National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for observatory nainital uttarkhand

  1. ARM - VAP Process - sondeadjust

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retired HFE M1 Browse Data Shouxian, Anhui, China retired NIM M1 Browse Data Niamey, Niger retired PGH M1 Browse Data ARIES Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1...

  2. ARM - VAP Product - sondeadjust

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retired HFE M1 Browse Data Shouxian, Anhui, China retired NIM M1 Browse Data Niamey, Niger retired PGH M1 Browse Data ARIES Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1...

  3. ARM - Datastreams - nfov2ch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1 retired PVC M1 Browse Data Browse Plots Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF1 retired PYE M1 Browse Data Browse Plots Point Reyes, CA...

  4. ARM - VAP Process - pblht

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARIES Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1 retired PYE M1 Browse Data Point Reyes, CA retired TMP M1 Browse Data U. of Helsinki Research Station (SMEAR II), Hyytiala,...

  5. ARM - Instrument - mwr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plots ARIES Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1 retired PVC M1 Browse Data Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF1 retired PYE M1 Browse Data Browse Plots Point Reyes, CA...

  6. HAWC ?-Ray Observatory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the volcanoes Sierra Negra and Pico de Orizaba at the border between the states of Puebla and Veracruz. The observatory, which is still under construction, uses an array of...

  7. HAWC Observatory captures first image

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HAWC Observatory captures first image HAWC Observatory captures first image The facility is designed to detect cosmic rays and the highest energy gamma rays ever observed from astrophysical sources. April 30, 2013 The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is under construction. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is under construction. HAWC is under construction inside the Parque Nacional Pico de Orizaba, a Mexican national park. An international team of researchers,

  8. HAWC Observatory captures first image

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HAWC Observatory captures first image HAWC Observatory captures first image The facility is designed to detect cosmic rays and the highest energy gamma rays ever observed from astrophysical sources. April 30, 2013 The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is under construction. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is under construction. HAWC is under construction inside the Parque Nacional Pico de Orizaba, a Mexican national park. An international team of researchers,

  9. HAWC γ-Ray Observatory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HAWC γ-Ray Observatory HAWC γ-Ray Observatory Investigating the field of high energy physics through experiments that strengthen our fundamental understanding of matter, energy, space, and time. Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505) 667-5657 Email HAWC γ-Ray Observatory On August 1, 2013, the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma Ray Observatory formally began operations. HAWC is designed to study the origin of very high-energy cosmic rays and observe the

  10. The Enriched Xenon Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolinski, M. J. [Stanford University Physics Department, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2009-12-17

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe. The EXO Collaboration is actively pursuing both liquid-phase and gas-phase Xe detector technologies with scalability to the ton-scale. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe is especially attractive because of the possibility of tagging the resulting Ba daughter ion, eliminating all sources of background other than the two neutrino decay mode. EXO-200, the first phase of the project, is a liquid Xe time projection chamber with 200 kg of Xe enriched to 80% in {sup 136}Xe. EXO-200, which does not include Ba-tagging, will begin taking data in 2009, with two-year sensitivity to the half-life for neutrinoless double beta decay of 6.4x10{sup 25} years. This corresponds to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.13 to 0.19 eV.

  11. New observatory studies universe's most energetic phenomena

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New observatory Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:Mar. 2016 all issues All Issues » submit New observatory studies universe's most energetic phenomena Facility replaces Milagro Observatory near Los Alamos May 1, 2015 From its perch atop the highest accessible peak in Mexico, Milagro's replacement will have 15 percent of the sky within its sights at any given time. From its perch atop the highest accessible peak in Mexico,

  12. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-07-08

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 1017 eV and study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km2 overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. Additionally, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km2, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completionmore » in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km2 sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.« less

  13. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-02-04

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above $10^{17}$ eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water-Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km$^2$ overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km$^2$, 61 detector infill array. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km$^2$ sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Auger Observatory.

  14. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-07-08

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 1017 eV and study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km2 overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. Additionally, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km2, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km2 sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.

  15. The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe,...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY) The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield...

  16. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  17. HAWC Observatory to study universe's most energetic phenomena

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HAWC Observatory to study universe's most energetic phenomena HAWC Observatory to study universe's most energetic phenomena Inaugural ceremony to mark completion of powerful system to detect gamma rays and cosmic rays March 20, 2015 HAWC Observatory HAWC Observatory to study universe's most energetic phenomena Contact Los Alamos National Laboratory Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email University of Maryland Matthew Wright (30) 405-9267 Email "HAWC will be more than 10

  18. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility News, Feature Stories and Releases] Mobile Facility Anchors U.S.-India Collaboration for Cloud-Aerosol Studies Bookmark and Share In early June, installation of the ARM Mobile Facility instrument suite is underway at the ARIES Observatory in Nainital, India. In early June, installation of the ARM Mobile Facility instrument suite is underway at the ARIES Observatory in Nainital, India. The past few decades have seen rapid increases in economic activity in many Asian countries. This is

  19. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0, 2012 [Feature Stories and Releases] ARM Mobile Facility Completes Aerosol Campaign in India Bookmark and Share First-ever Indo-U.S. collaboration for climate research sets stage for future joint scientific endeavors Clouds gather in the foothills below the ARIES Observatory in Nainital, India, where the ARM Mobile Facility operated from June 2011 through March 2012. Clouds gather in the foothills below the ARIES Observatory in Nainital, India, where the ARM Mobile Facility operated from June

  20. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. Bühler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  1. The Pierre Auger Observatory: Contributions to the 34th International

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015) (Conference) | SciTech Connect The Pierre Auger Observatory: Contributions to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Pierre Auger Observatory: Contributions to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015) Authors: Aab, Alexander ; et al. Publication Date: 2015-09-12 OSTI Identifier: 1223251 Report Number(s): FERMILAB-CONF-15-396-AD-AE-CD-TD arXiv eprint number arXiv:1509.03732 DOE

  2. NGEE Arctic Webcam Photographs, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman

    The NGEE Arctic Webcam (PTZ Camera) captures two views of seasonal transitions from its generally south-facing position on a tower located at the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Alaska. Images are captured every 30 minutes. Historical images are available for download. The camera is operated by the U.S. DOE sponsored Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project.

  3. NGEE Arctic Webcam Photographs, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman

    2012-04-01

    The NGEE Arctic Webcam (PTZ Camera) captures two views of seasonal transitions from its generally south-facing position on a tower located at the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Alaska. Images are captured every 30 minutes. Historical images are available for download. The camera is operated by the U.S. DOE sponsored Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project.

  4. New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma Ray Observatory has begun formal...

  5. Sandia's Frontier Observatory for Research In Geothermal Energy (FORGE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase 1 Proposals Were Both Successful Frontier Observatory for Research In Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Phase 1 Proposals Were Both Successful - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear

  6. Technology Development for a Neutrino AstrophysicalObservatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.; He, Y.D.; Jackson, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lai, K.W.; Learned, J.; Ling, J.; Liu, D.; Lowder, D.; Moorhead, M.; Morookian, J.M.; Nygren, D.R.; Price, P.B.; Richards, A.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.; Smoot, George F.; Stokstad, R.G.; VanDalen, G.; Wilkes, J.; Wright, F.; Young, K.

    1996-02-01

    We propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory.

  7. Technology development for a neutrino astrophysical observatory. Letter of intent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.

    1996-02-01

    The authors propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory.

  8. James Cronin, CP Violation, and the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    James Cronin, CP Violation and the Pierre Auger Observatory Resources with Additional Information James Cronin Courtesy Brookhaven National Laboratory James Watson Cronin "received his B.S. degree from Southern Methodist University in 1951. He then attended the University of Chicago for graduate school, earning his M.S. in 1953 and his Ph.D. in 1955. He began his scientific career at Brookhaven National Laboratory, where he served as an assistant physicist from 1955 to 1958. Cronin joined

  9. Los Alamos observatory fingers cosmic ray 'hot spots'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cosmic ray 'hot spots' Los Alamos observatory fingers cosmic ray 'hot spots' The research calls into question nearly a century of understanding about galactic magnetic fields near our solar system. November 24, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National

  10. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  11. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  12. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Wycoff, Gary L. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2011-08-15

    The results of 3362 intensified CCD observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each observation of a system represents a combination of over 2000 short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 1970 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''78 to 72.''17, with a mean separation of 14.''76. This is the 17th in this series of papers and covers the period 2010 January 6 through December 20. Also presented are 10 pairs that are resolved for the first time.

  13. Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; et al

    2013-01-01

    The observation of ultrahigh energy neutrinos (UHE ν s) has become a priority in experimental astroparticle physics. UHE ν s can be detected with a variety of techniques. In particular, neutrinos can interact in the atmosphere (downward-going ν ) or in the Earth crust (Earth-skimming ν ), producing air showers that can be observed with arrays of detectors at the ground. With the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory we can detect these types of cascades. The distinguishing signature for neutrino events is the presence of very inclined showers produced close to the ground (i.e., after havingmore » traversed a large amount of atmosphere). In this work we review the procedure and criteria established to search for UHE ν s in the data collected with the ground array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This includes Earth-skimming as well as downward-going neutrinos. No neutrino candidates have been found, which allows us to place competitive limits to the diffuse flux of UHE ν s in the EeV range and above.« less

  14. DOE Announces Notice of Intent for EGS Observatory | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Notice of Intent for EGS Observatory DOE Announces Notice of Intent for EGS Observatory February 21, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Energy Department announced today its intent to issue a funding opportunity to establish a dedicated subsurface laboratory called the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE). This first-of-its-kind effort will promote transformative and high-risk/high-reward science and engineering focused on addressing critical barriers to Enhanced Geothermal

  15. Digital Elevation Model, 0.5-m, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowland,Joel; Gangodagamage,Chandana; Wilson,Cathy

    2013-12-08

    The dataset is a digital elevation model, DEM, of a 2km by 7km region in the vicinity of the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Ak.

  16. New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    state of Puebla, Mexico New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:Mar. 2016 all issues All Issues » submit New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory has begun formal operations November 1, 2013 HAWC Observatory The

  17. Informational Webinar: Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Funding Opportunity Announcement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled “Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Funding Opportunity Announcement Informational Webinar," focusing on the...

  18. Astrophysical Sources of Cosmic Rays and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects in Pierre Auger Observatory data; (2) Discriminating potential astrophysical sources of the highest energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Intrinsic anisotropy of the UHECR from the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Ultra-high energy photon studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) Limits on the flux of diffuse ultra high energy neutrinos set using the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) Search for sidereal modulation of the arrival directions of events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (7) Cosmic Ray Solar Modulation Studies in the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) Investigation of the Displacement Angle of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays Caused by the Galactic Magnetic Field; (9) Search for coincidences with astrophysical transients in Pierre Auger Observatory data; and (10) An alternative method for determining the energy of hybrid events at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  19. The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 10{sup 18} eV with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) The cosmic ray flux observed at zenith angles larger than 60 degrees with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Energy calibration of data recorded with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Exposure of the Hybrid Detector of The Pierre Auger Observatory; and (5) Energy scale derived from Fluorescence Telescopes using Cherenkov Light and Shower Universality.

  20. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVIII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Friedman, Elizabeth A. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2012-05-15

    The results of 2490 intensified CCD observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each observation of a system represents a combination of over 2000 short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 1462 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''56 to 71.''80, with a mean separation of 14.''81. This is the 18th in this series of papers and covers the period 2011 January 3 through 2011 December 18. Also presented are four pairs which are resolved for the first time, thirteen other pairs which appear to be lost, and linear elements for four additional pairs.

  1. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Hurowitz, Haley M. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2013-09-15

    The results of 2916 intensified CCD observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each observation of a system represents a combination of over two thousand short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 1584 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''54 to 98.''09, with a median separation of 11.''73. This is the 19th in this series of papers and covers the period 2012 January 5 through 2012 December 18. Also presented are 10 pairs that are reported for the first time, 17 pairs that appear to be lost, linear elements for 18 pairs, and orbital elements for 2 additional pairs.

  2. SNO Data: Results from Experiments at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was built 6800 feet under ground, in INCO's Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario. SNO is a heavy-water Cherenkov detector that is designed to detect neutrinos produced by fusion reactions in the sun. It uses 1000 tonnes of heavy water, on loan from Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), contained in a 12 meter diameter acrylic vessel. Neutrinos react with the heavy water (D2O) to produce flashes of light called Cherenkov radiation. This light is then detected by an array of 9600 photomultiplier tubes mounted on a geodesic support structure surrounding the heavy water vessel. The detector is immersed in light (normal) water within a 30 meter barrel-shaped cavity (the size of a 10 story building!) excavated from Norite rock. Located in the deepest part of the mine, the overburden of rock shields the detector from cosmic rays. The detector laboratory is extremely clean to reduce background signals from radioactive elements present in the mine dust which would otherwise hide the very weak signal from neutrinos. (From http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/]

    The SNO website provides access to various datasets. See also the SNO Image Catalog at http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/sno/images/ and computer-generated images of SNO events at http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/sno/events/ and the list of published papers.

