilling for oil in the ocean at depths of 2000 m and greater. In order to do this in a cost effective manner, the use of composites as risers is under investigation. Presently, the long-term effects of seawater...

  6. Observable signatures of general relativistic dynamics in compact binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Ryan N. (Ryan Nathan)

    2009-01-01

    The effects of general relativity (GR) in astrophysical systems are often difficult to calculate, but they can have important consequences for observables. This thesis considers the impact of previously-ignored GR effects ...

  7. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD curves tended to be steeper. The CHO generated the best quantitative agreement with human observers with its CD curve overlapping with that of human observer. Statistical equivalence between CHO and humans can be claimed within 11% of the human observer results, including both the disk and lesion detection experiments.Conclusions: The model observer method can be used to accurately represent human observer performance with the stochastic DPC-CT noise for SKE tasks with sizes ranging from 8 to 128 pixels. The incorporation of the anatomical noise remains to be studied.

  8. On the consistent use of Constructed Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trott, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We define "constructed observables" as relating experimental measurements to terms in a Lagrangian while simultaneously making assumptions about possible deviations from the Standard Model (SM), in other Lagrangian terms. Ensuring that the SM effective field theory (EFT) is constrained correctly when using constructed observables requires that their defining conditions are imposed on the EFT in a manner that is consistent with the equations of motion. Failing to do so can result in a "functionally redundant" operator basis and the wrong expectation as to how experimental quantities are related in the EFT. We illustrate the issues involved considering the $\\rm S$ parameter and the off shell triple gauge coupling (TGC) verticies. We show that the relationships between $h \\rightarrow V \\bar{f} \\, f$ decay and the off shell TGC verticies are subject to these subtleties, and how the connections between these observables vanish in the limit of strong bounds due to LEP. The challenge of using constructed observables...

  9. Physically Observable Cryptography Silvio Micali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyzin, Leonid

    Physically Observable Cryptography Silvio Micali Leonid Reyzin November 29, 2003 Abstract.) inherent in the physical execution of any cryptographic algorithm. Such "physical observation attacks mathematically impregnable systems. The great practicality and the inherent availability of physical attacks

  10. Effects of broadleaf woodland cover on streamwater chemistry and risk assessments of streamwater acidification in acid-sensitive catchments in the UK 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gagkas, Zisis

    2007-01-01

    Acidification of surface waters has been recognised as the major water quality problem in the UK uplands. The adverse effects of conifer afforestation on streamwater chemistry and ecology are well documented in ...

  11. State observer for synchronous motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lang, Jeffrey H. (Waltham, MA)

    1994-03-22

    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  12. Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects Da-Lin Zhang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da-Lin

    Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects Da-Lin Zhang,1 Yi-Xuan Shou,1; published 19 December 2009. [1] Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects adversely impact weather, air quality find that upstream urbanization exacerbates UHI effects and that meteorological consequences of extra-urban

  13. Observation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGas and OilPublictearing

  14. Observation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGas and

  15. Observation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLEDSpeeding accessSpeeding access

  16. NS&T MANAGEMENT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianotto, David

    2014-06-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  17. NS&T Management Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianotto, David

    2014-09-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  18. Accelerated Expansion: Theory and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Polarski

    2001-09-20

    The present paradigm in cosmology is the usual Big-Bang Cosmology in which two stages of accelerated expansion are incorporated: the inflationary phase in the very early universe which produces the classical inhomogeneities observed in the universe, and a second stage of acceleration at the present time as the latest Supernovae observations seem to imply. Both stages could be produced by a scalar field and observations will strongly constrain the microscopic lagrangian of any proposed model.

  19. Data quality monitoring in the presence of aerosols and other adverse atmospheric conditions with H.E.S.S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, J; Bernlöhr, K; Krüger, P; Lo, Y T E; Chadwick, P M; Daniel, M K; Deil, C; Gast, H; Kosack, K; Marandon, V

    2015-01-01

    Cherenkov telescope experiments, such as H.E.S.S., have been very successful in astronomical observations in the very-high-energy (VHE; E $>$ 100 GeV) regime. As an integral part of the detector, such experiments use Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter. For the calibration and energy determination, a standard model atmosphere is assumed. Deviations of the real atmosphere from the model may therefore lead to an energy misreconstruction of primary gamma rays. To guarantee satisfactory data quality with respect to difficult atmospheric conditions, several atmospheric data quality criteria are implemented in the H.E.S.S. software. These quantities are sensitive to clouds and aerosols. Here, the Cherenkov transparency coefficient will be presented. It is a new monitoring quantity that is able to measure long-term changes in the atmospheric transparency. The Cherenkov transparency coefficient derives exclusively from Cherenkov data and is quite hardware-independent. Furthermore, its positive correlation with indepe...

  20. Smearing of Observables and Spectral Measures on Quantum Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anatolij Dvure?enskij

    2012-04-29

    An observable on a quantum structure is any $\\sigma$-homomorphism of quantum structures from the Borel $\\sigma$-algebra of the real line into the quantum structure which is in our case a monotone $\\sigma$-complete effect algebras with the Riesz Decomposition Property. We show that every observable is a smearing of a sharp observable which takes values from a Boolean $\\sigma$-subalgebra of the effect algebra, and we prove that for every element of the effect algebra there is its spectral measure.

  1. Observational Study PAUL R. ROSENBAUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    . Howell John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, 2005 #12;Observational Study Observational Studies Defined describing the subjects before treatment. As a consequence, random assignment tends to make the groups comparable both in terms of measured char- acteristics and characteristics that were not or could

  2. Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilo Steinmetz; Tobias Wilken; Constanza Araujo-Hauck; Ronald Holzwarth; Theodor W. Hänsch; Luca Pasquini; Antonio Manescau; Sandro D'Odorico; Michael T. Murphy; Thomas Kentischer; Wolfgang Schmidt; Thomas Udem

    2008-09-09

    A direct measurement of the universe's expansion history could be made by observing in real time the evolution of the cosmological redshift of distant objects. However, this would require measurements of Doppler velocity drifts of about 1 centimeter per second per year, and astronomical spectrographs have not yet been calibrated to this tolerance. We demonstrate the first use of a laser frequency comb for wavelength calibration of an astronomical telescope. Even with a simple analysis, absolute calibration is achieved with an equivalent Doppler precision of approximately 9 meters per second at about 1.5 micrometers - beyond state-of-the-art accuracy. We show that tracking complex, time-varying systematic effects in the spectrograph and detector system is a particular advantage of laser frequency comb calibration. This technique promises an effective means for modeling and removal of such systematic effects to the accuracy required by future experiments to see direct evidence of the universe's putative acceleration.

  3. Passive States for Essential Observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Strich

    2008-01-23

    The aim of this note is to present a unified approach to the results given in \\cite{bb99} and \\cite{bs04} which also covers examples of models not presented in these two papers (e.g. $d$-dimensional Minkowski space-time for $d\\geq 3$). Assuming that a state is passive for an observer travelling along certain (essential) worldlines, we show that this state is invariant under the isometry group, is a KMS-state for the observer at a temperature uniquely determined by the structure constants of the Lie algebra involved and fulfills (a variant of) the Reeh-Schlieder property. Also the modular objects associated to such a state and the observable algebra of an observer are computed and a version of weak locality is examined.

  4. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertolini, Daniele

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but ...

  5. Baryon Resonances Observed at BES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. S. Zou

    2008-02-01

    The $\\psi$ decays provide a novel way to explore baryon spectroscopy and baryon structure. The baryon resonances observed from $\\psi$ decays at BES are reviewed. The implications and prospects at upgraded BESIII/BEPCII are discussed.

  6. Designed for: Ocean Observing Demo: A collaboration between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effective low cost ocean observing system. This system was recently developed and deployed for offshore oil. The Fetch node was deployed in 550 feet of water to measure ocean temperature and pressure, and the Tsunami Observing Initiatives Pioneer Array. The Fetch will record pressure and temperatures at this site prior

  7. General relativistic observables of the GRAIL mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turyshev, Slava G; Sazhin, Mikhail V

    2012-01-01

    We present a realization of astronomical relativistic reference frames in the solar system and its application to the GRAIL mission. We model the necessary spacetime coordinate transformations for light-trip time computations and address some practical aspects of the implementation of the resulting model. We develop all the relevant relativistic coordinate transformations that are needed to describe the motion of the GRAIL spacecraft and to compute all observable quantities. We take into account major relativistic effects contributing to the dual one-way range observable, which is derived from one-way signal travel times between the two GRAIL spacecraft. We develop a general relativistic model for this fundamental observable of GRAIL, accurate to 1 $\\mu$m. We develop and present a relativistic model for another key observable of this experiment, the dual one-way range-rate, accurate to 1 $\\mu$m/s. The presented formulation justifies the basic assumptions behind the design of the GRAIL mission. It may also be ...

  8. General relativistic observables of the GRAIL mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slava G. Turyshev; Viktor T. Toth; Mikhail V. Sazhin

    2012-12-18

    We present a realization of astronomical relativistic reference frames in the solar system and its application to the GRAIL mission. We model the necessary spacetime coordinate transformations for light-trip time computations and address some practical aspects of the implementation of the resulting model. We develop all the relevant relativistic coordinate transformations that are needed to describe the motion of the GRAIL spacecraft and to compute all observable quantities. We take into account major relativistic effects contributing to the dual one-way range observable, which is derived from one-way signal travel times between the two GRAIL spacecraft. We develop a general relativistic model for this fundamental observable of GRAIL, accurate to 1 $\\mu$m. We develop and present a relativistic model for another key observable of this experiment, the dual one-way range-rate, accurate to 1 $\\mu$m/s. The presented formulation justifies the basic assumptions behind the design of the GRAIL mission. It may also be used to further improve the already impressive results of this lunar gravity recovery experiment after the mission is complete. Finally, we present transformation rules for frequencies and gravitational potentials and their application to GRAIL.

  9. On the consistent use of Constructed Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Trott

    2015-01-17

    We define "constructed observables" as relating experimental measurements to terms in a Lagrangian while simultaneously making assumptions about possible deviations from the Standard Model (SM), in other Lagrangian terms. Ensuring that the SM effective field theory (EFT) is constrained correctly when using constructed observables requires that their defining conditions are imposed on the EFT in a manner that is consistent with the equations of motion. Failing to do so can result in a "functionally redundant" operator basis and the wrong expectation as to how experimental quantities are related in the EFT. We illustrate the issues involved considering the $\\rm S$ parameter and the off shell triple gauge coupling (TGC) verticies. We show that the relationships between $h \\rightarrow V \\bar{f} \\, f$ decay and the off shell TGC verticies are subject to these subtleties, and how the connections between these observables vanish in the limit of strong bounds due to LEP. The challenge of using constructed observables to consistently constrain the Standard Model EFT is only expected to grow with future LHC data, as more complex processes are studied.

  10. Observational Approach to Chromium Site Remediation - 13266

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Myers, R.

    2013-07-01

    Production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, required massive quantities of water for reactor cooling and material processing. To reduce corrosion and the build-up of scale in pipelines and cooling systems, sodium dichromate was added to the water feedstock. Spills and other releases at the makeup facilities, as well as leaks from miles of pipelines, have led to numerous areas with chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater, threatening fish populations in the nearby Columbia River. Pump-and-treat systems have been installed to remove chromium from the groundwater, but significant contamination remain in the soil column and poses a continuing threat to groundwater and the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford, DOE, and regulators are working on a team approach that implements the observational approach, a strategy for effectively dealing with the uncertainties inherent in subsurface conditions. Remediation of large, complex waste sites at a federal facility is a daunting effort. It is particularly difficult to perform the work in an environment of rapid response to changing field and contamination conditions. The observational approach, developed by geotechnical engineers to accommodate the inherent uncertainties in subsurface conditions, is a powerful and appropriate method for site remediation. It offers a structured means of quickly moving into full remediation and responding to the variations and changing conditions inherent in waste site cleanups. A number of significant factors, however, complicate the application of the observational approach for chromium site remediation. Conceptual models of contamination and site conditions are difficult to establish and get consensus on. Mid-stream revisions to the design of large excavations are time-consuming and costly. And regulatory constraints and contract performance incentives can be impediments to the flexible responses required under the observational approach. The WCH project team is working closely with stakeholders and taking a number of steps to meet these challenges in a continuing effort to remediate chromium contaminated soil in an efficient and cost-effective manner. (authors)

  11. Observation of ?cJ decays to ??¯¯¯????

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Bennett, J. V.; et al

    2012-09-13

    Decays of the ?cJ states (J=0, 1, 2) to ??¯¯¯????, including processes with intermediate ?(1385), are studied through the E1 transition ?'???cJ using 106×10? ?' events collected with the BESIII detector at BEPCII. This is the first observation of ?cJ decays to the final state ??¯¯¯????. The branching ratio of the intermediate process ?cJ??(1385)±?¯¯¯(1385)? is also measured for the first time, and the results agree with the theoretical predictions based on the color-octet effect.

  12. Observations About the Effectiveness of Utilizing Single Tree Selection Silviculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ventures were those of Thomas Larkin and Jose' Amesti during the year 1832, in what is now Santa Cruz Berlage, Big Creek Lumber Company, 3564 Highway 1, Davenport, CA 95017. (bobb@big- creek.com). #12;GENERAL

  13. Some observations and physiologic effects of adrenalectomy in the dog 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, James Gilbert

    1970-01-01

    . James D. McCrady Bilaterally adrenalectomized dogs were studied to identify and quantitate changes in plasma concentra- tions of sodium and potassium, in the electrocardio- gram (ECG), and in physical state Results were ana- lyzed to evaluate... relationships present among the ob- served changes. The five day period immediately prior to death was selected as the post-operative evaluation period. Dur- ing this period plasma sodium concentration decreased and plasma potassium concentrations increased...

  14. Feasibility of Observing Small Differences in Friction Mean Effective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) Sponsoring Org: EE USDOE - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) Country of Publication: United States Language:...

  15. Observation of the photodielectric effect in an amorphous semiconductor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Stephen Anthony

    1971-01-01

    System. II-2 Nicrowave System. II-3 Cavity-JJaveguide Configuration. II-4 Klystron Mode Pattern. IJ-5 Resonant Frequency Dip. II-6 Apparatus for Q Measurement (ref. 14). II-7 Oscilloscope Pre. sentation of Q Data. Il-8 Beta and Attenuator Settings... as the microwave source. The klystron is powered by a Hewlett Packard Model 715A power supply. Oscillator S~chronizer. The oscillator synchronizer is used to stabilize the klystron frequency which is prorle to drift from its original setting. The instrument...

  16. Some effects of metastable substance observed in erosive discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emelin, S E

    2002-01-01

    The brief characteristic of a place and state of modern experimental investigations of a ball lightning on the basis of metastable substance is given.

  17. Effect of linear lumping on controllability and observability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tóth, János

    , 78A40, 80A30. Key words and phrases: dissipative systems, dynamical systems, attractors, invariant

  18. First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices » IncentivesStocksFirst DetailedFirstat

  19. Feasibility of Observing Small Differences in Friction Mean Effective

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |production at aSciTech Connect Fe Atomic Data

  20. Observations & Thoughts on Controller Assessment &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Thomas J.

    & Assessment Design & interpretation of monitoring & assessment methods cannot be divorced from processObservations & Thoughts on Controller Assessment & Performance Monitoring T.J. Harris Queen's University harrist@post.queensu.ca Control Systems 2004 #12;Acknowledge Contributions of NSERC Imperial Oil

  1. Observing the next galactic supernova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Scott M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Beacom, John F.; Stanek, K. Z. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Vagins, Mark R. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    No supernova (SN) in the Milky Way has been observed since the invention of the optical telescope, instruments for other wavelengths, neutrino detectors, or gravitational wave observatories. It would be a tragedy to miss the opportunity to fully characterize the next one. To aid preparations for its observations, we model the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions of a successful Galactic core-collapse supernova (ccSN), its shock breakout radiation, and its massive star progenitor. We find, at very high probability (? 100%), that the next Galactic SN will easily be detectable in the near-IR and that near-IR photometry of the progenitor star very likely (? 92%) already exists in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Most ccSNe (98%) will be easily observed in the optical, but a significant fraction (43%) will lack observations of the progenitor due to a combination of survey sensitivity and confusion. If neutrino detection experiments can quickly disseminate a likely position (?3°), we show that a modestly priced IR camera system can probably detect the shock breakout radiation pulse even in daytime (64% for the cheapest design). Neutrino experiments should seriously consider adding such systems, both for their scientific return and as an added and internal layer of protection against false triggers. We find that shock breakouts from failed ccSNe of red supergiants may be more observable than those of successful SNe due to their lower radiation temperatures. We review the process by which neutrinos from a Galactic ccSN would be detected and announced. We provide new information on the EGADS system and its potential for providing instant neutrino alerts. We also discuss the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions for the next Galactic Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Based on our modeled observability, we find a Galactic ccSN rate of 3.2{sub ?2.6}{sup +7.3} per century and a Galactic SN Ia rate of 1.4{sub ?0.8}{sup +1.4} per century for a total Galactic SN rate of 4.6{sub ?2.7}{sup +7.4} per century is needed to account for the SNe observed over the last millennium, which implies a Galactic star formation rate of 3.6{sub ?3.0}{sup +8.3} M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}.

  2. Observational Tests and Predictive Stellar Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Young; E. E. Mamajek; David Arnett; James Liebert

    2001-03-23

    We compare eighteen binary systems with precisely determined radii and masses from 23 to 1.1 M_sol, and stellar evolution models produced with our newly revised code TYCHO. ``Overshooting'' and rotational mixing were suppressed in order to establish a baseline for isolating these and other hydrodynamic effects. Acceptable coeval fits are found for sixteen pairs without optimizing for heavy element or helium abundance. The precision of these tests is limited by the accuracies of the observed effective temperatures. High dispersion spectra and detailed atmospheric modeling should give more accurate effective temperatures and heavy element abundances. PV Cas, a peculiar early A system, EK Cep B, a known post-T Tauri star, and RS Cha, a member of a young OB association, are matched by pre-main sequence models. Predicted mass loss agrees with upper limits from IUE for CW Cep A and B. Relatively poor fits are obtained for binaries having at least one component in the mass range 1.7 < M/M_sol <2.6, whose evolution is sensitive to mixing. These discrepancies are robust and consistent with additional mixing in real stars. The predicted apsidal motion implies that massive star models are systematically less centrally condensed than the real stars. If these effects are due to overshooting, then the overshooting parameter alpha_OV increases with stellar mass. The apsidal motion constants are controlled by radiative opacity under conditions close to those directly measured in laser experiments, making this test more stringent than possible before.

  3. Observing remnants by fermions' tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D.Y.; Wu, H.W.; Yang, H. E-mail: iverwu@uestc.edu.cn

    2014-03-01

    The standard Hawking formula predicts the complete evaporation of black holes. In this paper, we introduce effects of quantum gravity into fermions' tunneling from Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr black holes. The quantum gravity effects slow down the increase of Hawking temperatures. This property naturally leads to a residue mass in black hole evaporation. The corrected temperatures are affected by the quantum numbers of emitted fermions. Meanwhile, the temperature of the Kerr black hole is a function of ? due to the rotation.

  4. Hawking radiation as perceived by different observers (ERE2011 proceedings)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbado, Luis C; Garay, Luis J

    2012-01-01

    We study the perception of Hawking radiation by different observers outside a black hole. The analysis is done in terms of an effective-temperature function that varies along the trajectory of each observer. The vacuum state of the radiation field is chosen to be non-stationary, so as to mimic the switching-on of Hawking radiation that would appear in a real black hole collapse. We analyse how this vacuum is perceived by observers staying at a fixed radius, by observers coming in free-fall from radial infinity at different times, and by observers in free-fall released from finite radial positions. Results found have a compelling physical interpretation. One main result, at first unexpected, is that in general free-falling observers do perceive particle emission by the black hole when crossing the event horizon. This happens because of a diverging Doppler shift at the event horizon.

  5. Hawking radiation as perceived by different observers (ERE2011 proceedings)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis C. Barbado; Carlos Barceló; Luis J. Garay

    2012-10-01

    We study the perception of Hawking radiation by different observers outside a black hole. The analysis is done in terms of an effective-temperature function that varies along the trajectory of each observer. The vacuum state of the radiation field is chosen to be non-stationary, so as to mimic the switching-on of Hawking radiation that would appear in a real black hole collapse. We analyse how this vacuum is perceived by observers staying at a fixed radius, by observers coming in free-fall from radial infinity at different times, and by observers in free-fall released from finite radial positions. Results found have a compelling physical interpretation. One main result, at first unexpected, is that in general free-falling observers do perceive particle emission by the black hole when crossing the event horizon. This happens because of a diverging Doppler shift at the event horizon.

  6. RHESSI observation of flare elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

    2006-02-14

    RHESSI observations of elementary flare bursts are presented. These solar flare elements are distinct emission peaks of a duration of some tens of seconds present in the hard X-ray light curves. They are characterized by consistent soft-hard-soft spectral behavior, which can be described in a quantitative way and compared which predictions from acceleration models. A detailed analysis of hard X-ray images for an M5 class flare shows that elementary flare bursts do not occur at distinct locations, but as twin X-ray sources move smoothly along an arcade of magnetic loops. This observation apparently contradicts the predictions of standard translation invariant 2.5-dimensional reconnection models.

  7. Complete measurements of quantum observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juha-Pekka Pellonpää

    2012-06-12

    We define a complete measurement of a quantum observable (POVM) as a measurement of the maximally refined version of the POVM. Complete measurements give information from the multiplicities of the measurement outcomes and can be viewed as state preparation procedures. We show that any POVM can be measured completely by using sequential measurements or maximally refinable instruments. Moreover, the ancillary space of a complete measurement can be chosen to be minimal.

  8. Adventure and Adversity Issue 2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    2013-11-27

    's career is threatened, he has no choice. Love Me Tender (AK/Edrington) by Anne Fairchild 72 Archie is persuaded to accept an invitationfrom Lord Edrington. Lobster Bisque (Horatio/Edrington) by Elizabeth Holden 79 In which Lord Edrington proffers... Lt. Bracegirdle reflects on love and longing, and receives recognition from unexpected quarters Possession (Horatio/Pellew, Bracegirdle/Pellew) by Elizabeth Holden 104 Lt. Bracegirdle discovers a terrible secret that excoriates a memory from his...

  9. Sloan Digital Sky Survey observing time tracking and efficiency measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric H. Neilsen, Jr.; Richard G. Kron; William N. Boroski

    2002-10-16

    Accurate and consistent time tracking is essential for evaluating the efficiency of survey observing operations and identifying areas that need improvement. Off the shelf time tracking software, which requires users to enter activities by hand, proved tedious to use and insufficiently exible. In this paper, we present an alternate time tracking system developed specifically for Sloan Digital Sky Survey observing. This system uses an existing logging system, murmur, to log the beginning and ending times of tracked circumstances, including activities, weather, and problems which effect observing. Operations software automatically generates most entries for routine observing activities; in a night of routine observing, time tracking requires little or no attention from the observing staff. A graphical user interface allows observers to make entries marking time lost to weather and equipment, and to correct inaccurate entries made by the observing software. The last is necessary when the change in activity is not marked by a change in the state of the software or instruments, or when the time is used for engineering or other observing not part of routine survey data collection. A second utility generates reports of time usage from these logs. These reports include totals for the time spent for each observing task, time lost to weather and problems, efficiency statistics for comparison with the survey baseline, and a detailed listing of what activities and problems were present in any covered time period.

  10. Observability and Controllability of Nonlinear Networks: The Role of Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew J. Whalen; Sean N. Brennan; Timothy D. Sauer; Steven J. Schiff

    2014-10-06

    Observability and controllability are essential concepts to the design of predictive observer models and feedback controllers of networked systems. For example, noncontrollable mathematical models of real systems have subspaces that influence model behavior, but cannot be controlled by an input. Such subspaces can be difficult to determine in complex nonlinear networks. Since almost all of the present theory was developed for linear networks without symmetries, here we present a numerical and group representational framework, to quantify the observability and controllability of nonlinear networks with explicit symmetries that shows the connection between symmetries and nonlinear measures of observability and controllability. We numerically observe and theoretically predict that not all symmetries have the same effect on network observation and control. Our analysis shows that the presence of symmetry in a network may decrease observability and controllability, although networks containing only rotational symmetries remain controllable and observable. These results alter our view of the nature of observability and controllability in complex networks, change our understanding of structural controllability, and affect the design of mathematical models to observe and control such networks.

  11. Observation of the Goos-Haenchen Shift with Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haan, Victor-O. de; Plomp, Jeroen; Rekveldt, Theo M.; Kraan, Wicher H.; Well, Ad A. van; Dalgliesh, Robert M.; Langridge, Sean

    2010-01-08

    The Goos-Haenchen effect is a spatial shift along an interface resulting from an interference effect that occurs for total internal reflection. This phenomenon was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton, but it was not until 1947 that the effect was experimentally observed by Goos and Haenchen. We provide the first direct, absolute, experimental determination of the Goos-Haenchen shift for a particle experiencing a potential well as required by quantum mechanics: namely, wave-particle duality. Here, the particle is a spin-polarized neutron reflecting from a film of magnetized material. We detect the effect through a subtle change in polarization of the neutron. Here, we demonstrate, through experiment and theory, that neutrons do exhibit the Goos-Haenchen effect and postulate that the associated time shift should also be observable.