  3. The Final Results from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was a water Cherenkov detector dedicated to investigate elementary particles called neutrinos. It successfully took data between 1999 and 2006. The detector was unique in its use of heavy water as a detection medium, permitting it to make a solar model-independent test of solar neutrino mixing. In fact, SNO conclusively showed that solar neutrinos oscillate on their way from the core of the Sun to the Earth. This groundbreaking observation was made during three independent phases of the experiment. Even if data taking ended, SNO is still in a mode of precise determination of the solar neutrino oscillation parameters because all along SNO had developed several methods to tell charged-current events apart from neutral-current events. This ability is crucial for the final and ultimate data analysis of all the phases. The physics reach of a combined three-phase solar analysis will be reviewed together with results and subtleties about solar neutrino physics.

  4. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Wycoff, Gary L. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2011-05-15

    The results of 1031 speckle-interferometric observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each speckle-interferometric observation of a system represents a combination of over two thousand short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 457 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''15 to 16.''94, with a median separation of 3.''03. The range in V-band magnitudes for the primary (secondary) of observed targets is 3.1-12.9 (3.2-13.3). This is the sixteenth in a series of papers presenting measurements obtained with this system and covers the period 2009 January 12 through 2009 December 17. Included in these data are 12 older measurements whose positions were previously deemed possibly aberrant, but are no longer classified this way following a confirming observation. Also, 10 pairs with a single observation are herein confirmed. This paper also includes the first data obtained using a new ICCD with fiber optic cables.

  5. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  6. INSIGHTS INTO FILAMENT ERUPTION ONSET FROM SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Freeland, Samuel L. E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.gov

    2011-04-10

    We examine the buildup to and onset of an active region filament confined eruption of 2010 May 12, using EUV imaging data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Array and line-of-sight magnetic data from the SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. Over the hour preceding eruption the filament undergoes a slow rise averaging {approx}3 km s{sup -1}, with a step-like trajectory. Accompanying a final rise step {approx}20 minutes prior to eruption is a transient preflare brightening, occurring on loops rooted near the site where magnetic field had canceled over the previous 20 hr. Flow-type motions of the filament are relatively smooth with speeds {approx}50 km s{sup -1} prior to the preflare brightening and appear more helical, with speeds {approx}50-100 km s{sup -1}, after that brightening. After a final plateau in the filament's rise, its rapid eruption begins, and concurrently an outer shell 'cocoon' of the filament material increases in emission in hot EUV lines, consistent with heating in a newly formed magnetic flux rope. The main flare brightenings start {approx}5 minutes after eruption onset. The main flare arcade begins between the legs of an envelope-arcade loop that is nearly orthogonal to the filament, suggesting that the flare results from reconnection among the legs of that loop. This progress of events is broadly consistent with flux cancellation leading to formation of a helical flux rope that subsequently erupts due to onset of a magnetic instability and/or runaway tether cutting.

  7. A Nobel for Neutrinos: Sudbury Neutrino Observatory | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) » A Nobel for Neutrinos: Sudbury Neutrino Observatory High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees Community Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-25/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3624 F: (301) 903-2597 E: Email Us More Information » 10.01.15 A Nobel for Neutrinos: Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  8. THE FOURTH US NAVAL OBSERVATORY CCD ASTROGRAPH CATALOG (UCAC4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharias, N.; Finch, C. T.; Bartlett, J. L.; Girard, T. M.; Henden, A.; Monet, D. G.; Zacharias, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The fourth United States Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog, UCAC4, was released in 2012 August (double-sided DVD and CDS data center Vizier catalog I/322). It is the final release in this series and contains over 113 million objects; over 105 million of them with proper motions (PMs). UCAC4 is an updated version of UCAC3 with about the same number of stars also covering all-sky. Bugs were fixed, Schmidt plate survey data were avoided, and precise five-band photometry was added for about half the stars. Astrograph observations have been supplemented for bright stars by FK6, Hipparcos, and Tycho-2 data to compile a UCAC4 star catalog complete from the brightest stars to about magnitude R = 16. Epoch 1998-2004 positions are obtained from observations with the 20 cm aperture USNO Astrograph's 'red lens', equipped with a 4k by 4k CCD. Mean positions and PMs are derived by combining these observations with over 140 ground- and space-based catalogs, including Hipparcos/Tycho and the AC2000.2, as well as unpublished measures of over 5000 plates from other astrographs. For most of the faint stars in the southern hemisphere, the first epoch plates from the Southern Proper Motion program form the basis for PMs, while the Northern Proper Motion first epoch plates serve the same purpose for the rest of the sky. These data are supplemented by 2MASS near-IR photometry for about 110 million stars and five-band (B, V, g, r, i) APASS data for over 51 million stars. Thus the published UCAC4, as were UCAC3 and UCAC2, is a compiled catalog with the UCAC observational program being a major component. The positional accuracy of stars in UCAC4 at mean epoch is about 15-100 mas per coordinate, depending on magnitude, while the formal errors in PMs range from about 1 to 10 mas yr{sup -1} depending on magnitude and observing history. Systematic errors in PMs are estimated to be about 1-4 mas yr{sup -1}.

  9. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  10. GLAST Observatory Renamed for Fermi, Reveals Entire Gamma-Ray Sky |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy GLAST Observatory Renamed for Fermi, Reveals Entire Gamma-Ray Sky GLAST Observatory Renamed for Fermi, Reveals Entire Gamma-Ray Sky August 26, 2008 - 3:20pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA announced today that the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) has revealed its first all-sky map in gamma rays. The onboard Large Area Telescope's (LAT) all-sky image-which shows the glowing gas of the Milky Way, blinking pulsars and a

  11. Prospects for and Status of CUORE ? The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, E B

    2009-07-07

    CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) is a next generation experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless DBD of {sup 130}Te using a bolometric technique. The present status of the CUORE is presented along with the latest results from its prototype, CUORICINO.

  12. The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY) Prototype

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY) Tritium Focus Group Meeting Sept 24, 2014 C.A. Gentile and P.G. Efthimion on behalf of the PTOLEMY team Motivation * Big bang relic neutrinos are predicted to be amongst the oldest and smallest particles in the universe. Information on their mass and density would significantly enhance our understanding of elementary particles, the ways in which mass is distributed, and the formation of the universe. *

  13. A Nobel for Neutrinos: Sudbury Neutrino Observatory | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) A Nobel for Neutrinos: Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 10.01.15 A Nobel for Neutrinos: Sudbury Neutrino

  14. High-Resolution Spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Canizares, Claude R. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    The capabilities of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton for high-resolution spectroscopy have brought tradition plasma diagnostic techniques to the study of cosmic plasma. Observations have probed nearly every class of astronomical object, from young proto-starts through massive O starts and black hole binaries, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and the intergalactic medium. Many of these sources show remarkable rich spectra that reveal new physical information, such as emission measure distributions, elemental abundances, accretion disk and wind signatures, and time variability. This talk will present an overview of the Chandra instrumentaton and selected examples of spectral observations of astrophysical and cosmological importance.

  15. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feature Stories and Releases] U.S. Department of Energy Kicks Off Scientific Collaboration with India Bookmark and Share Instrumented sites will gather data to study impact of aerosols on cloud formation and precipitation For Immediate Release: June 10, 2011 ARM Mobile Facility instrumentation is installed in June 2011 at the ARIES Observatory in Nainital, India, for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX). Shown in this photo are the stack for the aerosol observing system (top) and the

  16. INDIA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM instruments on top of the ARIES Observatory in Nainital Doppler Lidar (DL) Shortwave Array Spectroradiometers, both Hemispheric and Zenith (SASHE and SASZE) Shortwave Array Spectroradiometers, both Hemispheric and Zenith (SASHE and SASZE) Total Sky Imager (TSI) on the far left, Cimel Sunphotometer (CSPHOT) center, and Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD) to the right Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD) Total Sky Imager (TSI) Doppler Lidar (DL)

  17. Anisotropy studies around the Galactic Centre at EeV energies with the Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; Aramo, C.; ,

    2006-07-01

    Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for anisotropies near the direction of the Galactic Centre at EeV energies. The exposure of the surface array in this part of the sky is already significantly larger than that of the fore-runner experiments. Our results do not support previous findings of localized excesses in the AGASA and SUGAR data. We set an upper bound on a point-like flux of cosmic rays arriving from the Galactic Centre which excludes several scenarios predicting sources of EeV neutrons from Sagittarius A. Also the events detected simultaneously by the surface and fluorescence detectors (the ''hybrid'' data set), which have better pointing accuracy but are less numerous than those of the surface array alone, do not show any significant localized excess from this direction.

  18. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W.H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S. L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Thomson, G. B.; Von Maluski, D.

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest conventional cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  19. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The 'hybrid' detection mode combines the information from the two subsystems. We describe the determination of the hybrid exposure for events observed by the fluorescence telescopes in coincidence with at least one water-Cherenkov detector of the surface array. A detailed knowledge of the time dependence of the detection operations is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the exposure. We discuss the relevance of monitoring data collected during operations, such as the status of the fluorescence detector, background light and atmospheric conditions, that are used in both simulation and reconstruction.

  20. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; et al

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe themore »design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.« less

  1. Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-08-19

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30 to 80MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy density is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge excess emission components. We found that the spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy corrected for geometrical effects is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. Finally we find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.

  2. The search for TeV-scale dark matter with the HAWC observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harding, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a wide field-of-view detector sensitive to 100 GeV - 100 TeV gamma rays and cosmic rays. Located at an elevation of 4100 m on the Sierra Negra mountain in Mexico, HAWC observes extensive air showers from gamma and cosmic rays with an array of water tanks which produce Cherenkov light in the presence of air showers. With a field-of-view capable of observing 2/3 of the sky each day, and a sensitivity of 1 Crab/day, HAWC will be able to map out the sky in gamma and cosmic rays in detail. In thismore » paper, we discuss the capabilities of HAWC to map out the directions and spectra of TeV gamma rays and cosmic rays coming from sources of dark matter annihilation. We discuss the HAWC sensitivity to multiple extended sources of dark matter annihilation and the possibility of HAWC observations of annihilations in nearby dark matter subhalos.« less

  3. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-09

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80° . Our measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the Surface Detector array at anmore » altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ± 0.04 ± 0.48 (sys.)) × 107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. Finally, the logarithmic gain d ln Nµ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 × 1018 eV and 5 × 1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ± 0.024 ± 0.030 (sys.)).« less

  4. HOMOLOGOUS FLUX ROPES OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-12-01

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of four homologous flux ropes in the active region (AR) 11745 on 2013 May 20-22. The four flux ropes are all above the neutral line of the AR, with endpoints anchoring at the same region, and have a generally similar morphology. The first three flux ropes rose with a velocity of less than 30km s{sup 1} after their appearance, and subsequently their intensities at 131 decreased and the flux ropes became obscure. The fourth flux rope erupted last, with a speed of about 130km s{sup 1} and formed a coronal mass ejection (CME). The associated filament showed an obvious anti-clockwise twist motion at the initial stage, and the twist was estimated at 4?. This indicates that kink instability possibly triggers the early rise of the fourth flux rope. The activated filament material was spatially within the flux rope and showed consistent evolution in the early stages. Our findings provide new clues for understanding the characteristics of flux ropes. Firstly, multiple flux ropes are successively formed at the same location during an AR evolution process. Secondly, a slow-rise flux rope does not necessarily result in a CME, and a fast-eruption flux rope does result in a CME.

  5. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF AN ERUPTING FILAMENT WITH SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY AND STEREO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun; Zhang Yuzong; Yang Shuhong E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2011-09-20

    On 2010 August 1, a global solar event was launched involving almost the entire Earth-facing side of the Sun. This event mainly consisted of a C3.2 flare, a polar crown filament eruption, and two Earth-directed coronal mass ejections. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and STEREO showed that all the activities were coupled together, suggesting a global character of the magnetic eruption. We reconstruct the three-dimensional geometry of the polar crown filament using observations from three different viewpoints (STEREO A, STEREO B, and SDO) for the first time. The filament undergoes two eruption processes. First, the main body of the filament rises up, while it also moves toward the low-latitude region with a change in inclination by {approx}48{sup 0} and expands only in the altitudinal and latitudinal direction in the field of view of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. We investigate the true velocities and accelerations of different locations along the filament and find that the highest location always has the largest acceleration during this eruption process. During the late phase of the first eruption, part of the filament material separates from the eastern leg. This material displays a projectile motion and moves toward the west at a constant velocity of 141.8 km s{sup -1}. This may imply that the polar crown filament consists of at least two groups of magnetic systems.

  6. The next generation of axion helioscopes: The international axion observatory (IAXO)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vogel, J. K.; Armengaud, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Betz, M.; Brax, P.; Brun, P.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Carosi, G. P.; Caspers, F.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a proposed 4th-generation axion helioscope with the primary physics research goal to search for solar axions via their Primakoff conversion into photons of 1 – 10 keV energies in a strong magnetic field. IAXO will achieve a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling gaγ down to a few ×10⁻¹² GeV⁻¹ for a wide range of axion masses up to ~ 0.25 eV. This is an improvement over the currently best (3rd generation) axion helioscope, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), of about 5 orders of magnitude in signal strength, corresponding to a factor ~ 20more » in the axion photon coupling. IAXO’s sensitivity relies on the construction of a large superconducting 8-coil toroidal magnet of 20 m length optimized for axion research. Each of the eight 60 cm diameter magnet bores is equipped with x-ray optics focusing the signal photons into ~ 0.2 cm² spots that are imaged by very low background x-ray detectors. The magnet will be built into a structure with elevation and azimuth drives that will allow solar tracking for 12 hours each day. This contribution is a summary of our papers [1, 2, 3] and we refer to these for further details.« less

  7. High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory in Mendoza, Argentina is the result of an international collaboration funded by 15 countries and many different organizations. Its mission is to capture high-energy cosmic ray events or air showers for research into their origin and nature. The Pierre Auger Collaboration agreed to make 1% of its data available to the public. The Public Event Explorer is a search tool that allows users to browse or search for and display figures and data plots of events collected since 2004. The repository is updated daily, and, as of June, 2014, makes more than 35,000 events publicly available. The energy of a cosmic ray is measured in Exa electron volts or EeV. These event displays can be browsed in order of their energy level from 0.1 to 41.1 EeV. Each event has an individual identification number.