  12. Upstream Urbanization Exacerbates Urban Heat Island Effects Da-Lin Zhang*, Yi-Xuan Shou, & Russell R. Dickerson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    1 Upstream Urbanization Exacerbates Urban Heat Island Effects Da-Lin Zhang*, Yi-Xuan Shou, Maryland 20742 Email: dalin@atmos.umd.edu The adverse impacts of urbanization on climate and weather through urban heat island (UHI) effects and greenhouse emissions are issues of growing concern1

  13. Infrared Observations of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Elbaz

    1997-11-28

    This short paper reviews some of the results obtained from ISO observations (ISOCAM and ISOPHOT) on galaxy clusters: Chap.1: "Intracluster dust": new evidence for the presence of dust outside galaxies. Chap.2:"Mid-Infrared Emission of Galaxies" origin of the mid-IR emission. Chap.3:"Star Formation in Nearby Clusters" correlation of the 7 and 15 microns fluxes with the SFR. Chap.4:"Star Formation in z=0.2 Galaxy clusters" Study of the mid-IR emission of A1732 and A1689. Chap.5:"Star Formation in z>0.4 Galaxy clusters" Preliminary.

  14. Observation Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon:OGE Energy Resources, IncInc JumpObamaObservation

  15. Magnetars: the physics behind observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turolla, Roberto; Watts, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Magnetars are the strongest magnets in the present universe and the combination of extreme magnetic field, gravity and density makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the strong field limit. Magnetars are observed as peculiar, burst--active X-ray pulsars, the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and the Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs); the latter emitted also three "giant flares," extremely powerful events during which luminosities can reach up to 10^47 erg/s for about one second. The last five years have witnessed an explosion in magnetar research which has led, among other things, to the discovery of transient, or "outbursting," and "low-field" magnetars. Substantial progress has been made also on the theoretical side. Quite detailed models for explaining the magnetars' persistent X-ray emission, the properties of the bursts, the flux evolution in transient sources have been developed and confronted with observations. New insight on neu...

  16. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  17. Comet tail formation: Giotto observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Johnstone, A.; Coates, A.; Heath, J.; Formisano, V.; Amata, E.; Winningham, J.D.; Thomsen, M.; Bryant, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The process of mass loading of the solar wind by cometary ions, which forms comet tails, has been observed throughout the coma of comet Halley. Three distinct regimes were found where the nature of the energy and momentum coupling between solar wind and cometary ions is different. Outside the bow shock, where there is little angular scattering of the freshly ionized particles, the coupling is described by the simple pickup trajectory and the energy is controlled by the angle between the flow and the magnetic field. Just inside the bow shock, there is considerable scattering accompanied by another acceleration process which raises some particle energies well above the straightforward pickup value. Finally, closer to the nucleus, the amount of scattering decreases and the coupling is once more controlled by the magnetic field direction. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  18. New Interpretation of the Observational Matter Asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, R G; Li, X Q; Wang, X; Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Tong; Li, Xue-Qian; Wang, Xun

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the AMS project, we assume that due to some reason which is not known so far, after the Big Bang or inflation epoch, antimatter was repelled onto one brane which is separated from our brane where all the observational matter resides. We suppose that there is a potential barrier at the brane boundary, which is similar to the surface tension for water membrane. The barrier prevents the mater particles to enter the space between two branes and jump from one brane to another. However, by the quantum tunnelling, a sizable anti-matter flux may come to our brane and be observed by the Alpha-Magnetic-Spectrometer (AMS). The matter and antimatter on the two branes attract each other via gravitational force. Following literature we consider a possibility that a scalar field existing in the space between the branes causes a Casimir effect which results in a repulsive force against the gravitation. We find that the Casimir force is much stronger than the gravitational force, as long as the separation of the ...

  19. Effects of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) on in vitro human erythrocyte membranes and molecular models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Zambrano, Pablo; Mennickent, Sigrid; Villena, Fernando; Sotomayor, Carlos P.; Aguilar, Luis F.; Bolognin, Silvia

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} PPA is a common ingredient in cough-cold medication and appetite suppressants. {yields} Reports on its effects on human erythrocytes are very scarce. {yields} We found that PPA induced in vitro morphological changes to human erythrocytes. {yields} PPA interacted with isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes. {yields} PPA interacted with class of lipid present in the erythrocyte membrane outer monolayer. -- Abstract: Norephedrine, also called phenylpropanolamine (PPA), is a synthetic form of the ephedrine alkaloid. After reports of the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage and other adverse effects, including several deaths, PPA is no longer sold in USA and Canada. Despite the extensive information about PPA toxicity, reports on its effects on cell membranes are scarce. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of PPA with cell membranes, ranges of concentrations were incubated with intact human erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM), and molecular models of cell membranes. The latter consisted in bilayers built-up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), phospholipid classes present in the outer and inner monolayers of most plasmatic cell membranes, respectively. The capacity of PPA to perturb the bilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was assessed by X-ray diffraction, DMPC large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study presents evidence that PPA affects human red cell membranes as follows: (a) in SEM studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that 0.5 mM PPA induced shape changes; (b) in IUM PPA induced a sharp decrease in the fluorescence anisotropy in the lipid bilayer acyl chains in a concentration range lower than 100 {mu}M; (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that PPA in the 0.1-0.5 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation to DMPC, but no effects on DMPE multibilayers were detected.

  20. Automated Surface Observing System: Standby Power Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    contained group of sensors and data gathering equipment that produces an automated weather observation * Weather observations support aviation, climate data, non government...

  1. Unsuspected Pulmonary Embolism in Observation Unit Patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limkakeng, Alexander T.; Glickman, Seth W; Cairns, Charles B; Chandra, Abhinav

    2009-01-01

    department observation unit. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2001;ED) managed acute care unit on ED overcrowding and emergencyof a chest pain observation unit compared with routine care.

  2. Observed Communication in Distressed Couples' Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baucom, Katherine Jane Williams

    2012-01-01

    A. (2011). Observed communication in couples two years afterA. (2011). Observed communication in couples two years afterA. (1996). The Communication Patterns Questionnaire: The

  3. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene Print Wednesday, 30 June 2010 00:00 An international team of scientists performing...

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation in mice Maryam assessment. Keywords Metabolomics Á Low dose rate radiation Á Mass spectrometry Introduction The adverse at high dose rates (HDR), but many will experience exposure to low dose rate (LDR) radiation from fallout

  5. Effects of applied voltages and dissolved oxygen on sustained power generation by microbial fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of applied voltages and dissolved oxygen on sustained power generation by microbial fuel to 0.3 mg/L during MFC operation was not found to adversely affect power generation over subsequent for up to 10 days and 10 hrs also did not affect power generation, as power rapidly returned to previous

  6. Observation of Bloch oscillations in molecular rotation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes Floß; Andrei Kamalov; Ilya Sh. Averbukh; Philip H. Bucksbaum

    2015-04-26

    The periodically kicked quantum rotor is known for non-classical effects such as quantum localisation in angular momentum space or quantum resonances in rotational excitation. These phenomena have been studied in diverse systems mimicking the kicked rotor, such as cold atoms in optical lattices, or coupled photonic structures. Recently, it was predicted that several solid state quantum localisation phenomena - Anderson localisation, Bloch oscillations, and Tamm-Shockley surface states - may manifest themselves in the rotational dynamics of laser-kicked molecules. Here, we report the first observation of rotational Bloch oscillations in a gas of nitrogen molecules kicked by a periodic train of femtosecond laser pulses. A controllable detuning from the quantum resonance creates an effective accelerating potential in angular momentum space, inducing Bloch-like oscillations of the rotational excitation. These oscillations are measured via the temporal modulation of the refractive index of the gas. Our results introduce room-temperature laser-kicked molecules as a new laboratory for studies of localisation phenomena in quantum transport.

  7. ALASKA MARINE Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALASKA MARINE MAMMAL PROGRAM 2012 #12;2012 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Observer Manual Contents Section 1: The Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Marine Mammal Stock Program 1.5 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Section 2: The Southeast Alaska Environment 2

  8. A cooperative control algorithm for camera based observational systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last several years, there has been considerable growth in camera based observation systems for a variety of safety, scientific, and recreational applications. In order to improve the effectiveness of these systems, we frequently desire the ability to increase the number of observed objects, but solving this problem is not as simple as adding more cameras. Quite often, there are economic or physical restrictions that prevent us from adding additional cameras to the system. As a result, we require methods that coordinate the tracking of objects between multiple cameras in an optimal way. In order to accomplish this goal, we present a new cooperative control algorithm for a camera based observational system. Specifically, we present a receding horizon control where we model the underlying optimal control problem as a mixed integer linear program. The benefit of this design is that we can coordinate the actions between each camera while simultaneously respecting its kinematics. In addition, we further improve the quality of our solution by coupling our algorithm with a Kalman filter. Through this integration, we not only add a predictive component to our control, but we use the uncertainty estimates provided by the filter to encourage the system to periodically observe any outliers in the observed area. This combined approach allows us to intelligently observe the entire region of interest in an effective and thorough manner.

  9. Observational evidence for return currents in solar flare loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Battaglia; Arnold O. Benz

    2008-06-11

    Context: The common flare scenario comprises an acceleration site in the corona and particle transport to the chromosphere. Using satellites available to date it has become possible to distinguish between the two processes of acceleration and transport, and study the particle propagation in flare loops in detail, as well as complete comparisons with theoretical predictions. Aims: We complete a quantitative comparison between flare hard X-ray spectra observed by RHESSI and theoretical predictions. This enables acceleration to be distinguished from transport and the nature of transport effects to be explored. Methods: Data acquired by the RHESSI satellite were analyzed using full sun spectroscopy as well as imaging spectroscopy methods. Coronal source and footpoint spectra of well observed limb events were analyzed and quantitatively compared to theoretical predictions. New concepts are introduced to existing models to resolve discrepancies between observations and predictions. Results: The standard thin-thick target solar flare model cannot explain the observations of all events. In the events presented here, propagation effects in the form of non-collisional energy loss are of importance to explain the observations. We demonstrate that those energy losses can be interpreted in terms of an electric field in the flare loop. One event seems consistent with particle propagation or acceleration in lower than average density in the coronal source. Conclusions: We find observational evidence for an electric field in flare loops caused by return currents.

  10. Genuine CP-odd Observables at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao Han; Yingchuan Li

    2009-11-16

    We discuss how to construct genuine CP-odd observables at the LHC. We classify the observables according to the even and odd properties under the naive T-transformation (\\hat{T}). There are two classes of observables of our interests: CP-odd and \\hat{T}-even; CP-odd and \\hat{T}-odd. We expect them to have broad applications to many processes in theories beyond Standard Model with CP violation. For the purpose of illustration, we use simple example of W+W- production and subsequent decays at the LHC, where the CP violation effects are parameterized by effective CP-violating operators of WWZ coupling. We find significant sensitivity to the CP-odd couplings.

  11. Short-Term Effects of Ankaferd Hemostat for Renal Artery Embolization: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozbek, Orhan; Acar, Kadir; Koc, Osman; Saritas, Kadir; Toy, Hatice; Solak, Yalcin; Ozbek, Seda; Kucukapan, Ahmet; Guler, Ibrahim; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celaleddin

    2013-04-15

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is a minimally invasive therapeutic technique that is utilized in a number of disorders. Ankaferd is a novel hemostatic agent with a new mechanism of action independent of clotting factors. We used Ankaferd for RAE in a sheep model. Seven adult female sheep were included in the study. Selective renal arteriogram using 5-F diagnostic catheter was performed to make sure that each kidney was fed by a single renal artery and the animal had normal renal vasculature. Coaxial 2.7-F microcatheter was advanced to the distal main renal artery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 2 mL of Ankaferd mixed with 2 mL of nonionic iodinated contrast agent was slowly injected. Fluoroscopy was used to observe the deceleration of flow and stagnation. Control renal angiograms were performed just after embolization. After the procedure, the animals were observed for 1 day and then sacrificed with intravenous sodium thiopental. The technical success was observed in seven of the seven animals.. After embolization procedure, none of the animals died or experienced a major systemic adverse event. On macroscopic examination of the embolized kidneys, thrombus at the level of main renal artery formed after Ankaferd embolization was more compact compared with the thrombi that was not Ankaferd-associated, which was observed elsewhere. Microscopically, majority of the renal tubular cells (80-90 %) were necrotic, and there was epithelial cell damage in a small portion of the cells (10-20 %). RAE was safe and effective in the short-term with Ankaferd in studied animals. Further studies should be conducted to better delineate the embolizing potential of this novel hemostatic agent.

  12. Observational constraints and cosmological parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antony Lewis

    2006-04-02

    I discuss the extraction of cosmological parameter constraints from the recent WMAP 3-year data, both on its own and in combination with other data. The large degeneracies in the first year data can be largely broken with the third year data, giving much better parameter constraints from WMAP alone. The polarization constraint on the optical depth is crucial to obtain the main results, including n_s < 1 in basic six-parameter models. Almost identical constraints can also be obtained using only temperature data with a prior on the optical depth. I discuss the modelling of secondaries when extracting parameter constraints, and show that the effect of CMB lensing is about as important as SZ and slightly increases the inferred value of the spectral index. Constraints on correlated matter isocurvature modes are not radically better than before, and the data is consistent with a purely adiabatic spectrum. Combining WMAP 3-year data with data from the Lyman-alpha forest suggests somewhat higher values for sigma_8 than from WMAP alone.

  13. Covariance Analysis of Symmetry Energy Observables from Heavy Ion Collision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yingxun Zhang; M. B. Tsang; Zhuxia Li

    2015-07-24

    Using covariance analysis, we quantify the correlations between the interaction parameters in a transport model and the observables commonly used to extract information of the Equation of State of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter in experiments. By simulating $^{124}$Sn+$^{124}$Sn, $^{124}$Sn+$^{112}$Sn and $^{112}$Sn+$^{112}$Sn reactions at beam energies of 50 and 120 MeV per nucleon, we have identified that the nucleon effective mass splitting are most strongly correlated to the neutrons and protons yield ratios with high kinetic energy from central collisions especially at high incident energy. The best observable to determine the slope of the symmetry energy, L, at saturation density is the isospin diffusion observable even though the correlation is not very strong ($\\sim$0.7). Similar magnitude of correlation but opposite in sign exists for isospin diffusion and nucleon isoscalar effective mass. At 120 MeV/u, the effective mass splitting and the isoscalar effective mass also have opposite correlation for the double n/p and isoscaling p/p yield ratios. By combining data and simulations at different beam energies, it should be possible to place constraints on the slope of symmetry energy (L) and effective mass splitting with reasonable uncertainties.

  14. A Method for Weak Lensing Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick Kaiser; Gordon Squires; Tom Broadhurst

    1994-11-01

    We develop and test a method for measuring the gravitational lensing induced distortion of faint background galaxies. We first describe how we locate the galaxies and measure a 2-component `polarisation' or ellipticity statistic $e_\\alpha$ whose expectation value should be proportional to the gravitational shear $\\gamma_\\alpha$. We then show that an anisotropic instrumental psf perturbs the polarisation by $\\delta e_\\alpha = P^s_{\\alpha\\beta} p_\\beta$, where $p_\\alpha$ is a measure of the psf anisotropy and $P^s_{\\alpha\\beta}$ is the `linearised smear polarisability tensor'. By estimating $P^s_{\\alpha\\beta}$ for each object we can determine $p_\\alpha$ from the foreground stars and apply a correction $-P^s_{\\alpha\\beta}p_\\beta$ to the galaxies. We test this procedure using deep high-resolution images from HST which are smeared with an anisotropic psf and then have noise added to simulate ground-based observations. We find that the procedure works very well. A similar analysis yields a linear shear polarisability tensor $P^\\gamma_{\\alpha\\beta}$ which describes the response to a gravitational shear. This calibrates the polarisation-shear relation, but only for galaxies which are well resolved. To empirically calibrate the effect of seeing on the smaller galaxies we artificially stretch HST images to simulate lensing and then degrade them as before. These experiments provide a rigorous and exacting test of the method under realistic conditions. They show that it is possible to remove the effect of instrumental psf anisotropy, and that the method provides an efficient and quantitative measurement of the gravitational shear.

  15. Searching for Novel Gravitational Effects

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Christopher Stubb

    2010-09-01

    Stubbs, Chair of the Physics Department at Harvard University, discusses experiments that search for novel gravitational effect and scientific observations about it.

  16. Physically Observable Cryptography Silvio Micali # Leonid Reyzin +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyzin, Leonid

    Physically Observable Cryptography Silvio Micali # Leonid Reyzin + November 29, 2003 Abstract.) inherent in the physical execution of any cryptographic algorithm. Such ``physical observation attacks mathematically impregnable systems. The great practicality and the inherent availability of physical attacks

  17. "Observing and Analyzing" Images From a Simulated High Redshift Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Robert J; Scannapieco, Evan; Thacker, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the high-redshift evolution of the restframe UV-luminosity function (LF) of galaxies via hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, coupled with an emulated observational astronomy pipeline that provides a direct comparison with observations. We do this by creating mock images and synthetic galaxy catalogs of approximately 100 square arcminute fields from the numerical model at redshifts ~ 4.5 to 10.4. We include the effects of dust extinction and the point spread function (PSF) for the Hubble WFC3 camera for comparison with space observations. We also include the expected zodiacal background to predict its effect on space observations, including future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). When our model catalogs are fitted to Schechter function parameters, we predict that the faint-end slope alpha of the LF evolves as alpha = -1.16 - 0.12 z over the redshift range z ~ 4.5 to 7.7, in excellent agreement with observations from e.g., Hathi et al. (2010). However, for redshifts z ...

  18. Discrimination of quantum observables using limited resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Ziman; Teiko Heinosaari

    2008-02-18

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination and identification among quantum observables. We set a general framework and investigate in details the case of qubit observables. In particular, we show that perfect discrimination with two shots is possible only for sharp qubit observables (e.g. Stern-Gerlach apparatuses) associated with mutually orthogonal directions. We also show that for sharp qubit observables associated to nonorthogonal directions unambiguous discrimination with an inconclusive result is always possible.

  19. Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II

    1995-12-31

    The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite{reg_sign} and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone.

  20. JAXA's Earth Observation Program Osamu Ochiai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JAXA's Earth Observation Program Osamu Ochiai Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency #12;1 Disasters Health Energy Climate Water 1 Japanese Main Activities of Earth Observation Weather MTSAT (JMA) Eco Earth Observation Targets (JFY) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

  1. Covariance Analysis of Symmetry Energy Observables from Heavy Ion Collision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yingxun; Li, Zhuxia

    2015-01-01

    Using covariance analysis, we quantify the correlations between the interaction parameters in a transport model and the observables commonly used to extract information of the Equation of State of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter in experiments. By simulating $^{124}$Sn+$^{124}$Sn, $^{124}$Sn+$^{112}$Sn and $^{112}$Sn+$^{112}$Sn reactions at beam energies of 50 and 120 MeV per nucleon, we have identified that the nucleon effective mass splitting are most strongly correlated to the neutrons and protons yield ratios with high kinetic energy from central collisions especially at high incident energy. The best observable to determine the slope of the symmetry energy, L, at saturation density is the isospin diffusion observable even though the correlation is not very strong ($\\sim$0.7). Similar magnitude of correlation but opposite in sign exists for isospin diffusion and nucleon isoscalar effective mass. At 120 MeV/u, the effective mass splitting and the isoscalar effective mass also have opposite correlation for the do...

  2. Ecological Applications, Scott V. Ollinger et al. Ozone Effects on Forest Productivity 7(4), 1997, pp. 1237-1251

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    pollution in the lower atmosphere is known to have adverse effects on forest vegetation, but the degree layers within the model in order to allow interaction with stand- and canopy-level factors such as light: ozone; air pollution; forest productivity; NPP; tree growth; modeling; forest canopy; photosynthesis

  3. Oil price shocks and their short-and long-term effects on the Chinese economy Weiqi Tang a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Adrian

    a historical record of US$147 per barrel in July 2008. The adverse impact of such oil-price shocksOil price shocks and their short- and long-term effects on the Chinese economy Weiqi Tang a , Libo-correction model Oil-price shocks Price transmission mechanisms Investment Output Producer/consumer price index

  4. Observable Gravitational Waves From Kinetically Modified Non-Minimal Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Pallis

    2015-10-08

    We consider Supersymmetric (SUSY) and non-SUSY models of chaotic inflation based on the simplest power-law potential with exponents n=2 and 4. We propose a convenient non-minimal coupling to gravity and a non-minimal kinetic term which ensure, mainly for n=4, inflationary observables favored by the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck results. Inflation can be attained for subplanckian inflaton values with the corresponding effective theories retaining the perturbative unitarity up to the Planck scale.

  5. Observable Gravitational Waves From Kinetically Modified Non-Minimal Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pallis, C

    2015-01-01

    We consider Supersymmetric (SUSY) and non-SUSY models of chaotic inflation based on the simplest power-law potential with exponents n=2 and 4. We propose a convenient non-minimal coupling to gravity and a non-minimal kinetic term which ensure, mainly for n=4, inflationary observables favored by the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck results. Inflation can be attained for subplanckian inflaton values with the corresponding effective theories retaining the perturbative unitarity up to the Planck scale.

  6. Observations of LSI+61303 with Swift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Holder; A. Falcone; D. Morris

    2007-09-18

    The TeV emitting high-mass X-ray binary system LSI+61303 was observed with the Swift satellite from early September 2006 to early January 2007. Many of these observations were contemporaneous with TeV observations. The data consist of observations on 24 separate days with durations ranging between 700s and 4700s, and partially cover 4.5 orbital periods of the binary system. We present here an analysis of the 0.2 to 10keV X-ray data from the Swift-XRT instrument. Contemporaneous optical data from UVOT are also available.

  7. CCD Observing Manual 49 Bay State Road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zallen, Richard

    Stars 5.6. Supernovae/Novae Patrols 5.7. Designing Your Own: Using AAVSO VSX 6.0 Observing Techniques 6

  8. EA-1964: National Ecological Observation Network (NEON)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) prepared an EA that evaluated potential environmental impacts of the proposed National Ecological Observation Network (NEON), a continental-scale network of...

  9. Observational Field Assessment of Invasiveness for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eucalyptus grandis observations..................................................... 13 Eucalyptus grandis), Eucalyptus grandis, African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and arboreal Leucaenas found on Oahu, Maui, Hawai

  10. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

    2007-01-01

    potential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterSP response during hydraulic fracturing. Citation: Moore, J.observations during hydraulic fracturing, J. Geophys. Res. ,

  11. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

    2007-01-01

    during hydraulic fracturing of Bunter sandstones, Proc. NearSP response during hydraulic fracturing. Citation: Moore, J.observations during hydraulic fracturing, J. Geophys. Res. ,

  12. Cluster Observations with the South Pole Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plagge, Thomas Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope during the last stages ofwater vapor at the South Pole relative to two otherSZ Survey Instrument . 3 The South Pole Telescope Observing

  13. Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods and Observations from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods & Observations from Savannah River Site Dennis Jackson P.E. & Timothy Jannik - Savannah River National Laboratory Teresa Eddy - Savannah...

  14. NOS Integrated Ocean Observations Systems (IOOS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observing Assets After Hurricane Sandy NOAA Award No. NA14NOS4830003 Report 05: 31 December 2014 Prepared Ocean Observing System when Hurricane Sandy passed through the region in October 2012. The objective lost during Sandy. The benefits of this work will increase the coverage and data quality of the surface

  15. NOS Integrated Ocean Observations Systems (IOOS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observing Assets After Hurricane Sandy NOAA Award No. NA14NOS4830003 Report 04: 30 September 2014 Prepared Ocean Observing System when Hurricane Sandy passed through the region in October 2012. The objective lost during Sandy. The benefits of this work will increase the coverage and data quality of the surface

  16. NOS Integrated Ocean Observations Systems (IOOS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observing Assets After Hurricane Sandy NOAA Award No. NA14NOS4830003 30 January 2014 Prepared for: NOAA IOOS Association Coastal Ocean Observing System when Hurricane Sandy passed through the region in October 2012 and ADCP assets lost during Sandy. The benefits of this work will increase the coverage and data quality

  17. NOS Integrated Ocean Observations Systems (IOOS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observing Assets After Hurricane Sandy NOAA Award No. NA14NOS4830003 Report 01: 30 April 2014 Prepared for Ocean Observing System when Hurricane Sandy passed through the region in October 2012. The objective lost during Sandy. The benefits of this work will increase the coverage and data quality of the surface

  18. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on class I areas: part II. Mitigation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-08-01

    This is the second of two articles describing a plan that was developed to mitigate the effects of acid deposition and visibility impairment in four Class I areas from the proposed Longview Power Project. Part I (published in July 2005) discussed the air quality impacts of the proposed coal-fired power plant. Part II discusses the mitigation plan. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Observed Cosmological Redshifts Support Contracting Accelerating Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-02

    The main argument that Universe is currently expanding is observed redshift increase by distance. However, this conclusion may not be correct, because cosmological redshift depends only on the scaling factors, the change in the size of the universe during the time of light propagation and is not related to the speed of observer or speed of the object emitting the light. An observer in expanding universe will measure the same redshift as observer in contracting universe with the same scaling. This was not taken into account in analysing the SN Ia data related to the universe acceleration. Possibility that universe may contract, but that the observed light is cosmologically redshifted allows for completely different set of cosmological parameters $\\Omega_M, \\Omega_{\\Lambda}$, including the solution $\\Omega_M=1, \\Omega_{\\Lambda}=0$. The contracting and in the same time accelerating universe explains observed deceleration and acceleration in SN Ia data, but also gives significantly larger value for the age of the universe, $t_0 = 24$ Gyr. This allows to reconsider classical cosmological models with $\\Lambda =0$. The contracting stage also may explain the observed association of high redshifted quasars to low redshifted galaxies.