    The event displays provide station data, cosmic ray incoming direction, various energy measurements, plots, vector-based images, and an ASCII data file.

  8. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  9. EMERGING DIMMINGS OF ACTIVE REGIONS OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jun; Yang Shuhong [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu Yang; Sun Xudong, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: yliu@sun.stanford.edu, E-mail: xudong@sun.stanford.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Using the observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we statistically investigate the emerging dimmings (EDs) of 24 isolated active regions (IARs) from 2010 June to 2011 May. All the IARs show EDs in lower-temperature lines (e.g., 171 A) at their early emerging stages. Meanwhile, in higher temperature lines (e.g., 211 A), the ED regions brighten continuously. There are two types of EDs: fan-shaped and halo-shaped. There are 19 fan-shaped EDs and 5 halo-shaped ones. The EDs appear to be delayed by several to more than ten hours relative to the first emergence of the IARs. The shortest delay is 3.6 hr and the longest is 19.0 hr. The EDs last from 3.3 hr to 14.2 hr, with a mean duration of 8.3 hr. Before the appearance of the EDs, the emergence rate of the magnetic flux of the IARs is between 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx hr{sup -1} to 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx hr{sup -1}. The larger the emergence rate is, the shorter the delay time is. While the dimmings appear, the magnetic flux of the IARs ranges from 8.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx to 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} Mx. These observations imply that the reconfiguration of the coronal magnetic fields due to reconnection between the newly emerging flux and the surrounding existing fields results in a new thermal distribution which leads to a dimming for the cooler channel (171 A) and brightening in the warmer channels.

  10. Simulation of subsurface thermal regimes of polygonal tundra at Barrow Environmental Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Richard T. Mills; Jitendra Kumar; Vladimir Romanovsky; Peter E. Thornton; Gautam Bisht; Colleen M. Iversen; Nathan Collier

    2016-01-27

    Vast carbon stocks stored in permafrost soils of Arctic tundra are under risk of release to atmosphere under warming climate. Ice--wedge polygons in the low-gradient polygonal tundra create a complex mosaic of microtopographic features. The microtopography plays a critical role in regulating the fine scale variability in thermal and hydrological regimes in the polygonal tundra landscape underlain by continuous permafrost. Modeling of thermal regimes of this sensitive ecosystem is essential for understanding the landscape behaviour under current as well as changing climate. We present here an end-to-end effort for high resolution numerical modeling of thermal hydrology at real-world field sites, utilizing the best available data to characterize and parameterize the models. We develop approaches to model the thermal hydrology of polygonal tundra and apply them at four study sites at Barrow, Alaska spanning across low to transitional to high-centered polygon and representative of broad polygonal tundra landscape. A multi--phase subsurface thermal hydrology model (PFLOTRAN) was developed and applied to study the thermal regimes at four sites. Using high resolution LiDAR DEM, microtopographic features of the landscape were characterized and represented in the high resolution model mesh. Best available soil data from field observations and literature was utilized to represent the complex hetogeneous subsurface in the numerical model. This data collection provides the complete set of input files, forcing data sets and computational meshes for simulations using PFLOTRAN for four sites at Barrow Environmental Observatory. It also document the complete computational workflow for this modeling study to allow verification, reproducibility and follow up studies.

  11. URBAN ATMOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (UAO) FIRST PLANNING WORKSHOP, JANUARY 27-28-2003. WORKSHOP SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS,R.M.; LEE,H.N.

    2003-03-27

    The Urban Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) First Planning Workshop was held on 27-28 January 2003 at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) in downtown Manhattan, New York City. The meeting was well attended by local, state, and national administrators, as well as scientists and engineers from the national laboratories and academia. The real-time intensive UAO is a necessary step toward the development and validation of new technologies in support of the New York City emergency management and anti-terrorism effort. The real-time intensive UAO will be a dense array of meteorological instrumentation, remote sensing and satellite products and model output, as well as radiation detection, gamma spectrometer and aerosol measurements focused onto a small area in the heart of Manhattan. Such a test-bed, developed in a somewhat homogeneous urban area, and with a well-developed communication and data collection backbone, will be of immense utility for understanding how models of all scales can be improved and how they can best be integrated into the city's emergency program. The goal of the First Planning Workshop was to bring together a small group of experts in the fields of urban meteorology, modeling from mesoscale to fine-mesh computational fluid dynamics, instrumentation, communications and visualization, in order to (1) establish the importance of the observational program, (2) define the most efficient and cost-effective design for the program, (3) define needed intensive observational efforts and establish a schedule, and (4) define the importance of the UAO in emergency operations. The workshop achieved its goals with the enthusiastic participation of over forty persons. There was a synthesis of ideas towards a world-class facility that would benefit both immediate emergency management activities and, over an extended time, the entire field of urban meteorology and contaminant dispersion modeling.

  12. Observations of comet ISON (C/2012 S1) from Lowell observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.

    2015-01-01

    We observed the dynamically new sungrazing comet ISON (C/2012 S1) extensively at Lowell Observatory throughout 2013 in order to characterize its behavior prior to perihelion. ISON had typical abundances for an Oort Cloud comet. Its dust production, as measured by Af?, remained nearly constant during the apparition but its CN gas production increased by ?50 . The minimum active area necessary to support observed water production rates exceeded the likely surface area of the nucleus and suggests a population of icy grains in the coma. Together with the flattening of the dust radial profile over time, this is consistant with ejection of a large quantity of slow moving dust and icy grains in the coma at large heliocentric distance. The dust morphology was dominated by the tail, but a faint sunward dust fan was detected in March, April, May, and September. We imaged multiple gas species in September, October, and November. All gas species were more extended than the dust coma, although only CN had sufficient signal-to-noise for detailed morphological study. Excess CN signal was observed in the sunward hemisphere in September and early October. In November the excess CN signal was in the tailward hemisphere and two faint CN features appeared approximately orthogonal to the tail with position angles varying by about 20 from night to night. Using numerical modeling, we best reproduced the orientation and shape of these features as well as the bulk brightness with a pole oriented approximately toward the Sun and a single source located within ?35 of the equator. Variations in position angle and relative brightness of the CN features from night to night suggest a rotation period shorter than 24 hr. The production rates and coma morphology suggest a nucleus that was active over nearly its entire sunward facing hemisphere in September and October but which underwent a significant mass loss event, potentially including fragmentation, shortly before November 1. Significant subsequent mass loss likely continued at the same site over subsequent days/weeks and may have catastrophically weakened the nucleus prior to perihelion.

  13. The Pierre Auger Observatory scaler mode for the study of solar activity modulation of galactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Lisbon, LIFEP /Lisbon, IST

    2011-01-01

    Since data-taking began in January 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has been recording the count rates of low energy secondary cosmic ray particles for the self-calibration of the ground detectors of its surface detector array. After correcting for atmospheric effects, modulations of galactic cosmic rays due to solar activity and transient events are observed. Temporal variations related with the activity of the heliosphere can be determined with high accuracy due to the high total count rates. In this study, the available data are presented together with an analysis focused on the observation of Forbush decreases, where a strong correlation with neutron monitor data is found.

  14. Measurement of the Proton-Air Cross Section at ?s=57 TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almeda, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anti?i?, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Buml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belltoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blmer, H.; Boh?ov, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceio, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; del Ro, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Daz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; DOlivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; DUrso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filip?i?, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Frhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garca, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gmez Berisso, M.; Gonalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hrandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsk, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kgl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krmer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leo, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lpez, R.; Lopez Agera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martnez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mi?anovi?, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostaf, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mller, G.; Mnchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Noka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; P?kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.

    2012-08-10

    We report a measurement of the proton-air cross section for particle production at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 57 TeV. This is derived from the distribution of the depths of shower maxima observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory: systematic uncertainties are studied in detail. Analyzing the tail of the distribution of the shower maxima, a proton-air cross section of [50522(stat)+28-36(syst)] mb is found.

  15. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-06-20

    Energy-dependent patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays are searched for using data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We investigate local regions around the highest-energy cosmic rays with E ≥ 6×1019 eV by analyzing cosmic rays with energies above E ≥ 5×1018 eV arriving within an angular separation of approximately 15°. We characterize the energy distributions inside these regions by two independent methods, one searching for angular dependence of energy-energy correlations and one searching for collimation of energy along the local system of principal axes of the energy distribution. No significant patterns are found with this analysis. As amore » result, the comparison of these measurements with astrophysical scenarios can therefore be used to obtain constraints on related model parameters such as strength of cosmic-ray deflection and density of point sources.« less

  16. Infrared Spectroscopic Data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), SDSS-III Data Release 10

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 10 is the first spectroscopic release from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), including spectra and derived stellar parameters for more than 50,000 stars. APOGEE is an ongoing survey of ~100,000 stars accessing all parts of the Milky Way. By operating in the infrared (H-band) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, APOGEE is better able to detect light from stars lying in dusty regions of the Milky Way than surveys conducted in the optical, making this survey particularly well-suited for exploring the Galactic disk and bulge. APOGEE's high resolution spectra provide detailed information about the stellar atmospheres; DR10 provides derived effective temperatures, surface gravities, overall metallicities, and information on the abundances of several chemical elements. [copied from http://www.sdss3.org/dr10/irspec/

  17. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; et al

    2015-06-20

    Energy-dependent patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays are searched for using data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We investigate local regions around the highest-energy cosmic rays with $E \\ge 6 \\times 10^{19}$ eV by analyzing cosmic rays with energies above $E \\ge 5 \\times 10^{18}$ eV arriving within an angular separation of approximately 15$^{\\circ }$ . We characterize the energy distributions inside these regions by two independent methods, one searching for angular dependence of energy-energy correlations and one searching for collimation of energy along the local system of principal axes of the energy distribution. No significant patterns aremorefound with this analysis. As a result, the comparison of these measurements with astrophysical scenarios can therefore be used to obtain constraints on related model parameters such as strength of cosmic-ray deflection and density of point sources.less

  18. Search for signatures of magnetically-induced alignment in the arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Nijmegen U., IMAPP

    2011-11-01

    We present the results of an analysis of data recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in which we search for groups of directionally-aligned events (or ''multiplets'') which exhibit a correlation between arrival direction and the inverse of the energy. These signatures are expected from sets of events coming from the same source after having been deflected by intervening coherent magnetic fields. The observation of several events from the same source would open the possibility to accurately reconstruct the position of the source and also measure the integral of the component of the magnetic field orthogonal to the trajectory of the cosmic rays. We describe the largest multiplets found and compute the probability that they appeared by chance from an isotropic distribution. We find no statistically significant evidence for the presence of multiplets arising from magnetic deflections in the present data.

  19. Ocean pC02 Data from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 1994 - 2009

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Takahashi, T.

    The Earth Institute of Columbia University has, as an overarching goal, to help achieve sustainable development primarily by expanding the world's understanding of Earth as one integrated system. The Earth Institute encompasses centers of excellence with an established reputation for groundbreaking research, including the renowned Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), home to more than 200 researchers who study Earth and its systems. The Carbon Dioxide Research Group, led by Dr. Taro Takahashi, studies pCO2 in seawater, carbon sequestration models related to deep aquifers, and air-sea CO2 flux. Datasets from ocean cruises in the years 1994 to the present are made available from this website, along with a list of publications, and cruise maps.

  20. A Search for Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in Highly Inclined Events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abreu, P

    2011-12-30

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos can be distinguished from regular hadronic cosmic rays by the broad time structure of their shower signals in the water-Cherenkov detectors. In this paper we present for the first time an analysis based on down-going neutrinos. We describe the search procedure, the possible sources of background, the method to compute the exposure and the associatedmore » systematic uncertainties. No candidate neutrinos have been found in data collected from 1 January 2004 to 31 May 2010. Assuming an E-2 differential energy spectrum the limit on the single-flavor neutrino is E2dN/dE < 1.74 x 10-7 GeV cm-2s-1sr-1 at 90% C.L. in the energy range 1 x 1017eV < E < 1 x 1020 eV.« less

  1. Measurement of the Proton-Air Cross Section at √s=57 TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almeda, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; et al

    2012-08-10

    We report a measurement of the proton-air cross section for particle production at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 57 TeV. This is derived from the distribution of the depths of shower maxima observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory: systematic uncertainties are studied in detail. Analyzing the tail of the distribution of the shower maxima, a proton-air cross section of [505±22(stat)+28-36(syst)] mb is found.