  20. Designing a Stochastic Adaptive Impulsive Observer for Stochastic Linear and Nonlinear Impulsive Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayati, Moosa [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alwan, Mohamad; Liu Xinzhi [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Khaloozadeh, Hamid [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    State observation (estimation) is a very important issue in system analysis and control. This paper develops a new observer called Stochastic Adaptive Impulsive Observer (SAIO) for the state estimation of impulsive systems. The proposed observer is applicable to linear and nonlinear stochastic impulsive systems. In addition, the effect of parametric uncertainty is considered and unknown parameters of the system are estimated by suitable adaptation laws. Impulsive system theory, particularly stochastic Lyapunov-like function, is used to analyze the stability and convergence of the state estimations. The main advantages of the proposed observer are: 1) it gives continuous estimation from discrete time measurements of the system output, and 2) it is useful for state estimation when continuous measurements are impossible or expensive. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed observer and we believe that it has many applications in control and estimation theories.

  1. Quantum observables, Lie algebra homology and TQFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert Schwarz

    1999-04-25

    Let us consider a Lie (super)algebra $G$ spanned by $T_{\\alpha}$ where $T_{\\alpha}$ are quantum observables in BV-formalism. It is proved that for every tensor $c^{\\alpha_1...\\alpha_k}$ that determines a homology class of the Lie algebra $G$ the expression $c^{\\alpha_1...\\alpha_k}T_{\\alpha _1}...T_{\\alpha_k}$ is again a quantum observables. This theorem is used to construct quantum observables in BV sigma-model. We apply this construction to explain Kontsevich's results about the relation between homology of the Lie algebra of Hamiltonian vector fields and topological invariants of manifolds.

  2. Observed 1970-2005 cooling of summer daytime temperatures in coastal California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebassi, B.

    2009-01-01

    sources and their use in heat island research. LBNL Tech.for California urban heat islands. Bulletin Amer. Meteor.Observations of the urban heat island effect in New York

  3. Observation of magnetic field lines in the vicinity of a superconductor with the naked eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshihiko Saito

    2008-11-04

    Meissner effect and pinning effect are clearly observed with the naked eye. A GdBaCuO high-temperature superconductor (HTS) disk fabricated by Nippon Steel Corporation, a 100mm cubic NdFeB sintered magnet, and iron wires coated by colored are used. When the HTS is put in the magnetic field of the magnet, it can be observed by the wires that the magnetic field lines are excluded from the superconductor (Meissner effect) as well as are pinned in the superconductor (pinning effect).

  4. Initial Helioseismic Observations by Hinode/SOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Sekii; Alexander G. Kosovichev; Junwei Zhao; Saku Tsuneta; Hiromoto Shibahashi; Thomas E. Berger; Kiyoshi Ichimoto; Yukio Katsukawa; Bruce W. Lites; Shin'ichi Nagata; Toshifumi Shimizu; Richard A. Shine; Yoshinori Suematsu; Theodore D. Tarbell; Alan M. Title

    2007-09-12

    Results from initial helioseismic observations by Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode are reported. It has been demonstrated that intensity oscillation data from Broadband Filter Imager can be used for various helioseismic analyses. The k-omega power spectra, as well as corresponding time-distance cross-correlation function that promises high-resolution time-distance analysis below 6-Mm travelling distance, were obtained for G-band and CaII-H data. Subsurface supergranular patterns have been observed from our first time-distance analysis. The results show that the solar oscillation spectrum is extended to much higher frequencies and wavenumbers, and the time-distance diagram is extended to much shorter travel distances and times than they were observed before, thus revealing great potential for high-resolution helioseismic observations from Hinode.

  5. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigel, Alexander; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spiders, to predator inspection by sticklebacks and to territorial defense by lions, demonstrating animal behavior as a new type of game theoretical equilibrium. Games animals play may be derived unequivocally from their observable behavior, the reconstruction, however, can be subjected to fundamental limitations due to our inability to observe all information exchange mechanisms (communication).

  6. New York/Region Opinions Editorial Observer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pianka, Eric R.

    New York/Region Opinions Editorial Observer Grasping the Depth of Time as a First Step of us. The idea of such quantities of time is extremely new. Humans began to understand the true scale

  7. Observational learning in an uncertain world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acemoglu, Daron

    We study a model of observational learning in social networks in the presence of uncertainty about agents' type distributions. Each individual receives a private noisy signal about a payoff-relevant state of the world, and ...

  8. Emerging local warming signals in observational data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahlstein, Irina

    The global average temperature of the Earth has increased, but year-to-year variability in local climates impedes the identification of clear changes in observations and human experience. For a signal to become obvious in ...

  9. Spectrum of Controlling and Observing Complex Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Gang; Barzel, Baruch; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    Observing and controlling complex networks are of paramount interest for understanding complex physical, biological and technological systems. Recent studies have made important advances in identifying sensor or driver nodes, through which we can observe or control a complex system. Yet, the observation uncertainty induced by measurement noise and the energy cost required for control continue to be significant challenges in practical applications. Here we show that the control energy cost and the observation uncertainty vary widely in different directions of the state space. In particular, we find that if all nodes are directly driven, control is energetically feasible, as the maximum energy cost increases sublinearly with the system size. If, however, we aim to control a system by driving only a single node, control in some directions is energetically prohibitive, increasing exponentially with the system size. For the cases in between, the maximum energy decays exponentially if we increase the number of driv...

  10. STATUS, EVALUATION AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AUTOMATED CLOUD OBSERVATIONS IN THE NETHERLANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    STATUS, EVALUATION AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AUTOMATED CLOUD OBSERVATIONS IN THE NETHERLANDS Wiel infrared radiometer. The evaluation of the automated cloud observations will address: (i) effects every 10 minutes. In 2006 and 2007 LD-40 sensors will replace the ceilometers at 7 Dutch Royal Air Force

  11. Observing motor learning produces somatosensory change Nicol F. Bernardi,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malfait, Nicole

    Observing motor learning produces somatosensory change Nicolò F. Bernardi,1,2 Mohammad Darainy,1, Darainy M, Bricolo E, Ostry DJ. Observing motor learning produces somatosensory change. J Neurophysiol 110 of others has been shown to affect motor learning, but does it have effects on sensory systems as well

  12. Possibility of Observing Spiral Scattering of Relativistic Particles in a Bent Crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gennady V. Kovalev

    2014-09-25

    The peak position, impact-parameter range, and optimal conditions for observing spiral scattering of relativistic particles in a uniformly bent crystal are estimated. The existence of spiral scattering with a square-root singularity is pointed out. In this case, the secondary process of volume capture to the channeling mode is absent and the conditions for observing this effect are most favorable.

  13. Observation of the 0-fs pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Observation of the 0-fs pulse By W.H. Knox, R.S. Knox,J.F.Hoose, and R.N. Zare T he quest for the world's shor test laser pulse has led to a re markable pace of develop ment in ultrafast laser technology. Al though pulses of only a few cycles duration have been made, clearly the observation of a 0-fs

  14. Gamma-Ray Line Observations with RHESSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David M. Smith

    2004-04-30

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has been observing gamma-ray lines from the Sun and the Galaxy since its launch in February 2002. Here I summarize the status of RHESSI observations of solar lines (nuclear de-excitation, neutron capture, and positron annihilation), the lines of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe from the inner Galaxy, and the search for positron annihilation in novae.

  15. Centrifugal force reversal from the perspective of rigidly rotating observer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giorgi Dalakishvili

    2011-12-26

    In previous studies the dynamics of the relativistic particle moving along the rotating pipe was investigated. The simple gedanken experiment was considered. It was shown that at large enough velocities a centrifugal force acting on the bead changes its usual sign and attracts towards the rotation axis. The authors studied motion of the particle along the rotating straight pipe in the frame of the observer located in the center of rotation, also dynamics of centrifugally accelerated relativistic particle was studied in the laboratory frame. In the both cases it was shown that centrifugal force changes sign. Recently the problem was studied in the frame of stationary observers. It was argued that centrifugal acceleration reversal is not frame invariant effect. In the present paper we consider motion of particle along the rotating straight line in the frame of an arbitrary stationary observer located at certain distance form the center of rotation and rigidly rotating with constant angular velocity. It is shown that any stationary observer could detect reversal of centrifugal acceleration.

  16. Selecting Observation Platforms for Optimized Anomaly Detectability under Unreliable Partial Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen-Chiao Lin; Humberto E. Garcia; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2011-06-01

    Diagnosers for keeping track on the occurrences of special events in the framework of unreliable partially observed discrete-event dynamical systems were developed in previous work. This paper considers observation platforms consisting of sensors that provide partial and unreliable observations and of diagnosers that analyze them. Diagnosers in observation platforms typically perform better as sensors providing the observations become more costly or increase in number. This paper proposes a methodology for finding an observation platform that achieves an optimal balance between cost and performance, while satisfying given observability requirements and constraints. Since this problem is generally computational hard in the framework considered, an observation platform optimization algorithm is utilized that uses two greedy heuristics, one myopic and another based on projected performances. These heuristics are sequentially executed in order to find best observation platforms. The developed algorithm is then applied to an observation platform optimization problem for a multi-unit-operation system. Results show that improved observation platforms can be found that may significantly reduce the observation platform cost but still yield acceptable performance for correctly inferring the occurrences of special events.

  17. Observing the Rosensweig instability of a quantum ferrofluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kadau, Holger; Wenzel, Matthias; Wink, Clarissa; Maier, Thomas; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Ferrofluids show unusual hydrodynamic effects due to the magnetic nature of their constituents. For increasing magnetization a classical ferrofluid undergoes a Rosensweig instability and creates self-organized ordered surface structures or droplet crystals. A Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipolar interactions is a quantum ferrofluid that also shows superfluidity. The field of dipolar quantum gases is motivated by the search for new phases that break continuous symmetries. The simultaneous breaking of continuous symmetries like the phase invariance for the superfluid state and the translational symmetry for a crystal provides the basis of novel states of matter. However, interaction-induced crystallization in a superfluid has not been observed. Here we use in situ imaging to directly observe the spontaneous transition from an unstructured superfluid to an ordered arrangement of droplets in an atomic dysprosium Bose-Einstein condensate. By utilizing a Feshbach resonance to control the interparticle inter...

  18. Observations and modelling of Helium lines in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Paulo J A; Labrosse, Nicolas; Kerr, Graham S

    2015-01-01

    We explore the response of the He II 304 {\\AA} and He I 584 {\\AA} line intensities to electron beam heating in solar flares using radiative hydrodynamic simulations. Comparing different electron beams parameters, we found that the intensities of both He lines are very sensitive to the energy flux deposited in the chromosphere, or more specifically to the heating rate, with He II 304 {\\AA} being more sensitive to the heating than He I 584 {\\AA}. Therefore, the He line ratio increases for larger heating rates in the chromosphere. A similar trend is found in observations, using SDO/EVE He irradiance ratios and estimates of the electron beam energy rate obtained from hard X-ray data. From the simulations, we also found that spectral index of the electrons can affect the He ratio but a similar effect was not found in the observations.

  19. Observational constraints on the curvaton model of inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Gordon; Antony Lewis

    2003-04-26

    Simple curvaton models can generate a mixture of of correlated primordial adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. The baryon and cold dark matter isocurvature modes differ only by an observationally null mode in which the two perturbations almost exactly compensate, and therefore have proportional effects at linear order. We discuss the CMB anisotropy in general mixed models, and give a simple approximate analytic result for the large scale CMB anisotropy. Working numerically we use the latest WMAP observations and a variety of other data to constrain the curvaton model. We find that models with an isocurvature contribution are not favored relative to simple purely adiabatic models. However a significant primordial totally correlated baryon isocurvature perturbation is not ruled out. Certain classes of curvaton model are thereby ruled out, other classes predict enough non-Gaussianity to be detectable by the Planck satellite. In the appendices we review the relevant equations in the covariant formulation and give series solutions for the radiation dominated era.

  20. The web-PLOP observation prioritisation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin Snodgrass; Yiannis Tsapras; Rachel Street; Daniel Bramich; Keith Horne; Martin Dominik; Alasdair Allan

    2008-05-14

    We present a description of the automated system used by RoboNet to prioritise follow up observations of microlensing events to search for planets. The system keeps an up-to-date record of all public data from OGLE and MOA together with any existing RoboNet data and produces new PSPL fits whenever new data arrives. It then uses these fits to predict the current or future magnitudes of events, and selects those to observe which will maximise the probability of detecting planets for a given telescope and observing time. The system drives the RoboNet telescopes automatically based on these priorities, but it is also designed to be used interactively by human observers. The prioritisation options, such as telescope/instrument parameters, observing conditions and available time can all be controlled via a web-form, and the output target list can also be customised and sorted to show the parameters that the user desires. The interactive interface is available at http://www.artemis-uk.org/web-PLOP/

  1. Numerical Model Construction with Closed Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix Dietrich; Gerta Köster; Hans-Joachim Bungartz

    2015-10-18

    Performing analysis, optimization and control using simulations of many-particle systems is computationally demanding when no macroscopic model for the dynamics of the variables of interest is available. In case observations on the macroscopic scale can only be produced via legacy simulator code or live experiments, finding a model for these macroscopic variables is challenging. In this paper, we employ time-lagged embedding theory to construct macroscopic numerical models from output data of a black box, such as a simulator or live experiments. Since the state space variables of the constructed, coarse model are dynamically closed and observable by an observation function, we call these variables closed observables. The approach is an online-offline procedure, as model construction from observation data is performed offline and the new model can then be used in an online phase, independent of the original. We illustrate the theoretical findings with numerical models constructed from time series of a two-dimensional ordinary differential equation system, and from the density evolution of a transport-diffusion system. Applicability is demonstrated in a real-world example, where passengers leave a train and the macroscopic model for the density flow onto the platform is constructed with our approach. If only the macroscopic variables are of interest, simulation runtimes with the numerical model are three orders of magnitude lower compared to simulations with the original fine scale model. We conclude with a brief discussion of possibilities of numerical model construction in systematic upscaling, network optimization and uncertainty quantification.

  2. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  3. USAGE OF RADARS FOR WIND ENERGY APPICATIONS Determine the benefit of using radar observations for wind energy applications by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USAGE OF RADARS FOR WIND ENERGY APPICATIONS TASK: Determine the benefit of using radar observations for wind energy applications by analyzing i) the resolution effects and ii) sensitivity effects of weather radar systems. MOTIVATION: Wind energy applications strongly focus high-resolution wind observations

  4. Observations of Radio Giant Pulses with GAVRT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Radio giant pulses provide a unique opportunity to study the pulsar radio emission mechanism in exquisite detail. Previous studies have revealed a wide range of properties and phenomena, including extraordinarily high brightness temperatures, sub-nanosecond emission features, and banded dynamic spectra. New measurements of giant pulse characteristics can help guide and test theoretical emission models. To this end, an extensive observation campaign has begun which will provide more than 500 hours on the Crab with a 34-meter antenna located in California, USA. The observations are being done as part of an educational outreach program called the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT). This antenna has a novel wide bandwidth receiver which provides up to 8 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the range of 2.5 to 14 GHz. These observations will provide detailed information about the variability, amplitude distribution, and detailed frequency structure of radio giant pulses. In addition, a database of pulses ...

  5. Black Holes: from Speculations to Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas W. Baumgarte

    2006-04-13

    This paper provides a brief review of the history of our understanding and knowledge of black holes. Starting with early speculations on ``dark stars'' I discuss the Schwarzschild "black hole" solution to Einstein's field equations and the development of its interpretation from "physically meaningless" to describing the perhaps most exotic and yet "most perfect" macroscopic object in the universe. I describe different astrophysical black hole populations and discuss some of their observational evidence. Finally I close by speculating about future observations of black holes with the new generation of gravitational wave detectors.

  6. Observables can be tailored to change the entanglement of any pure state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harshman, N. L.; Ranade, Kedar S.

    2011-07-15

    We show that, for a finite-dimensional Hilbert space, there exist observables that induce a tensor product structure such that the entanglement properties of any pure state can be tailored. In particular, we provide an explicit, finite method for constructing observables in an unstructured d-dimensional system so that an arbitrary known pure state has any Schmidt decomposition with respect to an induced bipartite tensor product structure. In effect, this article demonstrates that, in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space, entanglement properties can always be shifted from the state to the observables and all pure states are equivalent as entanglement resources in the ideal case of complete control of observables.

  7. Observation of Beam ION Instability in Spear3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teytelman, D.; /Dimtel, Redwood City; Cai, Y.; Corbett, W.J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Safranek, J.A.; Schmerge, J.F.; Sebek, J.J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    Weak vertical coupled bunch instability with oscillation amplitude at {mu}m level has been observed in SPEAR3. The instability becomes stronger when there is a vacuum pressure rise by partially turning off vacuum pumps and it becomes weaker when the vertical beam emittance is increased by turning off the skew quadrupole magnets. These confirmed that the instability was driven by ions in the vacuum. The threshold of the beam ion instability when running with a single bunch train is just under 200 mA. This paper presents the comprehensive observations of the beam ion instability in SPEAR3. The effects of vacuum pressure, beam current, beam filling pattern, chromaticity, beam emittance and bunch-by-bunch feedback are investigated in great detail. In an electron accelerator, ions generated from the residual gas molecules can be trapped by the beam. Then these trapped ions interact resonantly with the beam and cause beam instability and emittance blow-up. Most existing light sources use a long single bunch train filling pattern, followed by a long gap to avoid multi-turn ion trapping. However, such a gap does not preclude ions from accumulating during one passage of the single bunch train beam, and those ions can still cause a Fast Ion Instability (FII) as predicted by Raubenheimer and Zimmermann. FII has been observed in ALS, and PLS by artificially increasing the vacuum pressure by injecting helium gas into the vacuum chamber or by turning off the ion pumps in order to observe the beam ion instability. In some existing rings, for instance B factory, the beam ion instability was observed at the beginning of the machine operation after a long period of shutdown and then it automatically disappeared when the vacuum was better. However, when the beam emittance becomes smaller, the FII can occur at nominal conditions as observed in PLS, SOLEIL and SSRF. This paper reports the observations of beam ion instabilities in SPEAR3 under different condition during a period of one year, which includes single bunch train instability (FII) and multi-bunch train instability. Note that the instability may be not the same even with the same beam due to the change of the vacuum with time. SPEAR3 has a circumference of 234 m with a harmonic number of 372. SPEAR3 runs with six bunch train filling pattern in order to suppress the possible beam ion instability. Table 1 lists the main parameters of SPEAR3. The vacuum of SPEAR3 ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 nTorr, which varies from section to section.

  8. VLA multifrequency observations of RS CVn binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Garcia-Sanchez; J. M. Paredes; M. Ribo

    2003-03-21

    We present multiepoch Very Large Array (VLA) observations at 1.4 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 8.5 GHz and 14.9 GHz for a sample of eight RS CVn binary systems. Circular polarization measurements of these systems are also reported. Most of the fluxes observed are consistent with incoherent emission from mildly relativistic electrons. Several systems show an increase of the degree of circular polarization with increasing frequency in the optically thin regime, in conflict with predictions by gyrosynchrotron models. We observed a reversal in the sense of circular polarization with increasing frequency in three non-eclipsing systems: EI Eri, DM Uma and HD 8358. We find clear evidence for coherent plasma emission at 1.4 GHz in the quiescent spectrum of HD 8358 during the helicity reversal. The degrees of polarization of the other two systems could also be accounted for by a coherent emission process. The observations of ER Vul revealed two U-shaped flux spectra at the highest frequencies. The U-shape of the spectra may be accounted for by an optically thin gyrosynchrotron source for the low frequency part whereas the high frequency part is dominated by a thermal emission component.

  9. Equivalences on Observable Processes Irek Ulidowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulidowski, Irek

    and finitely observable. We define copy+refusal testing equivalence as indistinguishabil- ity by copy, provided their operational meaning is defined by realistically implementable transition rules. Process behaviour which can be established by so-called local testing but not global testing is called locally

  10. Experimental Observation of Bonding Electrons in Proteins*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental Observation of Bonding Electrons in Proteins* (Received for publication, April 15 enables bonding details of electron distributions in proteins to be revealed experimentally for the first time. We move one step closer to imaging directly the fine details of the electronic structure on which

  11. Energy flow observables in hadronic collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Hautmann

    2012-05-24

    We present recent QCD calculations of energy flow distributions associated with the production of jets at wide rapidity separations in high-energy hadron collisions, and discuss the role of these observables to analyze contributions from parton showering and from multiple parton collisions.

  12. OH Maser Observations of Planetary Nebulae Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. M. Deacon; J. M. Chapman; A. J. Green

    2004-06-08

    We present OH maser observations at 1612, 1665, 1667, and 1720 MHz for 86 post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars selected from a survey of 1612 MHz maser sources in the Galactic Plane. The observations were taken with the Parkes Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array between 2002 September and 2003 August. Post-AGB stars are the precursors to planetary nebulae, the diverse morphological range of which is unexplained. The maser observations were taken to investigate the onset and incidence of wind asymmetries during the post-AGB phase. We re-detected all 86 sources at 1612 MHz while 27 sources were detected at 1665 and 45 at 1667 MHz. One source was re-detected at 1720 MHz. We present a classification scheme for the maser profiles and show that 25% of sources in our sample are likely to have asymmetric or bipolar outflows. From a comparison of the maser and far-infrared properties we find that there is a likely trend in the shape of the maser profiles with some sources evolving from double-peaked to irregular to fully bipolar profiles. A subset of higher-mass sources stand out as having almost no mainline emission and mostly double-peaked profiles. At least 25% of sources in the sample are variable at one or more of the frequencies observed. We also confirm a previously-noted 1667 MHz overshoot phenomenon.

  13. GEO Secretariat Global Earth Observing System of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Epidemiology 3. Energy Management 4. Climate Variability & Change 5. Water Management 6. Weather Forecasting 7© GEO Secretariat Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS): Biodiversity, Ecosystems and GEO BON GEO Forest Monitoring Symposium 4 November 2008 Douglas M. Muchoney, Ph.D. U.S. Geological

  14. 8) Stratospheric equatorial variability a) Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lott, Francois

    speed. Phase lines inclined eastward when altitude increases indicating upward propation Signal field) Westward phase propagation but eastward group propagation Phase lines inclined westward Signal;5 Satellites wind observations (UARS, Swinbak et Ortland 1997) The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (low stratosphere

  15. Uncertain Probabilistic Roadmaps with Observations Richard Dearden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Xin

    Uncertain Probabilistic Roadmaps with Observations Richard Dearden School of Computer Science Science University of Birmingham Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK mlk@cs.bham.ac.uk Abstract Probabilistic roadmaps. Introduction Probabilistic Roadmaps (PRM) are a popular technique for path planning in high dimensional spaces

  16. Observation of D(0) ? K+pi-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ammar, Raymond G.; Ball, S.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Copty, N.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, Nowhan; Lam, H.

    1994-03-01

    Using the CLEO II data sample, with an integrated luminosity of 1.8 fb-1 at and near the UPSILON(4S) resonance, we have observed a signal for D0 --> K+pi-, which could be due to either D0D0BAR mixing or doubly Cabibbo suppressed decay, or a...