  2. Measurement of the proton-air cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}=57$ TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collaboration, Auger

    2012-08-01

    We report a measurement of the proton-air cross section for particle production at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 57 TeV. This is derived from the distribution of the depths of shower maxima observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory: systematic uncertainties are studied in detail. Analyzing the tail of the distribution of the shower maxima, a proton-air cross section of [505 {+-} 22(stat){sub -36}{sup +28}(syst)] mb is found.

  3. Searches for anisotropies in the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in 10 years of operation. The data set, about three times larger than that used in earlier studies, includes arrival directions with zenith angles up to 80°, thus covering from -90° to +45° in declination. After updating the fraction of events correlating with the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Véron-Cetty and Véron catalog, we subject the arrival directions of the data with energies in excess of 40 EeV to different tests for anisotropy. We search for localized excess fluxes, self-clustering of event directions at angular scales up to 30°, and different threshold energies between 40 and 80 EeV. We then look for correlations of cosmic rays with celestial structures both in the Galaxy (the Galactic Center and Galactic Plane) and in the local universe (the Super-Galactic Plane). We also examine their correlation with different populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2MRS catalog, AGNs detected by Swift-BAT, radio galaxies with jets, and the Centaurus A (Cen A) galaxy. None of the tests show statistically significant evidence of anisotropy. As a result, the strongest departures from isotropy (post-trial probabilitymore » $$\\sim 1.4$$%) are obtained for cosmic rays with $$E\\gt 58$$ EeV in rather large windows around Swift AGNs closer than 130 Mpc and brighter than 1044 erg s-1 (18° radius), and around the direction of Cen A (15° radius).« less

  4. OVERVIEW OF THE SDSS-IV MaNGA SURVEY: MAPPING NEARBY GALAXIES AT APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Wake, David A.; Tremonti, Christy; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Law, David R.; Cherinka, Brian; Yan, Renbin; Snchez-Gallego, Jos R.; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Aragn-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcn-Barroso, Jsus; Belfiore, Francesco; and others

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary in diameter from 12'' (19 fibers) to 32'' (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 at R ? 2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 ({sup 1} per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsec{sup 2}, which is typical for the outskirts of MaNGA galaxies. Targets are selected with M {sub *} ? 10{sup 9} M {sub ?} using SDSS-I redshifts and i-band luminosity to achieve uniform radial coverage in terms of the effective radius, an approximately flat distribution in stellar mass, and a sample spanning a wide range of environments. Analysis of our prototype observations demonstrates MaNGA's ability to probe gas ionization, shed light on recent star formation and quenching, enable dynamical modeling, decompose constituent components, and map the composition of stellar populations. MaNGA's spatially resolved spectra will enable an unprecedented study of the astrophysics of nearby galaxies in the coming 6yr.

  5. Searches for anisotropies in the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Buml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blmer, H.; Boh?ov, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceio, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; Almeida, R. M. de; Domenico, M. De; Jong, S. J. de; Neto, J. R. T. de Mello; Mitri, I. De; Oliveira, J. de; Souza, V. de; Peral, L. del; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Giulio, C. Di; Matteo, A. Di; Diaz, J. C.; Castro, M. L. Daz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; DOlivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filip?i?, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Frhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; Garca, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia-; Pinto, D. Garcia-; Garilli, G.; Bravo, A. Gascon; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Berisso, M. Gmez; Vitale, P. F. Gmez; Gonalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzlez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hrandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsk, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kp, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kgl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krmer, O.; Hansen, D. Kruppke-; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Coz, S. Le; Leo, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lpez, R.; Louedec, K.; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mari?, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martnez; Martraire, D.; Meza, J. J. Masas; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Tanco, G. Medina-; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi?anovi?, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Bueno, L. Molina-; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostaf, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mller, G.; Mller, S.; Mnchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Noka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Dei, D. Pakk Selmi-; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; P?kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we analyze the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in 10 years of operation. The data set, about three times larger than that used in earlier studies, includes arrival directions with zenith angles up to 80, thus covering from $-90{}^\\circ $ to $+45{}^\\circ $ in declination. After updating the fraction of events correlating with the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Vron-Cetty and Vron catalog, we subject the arrival directions of the data with energies in excess of 40 EeV to different tests for anisotropy. We search for localized excess fluxes, self-clustering of event directions at angular scales up to 30, and different threshold energies between 40 and 80 EeV. We then look for correlations of cosmic rays with celestial structures both in the Galaxy (the Galactic Center and Galactic Plane) and in the local universe (the Super-Galactic Plane). We also examine their correlation with different populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2MRS catalog, AGNs detected by Swift-BAT, radio galaxies with jets, and the Centaurus A (Cen A) galaxy. None of the tests show statistically significant evidence of anisotropy. The strongest departures from isotropy (post-trial probability $\\sim 1.4$%) are obtained for cosmic rays with $E\\gt 58$ EeV in rather large windows around Swift AGNs closer than 130 Mpc and brighter than 1044 erg/s (18 radius), and around the direction of Centaurus A (15 radius).

  6. Radio-optical reference frame link using the U.S. Naval observatory astrograph and deep CCD imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharias, N.; Zacharias, M. I.

    2014-05-01

    Between 1997 and 2004 several observing runs were conducted, mainly with the CTIO 0.9 m, to image International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) counterparts (mostly QSOs) in order to determine accurate optical positions. Contemporary to these deep CCD images, the same fields were observed with the U.S. Naval Observatory astrograph in the same bandpass. They provide accurate positions on the Hipparcos/Tycho-2 system for stars in the 10-16 mag range used as reference stars for the deep CCD imaging data. Here we present final optical position results of 413 sources based on reference stars obtained by dedicated astrograph observations that were reduced following two different procedures. These optical positions are compared to radio very long baseline interferometry positions. The current optical system is not perfectly aligned to the ICRF radio system with rigid body rotation angles of 3-5 mas (= 3? level) found between them for all three axes. Furthermore, statistically, the optical-radio position differences are found to exceed the total, combined, known errors in the observations. Systematic errors in the optical reference star positions and physical offsets between the centers of optical and radio emissions are both identified as likely causes. A detrimental, astrophysical, random noise component is postulated to be on about the 10 mas level. If confirmed by future observations, this could severely limit the Gaia to ICRF reference frame alignment accuracy to an error of about 0.5 mas per coordinate axis with the current number of sources envisioned to provide the link. A list of 36 ICRF sources without the detection of an optical counterpart to a limiting magnitude of about R = 22 is provided as well.

  7. Searches for anisotropies in the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; et al

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we analyze the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in 10 years of operation. The data set, about three times larger than that used in earlier studies, includes arrival directions with zenith angles up to 80, thus covering from $-90{}^\\circ $ to $+45{}^\\circ $ in declination. After updating the fraction of events correlating with the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Vron-Cetty and Vron catalog, we subject the arrival directions of the data with energies in excess of 40 EeV to different tests for anisotropy. We search for localizedmoreexcess fluxes, self-clustering of event directions at angular scales up to 30, and different threshold energies between 40 and 80 EeV. We then look for correlations of cosmic rays with celestial structures both in the Galaxy (the Galactic Center and Galactic Plane) and in the local universe (the Super-Galactic Plane). We also examine their correlation with different populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2MRS catalog, AGNs detected by Swift-BAT, radio galaxies with jets, and the Centaurus A (Cen A) galaxy. None of the tests show statistically significant evidence of anisotropy. The strongest departures from isotropy (post-trial probability $\\sim 1.4$%) are obtained for cosmic rays with $E\\gt 58$ EeV in rather large windows around Swift AGNs closer than 130 Mpc and brighter than 1044 erg/s (18 radius), and around the direction of Centaurus A (15 radius).less

  8. A digital seismogram archive of nuclear explosion signals, recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory, Kazakhstan, from 1966 to 1996

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    An, Vadim A.; Ovtchinnikov, Vladimir M.; Kaazik, Pyotr B.; Adushkin, Vitaly V.; Sokolova, Inna N.; Aleschenko, Iraida B.; Mikhailova, Natalya N.; Kim, Won -Young; Richards, Paul G.; Patton, Howard J.; et al

    2015-03-27

    Seismologists from Kazakhstan, Russia, and the United States have rescued the Soviet-era archive of nuclear explosion seismograms recorded at Borovoye in northern Kazakhstan during the period 1966–1996. The signals had been stored on about 8000 magnetic tapes, which were held at the recording observatory. After hundreds of man-years of work, these digital waveforms together with significant metadata are now available via the project URL, namely http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/Monitoring/Data/ as a modern open database, of use to diverse communities. Three different sets of recording systems were operated at Borovoye, each using several different seismometers and different gain levels. For some explosions, more thanmore » twenty different channels of data are available. A first data release, in 2001, contained numerous glitches and lacked many instrument responses, but could still be used for measuring accurate arrival times and for comparison of the strengths of different types of seismic waves. The project URL also links to our second major data release, for nuclear explosions in Eurasia recorded in Borovoye, in which the data have been deglitched, all instrument responses have been included, and recording systems are described in detail. This second dataset consists of more than 3700 waveforms (digital seismograms) from almost 500 nuclear explosions in Eurasia, many of them recorded at regional distances. It is important as a training set for the development and evaluation of seismological methods of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions, and can be used for assessment of three-dimensional models of the Earth’s interior structure.« less

  9. A digital seismogram archive of nuclear explosion signals, recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory, Kazakhstan, from 1966 to 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Vadim A.; Ovtchinnikov, Vladimir M.; Kaazik, Pyotr B.; Adushkin, Vitaly V.; Sokolova, Inna N.; Aleschenko, Iraida B.; Mikhailova, Natalya N.; Kim, Won -Young; Richards, Paul G.; Patton, Howard J.; Scott Phillips, W.; Randall, George; Baker, Diane

    2015-03-27

    Seismologists from Kazakhstan, Russia, and the United States have rescued the Soviet-era archive of nuclear explosion seismograms recorded at Borovoye in northern Kazakhstan during the period 19661996. The signals had been stored on about 8000 magnetic tapes, which were held at the recording observatory. After hundreds of man-years of work, these digital waveforms together with significant metadata are now available via the project URL, namely http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/Monitoring/Data/ as a modern open database, of use to diverse communities. Three different sets of recording systems were operated at Borovoye, each using several different seismometers and different gain levels. For some explosions, more than twenty different channels of data are available. A first data release, in 2001, contained numerous glitches and lacked many instrument responses, but could still be used for measuring accurate arrival times and for comparison of the strengths of different types of seismic waves. The project URL also links to our second major data release, for nuclear explosions in Eurasia recorded in Borovoye, in which the data have been deglitched, all instrument responses have been included, and recording systems are described in detail. This second dataset consists of more than 3700 waveforms (digital seismograms) from almost 500 nuclear explosions in Eurasia, many of them recorded at regional distances. It is important as a training set for the development and evaluation of seismological methods of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions, and can be used for assessment of three-dimensional models of the Earths interior structure.

  10. A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; ,

    2012-01-01

    Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Veron-Cetty Veron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt-L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20, 30, ..., 110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 51 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays.

  11. Overview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: site description and selected science results from 2008 to 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortega, John; Turnipseed, A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas G.; Day, D. A.; Gochis, David; Huffman, J. A.; Prenni, Anthony J.; Levin, E. J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; DeMott, Paul J.; Tobo, Y.; Patton, E. G.; Hodzic, Alma; Cui, Y. Y.; Harley, P.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Monson, Russell K.; Eller, A. S.; Greenberg, J. P.; Barth, Mary; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Palm, B. B.; Jiminez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Geron, Chris; Offenberg, J.; Ryan, M. G.; Fornwalt, Paula J.; Pryor, S. C.; Keutsch, Frank N.; DiGangi, J. P.; Chan, A. W.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Kim, S.; Kaser, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Cantrell, Chris; Mauldin, R. L.; Smith, James N.

    2014-01-01

    The Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen (BEACHON) project seeks to understand the feedbacks and interrelationships between hydrology, biogenic emissions, carbon assimilation, aerosol properties, clouds and associated feedbacks within water-limited ecosystems. The Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory (MEFO) was established in 2008 by the National Center for Atmospheric Research to address many of the BEACHON research objectives, and it now provides a fixed field site with significant infrastructure. MEFO is a mountainous, semi-arid ponderosa pine-dominated forest site that is normally dominated by clean continental air but is periodically influenced by anthropogenic sources from Colorado Front Range cities. This article summarizes the past and ongoing research activities at the site, and highlights some of the significant findings that have resulted from these measurements. These activities include soil property measurements; hydrological studies; measurements of high-frequency turbulence parameters; eddy covariance flux measurements of water, energy, aerosols and carbon dioxide through the canopy; determination of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions and their influence on regional atmospheric chemistry; aerosol number and mass distributions; chemical speciation of aerosol particles; characterization of ice and cloud condensation nuclei; trace gas measurements; and model simulations using coupled chemistry and meteorology. In addition to various long-term continuous measurements, three focused measurement campaigns with state-of-the-art instrumentation have taken place since the site was established, and two of these studies are the subjects of this special issue: BEACHON-ROCS (Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study, 2010) and BEACHON-RoMBAS (Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study, 2011).

  12. HYDRATE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES THAT BOTH SUPPORT AND DERIVE FROM THE MONITORING STATION/SEA-FLOOR OBSERVATORY, MISSISSIPPI CANYON 118, NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutken, Carol

    2013-07-31

    A permanent observatory has been installed on the seafloor at Federal Lease Block, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118), northern Gulf of Mexico. Researched and designed by the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) with the geological, geophysical, geochemical and biological characterization of in situ gas hydrates systems as the research goal, the site has been designated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management as a permanent Research Reserve where studies of hydrates and related ocean systems may take place continuously and cooperatively into the foreseeable future. The predominant seafloor feature at MC118 is a carbonate-hydrate complex, officially named Woolsey Mound for the founder of both the GOM-HRC and the concept of the permanent seafloor hydrates research facility, the late James Robert Bob Woolsey. As primary investigator of the overall project until his death in mid-2008, Woolsey provided key scientific input and served as chief administrator for the Monitoring Station/ Seafloor Observatory (MS-SFO). This final technical report presents highlights of research and accomplishments to date. Although not all projects reached the status originally envisioned, they are all either complete or positioned for completion at the earliest opportunity. All Department of Energy funds have been exhausted in this effort but, in addition, leveraged to great advantage with additional federal input to the project and matched efforts and resources. This report contains final reports on all subcontracts issued by the University of Mississippi, Administrators of the project, Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico, as well as status reports on the major components of the project. All subcontractors have fulfilled their primary obligations. Without continued funds designated for further project development, the Monitoring Station/Seafloor Observatory is in danger of lapsing into disuse. However, for the present, interest in the site on the continental slope is healthy and The Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology continues to coordinate all activity at the MS/SFO as arranged through the BOEM in 2005. Field and laboratory research projects and findings are reviewed, new technologies and tests described. Many new sensors, systems and two custom ROVs have been developed specifically for this project. Characteristics of marine gas hydrates are dramatically more refined than when the project was initiated and include appear in sections entitled Accomplishments, Products and Publications.

  13. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10**19-eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; ,

    2006-06-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 19} eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  14. LARGE-SCALE CORONAL PROPAGATING FRONTS IN SOLAR ERUPTIONS AS OBSERVED BY THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORYAN ENSEMBLE STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitta, Nariaki V.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Liu, Wei

    2013-10-10

    This paper presents a study of a large sample of global disturbances in the solar corona with characteristic propagating fronts as intensity enhancement, similar to the phenomena that have often been referred to as Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) waves or extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves. Now EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide a significantly improved view of these large-scale coronal propagating fronts (LCPFs). Between 2010 April and 2013 January, a total of 171 LCPFs have been identified through visual inspection of AIA images in the 193 channel. Here we focus on the 138 LCPFs that are seen to propagate across the solar disk, first studying how they are associated with flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and type II radio bursts. We measure the speed of the LCPF in various directions until it is clearly altered by active regions or coronal holes. The highest speed is extracted for each LCPF. It is often considerably higher than EIT waves. We do not find a pattern where faster LCPFs decelerate and slow LCPFs accelerate. Furthermore, the speeds are not strongly correlated with the flare intensity or CME magnitude, nor do they show an association with type II bursts. We do not find a good correlation either between the speeds of LCPFs and CMEs in a subset of 86 LCPFs observed by one or both of the Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft as limb events.

  15. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4$\\times$10$^{18}$ eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander; et al.

    2015-08-26

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 41018 eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60 detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.31018 eV, the ``ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E? with index ?=2.70 0.02 (stat) 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (Es) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value inmorethe absence of suppression, we find Es=(5.120.25 (stat)+1.01.2 (sys))1019 eV.less

  16. On the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray using the muon arrival times from extensive air showers: Application for Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arsene, N.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O.

    2012-11-20

    In this paper we study the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray by observing the muon arrival times in ground detectors. We analyzed extensive air showers (EAS) induced by proton and iron nuclei with the same energy 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} eV simulated with CORSIKA, and analyzed the muon arrival times at ground measured by the infill array detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO). From the arrival times of the core and of the muons the atmospheric depth of muon generation locus is evaluated. The results suggest a potential mass discrimination on the basis of muon arrival times and of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muon production. An analysis of a larger set of CORSIKA simulations carried out for primary energies above 10{sup 18} eV is in progress.

  17. LARGE-SCALE DISTRIBUTION OF ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS OF COSMIC RAYS DETECTED ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. This search is performed as a function of both declination and right ascension in several energy ranges above 10{sup 18} eV, and reported in terms of dipolar and quadrupolar coefficients. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Assuming that any cosmic-ray anisotropy is dominated by dipole and quadrupole moments in this energy range, upper limits on their amplitudes are derived. These upper limits allow us to test the origin of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV from stationary Galactic sources densely distributed in the Galactic disk and predominantly emitting light particles in all directions.

  18. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV FROM LARGE-SCALE ANISOTROPY SEARCHES IN DATA OF THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is reported. For the first time, these large-scale anisotropy searches are performed as a function of both the right ascension and the declination and expressed in terms of dipole and quadrupole moments. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Upper limits on dipole and quadrupole amplitudes are derived under the hypothesis that any cosmic ray anisotropy is dominated by such moments in this energy range. These upper limits provide constraints on the production of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV, since they allow us to challenge an origin from stationary galactic sources densely distributed in the galactic disk and emitting predominantly light particles in all directions.

  19. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. I. Measurements at energies above $$10^{17.8}$$ eV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2014-12-31

    We report a study of the distributions of the depth of maximum, Xmax, of extensive air-shower profiles with energies above 1017.8 eV as observed with the fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The analysis method for selecting a data sample with minimal sampling bias is described in detail as well as the experimental cross-checks and systematic uncertainties. Furthermore, we discuss the detector acceptance and the resolution of the Xmax measurement and provide parametrizations thereof as a function of energy. Finally, the energy dependence of the mean and standard deviation of the Xmax distributions are compared to air-shower simulations formore » different nuclear primaries and interpreted in terms of the mean and variance of the logarithmic mass distribution at the top of the atmosphere.« less

  20. Large scale distribution of ultra high energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with zenith angles up to 80°

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-30

    In this study, we present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in the right ascension and one in the azimuth angle distributions, that are sensitive to modulations in right ascension and declination, respectively. The largest departure from isotropy appears in themore » $$E\\gt 8$$ EeV energy bin, with an amplitude for the first harmonic in right ascension $$r_{1}^{\\alpha }=(4.4\\pm 1.0)\\times {{10}^{-2}}$$, that has a chance probability $$P(\\geqslant r_{1}^{\\alpha })=6.4\\times {{10}^{-5}}$$, reinforcing the hint previously reported with vertical events alone.« less

  1. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4×1018 eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4×1018 eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3×1018 eV, the ``ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E–γ with index γ=2.70 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (Es) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value inmore » the absence of suppression, we find Es=(5.12±0.25 (stat)+1.0–1.2 (sys))×1019 eV.« less

  2. A Proposal for Geologic Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental Zero-State and Subsequent Monitoring Definition - First Lessons Learned from the French Environment Observatory - 13188

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landais, Patrick; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Mariotti, Andre

    2013-07-01

    Obtaining a reference state of the environment before the beginning of construction work for a geological repository is essential as it will be useful for further monitoring during operations and beyond, thus keeping a memory of the original environmental state. The area and the compartments of the biosphere to be observed and monitored as well as the choice of the markers (e.g. bio-markers, biodiversity, quality of the environment, etc.) to be followed must be carefully selected. In parallel, the choice and selection of the environmental monitoring systems (i.e. scientific and technical criteria, social requirements) will be of paramount importance for the evaluation of the perturbations that could be induced during the operational phase of the repository exploitation. This paper presents learning points of the French environment observatory located in the Meuse/Haute-Marne that has been selected for studying the feasibility of the underground disposal of high level wastes in France. (authors)

  3. The effect of the geomagnetic field on cosmic ray energy estimates and large scale anisotropy searches on data from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; ,

    2011-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the energy estimation of extensive air showers with a zenith angle smaller than 60{sup o}, detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The geomagnetic field induces an azimuthal modulation of the estimated energy of cosmic rays up to the {approx} 2% level at large zenith angles. We present a method to account for this modulation of the reconstructed energy. We analyse the effect of the modulation on large scale anisotropy searches in the arrival direction distributions of cosmic rays. At a given energy, the geomagnetic effect is shown to induce a pseudo-dipolar pattern at the percent level in the declination distribution that needs to be accounted for. In this work, we have identified and quantified a systematic uncertainty affecting the energy determination of cosmic rays detected by the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This systematic uncertainty, induced by the influence of the geomagnetic field on the shower development, has a strength which depends on both the zenith and the azimuthal angles. Consequently, we have shown that it induces distortions of the estimated cosmic ray event rate at a given energy at the percent level in both the azimuthal and the declination distributions, the latter of which mimics an almost dipolar pattern. We have also shown that the induced distortions are already at the level of the statistical uncertainties for a number of events N {approx_equal} 32 000 (we note that the full Auger surface detector array collects about 6500 events per year with energies above 3 EeV). Accounting for these effects is thus essential with regard to the correct interpretation of large scale anisotropy measurements taking explicitly profit from the declination distribution.

  4. EVIDENCE FOR THE WAVE NATURE OF AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVE OBSERVED BY THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu

    2012-07-20

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves have been found for about 15 years. However, significant controversy remains over their physical natures and origins. In this paper, we report an EUV wave that was accompanied by an X1.9 flare and a partial halo coronal mass ejection (CME). Using high temporal and spatial resolution observations taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory, we are able to investigate the detailed kinematics of the EUV wave. We find several arguments that support the fast-mode wave scenario. (1) The speed of the EUV wave (570 km s{sup -1}) is higher than the sound speed of the quiet-Sun corona. (2) Significant deceleration of the EUV wave (-130 m s{sup -2}) is found during its propagation. (3) The EUV wave resulted in the oscillations of a loop and a filament along its propagation path, and a reflected wave from the polar coronal hole is also detected. (4) Refraction or reflection effect is observed when the EUV wave was passing through two coronal bright points. (5) The dimming region behind the wavefront stopped to expand when the wavefront started to become diffuse. (6) The profiles of the wavefront exhibited a dispersive nature, and the magnetosonic Mach number of the EUV wave derived from the highest intensity jump is about 1.4. In addition, triangulation indicates that the EUV wave propagated within a height range of about 60-100 Mm above the photosphere. We propose that the EUV wave observed should be a nonlinear fast-mode magnetosonic wave that propagated freely in the corona after it was driven by the CME expanding flanks during the initial period.

  5. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of Violin-Mode resonances in advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level Violin-Mode (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent noise-gain peaking arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillationsthis output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 1.20) MV(rms) m{sup ?1}(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 13) picometres/?Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of 0.1 mm.

  6. Gravitational waves from individual supermassive black hole binaries in circular orbits: limits from the North American nanohertz observatory for gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Dolch, T.; Lam, M. T.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Ellis, J. A.; Demorest, P. B.; Deng, X.; Koop, M.; Ferdman, R. D.; Kaspi, V. M.; Garver-Daniels, N.; Lorimer, D. R.; Jenet, F.; Jones, G.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Lommen, A. N.; Collaboration: NANOGrav Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    We perform a search for continuous gravitational waves from individual supermassive black hole binaries using robust frequentist and Bayesian techniques. We augment standard pulsar timing models with the addition of time-variable dispersion measure and frequency variable pulse shape terms. We apply our techniques to the Five Year Data Release from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves. We find that there is no evidence for the presence of a detectable continuous gravitational wave; however, we can use these data to place the most constraining upper limits to date on the strength of such gravitational waves. Using the full 17 pulsar data set we place a 95% upper limit on the strain amplitude of h {sub 0} ? 3.0 10{sup 14} at a frequency of 10 nHz. Furthermore, we place 95% sky-averaged lower limits on the luminosity distance to such gravitational wave sources, finding that d{sub L} ? 425 Mpc for sources at a frequency of 10 nHz and chirp mass 10{sup 10} M {sub ?}. We find that for gravitational wave sources near our best timed pulsars in the sky, the sensitivity of the pulsar timing array is increased by a factor of ?four over the sky-averaged sensitivity. Finally we place limits on the coalescence rate of the most massive supermassive black hole binaries.

  7. The Ability of MM5 to Simulate Ice Clouds: Systematic Comparison between Simulated and Measured Fluxes and Lidar/Radar Profiles at SIRTA Atmospheric Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiriaco, M.; Vautard, R.; Chepfer, H.; Haeffelin, M.; Wanherdrick, Y.; Morille, Y.; Protat, A.; Dudhia, J.

    2005-03-18

    Ice clouds play a major role in the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system (Liou 1986). Their radiative effect is governed primarily by the equilibrium between their albedo and greenhouse effects. Both macrophysical and microphysical properties of ice clouds regulate this equilibrium. For quantifying the effect of these clouds onto climate and weather systems, they must be properly characterized in atmospheric models. In this paper we use remote-sensing measurements from the SIRTA ground based atmospheric observatory (Site Instrumental de Recherche par Teledetection Atmospherique, http://sirta.lmd.polytechnique.fr). Lidar and radar observations taken over 18 months are used, in order to gain statistical confidence in the model evaluation. Along this period of time, 62 days are selected for study because they contain parts of ice clouds. We use the ''model to observations'' approach by simulating lidar and radar signals from MM5 outputs. Other more classical variables such as shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes are also used. Four microphysical schemes, among which that proposed by Reisner et al. (1998) with original or modified parameterizations of particle terminal fall velocities (Zurovac-Jevtic and Zhang 2003, Heymsfield and Donner 1990), and the simplified Dudhia (1989) scheme are evaluated in this study.