  17. Timed Automata with Observers under Energy Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    of schedules given an initial energy level of one. For one-clock priced timed automata both the lowerTimed Automata with Observers under Energy Constraints Patricia Bouyer Lab. Spécification et@lsv.ens-cachan.fr ABSTRACT In this paper we study one-clock priced timed automata in which prices can grow linearly ( p = k

  18. Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs (Invited Paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs (Invited Paper) Andrew J. Whalen*t, Sean N. Brennan Engineering, + Engineering Science and Mechanics, Neurosurgery, and Physics, Penn State University, University) neuronal networks as a function of 1) the connection topology and sym metry, 2) the measured nodes, and 3

  19. Observational constraints on Tachyon and DBI inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sheng; Liddle, Andrew R., E-mail: sl277@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: arl@roe.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We present a systematic method for evaluation of perturbation observables in non-canonical single-field inflation models within the slow-roll approximation, which allied with field redefinitions enables predictions to be established for a wide range of models. We use this to investigate various non-canonical inflation models, including Tachyon inflation and DBI inflation. The Lambert W function will be used extensively in our method for the evaluation of observables. In the Tachyon case, in the slow-roll approximation the model can be approximated by a canonical field with a redefined potential, which yields predictions in better agreement with observations than the canonical equivalents. For DBI inflation models we consider contributions from both the scalar potential and the warp geometry. In the case of a quartic potential, we find a formula for the observables under both non-relativistic (sound speed c{sub s}{sup 2} ? 1) and relativistic behaviour (c{sub s}{sup 2} || 1) of the scalar DBI inflaton. For a quadratic potential we find two branches in the non-relativistic c{sub s}{sup 2} ? 1 case, determined by the competition of model parameters, while for the relativistic case c{sub s}{sup 2} ? 0, we find consistency with results already in the literature. We present a comparison to the latest Planck satellite observations. Most of the non-canonical models we investigate, including the Tachyon, are better fits to data than canonical models with the same potential, but we find that DBI models in the slow-roll regime have difficulty in matching the data.

  20. The Galactic cosmic-ray Sun shadow observed by HAWC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enriquez, O

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic field of the Solar corona is difficult to measure directly. However, indirect observations of the solar corona are possible using the deficit in flux of cosmic rays coming from the direction of the Sun. Low-energy cosmic rays (~GeV) are deflected by the inner magnetic field of the Sun and the interplanetary magnetic field frozen into the solar wind. In contrast, high-energy cosmic rays (~TeV and above) are absorbed in the Sun's photosphere producing a shadow in the Sun's nominal position viewed from Earth. Several ground-based instruments have observed the effects of the heliospheric magnetic field on the size of the sun shadow and its position. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is an air shower array located in the central region of Mexico that observes TeV cosmic rays at a rate of about 15 kHz. in this work, we present preliminary images of the sun shadow from data collected by HAWC during 2013 and 2014 for different energy ranges.

  1. HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON LASER ENGINEERED NET SHAPE (LENS) REPAIRED WELDMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P; Thad Adams, T

    2006-10-06

    New methods of repairing mis-machined components are always of interest. In this study, an innovative method using Laser Engineered Net Shape{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) forming was used to repair intentionally mis-machined test articles. The components were repaired and subsequently hydrogen charged and burst tested. The LENS repair did not have an adverse effect on the solid state weld process that was used to repair the components. Hydrogen charged samples failed in a similar manner to the uncharged samples. Overall, the prospects for LENS repairing similar products are favorable and further work is encouraged.

  2. Observations of Solids in Protoplanetary Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the state of research that employs astronomical (remote sensing) observations of solids ("dust") in young circumstellar disks to learn about planet formation. The intention is for it to serve as an accessible, introductory, pedagogical resource for junior scientists interested in the subject. After some historical background and a basic observational primer, the focus is shifted to the three fundamental topics that broadly define the field: (1) demographics -- the relationships between disk properties and the characteristics of their environments and hosts; (2) structure -- the spatial distribution of disk material and its associated physical conditions and composition; and (3) evolution -- the signposts of key changes in disk properties, including the growth and migration of solids and the impact of dynamical interactions with young planetary systems. Based on the state of the art results in these areas, suggestions are made for potentially fruitful lines of work in the near future.

  3. Observables in Strongly Coupled Anisotropic Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitrios Giataganas

    2013-12-30

    We review certain anisotropic gauge/gravity dualities, focusing more on a theory with space dependent axion term. Then we discuss and also present some new results for several observables: the static potential and force, the imaginary part of the static potential, the quark dipole in the plasma wind, the drag force and diffusion time, the jet quenching of heavy and light quarks, the energy loss of rotating quarks, the photon production and finally the violation of the holographic viscosity over entropy bound. The corresponding weakly coupled results are also discussed. Finally we investigate the bounds of the parameters of the current strongly coupled anisotropic theories attempting to match them with the observed quark-gluon plasma and report the problems appear.

  4. Fermi Observations of Gamma-ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohno, Masanori [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    The gamma-ray emission mechanism of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are still unknown. Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope successfully detected high-energy (> 100 MeV) emission from 17 GRBs since its launch. Fermi revealed the distinct temporal behaviors and extra spectral component from high-energy emission. These new observational results are driving many theoretical implications, such as leptonic, hadronic and afterglow origin. The highest energy photon detected by Fermi gives a constraint on the bulk Lorentz factor of the ultra-relativistic jets of GRBs. The impact of the Fermi GRB observations extends not only to the GRB-related issues but also to the outside GRB physics, such as quantum gravity and model of the extra galactic background light.

  5. First direct observation of muon antineutrino disappearance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adamson, P.

    2011-07-05

    This letter reports the first direct observation of muon antineutrino disappearance. The MINOS experiment has taken data with an accelerator beam optimized for ??? production, accumulating an exposure of 1.71 x 1020 protons on target. In the Far Detector, 97 charged current ??? events are observed. The no-oscillation hypothesis predicts 156 events and is excluded at 6.3?. The best fit to oscillation yields |?m?2| = (3.36-0.40 +0.46(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10-3 eV2, sin2(2 ??) = 0.86-0.12+0.11 (stat.) ± 0.01(syst.). The MINOS ?? and ??? measurements are consistent at the 2.0% confidence level, assuming identical underlying oscillation parameters.

  6. Observational constraints on braneworld chaotic inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew R Liddle; Anthony J Smith

    2003-08-13

    We examine observational constraints on chaotic inflation models in the Randall-Sundrum Type II braneworld. If inflation takes place in the high-energy regime, the perturbations produced by the quadratic potential are further from scale-invariance than in the standard cosmology, in the quartic case more or less unchanged, while for potentials of greater exponent the trend is reversed. We test these predictions against a data compilation including the WMAP measurements of microwave anisotropies and the 2dF galaxy power spectrum. While in the standard cosmology the quartic potential is at the border of what the data allow and all higher powers excluded, we find that in the high-energy regime of braneworld inflation even the quadratic case is under strong observational pressure. We also investigate the intermediate regime where the brane tension is comparable to the inflationary energy scale, where the deviations from scale-invariance prove to be greater.

  7. APS DPP, Savannah 2004 Tomographic Observation ofTomographic Observation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    -formed FRC, or generate a FRC from a pre-ionized plasma The TCS chamber is constructed of a 40-cm radiusAPS DPP, Savannah 2004 Tomographic Observation ofTomographic Observation of FRC Rotational Modes and Stabilization byFRC Rotational Modes and Stabilization by Various RMF Antenna Geometries in TCSVarious RMF

  8. LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

  9. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  10. Cosmological inference using gravitational wave observations alone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Del Pozzo; Tjonnie G. F. Li; Chris Messenger

    2015-06-22

    Gravitational waves emitted during the coalescence of binary neutron star systems are self-calibrating signals. As such they can provide a direct measurement of the luminosity distance to a source without the need for a cosmic distance scale ladder. In general, however, the corresponding redshift measurement needs to be obtained electromagnetically since it is totally degenerate with the total mass of the system. Nevertheless, recent Fisher matrix studies has shown that if information about the equation of state of the neutron stars is available, it is indeed possible to extract redshift information from the gravitational wave signal alone. Therefore, measuring the cosmological parameters in pure gravitational wave fashion is possible. Furthermore, the huge number of sources potentially observable by the Einstein Telescope has led to speculations that the gravitational wave measurement is potentially competitive with traditional methods. The Einstein telescope is a conceptual study for a third generation gravitational wave detector which is designed to yield detections of $10^3-10^7$ binary neutron star systems per year. This study presents the first Bayesian investigation of the accuracy with which the cosmological parameters can be measured using observations of binary neutron star systems by the Einstein Telescope with the one year of observations. We find by direct simulation of $10^3$ detections of binary neutron stars that, within our simplifying assumptions, $H_0,\\Omega_m,\\Omega_\\Lambda,w_0$ and $w_1$ can be measured at the $95\\%$ level with an accuracy of $\\sim 8\\%,65\\%,39\\%,80\\%$ and $90\\%$, respectively. We also find, by extrapolation, that a measurement accuracy comparable with current measurements by Planck is reached for a number of observed events $O(10^{6-7})$

  11. X-ray Observations of Mrk 231

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Turner

    1998-08-10

    This paper presents new X-ray observations of Mrk 231, an active galaxy of particular interest due to its large infrared luminosity and the presence of several blueshifted broad absorption line (BAL) systems, a phenomenon observed in a small fraction of QSOs. A ROSAT HRI image of Mrk 231 is presented, this shows an extended region of soft X-ray emission, covering several tens of kpc, consistent with the extent of the host galaxy. An ASCA observation of Mrk 231 is also presented. Hard X-rays are detected but the data show no significant variability in X-ray flux. The hard X-ray continuum is heavily attenuated and X-ray column estimates range from ~ 2 x 10^{22} - 10^{23} cm^{-2} depending on whether the material is assumed to be neutral or ionized, and on the model assumed for the extended X-ray component. These ASCA data provide only the second hard X-ray spectrum of a BAL AGN presented to date. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution of the source is discussed. While Mrk 231 is X-ray weak compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies, it has an optical-to-X-ray spectrum typical of a QSO.

  12. Chaos, Dirac observables and constraint quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianca Dittrich; Philipp A. Hoehn; Tim A. Koslowski; Mike I. Nelson

    2015-08-08

    There is good evidence that full general relativity is non-integrable or even chaotic. We point out the severe repercussions: differentiable Dirac observables and a reduced phase space do not exist in non-integrable constrained systems and are thus unlikely to occur in a generic general relativistic context. Instead, gauge invariant quantities generally become discontinuous, thus not admitting Poisson-algebraic structures and posing serious challenges to a quantization. Non-integrability also renders the paradigm of relational dynamics cumbersome, thereby straining common interpretations of the dynamics. We illustrate these conceptual and technical challenges with simple toy models. In particular, we exhibit reparametrization invariant models which fail to be integrable and, as a consequence, can either not be quantized with standard methods or lead to sick quantum theories without a semiclassical limit. These troubles are qualitatively distinct from semiclassical subtleties in unconstrained quantum chaos and can be directly traced back to the scarcity of Dirac observables. As a possible resolution, we propose to change the method of quantization by refining the configuration space topology until the generalized observables become continuous in the new topology and can acquire a quantum representation. This leads to the polymer quantization method underlying loop quantum cosmology and gravity. Remarkably, the polymer quantum theory circumvents the problems of the quantization with smooth topology, indicating that non-integrability and chaos, while a challenge, may not be a fundamental obstruction for quantum gravity.

  13. Rayleigh lidar observations of mesosphere temperature structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meriwether, J.W.; Dao, P.D.; Mcnutt, R.T.; Klemetti, W.; Moskowitz, W.; Davidson, G. [Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (United States)]|[PhotoMetrics, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Ground-based observations of atmospheric density profiles to 92 km were obtained for four successive seasons between summer 1989 and spring 1990. These results were obtained with a powerful Rayleigh lidar facility located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Dayton, Ohio). This instrument combined a 14-W XeF laser transmitter with a 2.54-m receiver mirror to observe returns from altitudes between 40 and 95 km. Analysis of the scale height dependence of the density profiles produced temperatures with a measurement error of about 5 K (approximately 2.5%) at 90 km when the lidar data was averaged for 20 min. and smoothed in height over 2.7 km. Examination of these profiles for the total of 18 nights showed that there often existed in the mesophere a layer of enhanced temperatures when compared with the U.S. standard profile. The layer centroid height was about 85 km for summer and 70 to 75 km for winter. Data obtained for the equinoctial periods showed the amplitude of these layers to be weak. The winter temperature profiles showed evidence for long-period waves passing through the region of the thermal anomaly while the equinox profiles revealed more sporadic wave activity with shorter vertical wavelengths. Both the winter and summer temperature data displayed regions where the observed lapse rate approached the adiabatic lapse rate. In the summer the wave activity near the iversion layer was weak.

  14. Infrared Freezing of Euclidean QCD observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul M. Brooks; C. J. Maxwell

    2006-08-22

    We consider the leading one-chain term in a skeleton expansion for QCD observables and show that for energies Q^2>\\Lambda^2, where Q^2=\\Lambda^2 is the Landau pole in the coupling, the skeleton expansion result is equivalent to the standard Borel integral representation, with ambiguities related to infrared (IR) renormalons. For Q^2freezing behaviour, vanishing at Q^2=0. Finiteness at Q^2=\\Lambda^2 implies specific relations between the residues of IR and UV renormalons in the Borel plane. These relations, only one of which has previously been noted (though it remained unexplained) are shown to follow from the continuity of the characteristic function in the skeleton expansion. By considering the compensation of non-perturbative and perturbative ambiguities we are led to a result for the Q^2 dependence of these observables at all Q^2, in which there is a single undetermined non-perturbative parameter, and which involves the skeleton expansion characteristic function. The observables freeze to zero in the infrared. We briefly consider the freezing behaviour of the Minkowskian R_{e+e-} ratio.

  15. Observational consequencies of baryonic gaseous dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shchekinov, Yu A

    1998-01-01

    Possible observational consequencies of dark matter in the Galaxy in the form of dense molecular gas clouds -- clumpuscules of masses $M_c\\sim 10^{-3}~\\msun$ and radii $R_c\\sim 3\\times 10^{13}$ cm -- are considered. Recent models of the extreme scattering events -- refraction of radio-waves from quasars in dense plasma clumps in the Galactic halo -- definitely show on such clouds as possible dark matter candidate. We arugue that collisions of such clumpuscules are quite frequent: around $1-10~\\msun$ a year can be ejected in the intestellar medium due to collisions. Optical continuum and 21 cm emissions from post-collisional gas are found to be observable. We show that clumpuscules can form around O stars HII regions of sizes $R\\sim 30$ pc and emission measure $EM\\simeq 20$ cm$^{-6}$ pc, and can also be observable in $H_\\alpha$ emission. Evaporation of clumpuscules by external ionising radiation can be a substantial mass source. From requirement that the total mass input on the Hubble time cannot exceed the lu...

  16. Observational consequences of baryonic gaseous dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. A. Shchekinov

    1998-12-03

    Possible observational consequences of dark matter in the Galaxy in the form of dense molecular gas clouds - clumpuscules of masses $M_c\\sim 10^{-3} \\msun$ and radii $R_c\\sim 3\\times 10^{13}$ cm - are considered. Recent models of the extreme scattering events - refraction of radio-waves from quasars in dense plasma clumps in the Galactic halo - definitely show on such clouds as possible dark matter candidate. We argue that collisions of such clumpuscules are quite frequent: around $1-10 \\msun$ a year can be ejected in the interstellar medium due to collisions. Optical continuum and 21 cm emissions from post-collisional gas are found to be observable. We show that clumpuscules can form around O stars HII regions of sizes $R\\sim 30$ pc and emission measure $EM\\simeq 20 cm^{-6}$ pc, and can also be observable in $H_\\alpha$ emission. Evaporation of clumpuscules by external ionizing radiation can be a substantial mass source. From requirement that the total mass input on the Hubble time cannot exceed the luminous mass in the Galaxy, typical radius of clouds is constrained as $R_c energy of the gas ejected by such clouds can be an efficient energy source for the Galactic halo.

  17. Apparatus for observing a hostile environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Thomas A. (Aiken, SC); Boylston, Micah L. (Williston, SC); Robinson, Casandra W. (Trenton, SC); Sexton, William C. (Aiken, SC); Heckendorn, Frank M. (Aiken, SC)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for observing a hostile environment, comprising a housing and a camera capable of insertion within the housing. The housing is a double wall assembly with an inner and outer wall with an hermetically sealed chamber therebetween. A housing for an optical system used to observe a hostile environment is provided, comprising a transparent, double wall assembly. The double wall assembly has an inner wall and an outer wall with an hermetically sealed chamber therebetween. The double wall assembly has an opening and a void area in communication with the opening. The void area of the housing is adapted to accommodate the optical system within said void area. An apparatus for protecting an optical system used to observe a hostile environment is provided comprising a housing; a tube positioned within the housing; and a base for supporting the housing and the tube. The housing comprises a double wall assembly having an inner wall and an outerwall with an hermetically sealed chamber therebetween. The tube is adapted to house the optical system therein.

  18. How does pressure gravitate? Cosmological constant problem confronts observational cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narimani, Ali; Scott, Douglas; Afshordi, Niayesh E-mail: nafshordi@pitp.ca

    2014-08-01

    An important and long-standing puzzle in the history of modern physics is the gross inconsistency between theoretical expectations and cosmological observations of the vacuum energy density, by at least 60 orders of magnitude, otherwise known as the cosmological constant problem. A characteristic feature of vacuum energy is that it has a pressure with the same amplitude, but opposite sign to its energy density, while all the precision tests of General Relativity are either in vacuum, or for media with negligible pressure. Therefore, one may wonder whether an anomalous coupling to pressure might be responsible for decoupling vacuum from gravity. We test this possibility in the context of the Gravitational Aether proposal, using current cosmological observations, which probe the gravity of relativistic pressure in the radiation era. Interestingly, we find that the best fit for anomalous pressure coupling is about half-way between General Relativity (GR), and Gravitational Aether (GA), if we include Planck together with WMAP and BICEP2 polarization cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. Taken at face value, this data combination excludes both GR and GA at around the 3 ? level. However, including higher resolution CMB observations (''highL'') or baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) pushes the best fit closer to GR, excluding the Gravitational Aether solution to the cosmological constant problem at the 4- 5 ? level. This constraint effectively places a limit on the anomalous coupling to pressure in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) expansion, ?{sub 4} = 0.105 ± 0.049 (+highL CMB), or ?{sub 4} = 0.066 ± 0.039 (+BAO). These represent the most precise measurement of this parameter to date, indicating a mild tension with GR (for ?CDM including tensors, with 0?{sub 4}=), and also among different data sets.

  19. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SS 433 JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Herman L.; Canizares, Claude R.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Nowak, Michael [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hillwig, Todd [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Mioduszewski, Amy; Rupen, Michael [NRAO, P.O. Box 2, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Heinz, Sebastian, E-mail: hermanm@space.mit.edu, E-mail: crc@space.mit.edu, E-mail: nss@space.mit.edu, E-mail: mnowak@space.mit.edu, E-mail: todd.hillwig@valpo.edu, E-mail: amiodusz@nrao.edu, E-mail: mrupen@aoc.nrao.edu, E-mail: heinzs@astro.wisc.edu [Astronomy Department, 5408 Sterling Hall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present observations of the SS 433 jets using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer with contemporaneous optical and Very Long Baseline Array observations. The X-ray and optical emission line regions are found to be related but not coincident as the optical line emission persists for days while the X-ray emission lines fade in less than 5000 s. The line Doppler shifts from the optical and X-ray lines match well, indicating that they are less than 3 × 10{sup 14} cm apart. The jet Doppler shifts show aperiodic variations that could result from shocks in interactions with the local environment. These perturbations are consistent with a change in jet direction but not jet speed. The proper motions of the radio knots match the kinematic model only if the distance to SS 433 is 4.5 ± 0.2 kpc. Observations during eclipse show that the occulted emission is very hard, seen only above 2 keV and rising to comprise >50% of the flux at 8 keV. The soft X-ray emission lines from the jet are not blocked, constraining the jet length to ?> 2 × 10{sup 12} cm. The base jet density is in the range 10{sup 10-13} cm{sup –3}, in contrast to our previous estimate based on the Si XIII triplet, which is likely to have been affected by UV de-excitation. There is a clear overabundance of Ni by a factor of about 15 relative to the solar value, which may have resulted from an unusual supernova that formed the compact object.

  20. Direct Observation of Paramagnons in Palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doubble, R.; Hayden, S M.; Dai, Pengcheng; Mook Jr, Herbert A; Thompson, James R; Frost, C.

    2010-01-01

    We report an inelastic neutron scattering study of the spin fluctuations in the nearly ferromagnetic element palladium. Dispersive over-damped collective magnetic excitations or 'paramagnons' are observed up to 128 meV. We analyze our results in terms of a Moriya-Lonzarich-type spin-fluctuation model and estimate the contribution of the spin fluctuations to the low-temperature heat capacity. In spite of the paramagnon excitations being relatively strong, their relaxation rates are large. This leads to a small contribution to the low-temperature electronic specific heat.

  1. VLBI polarimetric observations of 3C147

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rossetti; F. Mantovani; D. Dallacasa

    2004-12-29

    We present multi-frequency VLBI observations of the Compact Steep-spectrum Quasar 3C147 (0538+498) made with the VLBA at the four frequencies in the available 5 GHz band and at 8.4 GHz (still under analysis), from which we derived millarcsecond-resolution images of the total intensity, polarization, and rotation measure distributions. The source shows a core-jet structure, with a compact feature and a jet, extending about 200 mas to the South-West. We detect polarized emission in two bright features in the inner jet; the rotation measure of this features (aprox -1630 rad m(-2), aprox -540 rad m(-2)).

  2. Gamma-Ray Burst observations with Fermi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Omodei, Nicola; Vianello, Giacomo; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    After seven years of science operation, the Fermi mission has brought great advances in the study of Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs). Over 1600 GRBs have been detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and more than 100 of these are also detected by the Large Area Telescope above 30 MeV. We will give an overview of these observations, presenting the common properties in the GRB temporal and spectral behavior at high energies. We will also highlight the unique characteristics of some individual bursts. The main physical implications of these results will be discussed, along with open questions regarding GRB modeling in their prompt and temporally-extended emission phases.

  3. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lemonick, Michael [Princeton University and Time Magazine, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2010-01-08

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus?the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  4. Superconductivity observed in platinum-silicon interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, Pai-Chia, E-mail: paichia@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Research Program on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lee, Ku-Pin; Shiue, Jessie, E-mail: yshiue@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Research Program on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-26

    We report the discovery of superconductivity with an onset temperature of ?0.6?K in a platinum-silicon interface. The interface was formed by using a unique focused ion beam sputtering micro-deposition method in which the energies of most sputtered Pt atoms are ?2.5?eV. Structural and elemental analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveal a???7?nm interface layer with abundant Pt, which is the layer likely responsible for the superconducting transport behavior. Similar transport behavior was also observed in a gold-silicon interface prepared by the same technique, indicating the possible generality of this phenomenon.

  5. Operationalization of Basic Observables in Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This novel approach to the foundation of the physical theory begins with thought experiments on measurement practice like Einstein for relativistic Kinematics. For a similar foundation of Dynamics one can start from Hermann von Helmholtz analysis of basic measurements. We define energy, momentum and mass from elemental ordering relations for "capability to execute work" and "impact" in a collision and apply Helmholtz program for quantification. From simple pre-theoretic (principle of inertia, impossibility of Perpetuum Mobile, relativity principle) and measurement methodical principles we derive all fundamental equations of Mechanics. We explain the mathematical formalism from the operationalization of basic observables.

  6. Inflation models, spectral index and observational constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Covi

    2000-03-30

    We have evaluated the observational constraints on the spectral index $n$, in the context of a $\\Lambda$CDM model. For $n$ scale-independent, as predicted by most models of inflation, present data require $n\\simeq 1.0 \\pm 0.1$ at the 2-$\\sigma$ level. We have also studied the two-parameter scale-dependent spectral index, predicted by running-mass inflation models. Present data allow significant variation of $n$ in this case, within the theoretically preferred region of parameter space.

  7. Observations and simulations improve space weather models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGasObservation of

  8. ARM - PI Product - Niamey Dust Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSAProductsMerged and corrected 915Dust Observations

  9. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices »First Observation of Plasmarons in

  10. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices »First Observation of Plasmarons inFirst

  11. Category:Observation Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla, Georgia:GeothermalNEPA Environmental AnalysisObservation

  12. Observations and simulations improve space weather models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSEHowScientific andComplex Oak RidgeObservation of

  13. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery?temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overeem, A.

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on ...

  14. GUIDANCE ON CONDUCTING ADVERSE DIVERSITY ANALYSIS

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the specific actions is well documented. Use of the accepted statistical tests of discrimination facilitates expeditious review of the likelihood of discriminatory impact. Where...

  15. GUIDANCE ON CONDUCTING ADVERSE DIVERSITY ANALYSIS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers | GSATransmission ENERGYGUIDANCE

  16. Adverse Diversity Analysis Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie Pezzullo OfficeDepartmentEnergy

  17. Suzaku Observations of Four Heavily Absorbed HMXBs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. C. Morris; R. K. Smith; C. B. Markwardt; R. F. Mushotzky; J. Tueller; T. R. Kallman; K. S. Dhuga

    2008-08-22

    We report on Suzaku observations of four unidentified sources from the INTEGRAL and Swift BAT Galactic plane surveys. All the sources have a large neutral hydrogen column density and are likely members of an emerging class of heavily absorbed high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) first identified in INTEGRAL observations. Two of the sources in our sample are approximately constant flux sources, one source shows periodic variation and one source exhibited a short, bright X-ray outburst. The periodicity is transient, suggesting it is produced by a neutron star in an elliptical orbit around a stellar wind source. We analyze the flaring source in several segments to look for spectral variation and discuss the implications of the findings for the nature of the source. We conclude that all four sources in our sample can be identified with the emerging class of highly absorbed HMXBs, that one is a newly identified transient X-ray pulsar and that at least one is a newly identified supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT).