  8. Measurement of the nue and Total 8B Solar Neutrino Fluxes with theSudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmad, Q.R.; Ahmed, S.N.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen,T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Buehler, G.; Barton, J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch,M.; Bergevin, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler, M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Deng, H.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon,N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J.T.M.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Henning, R.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime,A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar,R.J.; Kormos, L.L.; Kos, M.; Kouzes, R.; Krueger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss,C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,A.B.; McDonald, D.S.; McFarlane, K.; McGee, S.; McGregor, G.; MeijerDrees, R.; Mes, H.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, M.L.; Milton,G.; Moffat, B.A.; Monreal, B.; Moorhead, M.; Morrissette, B.; Nally,C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; et al.

    2007-02-01

    This article provides the complete description of resultsfrom the Phase I data set of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). ThePhase I data set is based on a 0.65 kt-year exposure of heavy water tothe solar 8B neutrino flux. Included here are details of the SNO physicsand detector model, evaluations of systematic uncertainties, andestimates of backgrounds. Also discussed are SNO's approach tostatistical extraction of the signals from the three neutrino reactions(charged current, neutral current, and elastic scattering) and theresults of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the ?e flux. Under theassumption that the 8B spectrum is undistorted, the measurements fromthis phase yield a solar ?e flux of ?(?e) =1.76+0.05?0.05(stat.)+0.09?0.09 (syst.) x 106 cm?2 s?1, and a non-?ecomponent ?(? mu) = 3.41+0.45?0.45(stat.)+0.48?0.45 (syst.) x 106 cm?2s?1. The sum of these components provides a total flux in excellentagreement with the predictions of Standard Solar Models. The day-nightasymmetry in the ?e flux is found to be Ae = 7.0 +- 4.9 (stat.)+1.3?1.2percent (sys.), when the asymmetry in the total flux is constrained to bezero.

  9. OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF THE EMERGING EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET LOOPS IN THE QUIET SUN AS SEEN WITH THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitta, L. P.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Kariyappa, R.; Hasan, S. S.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2013-05-01

    We used data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to study coronal loops at small scales, emerging in the quiet Sun. With HMI line-of-sight magnetograms, we derive the integrated and unsigned photospheric magnetic flux at the loop footpoints in the photosphere. These loops are bright in the EUV channels of AIA. Using the six AIA EUV filters, we construct the differential emission measure (DEM) in the temperature range 5.7-6.5 in log T (K) for several hours of observations. The observed DEMs have a peak distribution around log T Almost-Equal-To 6.3, falling rapidly at higher temperatures. For log T < 6.3, DEMs are comparable to their peak values within an order of magnitude. The emission-weighted temperature is calculated, and its time variations are compared with those of magnetic flux. We present two possibilities for explaining the observed DEMs and temperatures variations. (1) Assuming that the observed loops are composed of a hundred thin strands with certain radius and length, we tested three time-dependent heating models and compared the resulting DEMs and temperatures with the observed quantities. This modeling used enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops (EBTEL), a zero-dimensional (0D) hydrodynamic code. The comparisons suggest that a medium-frequency heating model with a population of different heating amplitudes can roughly reproduce the observations. (2) We also consider a loop model with steady heating and non-uniform cross-section of the loop along its length, and find that this model can also reproduce the observed DEMs, provided the loop expansion factor {gamma} {approx} 5-10. More observational constraints are required to better understand the nature of coronal heating in the short emerging loops on the quiet Sun.

  10. z {approx} 4 H{alpha} EMITTERS IN THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ORIGINS DEEP SURVEY: TRACING THE DOMINANT MODE FOR GROWTH OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Hyunjin; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Dickinson, Mark; Lin Lihwai; Yan, Chi-Hung; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    We present evidence for strong H{alpha} emission in galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range of 3.8 < z < 5.0 over the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields. Among 74 galaxies detected in the Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands, more than 70% of the galaxies show clear excess at 3.6 {mu}m compared to the expected flux density from stellar continuum only. We provide evidence that this 3.6 {mu}m excess is due to H{alpha} emission redshifted into the 3.6 {mu}m band, and classify these 3.6 {mu}m excess galaxies to be H{alpha} emitter (HAE) candidates. The selection of HAE candidates using an excess in broadband filters is sensitive to objects whose rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width (EW) is larger than 350 A. The H{alpha} inferred star formation rates (SFRs) of the HAEs range between 20 and 500 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and are a factor of {approx}6 larger than SFRs inferred from the UV continuum. The ratio between the H{alpha} luminosity and UV luminosity of HAEs is also on average larger than that of local starbursts. Possible reasons for such strong H{alpha} emission in these galaxies include different dust extinction properties, young stellar population ages, extended star formation histories, low metallicity, and a top-heavy stellar initial mass function. Although the correlation between UV slope {beta} and L{sub H{alpha}}/L{sub UV} raises the possibility that HAEs prefer a dust extinction curve which is steeper in the UV, the most dominant factor that results in strong H{alpha} emission appears to be star formation history. The H{alpha} EWs of HAEs are large despite their relatively old stellar population ages constrained by spectral energy distribution fitting, suggesting that at least 60% of HAEs produce stars at a constant rate. Under the assumption that the gas supply is sustained, HAEs are able to produce {approx}> 50% of the stellar mass density that is encompassed in massive (M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) galaxies at z {approx} 3. This 'strong H{alpha} phase' of star formation plays a dominant role in galaxy growth at z {approx} 4, and they are likely progenitors of massive red galaxies at lower redshifts.

  11. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J. -D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; et al

    2015-03-16

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water solublemore » fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was estimated to be ~ 0.15 for the accumulation mode and ~ 0.36 for the coarse mode, respectively. The obtained κv, ws for the accumulation mode is in good agreement with earlier data reported for remote sites in the Amazon rain forest (κv ≈ 0.15) and a Colorado boreal forest (κv ≈ 0.16). We used the Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule to predict the chemical composition dependent hygroscopicity, κv, p. The obtained κv, p values overestimate the experimental FDHA-KIM-derived κv, ws by factors of 1.8 and 1.5 for the accumulation and coarse modes, respectively. This divergence can be partly explained by incomplete dissolution of the hygroscopic inorganic compounds resulting from kinetic limitations due to a sparingly soluble organic coating. The TEM and STXM-NEXAFS results indicate that aged submicron (>300 nm) and supermicron aerosol particles possess core-shell structures with an inorganic core, and are enriched in organic carbon at the mixed particle surface. The direct FDHA kinetic studies provide a bulk diffusion coefficient of water of ~ 10−12 cm2 s−1 indicating a semi-solid state of the organic-rich phase leading to kinetic limitations of water uptake and release during hydration and dehydration cycles. Overall the present ZOTTO data set, obtained in the growing season, has revealed a strong influence of organic carbon on the hygroscopic properties of the ambient aerosols. The sparingly soluble organic coating controls hygroscopic growth, phase transitions, and microstructural rearrangement processes. The observed kinetic limitations can strongly influence the outcome of experiments performed on multi-second time scales, such as the commonly applied HTDMA (Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) and CCNC (Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter) measurements.« less

  12. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Phlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Frster, J. -D.; Pschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; Weigand, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-03-16

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61 N; 89 E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water soluble fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode.

    The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 599.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments.

    The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 599.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, ?v, was calculated. The ?v, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was estimated to be ~ 0.15 for the accumulation mode and ~ 0.36 for the coarse mode, respectively. The obtained ?v, ws for the accumulation mode is in good agreement with earlier data reported for remote sites in the Amazon rain forest (?v ≈ 0.15) and a Colorado boreal forest (?v ≈ 0.16).

    We used the ZdanovskiiStokesRobinson (ZSR) mixing rule to predict the chemical composition dependent hygroscopicity, ?v, p. The obtained ?v, p values overestimate the experimental FDHA-KIM-derived ?v, ws by factors of 1.8 and 1.5 for the accumulation and coarse modes, respectively. This divergence can be partly explained by incomplete dissolution of the hygroscopic inorganic compounds resulting from kinetic limitations due to a sparingly soluble organic coating. The TEM and STXM-NEXAFS results indicate that aged submicron (>300 nm) and supermicron aerosol particles possess core-shell structures with an inorganic core, and are enriched in organic carbon at the mixed particle surface. The direct FDHA kinetic studies provide a bulk diffusion coefficient of water of ~ 10?12 cm2 s?1 indicating a semi-solid state of the organic-rich phase leading to kinetic limitations of water uptake and release during hydration and dehydration cycles. Overall the present ZOTTO data set, obtained in the growing season, has revealed a strong influence of organic carbon on the hygroscopic properties of the ambient aerosols. The sparingly soluble organic coating controls hygroscopic growth, phase transitions, and microstructural rearrangement processes. The observed kinetic limitations can strongly influence the outcome of experiments performed on multi-second time scales, such as the commonly applied HTDMA (Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer

  13. Searches for large-scale anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above energy of 10{sup 19} eV at the Pierre Auger observatory and the telescope array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Asorey, H.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Arqueros, F.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 10{sup 19} eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 10{sup 19} eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  14. Searches for Large-Scale Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Cosmic Rays Detected above Energy of $10^{19}$ eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander; et al,

    2014-10-07

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 1019 eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 1019 eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  15. X6.9-CLASS FLARE-INDUCED VERTICAL KINK OSCILLATIONS IN A LARGE-SCALE PLASMA CURTAIN AS OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY/ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, A. K. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263 002 (India); Goossens, M. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-01

    We present rare observational evidence of vertical kink oscillations in a laminar and diffused large-scale plasma curtain as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The X6.9-class flare in active region 11263 on 2011 August 9 induces a global large-scale disturbance that propagates in a narrow lane above the plasma curtain and creates a low density region that appears as a dimming in the observational image data. This large-scale propagating disturbance acts as a non-periodic driver that interacts asymmetrically and obliquely with the top of the plasma curtain and triggers the observed oscillations. In the deeper layers of the curtain, we find evidence of vertical kink oscillations with two periods (795 s and 530 s). On the magnetic surface of the curtain where the density is inhomogeneous due to coronal dimming, non-decaying vertical oscillations are also observed (period ? 763-896 s). We infer that the global large-scale disturbance triggers vertical kink oscillations in the deeper layers as well as on the surface of the large-scale plasma curtain. The properties of the excited waves strongly depend on the local plasma and magnetic field conditions.

  16. DIRECT IMAGING OF QUASI-PERIODIC FAST PROPAGATING WAVES OF {approx}2000 km s{sup -1} IN THE LOW SOLAR CORONA BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Wei; Title, Alan M.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; De Pontieu, Bart; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Zhao Junwei; Ofman, Leon

    2011-07-20

    Quasi-periodic propagating fast mode magnetosonic waves in the solar corona were difficult to observe in the past due to relatively low instrument cadences. We report here evidence of such waves directly imaged in EUV by the new Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. In the 2010 August 1 C3.2 flare/coronal mass ejection event, we find arc-shaped wave trains of 1%-5% intensity variations (lifetime {approx}200 s) that emanate near the flare kernel and propagate outward up to {approx}400 Mm along a funnel of coronal loops. Sinusoidal fits to a typical wave train indicate a phase velocity of 2200 {+-} 130 km s{sup -1}. Similar waves propagating in opposite directions are observed in closed loops between two flare ribbons. In the k-{omega} diagram of the Fourier wave power, we find a bright ridge that represents the dispersion relation and can be well fitted with a straight line passing through the origin. This k-{omega} ridge shows a broad frequency distribution with power peaks at 5.5, 14.5, and 25.1 mHz. The strongest signal at 5.5 mHz (period 181 s) temporally coincides with quasi-periodic pulsations of the flare, suggesting a common origin. The instantaneous wave energy flux of (0.1-2.6) x 10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} estimated at the coronal base is comparable to the steady-state heating requirement of active region loops.

  17. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. IV. THE NGC 1333 CLOUD IN PERSEUS IN CO J = 2-1 AND {sup 13}CO J = 2-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieging, John H.; Revelle, Melissa; Peters, William L.

    2014-09-01

    We mapped the NGC 1333 section of the Perseus Molecular Cloud in the J = 2-1 emission lines of {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO over a 50' 60' region (3.4 4.1 pc at the cloud distance of 235 pc), using the Arizona Radio Observatory Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The angular resolution is 38'' (0.04 pc) and velocity resolution is 0.3 km s{sup 1}. We compare our velocity moment maps with known positions of young stellar objects (YSOs) and (sub)millimeter dust continuum emission. The CO emission is brightest at the center of the cluster of YSOs, but is detected over the full extent of the mapped region at ?10 rms. The morphology of the CO channel maps shows a kinematically complex structure, with many elongated features extending from the YSO cluster outward by ?1 pc. One notable feature appears as a narrow serpentine structure that curves and doubles back, with a total length of ?3 pc. The {sup 13}CO velocity channel maps show evidence for many low-density cavities surrounded by partial shell-like structures, consistent with previous studies. Maps of the velocity moments show localized effects of bipolar outflows from embedded YSOs, as well as a large-scale velocity gradient around the central core of YSOs, suggestive of large-scale turbulent cloud motions determining the location of current star formation. The CO/{sup 13}CO intensity ratios show the distribution of the CO opacity, which exhibits a complex kinematic structure. Identified YSOs are located mainly at the positions of greatest CO opacity. The maps are available for download as FITS files.