  18. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  19. Swift observations of GRB050904: the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cusumano; V. Mangano; G. Chincarini; A. Panaitescu; D. N. Burrows; V. La Parola; T. Sakamoto; S. Campana; T. Mineo; G. Tagliaferri; L. Angelini; S. D. Barthelemy; A. P. Beardmore; P. T. Boyd; L. Cominsky; C. Gronwall; E. E. Fenimore; N. Gehrels; P. Giommi; M. Goad; K. Hurley; S. Immler; J. A. Kennea; K. O. Mason; F. Marshall; P. Meszaros; J. A. Nousek; J. P. Osborne; D. M. Palmer; P. W. A. Roming; A. Wells; N. E. White; B. Zhang

    2006-11-08

    Swift discovered the high redshift (z=6.29) GRB050904 with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and began observing with its narrow field instruments 161 s after the burst onset. This gamma-ray burst is the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed. Because of its high redshift, the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and BAT simultaneous observations provide 4 orders of magnitude of spectral coverage (0.2-150 keV; 1.4-1090 keV in the source rest frame) at a very early source-frame time (22 s). GRB050904 was a long, multi-peaked, bright GRB with strong variability during its entire evolution. The light curve observed by the XRT is characterized by the presence of a long flaring activity lasting up to 1-2 hours after the burst onset in the burst rest frame, with no evidence of a smooth power-law decay following the prompt emission as seen in other GRBs. However, the BAT tail extrapolated to the XRT band joins the XRT early light curve and the overall behavior resembles that of a very long GRB prompt. The spectral energy distribution softens with time, with the photon index decreasing from -1.2 during the BAT observation to -1.9 at the end of the XRT observation. The dips of the late X-ray flares may be consistent with an underlying X-ray emission arising from the forward shock and with the properties of the optical afterglow reported by Tagliaferri et al. (2005b). We interpret the BAT and XRT data as a single continuous observation of the prompt emission from a very long GRB. The peculiarities observed in GRB050904 could be due to its origin within one of the first star-forming regions in the Universe; very low metallicities of the progenitor at these epochs may provide an explanation.

  20. On the observation of multiple volume reflection from different planes inside one bent crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidi, Vincenzo; Mazzolari, Andrea; Tikhomirov, Victor

    2010-06-15

    An interpretation of the first experiment on the observation of 400 GeV proton multiple volume reflection from different skew planes of one bent crystal (MVROC) is given. The possibilities of experimental observation of MVROC at lower particle energies are demonstrated. New features of the effect of particle capture into the channeling regime by bent skew planes are revealed as well as optimal choice of main crystal axis, crystal thickness, and beam orientation with respect to the crystal is discussed.

  1. Transition redshift in $f(T)$ cosmology and observational constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvatore Capozziello; Orlando Luongo; Emmanuel N. Saridakis

    2015-06-18

    We extract constraints on the transition redshift $z_{tr}$, determining the onset of cosmic acceleration, predicted by an effective cosmographic construction, in the framework of $f(T)$ gravity. In particular, employing cosmography we obtain bounds on the viable $f(T)$ forms and their derivatives. Since this procedure is model independent, as long as the scalar curvature is fixed, we are able to determine intervals for $z_{tr}$. In this way we guarantee that the Solar-System constraints are preserved and moreover we extract bounds on the transition time and the free parameters of the scenario. We find that the transition redshifts predicted by $f(T)$ cosmology, although compatible with the standard $\\Lambda$CDM predictions, are slightly smaller. Finally, in order to obtain observational constraints on $f(T)$ cosmology, we perform a Monte Carlo fitting using supernova data, involving the most recent union 2.1 data set.

  2. Communication between inertial observers with partially correlated reference frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehdi Ahmadi; Alexander R. H. Smith; Andrzej Dragan

    2015-08-13

    In quantum communication protocols the existence of a shared reference frame between two spatially separated parties is normally presumed. However, in many practical situations we are faced with the problem of misaligned reference frames. In this paper, we study communication between two inertial observers who have partial knowledge about the Lorentz transformation that relates their frames of reference. Since every Lorentz transformation can be decomposed into a pure boost followed by a rotation, we begin by analysing the effects on communication when the parties have partial knowledge about the transformation relating their frames, when the transformation is either a rotation or pure boost. This then enables us to investigate how the efficiency of communication is affected due to partially correlated inertial reference frames related by an arbitrary Lorentz transformation. Furthermore, we show how the results of previous studies where reference frames are completely uncorrelated are recovered from our results in appropriate limits.

  3. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  4. The effect of hydroxide ion on Cd-chalcogenide/aqueous polysulfide photoelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, S.; Manassen, J.

    1985-05-01

    Alkali hydroxide, added to the aqueous polysulfide electrolyte in n-Cd chalcogenide/S /SUB r/ photoelectrochemical solar cells (PEC's), is is shown to be detrimental to cell performance. It is demonstrated that the added hydroxide increases visible light absorption in the polysulfide solution and decreases the solution lifetime. Even after compensation for the decrease in light tranmission by the electrolyte, added hydroxide is shown to decrease the PEC photocurrent, photovoltage, and optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency. In a cell of 1 cm path length, the transmittance at 580 nm, for solutions containing 2m K/sub 2/S, 3m sulfur, and 0, 2, 6, or 12m KOH, was, respectively, 66, 55, 44, and 37.5%. Analysis of the distribution of ionic species reveals a shift from S/sub 4/ to S/sub 3/ with increasing hydroxide. Compared to S/sub 4/, the peak absorbance of S/sub 3/ is shifted 50 nm toward the vible, causing the variation in solution spectra response with hydroxide. K/sup +/ activty measrements were interpreted as indicative of increasing ion pairing with increased added hydroxide which may adversely effect charge-transfer kinetics. A measured negative shift in polysulfide redox potential with increasing hydroxide is evidently not paralleled by a comparable shift in Cd(SeTe) flatband potential resulting in the observed decrease in open-ciruit voltage. Relative conversion efficiency for an electroplated thin film CdSe /SUB 0.65/ Te /SUB 0.35/ electrode was 36% less in polysulfide with 12m KOH compared to the PEC without added KOH. The electrode immersed in 2/2/2, 2/2/3, or 0/1,3/2 (molality KOH/K/sub 2/S/S) exhibited conversion efficiencies of 4.72, 4.80, 5.24, and 5.44, respectively, at 100mW/cm/sup 2/ tungsten-halogen lamp illumination.

  5. Dark Energy: Observational Evidence and Theoretical Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Novosyadlyj; V. Pelykh; Yu. Shtanov; A. Zhuk

    2015-02-14

    The book elucidates the current state of the dark energy problem and presents the results of the authors, who work in this area. It describes the observational evidence for the existence of dark energy, the methods and results of constraining of its parameters, modeling of dark energy by scalar fields, the space-times with extra spatial dimensions, especially Kaluza---Klein models, the braneworld models with a single extra dimension as well as the problems of positive definition of gravitational energy in General Relativity, energy conditions and consequences of their violation in the presence of dark energy. This monograph is intended for science professionals, educators and graduate students, specializing in general relativity, cosmology, field theory and particle physics.

  6. Observables from a relativistic hydro solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Csanad, Mate

    2009-01-01

    In the last several years it has been revealed that the matter produced in the collisions of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a nearly perfect fluid, i.e. it can be described with perfect fluid hydrodynamics. There was a long search for exact hydrodynamic models (solutions of the partial differential equations of hydrodynamics) and several models proved to be applicable. There are 1+3 dimensional models, as well as relativistic models - but no 1+3 dimensional and relativistic model has been tested yet. In this paper we extract observables from the relativistic, ellipsoidally symmetric model of Csorgo et al. We calculate momentum distribution, elliptic flow and correlation radii and compare them to RHIC data.

  7. Physics Beyond the Single Top Quark Observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinson, A.P.; Collaboration, for the DZero

    2010-10-01

    In March 2009, the D0 Collaboration first observed the electroweak production of single top quarks at 5{sigma} significance. We measured the cross section for the combined s-channel and t-channel production modes, and set a lower limit on the CKM matrix element |V{sub tb}|. Since then, we have used the same dataset to measure the t-channel production mode independently, the combined cross section in the hadronically-decaying tau lepton final state, and the width and lifetime of the top quark, and we have set upper limits on contributions from anomalous flavor-changing neutral currents. This paper describes these new measurements, as presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Top Quark Physics, held in Brugge, Belgium, May 31-June 4, 2010.

  8. Interstellar water chemistry: from laboratory to observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Neufeld, David A

    2013-01-01

    Water is observed throughout the universe, from diffuse interstellar clouds to protoplanetary disks around young stars, and from comets in our own solar system and exoplanetary atmospheres to galaxies at high redshifts. This review summarizes the spectroscopy and excitation of water in interstellar space as well as the basic chemical processes that form and destroy water under interstellar conditions. Three major routes to water formation are identified: low temperature ion-molecule chemistry, high-temperature neutral-neutral chemistry and gas-ice chemistry. The rate coefficients of several important processes entering the networks are discussed in detail; several of them have been determined only in the last decade through laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. Astronomical examples of each of the different chemical routes are presented using data from powerful new telescopes, in particular the Herschel Space Observatory. Basic chemical physics studies remain critically important to analyze ast...

  9. Astronomical Observations of Volatiles on Asteroids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivkin, Andrew S; Emery, Joshua P; Howell, Ellen S; Licandro, Javier; Takir, Driss; Vilas, Faith

    2015-01-01

    We have long known that water and hydroxyl are important components in meteorites and asteroids. However, in the time since the publication of Asteroids III, evolution of astronomical instrumentation, laboratory capabilities, and theoretical models have led to great advances in our understanding of H2O/OH on small bodies, and spacecraft observations of the Moon and Vesta have important implications for our interpretations of the asteroidal population. We begin this chapter with the importance of water/OH in asteroids, after which we will discuss their spectral features throughout the visible and near-infrared. We continue with an overview of the findings in meteorites and asteroids, closing with a discussion of future opportunities, the results from which we can anticipate finding in Asteroids V. Because this topic is of broad importance to asteroids, we also point to relevant in-depth discussions elsewhere in this volume.

  10. Head Observation Organizer (HObO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Predmore

    2008-03-06

    The Head Observation Organizer, HObO, is a computer program that stores and manages measured ground-water levels. HObO was developed to help ground-water modelers compile, manage, and document water-level data needed to calibrate ground-water models. Well-construction and water-level data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Database (NWIS) easily can be imported into HObO from the NWIS web site (NWISWeb). The water-level data can be flagged to determine which data will be included in the calibration data set. The utility program HObO_NWISWeb was developed to simplify the down loading of well and water-level data from NWISWeb. An ArcGIS NWISWeb Extension was developed to retrieve site information from NWISWeb. A tutorial is presented showing the basic elements of HObO.

  11. First observation of doubly charmed baryons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. A. Moinester et al.

    2003-09-25

    The SELEX experiment (E781) at Fermilab has observed two statistically compelling high mass states near 3.6 GeV/c{sup 2}, decaying to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} and {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. These final states are Cabibbo-allowed decay modes of doubly charmed baryons {Xi}{sub cc}{sup +} and {Xi}{sub cc}{sup ++}, respectively. The masses are in the range expected from theoretical considerations, but the spectroscopy is surprising. SELEX also has weaker preliminary evidence for a state near 3.8 GeV/c{sup 2}, a high mass state decaying to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}, possibly an excited {Xi}{sub cc}{sup ++} (ccu*). Data are presented and discussed.

  12. Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program. The VOS project is coordinated by the UNESCO International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP). The international groups from 14 countries have been outfitting research ships and commercial vessels with automated CO2 sampling equipment to analyze the carbon exchange between the ocean and atmosphere. [copied from http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/genInfo.html] CDIAC provides a map interface with the shipping routes of the 14 countries involved marked in different colors. Clicking on the ship's name on that route brings up information about the vessel, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, and, most important, the links to the data files themselves. The 14 countries are: United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, Australia, Canada, Spain, Norway, New Zealand, China (including Taiwan), Iceland, and the Netherlands. Both archived and current, underway data can be accessed from the CDIAC VOS page.

  13. Confronting DGP braneworld gravity with cosmico observations after Planck data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Lixin

    2014-02-01

    The normal branch of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld gravity with brane tension is confronted by the currently available cosmic observations from the geometrical and dynamical perspectives. On the geometrical side, the type Ia supernova as standard candle, the baryon acoustic oscillation as standard ruler and the cosmic microwave background measurement from the first released 15.5 months data were used to fix the background evolutions. On the dynamical side, the redshift space distortion data will be used to determine the evolution of the matter perturbation. Through a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, we found the dimensionless crossover scale ?{sub r{sub c}} = 1/(4H{sup 2}{sub 0}r{sup 2}{sub c}) = 0.00183{sub ?0.00183}{sup +0.000338} in a spatially flat normal branch of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld. This result suggests that the crossover scale r{sub c} should be around 12H{sup ?1}{sub 0} which is consistent with the previous result r{sub c} > 3H{sup ?1}{sub 0} and greater. It also implies that the five-dimensional gravity effect is weak to be observed in H{sup ?1}{sub 0} scale.

  14. Kepler observations of variability in B-type stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balona, L A; De Cat, P; Handler, G; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Engelbrecht, C A; Frescura, F; Briquet, M; Cuypers, J; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J; Degroote, P; Dukes, R J; Garcia, R A; Green, E M; Heber, U; Kawaler, S D; Ostensen, R; Pricopi, D; Roxburgh, I; Salmon, S; Smith, M A; Suarez, J C; Suran, M; Szabo, R; Uytterhoeven, K; Christensen-Dalsgaard,; Kjeldsen, H; Caldwell, D A; Girouard, F R; Sanderfer, D T

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the light curves of 48 B-type stars observed by Kepler is presented. Among these are 15 pulsating stars, all of which show low frequencies characteristic of SPB stars. Seven of these stars also show a few weak, isolated high frequencies and they could be considered as SPB/beta Cep hybrids. In all cases the frequency spectra are quite different from what is seen from ground-based observations. We suggest that this is because most of the low frequencies are modes of high degree which are predicted to be unstable in models of mid-B stars. We find that there are non-pulsating stars within the beta Cep and SPB instability strips. Apart from the pulsating stars, we can identify stars with frequency groupings similar to what is seen in Be stars but which are not Be stars. The origin of the groupings is not clear, but may be related to rotation. We find periodic variations in other stars which we attribute to proximity effects in binary systems or possibly rotational modulation. We find no evidence fo...

  15. An observational study of entrainment rate in deep convection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Liu, Yangang

    2015-09-22

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects of dry air sources on the calculated entrainment rate in deep convection from an observational perspective. Results show that the probability density function of entrainment rate can be well fitted by lognormal,more »gamma or Weibull distribution, with coefficients of determination being 0.82, 0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Entrainment tends to reduce temperature, water vapor content and moist static energy in cloud due to evaporative cooling and dilution. Inspection of the relationships between entrainment rate and microphysical properties reveals a negative correlation between volume-mean radius and entrainment rate, suggesting the potential dominance of homogeneous mechanism in the clouds examined. The entrainment rate and environmental water vapor content show similar tendencies of variation with the distance of the assumed environmental air to the cloud edges. Their variation tendencies are non-monotonic due to the relatively short distance between adjacent clouds.« less

  16. Remarks on mechanical approach to observable Universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eingorn, Maxim [CREST and NASA Research Centers, North Carolina Central University, Fayetteville st. 1801, Durham, North Carolina 27707 (United States); Zhuk, Alexander, E-mail: maxim.eingorn@gmail.com, E-mail: ai.zhuk2@gmail.com [Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Dvoryanskaya st. 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine)

    2014-05-01

    We consider the Universe deep inside the cell of uniformity. At these scales, the Universe is filled with inhomogeneously distributed discrete structures (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies), which perturb the background Friedmann model. Here, the mechanical approach (Eingorn and Zhuk, 2012) is the most appropriate to describe the dynamics of the inhomogeneities which is defined, on the one hand, by gravitational potentials of inhomogeneities and, on the other hand, by the cosmological expansion of the Universe. In this paper, we present additional arguments in favor of this approach. First, we estimate the size of the cell of uniformity. With the help of the standard methods of statistical physics and for the galaxies of the type of the Milky Way and Andromeda, we get that it is of the order of 190 Mpc which is rather close to observations. Then, we show that the nonrelativistic approximation (with respect to the peculiar velocities) is valid for z?<10, i.e. approximately for 13 billion years from the present moment. We consider scalar perturbations and, within the ?CDM model, justify the main equations. Moreover, we demonstrate that radiation can be naturally incorporated into our scheme. This emphasizes the viability of our approach. This approach gives a possibility to analyze different cosmological models and compare them with the observable Universe. For example, we indicate some problematic aspects of the spatially flat models. Such models require a rather specific distribution of the inhomogeneities to get a finite potential at any points outside gravitating masses. We also criticize the application of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution to the description of the motion of test bodies on the cosmological background.

  17. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF HOTSPOTS IN RADIO LOBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, Michael W.; Murphy, David W.; Livingston, John H.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jones, Dayton L.; Meier, David L.; Lawrence, Charles R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We have carried out a systematic search with Spitzer Warm Mission and archival data for infrared emission from the hotspots in radio lobes that have been described by Hardcastle et al. These hotspots have been detected with both radio and X-ray observations, but an observation at an intermediate frequency in the infrared can be critical to distinguish between competing models for particle acceleration and radiation processes in these objects. Between the archival and warm mission data, we report detections of 18 hotspots; the archival data generally include detections at all four IRAC bands, the Warm Mission data only at 3.6 {mu}m. Using a theoretical formalism adopted from Godfrey et al., we fit both archival and warm mission spectral energy distributions (SEDs)-including radio, X-ray, and optical data from Hardcastle as well as the Spitzer data-with a synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, in which the X-rays are produced by Compton scattering of the radio frequency photons by the energetic electrons which radiate them. With one exception, an SSC model requires that the magnetic field be less or much less than the equipartition value which minimizes total energy and has comparable amounts of energy in the magnetic field and in the energetic particles. This conclusion agrees with those of comparable recent studies of hotspots, and with the analysis presented by Hardcastle et al. We also show that the infrared data rule out the simplest synchrotron-only models for the SEDs. We briefly discuss the implications of these results and of alternate interpretations of the data.

  18. High Burnup Effects Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.

    1990-04-01

    This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Effects of the drought on California electricity supply and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benenson, P.

    2010-01-01

    Acknowledgments SUMMARY Electricity Demand ElectricityAdverse Impacts ELECTRICITY DEMAND . . . .Demand forElectricity Sales Electricity Demand by Major Utility

  20. Observation of the Second Harmonic in Thomson Scattering from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observation of the Second Harmonic in Thomson Scattering from Relativistic Electrons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of the Second Harmonic in Thomson...

  1. Collaboration yields 'The Right Glasses' for observing mystery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observing mystery behavior In electrons Collaboration yields 'The Right Glasses' for observing mystery behavior in electrons The research may lead to a better understanding of...

  2. Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations Presentation at Waste-to-Energy using...

  3. If physics is an information science, what is an observer?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Fields

    2012-02-11

    Interpretations of quantum theory have traditionally assumed a "Galilean" observer, a bare "point of view" implemented physically by a quantum system. This paper investigates the consequences of replacing such an informationally-impoverished observer with an observer that satisfies the requirements of classical automata theory, i.e. an observer that encodes sufficient prior information to identify the system being observed and recognize its acceptable states. It shows that with reasonable assumptions about the physical dynamics of information channels, the observations recorded by such an observer will display the typical characteristics predicted by quantum theory, without requiring any specific assumptions about the observer's physical implementation.

  4. Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles and grain boundaries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene...

  5. The detrimental effects of salinity on rooting of coleus cuttings and their alleviation with gypsum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janssen, Antonius Hendrick

    1981-01-01

    concen- trations 2 Electrical conductivities (E. C. ) and osmolalities of 5 increasing salt solutions containing a 1/10- strength Hoagland's solution . 3 Electrical conductivities (E. C. ) of 4 NaCl solutions with increasing CaSO4 concentrations 4... of NaCl was due to a Na+ and/or Cl 1nhibition, a general 1on1c effect and/or osmot1c stresses of the salt solutions. 3. To determine if CaS04 reduces the adverse effects of increasing salinity in nutrient solutions and a peat-styra- foam propagation...

  6. Spectral Models for Early Time SN 2011fe Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baron, E; Sullivan, M; Hsiao, E; Ellis, R S; Gal-Yam, A; Howell, D A; Nugent, P E; Dominguez, I; Krisciunas, K; Phillips, M M; Suntzeff, N; Wang, L; Thomas, R C

    2015-01-01

    We use observed UV through near IR spectra to examine whether SN 2011fe can be understood in the framework of Branch-normal SNe Ia and to examine its individual peculiarities. As a benchmark, we use a delayed-detonation model with a progenitor metallicity of Z_solar/20. We study the sensitivity of features to variations in progenitor metallicity, the outer density profile, and the distribution of radioactive nickel. The effect of metallicity variations in the progenitor have a relatively small effect on the synthetic spectra. We also find that the abundance stratification of SN 2011fe resembles closely that of a delayed detonation model with a transition density that has been fit to other Branch-normal Type Ia supernovae. At early times, the model photosphere is formed in material with velocities that are too high, indicating that the photosphere recedes too slowly or that SN 2011fe has a lower specific energy in the outer ~0.1 M_sun than does the model. We discuss several explanations for the discrepancies. ...

  7. Investigation of the Dynamical, Macrophysical and Radiative Properties of High Clouds Combining Satellite Observations and Climate Model Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yue

    2012-02-14

    of the physical mechanism governing the fixed anvil temperature (FAT) hypothesis and test of FAT hypothesis with CTT measurements; and 3) the intercomparison of cloud fraction and radiative effects between satellite-based observations and reanalysis product...

  8. EFFECT OF THERMAL PROCESSES ON COPPER-TIN ALLOYS FOR ZINC GETTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Golyski, M.

    2013-11-01

    A contamination mitigation plan was initiated to address the discovery of radioactive zinc‐65 in a glovebox. A near term solution was developed, installation of heated filters in the glovebox piping. This solution is effective at retaining the zinc in the currently contaminated area, but the gamma emitting contaminant is still present in a system designed for tritium beta. A project was initiated to develop a solution to contain the {sup 65}Zn in the furnace module. Copper and bronze (a Cu/Sn alloy) were found to be candidate materials to combine with zinc‐65 vapor, using thermodynamic calculations. A series of binary Cu/Sn alloys were developed (after determining that commercial alloys were unacceptable), that were found to be effective traps of zinc vapor. The task described in this report was undertaken to determine if the bronze substrates would retain their zinc gettering capability after being exposed to simulated extraction conditions with oxidizing and reducing gases. Pure copper and three bronze alloys were prepared, exposed to varying oxidation conditions from 250 to 450{degree}C, then exposed to varying reduction conditions in He-H{sub 2} from 250-450{degree}C, and finally exposed to zinc vapor at 350{degree}C for four hours. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, mass change, and visual observation. It was observed that the as fabricated samples and the reduced samples all retained their zinc gettering capacity while samples in the "as-oxidized" condition exhibited losses in zinc gettering capacity. Over the range of conditions tested, i.e., composition, oxidation temperature, and reduction temperature, no particular sample composition appeared better. Samples reduced at 350{degree}C exhibited the greatest zinc capacity, although there were some testing anomalies associated with these samples. This work clearly demonstrated that the zinc gettering was not adversely affected by exposure to simulated process conditions and a full scale lithium and zinc trap should be fabricated for testing in the Tritium Extraction Facility.

  9. MAGIC observation of the GRB080430 afterglow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksi?, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Balestra, S; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berdyugin, A; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Tridon, D Borla; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bose, D; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Britzger, D; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; del Pozo, E de Cea; Reyes, R De los; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsaesser, D; Errando, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Godinovic, N; Goebel, F; Hadasch, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Hsu, C C; Jogler, T; Klepser, S; Krähenbühl, T; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Miyamoto, H; Moldón, J; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Orito, R; Oya, I; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Prada, F; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sánchez-Conde, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Strah, N; Struebig, J C; Suric, T; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Wagner, R M; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J; de Ugarte-Postigo, A

    2015-01-01

    Context: Gamma-ray bursts are cosmological sources emitting radiation from the gamma-rays to the radio band. Substantial observational efforts have been devoted to the study of gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase, i.e. the initial burst of high-energy radiation, and during the long-lasting afterglows. In spite of many successes in interpreting these phenomena, there are still several open key questions about the fundamental emission processes, their energetics and the environment. Aim: Independently of specific gamma-ray burst theoretical recipes, spectra in the GeV/TeV range are predicted to be remarkably simple, being satisfactorily modeled with power-laws, and therefore offer a very valuable tool to probe the extragalactic background light distribution. Furthermore, the simple detection of a component at very-high energies, i.e. at $\\sim 100$\\,GeV, would solve the ambiguity about the importance of various possible emission processes, which provide barely distinguishable scenarios at lower energies. Me...