  18. THE 2011 FEBRUARY 15 X2 FLARE, RIBBONS, CORONAL FRONT, AND MASS EJECTION: INTERPRETING THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL VIEWS FROM THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY AND STEREO GUIDED BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC FLUX-ROPE MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Aulanier, Guillaume; Pariat, Etienne; Delannee, Cecile E-mail: title@lmsal.com E-mail: etienne.pariat@obspm.fr

    2011-09-10

    The 2011 February 15 X2.2 flare and associated Earth-directed halo coronal mass ejection were observed in unprecedented detail with high resolution in spatial, temporal, and thermal dimensions by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, as well as by instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft, then at near-quadrature relative to the Sun-Earth line. These observations enable us to see expanding loops from a flux-rope-like structure over the shearing polarity-inversion line between the central {delta}-spot groups of AR 11158, developing a propagating coronal front ('EIT wave'), and eventually forming the coronal mass ejection moving into the inner heliosphere. The observations support the interpretation that all of these features, including the 'EIT wave', are signatures of an expanding volume traced by loops (much larger than the flux rope only), surrounded by a moving front rather than predominantly wave-like perturbations; this interpretation is supported by previously published MHD models for active-region and global scales. The lateral expansion of the eruption is limited to the local helmet-streamer structure and halts at the edges of a large-scale domain of connectivity (in the process exciting loop oscillations at the edge of the southern polar coronal hole). The AIA observations reveal that plasma warming occurs within the expansion front as it propagates over quiet Sun areas. This warming causes dimming in the 171 A (Fe IX and Fe X) channel and brightening in the 193 and 211 A (Fe XII-XIV) channels along the entire front, while there is weak 131 A (Fe VIII and Fe XXI) emission in some directions. An analysis of the AIA response functions shows that sections of the front running over the quiet Sun are consistent with adiabatic warming; other sections may require additional heating which MHD modeling suggests could be caused by Joule dissipation. Although for the events studied here the effects of volumetric expansion are much more obvious than true wave phenomena, we discuss how different magnetic environments within and around the erupting region can lead to the signatures of either or both of these aspects.

  19. HAWC Observatory to study universe's most energetic phenomena

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mexican institutions participating in HAWC: Benemrita Universidad Autnoma de Puebla (BUAP) Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico...

  20. Simulations for a next-generation UHECR observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oikonomou, Foteini; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Kotera, Kumiko E-mail: kotera@iap.fr

    2015-01-01

    We explore the potential of a future, ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) experiment, that is able to overcome the limitation of low statistics, to detect anisotropy in the arrival directions of UHECRs. We concentrate on the lower energy range of future instruments (E?>50EeV), where, if the UHECR source number density is not too low, the sources should be numerous enough to imprint a clustering pattern in the sky, and thus possibly in the UHECR arrival directions. Under these limits, the anisotropy signal should be dominated by the clustering of astrophysical sources per se in the large-scale structures, and not the clustering of events around individual sources. We study the potential for a statistical discrimination between different astrophysical models which we parametrise by the number density of UHECR sources, the possible bias of the UHECR accelerators with respect to the galaxy distribution, and the unknown fraction of UHECRs that have been deflected by large angles. We demonstrate that an order-of-magnitude increase in statistics would allow to discriminate between a variety of astrophysical models, provided that a sub-sample of light elements can be extracted, and that it represents a fraction ?>70% of the overall flux, sensitive to the UHECR source number density. Discrimination should be possible even without knowledge of the composition of the UHECRs, as long as the data are proton-dominated. We find that an anisotropy at the 99.7% level should be detectable when the number of detected events exceeds 2000 beyond 50 EeV, as long as the composition is proton dominated, and the number density of UHECR sources is relatively high, n-bar ?10{sup ?3}Mpc{sup ?3}. If the UHECR sources are strongly biased relative to the galaxy distribution, as are for example galaxy clusters, in which the sources might be embedded, an anisotropy at the 99.7% level should be detectable once the number of detected events exceeds 1000, if the fraction of protons at the highest energies is ?>60%.

  1. Sandia's Frontier Observatory for Research In Geothermal Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Reasearch Facility Geomechanics and Drilling ... as "enabling cutting-edge research and drilling and technology testing, as well as to ...

  2. The Pierre Auger Observatory: Contributions to the 34th International...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 2015-09-12 OSTI Identifier: 1223251 Report Number(s): FERMILAB-CONF-15-396-AD-AE-CD-TD arXiv eprint number arXiv:1509.03732 DOE Contract Number: AC02-07CH11359 ...

  3. Observatory of Renewable Energy for Latin America and the Caribbean...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay UN Region Caribbean, Central America, South America References...

  4. The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe,...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    assembled at PPPL will test principles and equipment while providing preliminary data on neutrinos before the next phase of the experiment. Introduction * In a matter of...

  5. The Pierre Auger Observatory: Contributions to the 34th International...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Date: 2015-09-12 OSTI Identifier: 1223251 Report Number(s): FERMILAB-CONF-15-396-AD-AE-CD-TD arXiv eprint number arXiv:1509.03732 DOE Contract Number: AC02-07CH11359 Resource...

  6. The Enriched Xenon Observatory (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 2009-12-17 OSTI Identifier: 21325784 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1182; Journal ...

  7. The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Idaho Falls, Idaho on September 23-25, 2014.

  8. Remote sensing-based characterization, 2-m, Plant Functional Type Distributions, Barrow Environmental Observatory, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zachary Langford; Forrest Hoffman; Jitendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems have been observed to be warming faster than the global average and are predicted to experience accelerated changes in climate due to global warming. Arctic vegetation is particularly sensitive to warming conditions and likely to exhibit shifts in species composition, phenology and productivity under changing climate. Mapping and monitoring of changes in vegetation is essential to understand the effect of climate change on the ecosystem functions. Vegetation exhibits unique spectral characteristics which can be harnessed to discriminate plant types and develop quantitative vegetation indices. We have combined high resolution multi-spectral remote sensing from the WorldView 2 satellite with LIDAR-derived digital elevation models to characterize the tundra landscape on the North Slope of Alaska. Classification of landscape using spectral and topographic characteristics yields spatial regions with expectedly similar vegetation characteristics. A field campaign was conducted during peak growing season to collect vegetation harvests from a number of 1m x 1m plots in the study region, which were then analyzed for distribution of vegetation types in the plots. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic characteristics and vegetation type distributions at the vegetation plots. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale the vegetation distributions for the landscape based on spectral characteristics. Vegetation distributions developed are being used to provide Plant Functional Type (PFT) maps for use in the Community Land Model (CLM).

  9. Cosmic-ray physics with the milagro gamma-ray observatory (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Milagro has made the first measurement of the Galactic diffuse emission in the TeV energy band. In the Cygnus Region we measure a flux approx2.7 times that predicted by GALPROP. ...

  10. Digital Elevation Model, 0.25 m, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cathy Wilson; Garrett Altmann

    2015-11-20

    This 0.25m horizontal resolution digital elevation model, DEM, was developed from Airborne Laser Altimetry flown by Aerometric Inc, now known as Quantum Spatial, Inc. on 12 July, 2013. One Mission was flown and the data jointly processed with LANL personnel to produce a 0.25m DEM covering a region approximately 2.8km wide and 12.4km long extending from the coast above North Salt Lagoon to south of Gas Well Road. This DEM encompasses a diverse range of hydrologic, geomorphic, geophysical and biological features typical of the Barrow Peninsula. Vertical accuracy at the 95% confidence interval was computed as 0.143m. The coordinate system, datum, and geoid for this DEM are UTM Zone 4N, NAD83 (2011), NAVD88 (GEOID09).

  11. Remote sensing-based characterization of plant functional type distributions at the Barrow Environmental Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest M.

    2014-03-18

    Arctic ecosystems have been observed to be warming faster than the global average and are predicted to experience accelerated changes in climate due to global warming. Arctic vegetation is particularly sensitive to warming conditions and likely to exhibit shifts in species composition, phenology and productivity under changing climate. Mapping and monitoring of changes in vegetation is essential to understand the effect of climate change on the ecosystem functions. Vegetation exhibits unique spectral characteristics which can be harnessed to discriminate plant types and develop quantitative vegetation indices. We have combined high resolution multi-spectral remote sensing from the WorldView 2 satellite with LIDAR-derived digital elevation models to characterize the tundra landscape on the North Slope of Alaska. Classification of landscape using spectral and topographic characteristics yields spatial regions with expectedly similar vegetation characteristics. A field campaign was conducted during peak growing season to collect vegetation harvests from a number of 1m x 1m plots in the study region, which were then analyzed for distribution of vegetation types in the plots. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic characteristics and vegetation type distributions at the vegetation plots. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale the vegetation distributions for the landscape based on spectral characteristics. Vegetation distributions developed are being used to provide Plant Functional Type (PFT) maps for use in the Community Land Model (CLM).

  12. Remote sensing-based characterization, 2-m, Plant Functional Type Distributions, Barrow Environmental Observatory, 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Zachary Langford; Forrest Hoffman; Jitendra Kumar

    Arctic ecosystems have been observed to be warming faster than the global average and are predicted to experience accelerated changes in climate due to global warming. Arctic vegetation is particularly sensitive to warming conditions and likely to exhibit shifts in species composition, phenology and productivity under changing climate. Mapping and monitoring of changes in vegetation is essential to understand the effect of climate change on the ecosystem functions. Vegetation exhibits unique spectral characteristics which can be harnessed to discriminate plant types and develop quantitative vegetation indices. We have combined high resolution multi-spectral remote sensing from the WorldView 2 satellite with LIDAR-derived digital elevation models to characterize the tundra landscape on the North Slope of Alaska. Classification of landscape using spectral and topographic characteristics yields spatial regions with expectedly similar vegetation characteristics. A field campaign was conducted during peak growing season to collect vegetation harvests from a number of 1m x 1m plots in the study region, which were then analyzed for distribution of vegetation types in the plots. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic characteristics and vegetation type distributions at the vegetation plots. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale the vegetation distributions for the landscape based on spectral characteristics. Vegetation distributions developed are being used to provide Plant Functional Type (PFT) maps for use in the Community Land Model (CLM).

  13. Remote sensing-based characterization of plant functional type distributions at the Barrow Environmental Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest M.

    Arctic ecosystems have been observed to be warming faster than the global average and are predicted to experience accelerated changes in climate due to global warming. Arctic vegetation is particularly sensitive to warming conditions and likely to exhibit shifts in species composition, phenology and productivity under changing climate. Mapping and monitoring of changes in vegetation is essential to understand the effect of climate change on the ecosystem functions. Vegetation exhibits unique spectral characteristics which can be harnessed to discriminate plant types and develop quantitative vegetation indices. We have combined high resolution multi-spectral remote sensing from the WorldView 2 satellite with LIDAR-derived digital elevation models to characterize the tundra landscape on the North Slope of Alaska. Classification of landscape using spectral and topographic characteristics yields spatial regions with expectedly similar vegetation characteristics. A field campaign was conducted during peak growing season to collect vegetation harvests from a number of 1m x 1m plots in the study region, which were then analyzed for distribution of vegetation types in the plots. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic characteristics and vegetation type distributions at the vegetation plots. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale the vegetation distributions for the landscape based on spectral characteristics. Vegetation distributions developed are being used to provide Plant Functional Type (PFT) maps for use in the Community Land Model (CLM).

  14. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment In northeastern India, the fertile land around the Ganges River supports several hundred million people. This river, the largest in India, is fed by monsoon rains and runoff from the nearby Himalayan Mountains. Through an intergovernmental agreement with India, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed its portable laboratory, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), to Nainital, India, in June 2011. During

  15. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abreu, P

    2011-06-17

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 x 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrativemore » values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.« less

  16. Prospects for Relic Neutrino Detection at PTOLEMY: Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early-Universe, Massive-Neutrino Yield

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the 32nd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Germantown, Maryland on April 23-25, 2013.

  17. NEW ATLAS9 AND MARCS MODEL ATMOSPHERE GRIDS FOR THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT (APOGEE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meszaros, Sz.; Allende Prieto, C.; De Vicente, A.; Edvardsson, B.; Gustafsson, B.; Castelli, F.; Garcia Perez, A. E.; Majewski, S. R.; Plez, B.; Schiavon, R.; Shetrone, M.

    2012-10-01

    We present a new grid of model photospheres for the SDSS-III/APOGEE survey of stellar populations of the Galaxy, calculated using the ATLAS9 and MARCS codes. New opacity distribution functions were generated to calculate ATLAS9 model photospheres. MARCS models were calculated based on opacity sampling techniques. The metallicity ([M/H]) spans from -5 to 1.5 for ATLAS and -2.5 to 0.5 for MARCS models. There are three main differences with respect to previous ATLAS9 model grids: a new corrected H{sub 2}O line list, a wide range of carbon ([C/M]) and {alpha} element [{alpha}/M] variations, and solar reference abundances from Asplund et al. The added range of varying carbon and {alpha}-element abundances also extends the previously calculated MARCS model grids. Altogether, 1980 chemical compositions were used for the ATLAS9 grid and 175 for the MARCS grid. Over 808,000 ATLAS9 models were computed spanning temperatures from 3500 K to 30,000 K and log g from 0 to 5, where larger temperatures only have high gravities. The MARCS models span from 3500 K to 5500 K, and log g from 0 to 5. All model atmospheres are publicly available online.