  10. Chandra Observations of SNR RCW 103

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Kari A; Park, Sangwook

    2015-01-01

    We analyze three Chandra observations, with a combined exposure time of 99 ks, of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 103, a young supernova remnant, previously with no clear detection of metal-rich ejecta. Based on our imaging and spectral analyses of these deep Chandra data, we find evidence for metal-rich ejecta emission scattered throughout the remnant. X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta is generally weak, and the shocked circumstellar medium (CSM) is a largely dominant component across the entire remnant. The CSM component shows abundances of ~0.5 solar, while Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe abundances of the ejecta are up to a few times solar. Comparison of these ejecta abundances with yields from supernova nucleosynthesis models suggests, together with the existence of a central neutron star, a progenitor mass of ~18-20 M$_\\odot$, though the Fe/Si ratios are larger than predicted. The shocked CSM emission suggests a progenitor with high mass-loss rate and subsolar metallicity.

  11. Optical monitor for observing turbulent flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg F. (Livermore, CA); Moore, Thomas R. (Rochester, NY)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method for non-invasively monitoring turbulent fluid flows including anisotropic flows. The present invention uses an optical technique to filter out the rays travelling in a straight line, while transmitting rays with turbulence induced fluctuations in time. The output is two dimensional, and can provide data regarding the spectral intensity distribution, or a view of the turbulence in real time. The optical monitor of the present invention comprises a laser that produces a coherent output beam that is directed through a fluid flow, which phase-modulates the beam. The beam is applied to a temporal filter that filters out the rays in the beam that are straight, while substantially transmitting the fluctuating, turbulence-induced rays. The temporal filter includes a lens and a photorefractive crystal such as BaTiO.sub.3 that is positioned in the converging section of the beam near the focal plane. An imaging system is used to observe the filtered beam. The imaging system may take a photograph, or it may include a real time camera that is connected to a computer. The present invention may be used for many purposes including research and design in aeronautics, hydrodynamics, and combustion.

  12. WMAP OBSERVATIONS OF PLANCK ESZ CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Yinzhe; Hinshaw, Gary; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2013-07-10

    We examine the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect in the seven year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data by cross-correlating it with the Planck Early-release Sunyaev-Zeldovich catalog. Our analysis proceeds in two parts. We first perform a stacking analysis in which the filtered WMAP data are averaged at the locations of the 175 Planck clusters. We then perform a regression analysis to compare the mean amplitude of the SZ signal, Y{sub 500}, in the WMAP data to the corresponding amplitude in the Planck data. The aggregate Planck clusters are detected in the seven year WMAP data with a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.3. In the regression analysis, we find that the SZ amplitude measurements agree to better than 25%: a = 1.23 {+-} 0.18 for the fit Y{sup wmap}{sub 500}= aY{sup planck}{sub 500}.

  13. Swift observations of GRB050904: the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cusumano, G; Chincarini, G; Panaitescu, A; Burrows, D N; La Parola, V; Sakamoto, T; Campana, S; Mineo, T; Tagliaferri, G; Angelini, L; Barthelemy, S D; Beardmore, A P; Boyd, P T; Cominsky, L; Gronwall, C; Fenimore, E E; Gehrels, N; Giommi, P; Goad, M; Hurley, K; Immler, S; Kennea, J A; Mason, K O; Marshall, F; Mészáros, P; Nousek, J A; Osborne, J P; Palmer, D M; Roming, P W A; Wells, A; White, N E; Zhang, B

    2006-01-01

    Swift discovered the high redshift (z=6.29) GRB050904 with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and began observing with its narrow field instruments 161 s after the burst onset. This gamma-ray burst is the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed. Because of its high redshift, the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and BAT simultaneous observations provide 4 orders of magnitude of spectral coverage (0.2-150 keV; 1.4-1090 keV in the source rest frame) at a very early source-frame time (22 s). GRB050904 was a long, multi-peaked, bright GRB with strong variability during its entire evolution. The light curve observed by the XRT is characterized by the presence of a long flaring activity lasting up to 1-2 hours after the burst onset in the burst rest frame, with no evidence of a smooth power-law decay following the prompt emission as seen in other GRBs. However, the BAT tail extrapolated to the XRT band joins the XRT early light curve and the overall behavior resembles that of a very long GRB prompt. The spectral energy distri...

  14. Cloud patterns lee of Hawaii Island: A synthesis of satellite observations and numerical simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Cloud patterns lee of Hawaii Island: A synthesis of satellite observations and numerical simulation; accepted 29 April 2008; published 15 August 2008. [1] Standing well above the trade wind inversion, Hawaii. To illustrate the circulation effect, lee cloud formation is compared between tall Hawaii and short Kauai

  15. Aerosol Optical Depth Prediction from Satellite Observations by Multiple Instance Regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vucetic, Slobodan

    Aerosol Optical Depth Prediction from Satellite Observations by Multiple Instance Regression airborne particles that both reflect and absorb incoming solar radiation and whose effect on the Earth the satellite measure- ments, the common objective is prediction of Aerosol Opti- cal Depth (AOD). An important

  16. The Radiative Properties of Small Clouds: Multi-Scale Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feingold, Graham; McComiskey, Allison

    2013-09-25

    Warm, liquid clouds and their representation in climate models continue to represent one of the most significant unknowns in climate sensitivity and climate change. Our project combines ARM observations, LES modeling, and satellite imagery to characterize shallow clouds and the role of aerosol in modifying their radiative effects.

  17. Quasi-Steady Katabatic Winds on Slopes in Wide Valleys: Hydraulic Theory and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    Quasi-Steady Katabatic Winds on Slopes in Wide Valleys: Hydraulic Theory and Observations M in the presence of weak synoptic winds. Because of the lateral constraints on the flow, Coriolis effects by sloping topography (Strobach 1991), as is the terrain of most urban areas of the world. Air circulation

  18. he Cooperative Observer Program is a unique partnership between the National Weather Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T he Cooperative Observer Program is a unique partnership between the National Weather Service the nation with a cost-effective way to collect weather data for immediate forecasting needs and longer with Congressional passage of the National Weather Service Organic Act, which set up a system to recruit and train

  19. Observation of photo-thermal feed-back in a stable dual-carrier optical spring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Kelley; James Lough; Fabian Mangaña-Sandoval; Antonio Perreca; Stefan W. Ballmer

    2015-09-04

    We report on the observation of photo-thermal feed-back in a stable dual-carrier optical spring. The optical spring is realized in a 7 cm Fabry-Perot cavity comprised of a suspended 0.4 g small end mirror and a heavy input coupler, illuminated by two optical fields. The frequency, damping and stability of the optical spring resonance can be tuned by adjusting the power and detuning of the two optical fields, allowing for a precise measurement of the absorption-induced photo-thermal feedback. The magnitude and frequency dependence of the observed photo-thermal effect are consistent with predicted corrections due to transverse thermal diffusion and coating structure. While the observed photo-thermal feed-back tends to destabilize the optical spring, we also propose a small coating modification that would change the sign of the effect, making a single-carrier stable optical spring possible.

  20. Distortions of Experimental Muon Arrival Time Distributions of Extensive Air Showers by the Observation Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Haeusler; A. F. Badea; H. Rebel; I. M. Brancus; J. Oehlschlaeger

    2001-10-17

    Event-by-event measured arrival time distributions of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) muons are affected and distorted by various interrelated effects which originate from the time resolution of the timing detectors, from fluctuations of the reference time and the number (multiplicity) of detected muons spanning the arrival time distribution of the individual EAS events. The origin of these effects is discussed, and different correction procedures, which involve detailed simulations, are proposed and illustrated. The discussed distortions are relevant for relatively small observation distances (R < 200 m) from the EAS core. Their significance decreases with increasing observation distance and increasing primary energies. Local arrival time distributions which refer to the observed arrival time of the first local muon prove to be less sensitive to the mass of the primary. This feature points to the necessity of arrival time measurements with additional information on the curvature of the EAS disk.

  1. Observation of half-quantum vortices in superfluid 3He

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Autti; V. V. Dmitriev; V. B. Eltsov; J. Makinen; G. E. Volovik; A. N. Yudin; V. V. Zavjalov

    2015-08-19

    Recently the new phase of the superfluid 3He has been reported to exist in the aerogel-like structure (nafen) - the so-called polar phase [1]. As distinct from the other phases - the chiral superfluid 3He-A with Weyl nodes and the fully gapped topological 3He-B with Dirac nodes on the surface - the polar phase has Dirac nodal line in bulk and dispersionless band of Andreev-Majorana fermions on the surface [2]. The polar phase can support exotic objects - the half-quantum vortices (HQV) with unpaired Majoranas in their cores [3-5] Originally the HQVs have been predicted to exist in the Weyl superfluid 3He-A [6,7], but still they have not been observed there due to unfavorable combination of spin-orbit and magnetic anisotropy effects on the orientation of the order parameter. In nafen, if the magnetic field is absent or is oriented parallel to nafen strands, the half-quantum vortices win over the conventional single-quantum vortices. We cool down a sample of nafen through transition to the polar phase in rotation up to 2.75\\,rad/s without magnetic field. Then the field is switched on, and in the tilted field we observe a satellite peak in the NMR spectrum. Dependence of the satellite on the rotation velocity, temperature and the field orientation is in agreement with our calculations of spin-wave resonances from bound pairs of pinned HQVs connected by solitons. Experiments also demonstrate that the HQVs formed under rotation are strongly pinned by the nafen strands.

  2. Biological assessment of the effects of petroleum production at maximum efficient rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California, on the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Gambelia silus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, T.T.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1986-06-01

    Surveys to determine the distribution and relative abundance of blunt-nosed leopard lizards on Naval Petroleum Reserve-1 were conducted in 1980 and 1981. In 1982 radiotelemetry and pitfall trapping techniques were used to gain additional information on the species and develop alternative methods of study. Incidental observations of blunt-nosed leopard lizards were recorded and used in the distribution information for NPR-1. DOE determined during this biological assessment that the construction projects and operational activities necessary to achieve and sustain MER have not adversely affected the blunt-nosed leopard lizard and its habitat, because only approximately 6% of the potential blunt-nosed leopard lizard habitat on NPR-1 was disturbed by construction and operational activities. DOE believes that the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of MER will not jeopardize the continued existence of the species, because results of surveys indicated that blunt-nosed leopard lizards are mainly distributed near the periphery of Elk Hills where few petroleum developments occurred in the past and where they are unlikely to occur in the future. A policy of conducting preconstruction surveys to protect blunt-nosed leopard lizard habitat was initiated, a habitat restoration plan was developed and implemented, and administrative policies to reduce vehicle speeds, contain oil spills, restrict off-road vehicle (ORV) travel, and to prohibit public access, livestock grazing, and agricultural activities were maintained.

  3. Observers and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Dance

    2010-12-18

    The paper \\cite{Dance0601} tentatively suggested a physical picture that might underlie string theories. The string parameters $\\tau $ and $\\sigma_i $ were interpreted as spacetime dimensions which a simple quantum mechanical observer can observe, while symmetries of the relevant observer states could limit the observability of other dimensions. The present paper extends the discussion by outlining how consideration of different observers, at least one of which is quantum mechanical, might provide insights into the nature of the AdS/CFT correspondence. It is suggested that such correspondences might arise as different forms of theories about the world as perceived by different observers.

  4. Effect of metal on zeolite catalysts for extinction hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (US))

    1990-10-01

    This paper reports on the slow diffusivity of large molecules into the micropores which results in shape selectivity in the conversion of mixed feeds. The metals deposit on the zeolite, as the hydrogenation components further reduce this diffusivity through pore filling and pore mouth blocking, leading to ineffective catalysts for extinction hydrocracking. By using active metals at low loadings, these adverse effects can be minimized. To demonstrate this principle, experimental catalysts were compared. Unlike NiW/REX (REX = rare earth exchanged X-type zeolite), the experimental catalysts Pt and Pd on REX at 0.5 wt% levels were effective for the extinction hydrocracking of heavy gas oil blends. There was no heavy-end buildup in the recycle feed. The catalysts were active, low in aging rate, and high in selectivity for naphthas.

  5. Negative pressure effects in high-pressure oxygen-intercalated C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirber, J.E.; Assink, R.A.; Samara, G.A.; Morosin, B.; Loy, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We have observed unexpected and as yet unexplained negative pressure effects in high-oxygen-pressure-treated C{sub 60} in which the orientational ordering temperature is greatly depressed. Such effects are not observed in identical studies with nitrogen.

  6. Optimization of the transmission of observable expectation values and observable statistics in Continuous Variable Teleportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Albano Farias; J. Stephany

    2010-09-28

    We analyze the statistics of observables in continuous variable quantum teleportation in the formalism of the characteristic function. We derive expressions for average values of output state observables in particular cumulants which are additive in terms of the input state and the resource of teleportation. Working with Squeezed Bell-like states, which may be optimized in a free parameter for better teleportation performance we discuss the relation between resources optimal for fidelity and for different observable averages. We obtain the values of the free parameter which optimize the central momenta and cumulants up to fourth order. For the cumulants the distortion between in and out states due to teleportation depends only on the resource. We obtain optimal parameters for the second and fourth order cumulants which do not depend on the squeezing of the resource. The second order central momenta which is equal to the second order cumulants and the photon number average are optimized by the same resource. We show that the optimal fidelity resource, found in reference (Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 76}, 022301 (2007)) to depend also on the characteristics of input, tends for high squeezing to the resource which optimizes the second order momenta. A similar behavior is obtained for the resource which optimizes the photon statistics which is treated here using the sum of the squared differences in photon probabilities of input and output states as the distortion measure. This is interpreted to mean that the distortions associated to second order momenta dominates the behavior of the output state for large squeezing of the resource. Optimal fidelity and optimal photon statistics resources are compared and is shown that for mixtures of Fock states they are equivalent.

  7. INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF VOLATILE MOLECULES IN COMET HALEBOPP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    ­slit spectroscopy --- of the space distribution of these species. With ISO, carbon dioxide was directly observed case the only remote­ sensing technique allowing to observe non­polar molecules such as CO 2

  8. Zeroth-order inversion of transient head observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasco, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    The hydraulic head was observed in seven surrounding wellsHydraulic conductivity variation used for numerical trajectory computations. The wellhydraulic conductivity, given the significant variations in travel time to the observation wells.

  9. Observed Relations Between Snowfall Microphysics and Triple-Frequency Radar Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGasObservationRelations

  10. Effects of HCl and SO{sub 2} concentration on mercury removal by activated carbon sorbents in coal-derived flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryota Ochiai; M. Azhar Uddin; Eiji Sasaoka; Shengji Wu [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology

    2009-09-15

    The effect of the presence of HCl and SO{sub 2} in the simulated coal combustion flue gas on the Hg{sup 0} removal by a commercial activated carbon (coconut shell AC) was investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor in a temperature range of 80-200{sup o}C. The characteristics (thermal stability) of the mercury species formed on the sorbents under various adsorption conditions were investigated by the temperature-programmed decomposition desorption (TPDD) technique. It was found that the presence of HCl and SO{sub 2} in the flue gas affected the mercury removal efficiency of the sorbents as well as the characteristics of the mercury adsorption species. The mercury removal rate of AC increased with the HCl concentration in the flue gas. In the presence of HCl and the absence of SO{sub 2} during Hg{sup 0} adsorption by AC, a single Hg{sup 0} desorption peak at around 300{sup o}C was observed in the TPDD spectra and intensity of this peak increased with the HCl concentration during mercury adsorption. The peak at around 300{sup o}C may be derived from the decomposition and desorption of mercury chloride species. The presence of SO{sub 2} during mercury adsorption had an adverse effect on the mercury removal by AC in the presence of HCl. In the presence of both HCl and SO{sub 2} during Hg{sup 0} adsorption by AC, the major TPDD peak temperatures changed drastically depending upon the concentration of HCl and SO{sub 2} in flue gas during Hg{sup 0} adsorption. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Constraints on the neutrino parameters by future cosmological 21cm line and precise CMB polarization observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshihiko Oyama; Kazunori Kohri; Masashi Hazumi

    2015-10-13

    Observations of the 21 cm line radiation coming from the epoch of reionization have a great capacity to study the cosmological growth of the Universe. Also, CMB polarization produced by gravitational lensing has a large amount of information about the growth of matter fluctuations at late time. In this paper, we investigate their sensitivities to the impact of neutrino property on the growth of density fluctuations, such as the total neutrino mass, the effective number of neutrino species (extra radiation), and the neutrino mass hierarchy. We will show that by combining a precise CMB polarization observations such as Simons Array with a 21 cm line observation such as Square kilometer Array (SKA) phase 1 and a baryon acoustic oscillation observation (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument:DESI) we can measure effects of non-zero neutrino mass on the growth of density fluctuation if the total neutrino mass is larger than 0.1eV. Additionally, the combinations can strongly improve errors of the bounds on the effective number of neutrino species sigma(N_nu) ~ 0.06-0.09 at 95 % C.L.. Finally, by using SKA phase 2, we can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at 95 % C.L. if the total neutrino mass is similar to or smaller than 0.1 eV.

  12. Constraints on the neutrino parameters by future cosmological 21cm line and precise CMB polarization observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oyama, Yoshihiko; Hazumi, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the 21 cm line radiation coming from the epoch of reionization have a great capacity to study the cosmological growth of the Universe. Also, CMB polarization produced by gravitational lensing has a large amount of information about the growth of matter fluctuations at late time. In this paper, we investigate their sensitivities to the impact of neutrino property on the growth of density fluctuations, such as the total neutrino mass, the effective number of neutrino species (extra radiation), and the neutrino mass hierarchy. We will show that by combining a precise CMB polarization observations such as Simons Array with a 21 cm line observation such as Square kilometer Array (SKA) phase 1 and a baryon acoustic oscillation observation (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument:DESI) we can measure effects of non-zero neutrino mass on the growth of density fluctuation if the total neutrino mass is larger than 0.1eV. Additionally, the combinations can strongly improve errors of the bounds on the effect...

  13. Interference effect of observed human movement on action is due to velocity profile of biological motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Antonia

    in a somatotopic manner*watching mouth, hand, Correspondence should be addressed to: Sarah-Jayne Blakemore-evoked potentials from the hand muscles that would be used if making such a movement (Fadiga, Fogassi, Pavesi

  14. The Effect of Roll Waves on the Hydrodynamics of Falling Films Observed in Vertical Column Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, W.A.

    2001-06-28

    A thin falling film is well suited to simultaneous heat and mass transfer because of the small thermal resistance through the film and because of the large contact surface achievable at low flow rates. The film enters as a smooth laminar flow and quickly transitions into small-amplitude wavy flow. The waves grown in length and amplitude and are identified as roll waves. This flow regime is termed wavy-laminar flow, and modern heat and mass transfer equipment operate in this complicated transition regime. Research published in open literature has shown the mass flow rate in the rollwaves to be about 10 to 20 times greater than that in the laminar substrate. As the film fully develops, the waves grow in mass and the film substrate thins because fluid is swept from the substrate by the secondary flows of the roll wave. Many studies have been conducted to measure and correlate the film thickness of wavy-laminar flows. Literature data show that Nusselt's theory for smooth laminar flow can over predict the film thickness by as much as 20% for certain wavy-laminar flow conditions. The hydrodynamics of falling films were therefore studied to measure the film thickness of a free-surface falling film and to better understand the parameters that affect the variations of the film thickness. A flow loop was set up for measuring the thickness, wave amplitude,and frequency of a film during hydrodynamic flow. Decreasing the pipe diameter caused the amplitude of the wavy flow to diminish. Measurements monitored from stations along the falling film showed a thinning of film thickness. Fully developed flow required large starting lengths of about 0.5 m. The film thickness increases as the Reynolds number (Re) increases. Increasing the Kapitza number (Ka) causes a decrease in the film thickness. Regression analysis showed that the Re and Ka numbers described the data trends in wavy-laminar flow. Rather than correlating the Re number in discrete ranges of the Ka number as earlier researchers have done, this research made the Ka number an independent regression variable along with the Re number. The correlation explains 96% of the total variation in the data and predicts the experimental data within an absolute average deviation of {+-} 4.0%. The correlation supports the calculation of a fully developed film thickness for wavy-laminar falling films.

  15. On the Effect of the Interplanetary Medium on Nanodust Observations by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chat, G Le; Zaslavsky, A; Pantellini, F; Meyer-Vernet, N; Belheouane, S; Maksimovic, M

    2015-01-01

    New measurements using radio and plasma-wave instruments in interplanetary space have shown that nanometer-scale dust, or nanodust, is a significant contributor to the total mass in interplanetary space. Better measurements of nanodust will allow us to determine where it comes from and the extent to which it interacts with the solar wind. When one of these nanodust grains impacts a spacecraft, it creates an expanding plasma cloud, which perturbs the photoelectron currents. This leads to a voltage pulse between the spacecraft body and the antenna. Nanodust has a high charge/mass ratio, and therefore can be accelerated by the interplanetary magnetic field to speeds up to the speed of the solar wind: significantly faster than the Keplerian orbital speeds of heavier dust. The amplitude of the signal induced by a dust grain grows much more strongly with speed than with mass of the dust particle. As a result, nanodust can produce a strong signal, despite their low mass. The WAVES instruments on the twin Solar TErre...

  16. Modeling and interpreting the observed effects of ash on diesel particulate filter performance and regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yujun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are devices that physically capture diesel particulates to prevent their release to the atmosphere. Diesel particulate filters have seen widespread use in on- and off-road applications as ...

  17. THEORETICAL AND OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL IONIZING PARTICLE EFFECTS IN BIOLOGICAL TISSUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Alan Caril.

    2010-01-01

    The top surface of a styrofoam block was layered with aeye through the cotton into the styrofoam block. The eye wasmedium soaked cotton The styrofoam block with where it was

  18. THEORETICAL AND OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL IONIZING PARTICLE EFFECTS IN BIOLOGICAL TISSUE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Alan Caril

    2013-01-01

    i le The top surface of a styrofoam material. The cotton wasThe where it was wetted by capillary action. the styrofoamThe styrofoam block with upright in the beam path several

  19. OBSERVING THE INDIRECT EFFECT AT NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA: SPECTROSCOPIC LESSONS FOR FUTURE SATELLITE MISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the spring season. During the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring (ARM) program program. ISDAC also involved numerous coordinated overflights of Barrow by NASA and Environment Canada MISSIONS A. M. Vogelmann Brookhaven National Laboratory, Atmospheric Sciences Division, Upton, NY 11973 D

  20. Thermospheric density variations: Observability using precision satellite orbits and effects on orbit propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lechtenberg, Travis; McLaughlin, Craig A.; Locke, Travis; Krishna, Dhaval Mysore

    2013-01-28

    This paper examines atmospheric density estimated using precision orbit ephemerides (POE) from the CHAMP and GRACE satellites during short periods of greater atmospheric density variability. The results of the calibration ...

  1. First Direct Observation of CO2's Greenhouse Effect at the Earth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    North America. They attributed this upward trend to rising CO levels from fossil fuel emissions. The influence of atmospheric CO on the balance between incoming energy from...

  2. Horava Gravity in the Effective Field Theory formalism: from cosmology to observational constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frusciante, Noemi; Vernieri, Daniele; Hu, Bin; Silvestri, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    We consider Horava gravity within the framework of the EFT of dark energy and modified gravity. We work out a complete mapping of the theory into the EFT language for an action including all the operators which are relevant for linear perturbations with up to sixth order spatial derivatives. We then employ an updated version of the EFTCAMB/EFTCosmoMC package to study the cosmology of the low-energy limit of Horava gravity and place constraints on its parameters using several cosmological data sets. In particular we consider two cases: the first in which the three parameters of the low-energy theory are all varied and a second case that is tuned to evade PPN constraints, reducing the number of free parameters to two. We employ data sets which include the CMB TT and lensing power spectra by Planck 2013, WMAP low-l polarization spectra, the WiggleZ galaxy power spectrum, the local Hubble measurements, Supernovae data from SNLS, SDSS and HST and the BAO measurements from BOSS, SDSS and 6dFGS. For both cases we es...

  3. An Observed Signature of Aerosol Effect on Cloud Droplet Radii from a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TAPropaneand LosAmesAmpedIntroductionDecade of

  4. Observations and Modeling of Shallow Convective Clouds: Implications for the Indirect Aerosol Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXuRod Hunt (208) 386-5254 Washington575MAYEventsIn 12 FOR2and

  5. Observation of the Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Record High-Mobility

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to science information from DOE(Journal

  6. The observational status of Galileon gravity after Planck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk E-mail: silvia.pascoli@durham.ac.uk

    2014-08-01

    We use the latest CMB data from Planck, together with BAO measurements, to constrain the full parameter space of Galileon gravity. We constrain separately the three main branches of the theory known as the Cubic, Quartic and Quintic models, and find that all yield a very good fit to these data. Unlike in ?CDM, the Galileon model constraints are compatible with local determinations of the Hubble parameter and predict nonzero neutrino masses at over 5? significance. We also identify that the low l part of the CMB lensing spectrum may be able to distinguish between ?CDM and Galileon models. In the Cubic model, the lensing potential deepens at late times on sub-horizon scales, which is at odds with the current observational suggestion of a positive ISW effect. Compared to ?CDM, the Quartic and Quintic models predict less ISW power in the low l region of the CMB temperature spectrum, and as such are slightly preferred by the Planck data. We illustrate that residual local modifications to gravity in the Quartic and Quintic models may render the Cubic model as the only branch of Galileon gravity that passes Solar System tests.

  7. Observation of the Chern-Simons gauge anomaly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunil Mittal; Sriram Ganeshan; Jingyun Fan; Abolhassan Vaezi; Mohammad Hafezi

    2015-04-22

    Topological Quantum Field Theories (TQFTs) are powerful tools to describe universal features of topological orders. A hallmark example of a TQFT is the 2+1 D Chern-Simons (CS) theory which describes topological properties of both integer and fractional quantum Hall effects. The gauge invariant form of the CS theory with boundaries, encompassing both edge and bulk terms, provides an unambiguous way to relate bulk topological invariants to the edge dynamics. This bulk-edge correspondence is manifested as a gauge anomaly of the chiral dynamics at the edge, and provides a direct insight into the bulk topological order. Such an anomaly has never been directly observed in an experiment. In this work, we experimentally implement the integer quantum Hall model in a photonic system, described by the corresponding CS theory. By selectively manipulating and probing the edge, we exploit the gauge anomaly of the CS theory, for the first time. The associated spectral edge flow allows us to unambiguously measure topological invariants, i.e., the winding number of the edge states. This experiment provides a new approach for direct measurement of topological invariants, independent of the microscopic details, and thus could be extended to probe strongly correlated topological orders.

  8. Observed Holiday Aerosol Reduction and Temperature Cooling over East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Daoyi; Wang, Wenshan; Qian, Yun; Bai, Wenbing; Guo, Yuanxi; Mao, Rui

    2014-06-16

    The Spring Festival air pollution in China was investigated using the long-term observations from 2001-2012 over 323 stations. During the Spring Festival with nearly half of urban population leaving the cities for holidays, the particulate matter (PM10) concentration is about 24.5?gm-3 (23%) lower than normal days. Associated with the national-wide burning of firework, the PM10 concentration sharply increases to 123.8?gm-3 at Chinese New Year Day (increment of 35%). Similar to PM10, the SO2 and NO2 decrease from high values in normal days to a holiday minimum with reduction of 23.3% and 30.6%, respectively. The NO2 has no peak in New Year Day because of the different emission source. The night mean and minimum temperature co-vary with PM10. Both nighttime mean and minimum temperature decrease by about 2.1°C during the holidays. And in association with the pollution jump at New Year Day the night temperature simultaneously increase by about 0.89°C. The in-phase co-variations between PM10 and night temperature suggest an overall warming effect of holiday aerosol during winter in China.

  9. Observation of half-quantum vortices in superfluid 3He

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autti, S; Eltsov, V B; Makinen, J; Volovik, G E; Yudin, A N; Zavjalov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Recently the new phase of the superfluid 3He has been reported to exist in the aerogel-like structure (nafen) - the so-called polar phase [1]. As distinct from the other phases - the chiral superfluid 3He-A with Weyl nodes and the fully gapped topological 3He-B with Dirac nodes on the surface - the polar phase has Dirac nodal line in bulk and dispersionless band of Andreev-Majorana fermions on the surface [2]. The polar phase can support exotic objects - the half-quantum vortices (HQV) with unpaired Majoranas in their cores [3-5] Originally the HQVs have been predicted to exist in the Weyl superfluid 3He-A [6,7], but still they have not been observed there due to unfavorable combination of spin-orbit and magnetic anisotropy effects on the orientation of the order parameter. In nafen, if the magnetic field is absent or is oriented parallel to nafen strands, the half-quantum vortices win over the conventional single-quantum vortices. We cool down a sample of nafen through transition to the polar phase in rotati...

  10. The Pegg-Barnett Formalism and Covariant Phase Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pekka Lahti; Juha-Pekka Pellonpaa

    2001-06-15

    We compare the Pegg-Barnett (PB) formalism with the covariant phase observable approach to the problem of quantum phase and show that PB-formalism gives essentially the same results as the canonical (covariant) phase observable. We also show that PB-formalism can be extended to cover all covariant phase observables including the covariant phase observable arising from the angle margin of the Husimi Q-function.

  11. EuropeanGridofSolarObservations Progress on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;EuropeanGridofSolarObservations Some generic issues We need to build on the existing situation UserEuropeanGridofSolarObservations Progress on the European Grid of Solar Observations R.D. Bentley Mullard Space Science Laboratory University College London FASR Workshop #12;EuropeanGridofSolar

  12. FACULTY OF GEO-INFORMATION SCIENCE AND EARTH OBSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FACULTY OF GEO-INFORMATION SCIENCE AND EARTH OBSERVATION ITC research Space for global development. At the Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC) of the University of Twente, knowledge;2 At the Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC) of the University of Twente, research

  13. Test, debug and development environment of Subaru Observation Software System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayashi, Saeko S.

    - 1/7 - Test, debug and development environment of Subaru Observation Software System Junichi have a computer system in Japan which simulates the network of the summit system in part. Software test, Japan ABSTRACT Subaru Observation Software System (SOSS) provides observers with so called high

  14. SM EFT -connect UV models to precision observables Xiaochuan Lu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    observables UV models Connect Models to Measurements How do the precision measurements shed light on physics observables UV models Connect Models to Measurements How do the precision measurements shed light on physics Berkeley 14 Precision observables UV models Connect Models to Measurements How do the precision

  15. RECORDS AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    422 RECORDS AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA CALIFORNIA, APRIL 1952 SPECIAL AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA CALIFORNIA, APRIL 1952 by David Kramer United States Fish volumes 21 Literature cited 42 Hi #12;#12;RECORDS AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA

  16. Improved upper bounds on Kaluza-Klein gravity with current Solar System experiments and observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue-Mei Deng; Yi Xie

    2015-10-10

    As an extension of previous works on classical tests of Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravity and as an attempt to find more stringent constraints on this theory, its effects on physical experiments and astronomical observations conducted in the Solar System are studied. We investigate the gravitational time delay at inferior conjunction caused by KK gravity, and use new Solar System ephemerides and the observation of \\textit{Cassini} to strengthen constraints on KK gravity by up to two orders of magnitude. These improved upper bounds mean that the fifth-dimensional space in the soliton case is a very flat extra dimension in the Solar System, even in the vicinity of the Sun.

  17. An urban weather generator coupling a building simulation program with an urban canopy model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bueno Unzeta, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The increase in air temperature observed in urban environments compared to the undeveloped rural surroundings, known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, is being intensely studied, due to its adverse environmental and ...

  18. Experimental Observation of Nuclear Reactions in Palladium and Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Dufour; D. Murat; X. Dufour; J. Foos

    2001-11-12

    By submitting various metals (Pd, U) containing hydrogen (from 2000 to 700 000 atoms of hydrogen for 1 000 000 atoms of the host metal) to the combined action of electrical currents and magnetic fields, we have observed a sizeable exothermal effect (from 0.1 to 8 W for 500 mg of metal used). This effect is beyond experimental errors, the energy output being typically 130 to 250{percent} of the energy input and not of chemical origin (exothermal effect in the range of 7000 MJ/mol of metal in the case of palladium and of 60 MJ/mol in the case of uranium). New chemical species also appear in the processes metals. It has been shown by a QED calculation that resonances of long lifetime (s), nuclear dimensions (fm), and low energy of formation (eV) could exist. This concept seems to look like the 'shrunken hydrogen atoms' proposed by various authors. It is indeed very different in two ways (a) being a metastable state, it needs energy to be formed (a few eV) and reverts to normal hydrogen after a few seconds, liberating back its energy of formation (it is thus not the source of the energy observed); (b) its formation can be described as the electron spin/proton nuclear spin interaction becoming first order in the lattice environment (whereas it is third order in a normal hydrogen atom). Moreover, we consider that the hydrex cannot yield a neutron because this reaction is strongly endothermic. To explain our results, we put forward the following working hypothesis: In a metal lattice and under proper conditions, the formation of such resonances (metastable state) could be favored. We propose to call them HYDREX, and we assume that they are actually formed in cold fusion (CF) and low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. Once formed, a number of HYDREX could gather around a nucleus of the lattice to form a cluster of nuclear size and of very long life time compared to nuclear time (10{sup -22} s). In this cluster, nuclear rearrangements could take place, yielding mainly {sup 4}He, nuclei of atomic masses smaller than that of the host metal and small amounts of {sup 3}He and tritium. Because this nuclear rearrangement is a many-body reaction, the products formed should be stable products in their ground states, most of the reaction energy being carried away as kinetic energy by the alpha particles formed. The HYDREX hypothesis describes CF and LENR as fundamentally the same phenomenon, which we propose to call NUCLEAR CATALYSIS. Depending on the conditions of a CF or LENR experiment, the products formed may look very different, but the initial step is always the synthesis of HYDREX. When this synthesis is mastered, CF and LENR experiments should become fully reproducible.

  19. Partial and Complete Observables for Canonical General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Dittrich

    2005-07-25

    In this work we will consider the concepts of partial and complete observables for canonical general relativity. These concepts provide a method to calculate Dirac observables. The central result of this work is that one can compute Dirac observables for general relativity by dealing with just one constraint. For this we have to introduce spatial diffeomorphism invariant Hamiltonian constraints. It will turn out that these can be made to be Abelian. Furthermore the methods outlined here provide a connection between observables in the space--time picture, i.e. quantities invariant under space--time diffeomorphisms, and Dirac observables in the canonical picture.

  20. Dilatonic effects near naked singularities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2011-11-03

    Static spherically symmetric solutions of 4d Brans-Dicke theory include a set of naked singularity solutions. Dilatonic effects near the naked singularities result in either a shielding or an antishielding effect from intruding massive test particles. One result is that for a portion of the solution parameter space, no communication between the singularity and a distant observer is possible via massive particle exchanges. Kaluza-Klein gravity is considered as a special case.

  1. Intratumor heterogeneity alters most effective drugs in designed combinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Boyang

    The substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity observed in patient tumors poses considerable challenges for the design of effective drug combinations with predictable outcomes. Currently, the implications of tissue ...

  2. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Diego State University; Bard Center for Environmental Policy at Bard College; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2011-06-23

    With increasing numbers of communities considering wind power developments, empirical investigations regarding related community concerns are needed. One such concern is that proximate property values may be adversely affected, yet relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models, and a variety of robustness tests, the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on sales prices, yet further research is warranted.

  3. Investigating the effect of Process Experience on Inspection Effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basili, Victor R.

    an inspector needs before he or she is effective and efficient in using that technique. This technical report themselves. This report discusses how the particular experience with process was evaluated and how the opportunity to observe someone else using PBR prior to their own use of it. General Terms Measurement

  4. Solar Coronal Heating and Limb Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi-Jia Zheng

    2013-05-24

    The quiet solar coronal heating problem and the observed center-to-limb wavelength variations of the solar lines (limb effect) can be explained. In this paper the quantitative calculations for these two phenomena are presented.

  5. Spin effects in single-electron transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granger, Ghislain

    2005-01-01

    Basic electron transport phenomena observed in single-electron transistors (SETs) are introduced, such as Coulomb-blockade diamonds, inelastic cotunneling thresholds, the spin-1/2 Kondo effect, and Fano interference. With ...

  6. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) for the Mid-Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Waight, K; Manobianco, J; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region, which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area (Figure 1) that includes the Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. There are two tasks in the current project effort designed to validate the Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) observational system deployment approach in order to move closer to the overall goal: (1) Perform an Observing System Experiment (OSE) using a data denial approach. The results of this task are presented in a separate report. (2) Conduct a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for the Mid-Colombia basin region. This report presents the results of the OSSE task. The specific objective is to test strategies for future deployment of observing systems in order to suggest the best and most efficient ways to improve wind forecasting at BPA wind farm locations. OSSEs have been used for many years in meteorology to evaluate the potential impact of proposed observing systems, determine tradeoffs in instrument design, and study the most effective data assimilation methodologies to incorporate the new observations into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (Atlas 1997; Lord 1997). For this project, a series of OSSEs will allow consideration of the impact of new observing systems of various types and in various locations.

  7. Radiation pressure effects in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelc, Jason, 1984-

    2006-01-01

    We report on experimental observation of radiation-pressure induced effects in a high-power optical cavity. These effects play an important role in next generation gravitational wave detectors, as well as quantum non-demolition ...

  8. Focus Article Effects of instrumentation changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koek, Frits

    is often not available. There are many historical descriptions of observing practice and instrumentationFocus Article Effects of instrumentation changes on sea surface temperature measured in situ, with the available observations, to develop models for the expected biases, which vary according to how

  9. Observed galaxy number counts on the lightcone up to second order: II. Derivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertacca, Daniele; Maartens, Roy; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com

    2014-11-01

    We present a detailed derivation of the observed galaxy number over-density on cosmological scales up to second order in perturbation theory. We include all relativistic effects that arise from observing on the past lightcone. The derivation is in a general gauge, and applies to all dark energy models (including interacting dark energy) and to metric theories of modified gravity. The result will be important for accurate cosmological parameter estimation, including non-Gaussianity, since all projection effects need to be taken into account. It also offers the potential for new probes of General Relativity, dark energy and modified gravity. This paper accompanies Paper I which presents the key results for the concordance model in Poisson gauge.

  10. An XMM-Newton Observation of Abell 2597

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Glenn Morris; A. C. Fabian

    2005-01-17

    We report on a 120 ks XMM-Newton observation of the galaxy cluster Abell 2597. Results from both the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) are presented. From EPIC we obtain radial profiles of temperature, density and abundance, and use these to derive cooling time and entropy. We illustrate corrections to these profiles for projection and point spread function (PSF) effects. At the spatial resolution available to XMM-Newton, the temperature declines by around a factor of two in the central 150 kpc or so in radius, and the abundance increases from about one-fifth to over one-half solar. The cooling time is less than 10 Gyr inside a radius of 130 kpc. EPIC fits to the central region are consistent with a cooling flow of around 100 solar masses per year. Broad-band fits to the RGS spectra extracted from the central 2 arcmin are also consistent with a cooling flow of the same magnitude; with a preferred low-temperature cut-off of essentially zero. The data appear to suggest (albeit at low significance levels below formal detection limits) the presence of the important thermometer lines from Fe XVII at 15, 17 Angstrom rest wavelength, characteristic of gas at temperatures ~ 0.3 keV. The measured flux in each line is converted to a mass deposition estimate by comparison with a classical cooling flow model, and once again values at the level of 100 solar masses per year are obtained. These mass deposition rates, whilst lower than those of previous generations of X-ray observatories, are consistent with those obtained from UV data for this object. This raises the possibility of a classical cooling flow, at the level of around 100 solar masses per year, cooling from 4 keV by more than two orders of magnitude in temperature.

  11. Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12??m{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

  12. Meteorological Observations for Renewable Energy Applications at Site 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Alai, M; Myers, K

    2011-10-26

    In early October 2010, two Laser and Detection Ranging (LIDAR) units (LIDAR-96 and LIDAR-97), a 3 m tall flux tower, and a 3 m tall meteorological tower were installed in the northern section of Site 300 (Figure 1) as a first step in development of a renewable energy testbed facility. This section of the SMS project is aimed at supporting that effort with continuous maintenance of atmospheric monitoring instruments capable of measuring vertical profiles of wind speed and wind direction at heights encountered by future wind power turbines. In addition, fluxes of energy are monitored to estimate atmospheric mixing and its effects on wind flow properties at turbine rotor disk heights. Together, these measurements are critical for providing an accurate wind resource characterization and for validating LLNL atmospheric prediction codes for future renewable energy projects at Site 300. Accurate, high-resolution meteorological measurements of wind flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and surface-atmosphere energy exchange are required for understanding the properties and quality of available wind power at Site 300. Wind speeds at heights found in a typical wind turbine rotor disk ({approx} 40-140 m) are driven by the synergistic impacts of atmospheric stability, orography, and land-surface characteristics on the mean wind flow in the PBL and related turbulence structures. This section of the report details the maintenance and labor required in FY11 to optimize the meteorological instruments and ensure high accuracy of their measurements. A detailed look at the observations from FY11 is also presented. This portion of the project met the following milestones: Milestone 1: successful maintenance and data collection of LIDAR and flux tower instruments; Milestone 2: successful installation of solar power for the LIDAR units; and Milestone 3: successful implementation of remote data transmission for the LIDAR units.

  13. NS&T Managment Observations - 1st Quarter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Gianotto

    2014-06-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  14. Observation of GRBs by the MAGIC Telescope, Status and Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Bastieri; N. Galante; M. Garczarczyk; M. Gaug; F. Longo; S. Mizobuchi; V. Scapin

    2007-09-10

    Observation of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the Very High Energy (VHE) domain will provide important information on the physical conditions in GRB outflows. The MAGIC telescope is the best suited Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) for these observations. Thanks to its fast repositioning time and low energy threshold, MAGIC is able to start quickly the follow-up observation, triggered by an alert from the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN), and observe the prompt emission and early afterglow phase from GRBs. In the last two years of operation several GRB follow-up observations were performed by MAGIC, however, until now without successful detection of VHE gamma rays above threshold energies >100 GeV. In this paper we revise the expectations for the GRB observations with MAGIC, based on the experience from the last years of operation.

  15. Observation of the tune dependence of the stability threshold current in the PSR (Proton Storage Ring)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tai Sen F.; Colton, E.; Lombardi, A.; Neuffer, D.V.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the high-intensity unbunched-beam experiments carried out in the Proton Storage Ring at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the threshold current of vertical transverse instability showed pronounced differences when the betatron tune varied across an integer. In this paper, we shall present our experimental observations and discuss the possible relations between the threshold current and the machine impedance. The possible effects related to the distorted closed orbit are also discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Quantum generalized fluctuation-dissipation relations in terms of time-distributed observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. E. Kuzovlev

    2013-06-18

    New formulations of quantum generalized fluctuation-dissipation relations in terms of characteristic and probabilistic functionals of continuous observations are suggested and discussed. It is shown that control of entropy production in quantum system turns any measurement in it to a source of its extra perturbations, and because of this effect relations between probabilities of mutually time-reversed processes become definitely non-local in their functional space

  17. The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Observations of Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    We describe measurements of GeV and TeV cosmic rays with the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory, or HAWC. The measurements include the observation of the shadow of the moon; the observation of small-scale and large-scale angular clustering of the TeV cosmic rays; the prospects for measurement of transient solar events with HAWC; and the observation of Forbush decreases with the HAWC engineering array and HAWC-30.

  18. Transport Regulation from Theory to Practice: General Observations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transport Regulation from Theory to Practice: General Observations and a Case Study Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Transport Regulation from Theory to...

  19. Some Observations Regarding Steady Laminar Flows Past Bluff Bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fornberg, Bengt

    Some Observations Regarding Steady Laminar Flows Past Bluff Bodies Bengt Fornberg Department, 2013. February 4, 2014 Abstract Steady laminar flows past simple objects, such as a cylinder

  20. Sandia Energy - NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Process Experiment (MIZOPEX) Home Climate Office of Science News News & Events Research & Capabilities Monitoring Analysis...

  1. Simultaneous observation of nascent plasma and bubble induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simultaneous observation of nascent plasma and bubble induced by laser ablation in water with various pulse durations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simultaneous...

  2. Magnetism and superconductivity observed to exist in harmony

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Los Alamos National Laboratory, along with colleagues at institutions in Switzerland and Canada, have observed, for the first time in a single exotic phase, a situation...

  3. Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric telescope automation and observing software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric H. Neilsen, Jr. et al.

    2002-10-16

    The photometric telescope (PT) provides observations necessary for the photometric calibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Because the attention of the observing staff is occupied by the operation of the 2.5 meter telescope which takes the survey data proper, the PT must reliably take data with little supervision. In this paper we describe the PT's observing program, MOP, which automates most tasks necessary for observing. MOP's automated target selection is closely modeled on the actions a human observer might take, and is built upon a user interface that can be (and has been) used for manual operation. This results in an interface that makes it easy for an observer to track the activities of the automating procedures and intervene with minimum disturbance when necessary. MOP selects targets from the same list of standard star and calibration fields presented to the user, and chooses standard star fields covering ranges of airmass, color, and time necessary to monitor atmospheric extinction and produce a photometric solution. The software determines when additional standard star fields are unnecessary, and selects survey calibration fields according to availability and priority. Other automated features of MOP, such as maintaining the focus and keeping a night log, are also built around still functional manual interfaces, allowing the observer to be as active in observing as desired; MOP's automated features may be used as tools for manual observing, ignored entirely, or allowed to run the telescope with minimal supervision when taking routine data.

  4. AAO support observations for the Hubble Deep Field Sout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. J. Boyle

    1998-04-09

    We present proposed ground-based support observations at the AAO for the forthcoming Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) campaign.

  5. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud Results are presented...

  6. Pole placement design for quantum systems via coherent observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zibo Miao; Matthew R. James; Valery A. Ugrinovskii

    2015-09-17

    We previously extended Luenberger's approach for observer design to the quantum case, and developed a class of coherent observers which tracks linear quantum stochastic systems in the sense of mean values. In light of the fact that the Luenberger observer is commonly and successfully applied in classical control, it is interesting to investigate the role of coherent observers in quantum feedback. As the first step in exploring observer-based coherent control, in this paper we study pole-placement techniques for quantum systems using coherent observers, and in such a fashion, poles of a closed-loop quantum system can be relocated at any desired locations. In comparison to classical feedback control design incorporating the Luenberger observer, here direct coupling between a quantum plant and the observer-based controller are allowed to enable a greater degree of freedom for the design of controller parameters. A separation principle is presented, and we show how to design the observer and feedback independently to be consistent with the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed scheme is applicable to coherent feedback control of quantum systems, especially when the transient dynamic response is of interest, and this issue is illustrated in an example.

  7. Analysis of The Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed in Spacecraft Flybys of Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roger Ellman

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008 anomalous behavior in spacecraft flybys of Earth was reported in Physical Review Letters, Volume 100, Issue 9, March 7, 2008, in an article entitled "Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed during Spacecraft Flybys of Earth". The data indicate unaccounted for changes in spacecraft speed, both increases and decreases, for six different spacecraft involved in Earth flybys from December 8, 1990 to August 2, 2005. The article states that, "All ... potential sources of systematic error .... [have been] modeled. None can account for the observed anomalies.... Like the Pioneer anomaly ... the Earth flybys anomaly is a real effect .... Its source is unknown." In the present article it is shown that the Earth flybys anomaly would be caused by a very small acceleration [in addition to that of natural gravitation], centrally directed and independent of distance, the same effect as that which the Pioneer anomaly exhibits. How that effect operates to produce the observed results is analyzed. A cause of the centrally directed accelerations is presented.

  8. Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S.

    2011-11-15

    Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

  9. OBSERVATION OF HEATING BY FLARE-ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Bain, Hazel M.; Krucker, Säm; Lin, Robert P.

    2013-12-20

    We report a Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observation of flare-accelerated electrons in the core of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and examine their role in heating the CME. Previous CME observations have revealed remarkably high thermal energies that can far surpass the CME's kinetic energy. A joint observation by RHESSI and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of a partly occulted flare on 2010 November 3 allows us to test the hypothesis that this excess energy is collisionally deposited by flare-accelerated electrons. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images show an ejection forming the CME core and sheath, with isothermal multifilter analysis revealing temperatures of ?11 MK in the core. RHESSI images reveal a large (?100 × 50 arcsec{sup 2}) hard X-ray (HXR) source matching the location, shape, and evolution of the EUV plasma, indicating that the emerging CME is filled with flare-accelerated electrons. The time derivative of the EUV emission matches the HXR light curve (similar to the Neupert effect observed in soft and HXR time profiles), directly linking the CME temperature increase with the nonthermal electron energy loss, while HXR spectroscopy demonstrates that the nonthermal electrons contain enough energy to heat the CME. This is the most direct observation to date of flare-accelerated electrons heating a CME, emphasizing the close relationship of the two in solar eruptive events.

  10. Mechanisms and observations of coronal dimming for the 201 August 7 event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, James Paul; Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Hock, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    Coronal dimming of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission has the potential to be a useful forecaster of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As emitting material leaves the corona, a temporary void is left behind which can be observed in spectral images and irradiance measurements. The velocity and mass of the CMEs should impact the character of those observations. However, other physical processes can confuse the observations. We describe these processes and the expected observational signature, with special emphasis placed on the differences. We then apply this understanding to a coronal dimming event with an associated CME that occurred on 2010 August 7. Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) are used for observations of the dimming, while the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory's COR1 and COR2 are used to obtain velocity and mass estimates for the associated CME. We develop a technique for mitigating temperature effects in coronal dimming from full-disk irradiance measurements taken by EVE. We find that for this event, nearly 100% of the dimming is due to mass loss in the corona.

  11. GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

  12. Electrodes mitigating effects of defects in organic electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heller, Christian Maria Anton (Albany, NY)

    2008-05-06

    A compound electrode for organic electronic devices comprises a thin first layer of a first electrically conducting material and a second electrically conducting material disposed on the first layer. In one embodiment, the second electrically conducting material is formed into a plurality of elongated members. In another embodiment, the second material is formed into a second layer. The elongated members or the second layer has a thickness greater than that of the first layer. The second layer is separated from the first layer by a conducting material having conductivity less than at least the material of the first layer. The compound electrode is capable of mitigating adverse effects of defects, such as short circuits, in the construction of the organic electronic devices, and can be included in light-emitting or photovoltaic devices.

  13. Pulsar-Wind Nebulae: Recent Progress in Observations and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Lyubarsky, Yuri; Striani, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    In this review we describe recent observational and theoretical developments in our understanding of pulsar winds and pulsar-wind nebulae (PWNe). We put special emphasis on the results from observations of well-characterized PWNe of various types (e.g., torus-jet and bowshock-tail), the most recent MHD modeling efforts, and the status of the flaring Crab PWN puzzle.

  14. Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stehr, Jeffrey

    Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions Bryan J. Bloomer,1, and R. R. Dickerson (2009), Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions decreased by 43% for the time period 1995 to 2002 compared with 2003 to 2006 as a result of air pollution

  15. Neutron star cooling: theoretical aspects and observational constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neutron star cooling: theoretical aspects and observational constraints D.G. Yakovlev a,*, O 2003 Abstract The cooling theory of isolated neutron stars is reviewed. The main cooling regulators of supranuclear matter in neutron star interiors by confronting cooling theory with observations of isolated

  16. UAV PATH FOLLOWING FOR TARGET OBSERVATION IN WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UAV PATH FOLLOWING FOR TARGET OBSERVATION IN WIND Rolf Rysdyk, University of Washington, Seattle guidance and syn- chronous camera angles to observe a target from an unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV).1 Semi- autonomous operation of UAVs for target sensing have shown that operator situational awareness can be easily

  17. Observations of Collaborative Behavior in COMPS Computer Mediated Problem Solving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luther, Ken

    Observations of Collaborative Behavior in COMPS Computer Mediated Problem Solving Jung Hee Kim.glass @valpo.edu Abstract COMPS is a web-delivered computer-mediated problem solving environment for student in the problem-solving process. These observations confirm that COMPS indeed fa- cilitates true collaborative

  18. Observed and CAM3 GCM Sea Surface Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    Observed and CAM3 GCM Sea Surface Wind Speed Distributions: Characterization, Comparison, and Bias climatological surface wind speed probability density functions (PDFs) estimated from observations and use them to evaluate, for the first time, contemporaneous wind PDFs predicted by a GCM. The ob- servations include NASA

  19. DESIGN OF THE GREAT LAKES OBSERVING SYSTEM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGN OF THE GREAT LAKES OBSERVING SYSTEM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE T.J. Dekker1 , J.V. DePinto1 , S, collaborative, and consensus-based enterprise architecture design process was conducted under the direction that will achieve an integrated, comprehensive, and sustainable observing system enterprise for the Great Lakes

  20. Observation of Electroweak Single Top-Quark Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Si

    We report the observation of single top-quark production using 3.2??fb[superscript -1] of pp? collision data with ?s=1.96??TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The significance of the observed data is 5.0 ...

  1. Mm/submm observations of symbiotic binary stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Mikolajewska; R. J. Ivison; A. Omont

    2002-10-22

    We present and discuss mm/submm observations of quiescent S-type symbiotic systems, and compare them with popular models proposed to account for their radio emission. We find that the M giant mass-loss rates derived from our observations are systematically higher than those reported for single M giants.

  2. Observability of Stuck-at-Faults with Differential Power Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ,flottes,rouzeyre}@lirmm.fr Abstract In this paper we propose an innovative method to test integrated circuits based on the use of the current consumed by the circuit during net transitions, it does not require observing primary outputs of the circuit and allows the test of hard-to-observe faults. Conversely to Iddq, this technique is not sensible

  3. WIND OBSERVATIONS OF SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    WIND OBSERVATIONS OF SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM R. P. LIN Space Sciences Particle Instrument on the WIND spacecraft, which provides high sensitivity electron and ion measurements from solar wind thermal plasma up to &MeV energies. These results include: (1) the observation of solar

  4. Ornithology Based on Linking Bird Observations with Weather Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyvönen, Eero

    Ornithology Based on Linking Bird Observations with Weather Data Mikko Koho1,2 , Eero Hyv¨onen2 [12]. By combining observa- tional data with related datasets, such as weather or pollution data a use case of adding value to a bird observation dataset by related weather data and a species ontology

  5. CONVENIENCE YIELD MODEL WITH PARTIAL OBSERVATIONS AND EXPONENTIAL UTILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    CONVENIENCE YIELD MODEL WITH PARTIAL OBSERVATIONS AND EXPONENTIAL UTILITY REN´E CARMONA AND MICHAEL. We study the value function corresponding to utility pric- ing with exponential utility. Assuming of the full information case. convenience yield, filtering, partial observations, stochastic control, utility

  6. Beyond the Standard Model of Physics with Astronomical Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raul Jimenez

    2013-07-09

    There has been significant recent progress in observational cosmology. This, in turn, has provided an unprecedented picture of the early universe and its evolution. In this review I will present a (biased) view of how one can use these observational results to constraint fundamental physics and in particular physics beyond the standard model.

  7. ARM Observations Projected onto CCSM Results Projected onto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    ARM Observations Projected onto ARM States CCSM Results Projected onto ARM States 1Oak Ridge to Comparing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data with Global Climate Model (GCM) Results Atmospheric state contained only in model results Atmospheric states contained only in ARM observations ARM

  8. EVALUATION OF PARAMETERIZED SURFACE FLUXES WITH ARM OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EVALUATION OF PARAMETERIZED SURFACE FLUXES WITH ARM OBSERVATIONS G. Liu, Y. Liu, T. Toto, M. Jensen advantage of the long-term observations of surface fluxes collected by the DOE ARM program at the Great the ARM measurements based on the EC (Eddy- Correlation) and EBBR (Energy Balance Bowen Ratio) methods

  9. First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol Reinhard Beer,1 Mark W) and methanol (CH3OH), well above the normal background levels. This is the first time that these molecules have. Citation: Beer, R., et al. (2008), First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

  10. Scavenging quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Rapcan; John Calsamiglia; Ramon Munoz-Tapia; Emilio Bagan; Vladimir Buzek

    2011-05-26

    Given an unknown state of a qudit that has already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? Clearly, after a maximally informative measurement, the state of the system `collapses' into a post-measurement state from which the {\\em{same}} observer cannot obtain further information about the original state of the system. However, the system still encodes a significant amount of information about the original preparation for a second observer who is unaware of the actions of the first one. We study how a series of independent observers can obtain, or scavenge, information about the unknown state of a system (quantified by the fidelity) when they sequentially measure it. We give closed-form expressions for the estimation fidelity, when one or several qudits are available to carry information about the single-qudit state, and study the `classical' limit when an arbitrarily large number of observers can obtain (nearly) complete information on the system. In addition to the case where all observers perform most informative measurements we study the scenario where a finite number of observers estimate the state with equal fidelity,regardless of their position in the measurement sequence; and the scenario where all observers use identical measurement apparata (up to a mutually unknown orientation) chosen so that a particular observer's estimation fidelity is maximized.

  11. THEORY OF THE CONTROL OF OBSERVABLE QUANTUM V. P. BELAVKIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belavkin, Viacheslav P.

    . The general problem of optimal control of a quantum-mechanical system is discussed and the corre- sponding], of the dynamical observation and feedback control optimization problems for such systems has provided a means measurement and control of classical (i.e., non-quantum) Markov processes with quantum observation channels

  12. Spatial Standard Observer for Visual Technology Andrew B. Watson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , acuity, discrimination, model, modelfest, standard observer. 1 Definition The Spatial Standard Observer at a specific viewing distance, and the pixels have a known relation to luminance. The output of the metric of log contrast energy. The horizontal axis indicates ModelFest stimulus number. Miniature versions

  13. The Autonomous Observer: A Tool for Remote Experimentation in Robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latombe, Jean-Claude

    { the Autonomous Observer (AO) { developed to facilitate experimentation over the Internet. The AO is a mobile the target's pose. This pose is sent over the Internet to remote users who can observe 3-D real-time graphic de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) in Mexico. The goal of this project was to develop

  14. First Epoch Observations of 3-Helium with the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    First Epoch Observations of 3-Helium with the Green Bank Telescope THOMAS M. BANIA Institute #12;3-Helium Experiment Status GBT now fully operational for 3-He First GBT 3-He epoch complete-He detection for the PN J320 (see Balser et al. poster) NAIC Arecibo Observatory 305 m observations

  15. ISSN 18458319 COMMON SPHINX AND RHESSI OBSERVATIONS OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrozek, Tomasz

    V energy resolution. SphinX data overlap with the low-energy end of the Ramaty High Energy Solar. Observational Data The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) is a rotating FourierISSN 1845­8319 COMMON SPHINX AND RHESSI OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR FLARES T. MROZEK1,2 , S. GBUREK1 , M

  16. Numerical models of the geodynamo and observational constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dormy, Emmanuel

    , and paleomagnetic observations have been interpreted as actual geomagnetic features and used as constraints. Keywords: Geodynamo; Earth core; geomagnetic field; magnetic records. Index terms: Dynamo theory; time much more recently. Papers coauthored by dynamo specialists and geophysicists observing the field over

  17. Measuring Transactions Costs from Observed Behavior: Market Choices in Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Measuring Transactions Costs from Observed Behavior: Market Choices in Peru Renos Vakis, Elisabeth Sadoulet, and Alain de Janvry October 2003 Abstract Farmers incur proportional and fixed transactions costs these transactions costs. When opportunities exist to sell a crop on alternative markets, the observed choice

  18. Synoptic Observing Programs at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Synoptic Observing Programs at Big Bear Solar Observatory Haimin Wang and Philip R. Goode Big Bear and en- hance the comprehensive synoptic observing programs at BBSO, which include the following ve studies. Statistical studies on sunspot areas and magnetic shear are among the highlights of this research

  19. Seismic Observation Systems in Nagoya University and Publication of Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Seismic Observation Systems in Nagoya University and Publication of Data Nobuo Fukuwa,a) Jun Tobita,b) and Hiroaki Kojimac) This paper reports the current situation of the seismic monitoring program conducted by Nagoya University. First, the system for observing seismic ground motion in the Tokai Region is described

  20. Astrophysical jets: Observations, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    Astrophysical jets: Observations, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments P. M. Bellan,1; published online 22 April 2009 This paper provides summaries of ten talks on astrophysical jets given of observation, numerical modeling, and laboratory experiment. One essential feature of jets, namely

  1. NS&T Management Observations - 3rd Quarter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Gianotto

    2014-07-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  2. Galactic mapping with general relativity and the observed rotation curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magalhaes, Nadja S

    2015-01-01

    Typically, stars in galaxies have higher velocities than predicted by Newtonian gravity in conjunction with observable galactic matter. To account for the phenomenon, some researchers modified Newtonian gravitation; others introduced dark matter in the context of Newtonian gravity. We employed general relativity successfully to describe the galactic velocity profiles of four galaxies: NGC 2403, NGC 2903, NGC 5055 and the Milky Way. Here we map the density contours of the galaxies, achieving good concordance with observational data. In our Solar neighbourhood, we found a mass density and density fall-off fitting observational data satisfactorily. From our GR results, using the threshold density related to the observed optical zone of a galaxy, we had found that the Milky Way was indicated to be considerably larger than had been believed to be the case. To our knowledge, this was the only such existing theoretical prediction ever presented. Very recent observational results by Xu et al. have confirmed our predi...

  3. Objectivity of Quantum Measurement in Many-Observer World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng-Wen Li; C. Y. Cai; X. F. Liu; C. P. Sun

    2015-08-06

    The objectivity of quantum measurement is treated as an emergent phenomenon with $N$ observers who can agree to the same result of measurement, and meanwhile, they can identify their records with each other. In this many-observer world (MOW), an objective quantum measurement is dealt with as a multipartite [$(N+1)$-body] quantum correlation among the measured system and $N$ observers when its bipartite reductions are the same classical correlations. With this conceptual clarification, we find that, an objective quantum measurement is implemented if and only if the MOW is initially factorized in a pure state and then the total system can evolve into a generalized GHZ state with respect to the orthogonal basis preferred by each observer. Especially, such objective quantum measurement is recast in ideal classical correlation when the observer world is macroscopic for $N\\rightarrow\\infty$.

  4. Topological phase effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Robbins

    2010-09-10

    Quantum eigenstates undergoing cyclic changes acquire a phase factor of geometric origin. This phase, known as the Berry phase, or the geometric phase, has found applications in a wide range of disciplines throughout physics, including atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, optics, and classical dynamics. In this article, the basic theory of the geometric phase is presented along with a number of representative applications. The article begins with an account of the geometric phase for cyclic adiabatic evolutions. An elementary derivation is given along with a worked example for two-state systems. The implications of time-reversal are explained, as is the fundamental connection between the geometric phase and energy level degeneracies. We also discuss methods of experimental observation. A brief account is given of geometric magnetism; this is a Lorenz-like force of geometric origin which appears in the dynamics of slow systems coupled to fast ones. A number of theoretical developments of the geometric phase are presented. These include an informal discussion of fibre bundles, and generalizations of the geometric phase to degenerate eigenstates (the nonabelian case) and to nonadiabatic evolution. There follows an account of applications. Manifestations in classical physics include the Hannay angle and kinematic geometric phases. Applications in optics concern polarization dynamics, including the theory and observation of Pancharatnam's phase. Applications in molecular physics include the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. In condensed matter physics, we discuss the role of the geometric phase in the theory of the quantum Hall effect.

  5. 15th Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, AMS, Atlanta, 2010 RECENT RESEARCH ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AND INSTRUMENTATION AT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    15th Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, AMS, Atlanta, 2010 1 RECENT RESEARCH ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AND INSTRUMENTATION AT KNMI Hannelore Bloemink, Marijn de Haij are generated at about 30 locations in the meteorological network and are centrally available every 10 minutes

  6. Behaviour Observation in Software Testing 20/08/99 A Theory of Behaviour Observation in Software Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Hong

    Behaviour Observation in Software Testing 20/08/99 -- 1 -- A Theory of Behaviour Observation in Software Testing Hong Zhu School of Computing and Mathematics, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane International University, University Park, Miami, FL 33199, Email: hex@cs.fiu.edu Abstract Software testing

  7. Observation of interference between two Bose condensates The spatial coherence of a Bose condensate was demonstrated by observing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observation of interference between two Bose condensates The spatial coherence of a Bose condensate was demonstrated by observing interference between two Bose condensates [1]. They were created by cooling atoms the condensates expand for 40 milliseconds and overlap (see figure). This demonstrates that Bose condensed atoms

  8. High-altitude gravity waves in the Martian thermosphere observed by MAVEN/NGIMS and modeled by a gravity wave scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi?it, Erdal; Liu, Guiping; Medvedev, Alexander S; Mahaffy, Paul R; Kuroda, Takeshi; Jakosky, Bruce M

    2015-01-01

    First high-altitude observations of gravity wave (GW)-induced CO$_2$ density perturbations in the Martian thermosphere retrieved from NASA's NGIMS instrument on board the MAVEN satellite are presented and interpreted using the extended GW parameterization of Yi\\u{g}it et al. [2008] and the Mars Climate Database as an input. Observed relative density perturbations between 180-220 km of 20-40 % demonstrate appreciable local time, latitude, and altitude variations. Modeling for the spatiotemporal conditions of the MAVEN observations suggests that GWs can directly propagate from the lower atmosphere to the thermosphere, produce appreciable dynamical effects, and likely contribute to the observed fluctuations. Modeled effects are somewhat smaller than the observed but their highly variable nature is in qualitative agreement with observations. Possible reasons for discrepancies between modeling and measurements are discussed.

  9. World-line observables and clocks in General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossein Farajollahi

    2005-11-20

    A proposal for the issue of time and observables in any parameterized theory such as general relativity is addressed. Introduction of a gauge potential 3-form A in the theory of relativity enables us to define a gauge-invariant quantity which can be used by observers as a clock to measure the passage of time. This dynamical variable increases monotonically and continuously along a world line. Then we define world line observables to be any covariantly defined quantity obtained from the field configurations on any such causal past with dynamical time T.

  10. Polarization Observables in the Photoproduction of Two Pseudoscalar Mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston Roberts

    2005-10-12

    The many polarization observables that can be measured in process like {gamma}N {yields} M{sub 1}M{sub 2}B, where M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} are pseudoscalar mesons and B is a spin-1/2 baryon, are discussed. The relationships among these observables, their symmetries, as well as inequalities that they satisfy are briefly discussed. Within the context of a particular model for {gamma}N {yields} NKK, some of the observables are calculated, and their sensitivity to the ingredients of the model, and hence to the underlying dynamics of the process, are discussed.

  11. Observer-dependent optical properties of stationary axisymmetric spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Fernando de Felice; Andrea Geralico

    2014-08-23

    The world lines of null particles admit arbitrary parametrizations. In the presence of a family of observers one may introduce along a null world line an extension of the so-called Cattaneo's relative standard time parameter (valid for massive particles) which plays a special role. Another possibility is to use the coordinate time itself as a parameter. The relation between relative standard time and coordinate time allows for the introduction of an observer-dependent optical path and associated refraction index. Both these quantities are studied here working out explicit examples concerning familiar null orbits and observers in black hole spacetimes.

  12. Identification of Observables for Quark and Gluon Orbital Angular Momentum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtoy, Aurore; Hernandez, J Osvaldo Gonzalez; Liuti, Simonetta; Rajan, Abha

    2014-01-01

    A new debate has recently arisen on the subject of orbital angular momentum in QCD, in particular on its observability and on its partonic interpretation. Orbital momentum can be defined in QCD using two different decomposition schemes that yield a kinetic and a canonical definition, respectively. We argue that kinetic orbital angular momentum is intrinsically associated with twist three generalized parton distributions, and it is therefore more readily observable, while, due to parity constraints, canonical angular momentum, if defined as suggested in the literature in terms of generalized transverse momentum distributions, cannot be observed in scattering processes involving a single hadronic reaction plane.

  13. Identification of Observables for Quark and Gluon Orbital Angular Momentum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aurore Courtoy; Gary R. Goldstein; J. Osvaldo Gonzalez Hernandez; Simonetta Liuti; Abha Rajan

    2014-12-01

    A new debate has recently arisen on the subject of orbital angular momentum in QCD, in particular on its observability and on its partonic interpretation. Orbital momentum can be defined in QCD using two different decomposition schemes that yield a kinetic and a canonical definition, respectively. We argue that kinetic orbital angular momentum is intrinsically associated with twist three generalized parton distributions, and it is therefore more readily observable, while, due to parity constraints, canonical angular momentum, if defined as suggested in the literature in terms of generalized transverse momentum distributions, cannot be observed in scattering processes involving a single hadronic reaction plane.

  14. Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project: Observations and Source Lists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Getman, K V; Broos, P S; Grosso, N; Tsujimoto, M; Townsley, L K; Garmire, G P; Kästner, J H; Li, J; Harnden, F R; Wolk, S; Murray, S S; Lada, C J; Münch, A; McCaughrean, M J; Meeus, G; Damiani, F; Micela, G; Sciortino, S; Bally, J; Hillenbrand, L A; Herbst, W; Preibisch, T; Feigelson, E D

    2004-01-01

    We present a description of the data reduction methods and the derived catalog of more than 1600 X-ray point sources from the exceptionally deep January 2003 Chandra X-ray Observatory observation of the Orion Nebula Cluster and embedded populations around OMC-1. The observation was obtained with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) and has been nicknamed the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP). With an 838 ks exposure made over a continuous period of 13.2 days, the COUP observation provides the most uniform and comprehensive dataset on the X-ray emission of normal stars ever obtained in the history of X-ray astronomy.

  15. Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project: Observations and Source Lists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. V. Getman; E. Flaccomio; P. S. Broos; N. Grosso; M. Tsujimoto; L. Townsley; G. P. Garmire; J. Kastner; J. Li; F. R. Harnden, Jr.; S. Wolk; S. S. Murray; C. J. Lada; A. A. Muench; M. J. McCaughrean; G. Meeus; F. Damiani; G. Micela; S. Sciortino; J. Bally; L. A. Hillenbrand; W. Herbst; T. Preibisch; E. D. Feigelson

    2004-10-06

    We present a description of the data reduction methods and the derived catalog of more than 1600 X-ray point sources from the exceptionally deep January 2003 Chandra X-ray Observatory observation of the Orion Nebula Cluster and embedded populations around OMC-1. The observation was obtained with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) and has been nicknamed the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP). With an 838 ks exposure made over a continuous period of 13.2 days, the COUP observation provides the most uniform and comprehensive dataset on the X-ray emission of normal stars ever obtained in the history of X-ray astronomy.

  16. Classification of Energy Flow Observables in Narrow Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guy Gur-Ari; Michele Papucci; Gilad Perez

    2011-01-14

    We present a classification of energy flow variables for highly collimated jets. Observables are constructed by taking moments of the energy flow and forming scalars of a suitable Lorentz subgroup. The jet shapes are naturally arranged in an expansion in both angular and energy resolution, allowing us to derive the natural observables for describing an N-particle jet. We classify the leading variables that characterize jets with up to 4 particles. We rediscover the familiar jet mass, angularities, and planar flow, which dominate the lowest order substructure variables. We also discover several new observables and we briefly discuss their physical interpretation.

  17. Effect of Scratches on Pinch Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P

    2005-10-11

    Fill stems for tritium reservoirs have stringent scratch requirements such that any indications that appear to have depth are cause for rework or rejection. A scoping study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of scratches approximately 0.0015 to 0.002 inch deep on the fitness for service and bond quality. The stems were characterized using borescope before and after welding. The four stems were welded with near optimal weld parameters, proof tested, and examined metallographically. The stems were radiographed, proof tested, and examined metallographically. The scratches did not adversely affect (1) the weld integrity based on radiography, (2) the ability to withstand the proof pressure, and (3) the weld quality based on metallographic cross-sections. Based on these limited results at a nominal weld current, the weld process is very robust. It may be able to recover from manufacturing defects and inspection anomalies worse than those expected for typical fill stem manufacturing processes; additional testing specific to each application over a range of weld heats is needed to verify applicability of these results.

  18. Constraints on the flux of Ultra-High Energy neutrinos from WSRT observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholten, O.; Bacelar, J.; Braun, R.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Falcke, H.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; Strom, R.G.; al Yahyaoui, R.

    2010-04-02

    Context. Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos and cosmic rays initiate particle cascades underneath theMoon?s surface. These cascades have a negative charge excess and radiate Cherenkov radio emission in a process known as the Askaryan effect. The optimal frequencywindow for observation of these pulses with radio telescopes on the Earth is around 150 MHz. Aims. By observing the Moon with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we are able to set a new limit on the UHEneutrino flux. Methods. The PuMa II backend is used to monitor the Moon in 4 frequency bands between 113 and 175 MHz with a samplingfrequency of 40 MHz. The narrowband radio interference is digitally filtered out and the dispersive effect of the Earth?s ionosphere is compensated for. A trigger system is implemented to search for short pulses. By inserting simulated pulses in the raw data, thedetection efficiency for pulses of various strength is calculated. Results. With 47.6 hours of observation time, we are able to set a limit onthe UHE neutrino flux. This new limit is an order of magnitude lower than existing limits. In the near future, the digital radio array LOFAR will be used to achieve an even lower limit.

  19. EFFECTIVE POROSITY IMPLIES EFFECTIVE BULK DENSITY IN SORBING SOLUTE TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.

    2012-02-27

    The concept of an effective porosity is widely used in solute transport modeling to account for the presence of a fraction of the medium that effectively does not influence solute migration, apart from taking up space. This non-participating volume or ineffective porosity plays the same role as the gas phase in single-phase liquid unsaturated transport: it increases pore velocity, which is useful towards reproducing observed solute travel times. The prevalent use of the effective porosity concept is reflected by its prominent inclusion in popular texts, e.g., de Marsily (1986), Fetter (1988, 1993) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). The purpose of this commentary is to point out that proper application of the concept for sorbing solutes requires more than simply reducing porosity while leaving other material properties unchanged. More specifically, effective porosity implies the corresponding need for an effective bulk density in a conventional single-porosity model. The reason is that the designated non-participating volume is composed of both solid and fluid phases, both of which must be neglected for consistency. Said another way, if solute does not enter the ineffective porosity then it also cannot contact the adjoining solid. Conceptually neglecting the fluid portion of the non-participating volume leads to a lower (effective) porosity. Likewise, discarding the solid portion of the non-participating volume inherently leads to a lower or effective bulk density. In the author's experience, practitioners virtually never adjust bulk density when adopting the effective porosity approach.

  20. Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of 13 type Ia supernovae from a new NOAO survey probing the nearby smooth Hubble flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13...