  18. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P

    2011-06-17

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 x 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrative values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.

  19. Using star tracks to determine the absolute pointing of the Fluorescence Detector telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Donato, Cinzia; Sanchez, Federico; Santander, Marcos; Natl.Tech.U., San Rafael; Camin, Daniel; Garcia, Beatriz; Grassi, Valerio; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan

    2005-05-01

    To accurately reconstruct a shower axis from the Fluorescence Detector data it is essential to establish with high precision the absolute pointing of the telescopes. To d that they calculate the absolute pointing of a telescope using sky background data acquired during regular data taking periods. The method is based on the knowledge of bright star's coordinates that provide a reliable and stable coordinate system. it can be used to check the absolute telescope's pointing and its long-term stability during the whole life of the project, estimated in 20 years. They have analyzed background data taken from January to October 2004 to determine the absolute pointing of the 12 telescopes installed both in Los Leones and Coihueco. The method is based on the determination of the mean-time of the variance signal left by a star traversing a PMT's photocathode which is compared with the mean-time obtained by simulating the track of that star on the same pixel.

  20. Estimation of the mixing layer height over a high altitude site in Central Himalayan region by using Doppler lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Newsom, Rob K.; Kumar, Niranjan; Ratnam, Venkat; Naja, M.; Singh, Narendra

    2014-03-01

    A Doppler lidar was installed at Manora Peak, Nainital (29.4 N; 79.2 E, 1958 amsl) to estimate mixing layer height for the first time by using vertical velocity variance as basic measurement parameter for the period September-November 2011. Mixing layer height is found to be located ~0.57 +/- 0.1and 0.45 +/- 0.05km AGL during day and nighttime, respectively. The estimation of mixing layer height shows good correlation (R>0.8) between different instruments and with different methods. Our results show that wavelet co-variance transform is a robust method for mixing layer height estimation.

  1. THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ORIGINS DEEP SURVEY: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LYMAN CONTINUUM ESCAPE FRACTION DISTRIBUTION OF LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AT 3.4 < z < 4.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanzella, E.; Nonino, M.; Fontanot, F.; Cristiani, S.; Tozzi, P.; Giavalisco, M.; Inoue, A. K.; Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Boutsia, K.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Dickinson, M.; Stern, D.; Ferguson, H.; Spinrad, H.; Rosati, P.

    2010-12-10

    We use ultra-deep ultraviolet VLT/VIMOS intermediate-band and VLT/FORS1 narrowband imaging in the GOODS Southern field to derive limits on the distribution of the escape fraction (f{sub esc}) of ionizing radiation for L {>=} L*{sub z=3} Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at redshift 3.4-4.5. Only one LBG, at redshift z = 3.795, is detected in its Lyman continuum (LyC; S/N {approx_equal} 5.5), the highest redshift galaxy currently known with a direct detection. Its ultraviolet morphology is quite compact (R{sub eff} = 0.8 kpc physical). Three out of seven active galactic nuclei are also detected in their LyC, including one at redshift z = 3.951 and z{sub 850} = 26.1. From stacked data (LBGs), we set an upper limit to the average f{sub esc} in the range 5%-20%, depending on how the data are selected (e.g., by magnitude and/or redshift). We undertake extensive Monte Carlo simulations that take into account intergalactic attenuation, stellar population synthesis models, dust extinction, and photometric noise in order to explore the moments of the distribution of the escaping radiation. Various distributions (exponential, log-normal, and Gaussian) are explored. We find that the median f{sub esc} is lower than {approx_equal}6% with an 84% percentile limit not larger than 20%. If this result remains valid for fainter LBGs down to current observational limits, then the LBG population might be not sufficient to account for the entire photoionization budget at the redshifts considered here, with the exact details dependent upon the assumed ionizing background and QSO contribution thereto. It is possible that f{sub esc} depends on the UV luminosity of the galaxies, with fainter galaxies having higher f{sub esc}, and estimates of f{sub esc} from a sample of faint LBGs from HUDF (i{sub 775} {<=}28.5) are in broad quantitative agreement with such a scenario.

  2. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-01-06

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more » on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  3. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-08-26

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the lower 50 m of the atmosphere has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes; hence data at this level are necessary for addressing carbon-cycle- and public-health-related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more » on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We assess the magnitude of known point sources of CH4 and also identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  4. SOLAR MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION FROM DOPPLER SHIFTS OF THE Fe I LINE AT 5250 A AS MEASURED BY THE 150-FOOT SOLAR TOWER TELESCOPE AT THE MT. WILSON OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, Roger K.

    2010-12-10

    Doppler shifts of the Fe I spectral line at 5250 A from the full solar disk obtained over the period 1986 to 2009 are analyzed to determine the circulation velocity of the solar surface along meridional planes. Simultaneous measurements of the Zeeman splitting of this line are used to obtain measurements of the solar magnetic field that are used to select low field points and impose corrections for the magnetically induced Doppler shift. The data utilized is from a new reduction that preserves the full spatial resolution of the original observations so that the circulation flow can be followed to latitudes of 80{sup 0} N/S. The deduced meridional flow is shown to differ from the circulation velocities derived from magnetic pattern movements. A reversed circulation pattern is seen in polar regions for three successive solar minima. A surge in circulation velocity at low latitudes is seen during the rising phases of cycles 22 and 23.

  5. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field experiment conducted during January and March 1999. As part of INDOEX, a new surface observatory was established in the Maldives. The Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory...

  6. Science Magazine Articles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Magazine Articles "Second Bid for Brain Observatory," by Emily Underwood Science, ... bold proposal: the creation of a National Brain Observatory, a network of neurotechnology ...

  7. Space

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma Ray Observatory has begun formal...

  8. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Informatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory by Kathy Chambers on Thu, Apr 30, 2015 ... in March 2015 as the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma- Ray Observatory ...

  9. The properties of cross-correlation and spectra of the low-mass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Affiliations Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China) Particle Astrophysics Center, Institute...

  10. High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observatory () | Data Explorer High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory Title: High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory in Mendoza, Argentina is the result of an international collaboration funded by 15 countries and many different organizations. Its mission is to capture high-energy cosmic ray events or air showers for research into their origin and nature. The Pierre Auger

  11. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Data From Pico Observatory Now Part of Value-Added Product Bookmark and Share Day with <em>moderate</em> aerosol loading (22 June 2010): AOD at five wavelengths (top) and Angstrom exponent (bottom) at the Pico Observatory site. Day with moderate aerosol loading (22 June 2010): AOD at five wavelengths (top) and Angstrom exponent (bottom) at the Pico Observatory site. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements have been provided for the Above-Cloud Radiation Budget field campaign

  12. Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observatory data (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics Observatory data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics Observatory data Authors: Trabert, E ; Beiersdorfer, P Publication Date: 2014-08-26 OSTI Identifier: 1228006 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-659433 DOE Contract Number: AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal

  13. Energy Department Announces Up to $31 Million for Initial Phases of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems Field Observatory | Department of Energy Up to $31 Million for Initial Phases of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Field Observatory Energy Department Announces Up to $31 Million for Initial Phases of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Field Observatory July 17, 2014 - 4:25pm Addthis News Media Contact (202)586-4940 As part of the Administration's all-of-the-above energy strategy, the Energy Department today announced up to $31 million to establish the initial phases of the

  14. LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, November 24, 2008-A Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    observatory fingers cosmic ray 'hot spots' November 24, 2008 Milagro Observatory unveils something never before seen from Earth LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, November 24, 2008-A Los Alamos National Laboratory cosmic-ray observatory has seen for the first time two distinct hot spots that appear to be bombarding Earth with an excess of cosmic rays. The research calls into question nearly a century of understanding about galactic magnetic fields near our solar system. Joining an international team of

  15. A New Proposal to the High Intensity Gamma-Ray Source (HIS) PAC...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VA 22801, USA C. Travaglio INAF - Astronomical Observatory Turin, Italy and B2FH - Association - Turin, Italy October 19 th , 2012 2 1. Experiment Summary The proposed research ...

  16. Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign, Phase II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From August to October 2009, a team of researchers from the United States and Italy are ... of Applied Physics) in Florence, Italy * Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory ...

  17. Lossy compression of weak lensing data (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Lossy compression of weak lensing data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lossy compression of weak lensing data Future orbiting observatories will survey...

  18. NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth Observatory - Pallisades NY, Consortium for Ocean Leadership - Washington DC, Cameron Test and Training Facility - Cameron TX, UT - Office space - Austin TX FETDICOil...

  19. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blue, violet or ultraviolet cone. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory in western Argentina, in operation since 2004, uses similar surface detector tanks to catch cosmic rays,...

  20. FORGE Home | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    FORGE Home The Energy Department envisions Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) as a dedicated site where scientists and engineers will be able to...

  1. Sandia Energy Geothermal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wable-energy-official-visits-sandiafeed 0 Sandia's Frontier Observatory for Research In Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Phase 1 Proposals Were Both Successful http:energy.sandia.gov...

  2. Prospects for Relic Neutrino Detection at PTOLEMY: Princeton...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Prospects for Relic Neutrino Detection at PTOLEMY: Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early-Universe, Massive-Neutrino Yield Prospects for Relic Neutrino Detection at...

  3. Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics Observatory data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar...

  4. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fryer Christopher L Los Alamos National Laboratory Hughes John P Rutgers University Smith Randall K Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Badenes Carles University of...

  5. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Christopher L. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hughes, John P. Rutgers University; Smith, Randall K. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; Badenes, Carles University of...

  6. Muon fluxes and showers from dark matter annihilation in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Erkoca, Arif Emre 1 ; Gelmini, Graciela 2 ; Reno, Mary Hall 3 ; Sarcevic, Ina 1 ; Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, ...

  7. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Transport Capability at SC07 111207 Auger Observatory closes in on long-standing mystery, links highest-energy cosmic rays with violent black holes 110807 Fermilab...

  8. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 -inch plates, 1 field of view) Orion Nebula, Feb 26, 1883 (60-minute exposure) Etienne Trouvelot, 1876 Henry Draper, 1882 Edward Crossley, Bermerside Observatory,...

  9. Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observatory (HALO) aircraft developed and operated by L3-Aeromet. Personnel from Johns Hopkins University and L3- Aeromet simultaneously operated ground-based instruments from...

  10. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a history that extends from 1984. The program started with the Lick Observatory Adaptive Optics system and has ...

  11. THE TRANSITION REGION RESPONSE TO A CORONAL NANOFLARE: FORWARD...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (AR) made by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. ... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD 20771 ...

  12. Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics Observatory data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar ...

  13. Name of National Lab

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    project successes EGS R&D FOA Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal ... Localized manipulation of subsurface stress Risk assessment Physicochemical rock physics, ...

  14. Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2016 Budget At-A-Glance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    overcome technical obstacles and mitigate risk. Address Market Barriers by solving ... flagship initiative, the revolutionary Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal ...

  15. Geothermal Technologies Office At-A-Glance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    overcome technical obstacles and mitigate risk. Address Market Barriers by solving ... fagship initiative, the revolutionary Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal ...

  16. Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2015 Budget At-A-Glance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    program will begin the next phase of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal ... analysis and mapping assesses exploration risk and the probability of finding new ...

  17. Name of National Lab

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Geothermal Opportunities * Lowered risk and cost * New prospecting workflow"Play Fairway" Accelerate a Commercial Pathway to EGS * Frontier Observatory for Research in ...

  18. Energy Department Announces Up to $31 Million for Initial Phases...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to establish the initial phases of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal ... These significant advances will reduce industry risk and ultimately facilitate deployment ...

  19. Digital Data Management Plans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy physics through experiments that strengthen our fundamental understanding of matter, energy, space, and time. Plans HAWC gamma-Ray Observatory Data Management Plan (pdf)...

  20. Using NERSC Systems, Physicists Close In on a Rare-Particle Decay...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observatory experiment (EXO-200) has placed the most stringent constraints yet on the nature of a process called neutrinoless double beta decay. In doing so, the physicists have...

  1. Microsoft Word - TPL-007-1 Review_LANL_2015_09_14.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    monograph, Washington, DC, 1980. 10 The Dst index is the average value of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field measured at four geomagnetic observatories near...

  2. Public Events and Activities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Research Council Joint Committee Meeting: Critical Issues in the Subsurface: Using Field Observatories and Data to Advance Understanding of Rock Behavior - October 23, ...

  3. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We focused on the emission of iron, carbon, and other elements in several spectral band pass regions covered by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. ...

  4. LSST ISSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Telescope http:www.lsst.org 8.4-meter diameter primary mirror 10 square degrees Hello (design, construction, and operations of telescope, observatory, and data system:...

  5. THE RECENT STAR FORMATION IN NGC 6822: AN ULTRAVIOLET STUDY ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CA 91125 (United States) Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, BP 8, Traverse du Siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France) Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of...

  6. EVIDENCE FOR AN FU ORIONIS-LIKE OUTBURST FROM A CLASSICAL T TAURI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, M5S 3H4 Ontario (Canada) Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,...

  7. ARM - Events Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fixed, mobile, and aerial observatories, ARM provides the global science community with free data about clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiative energy. Highlights for the...

  8. Picture of the Week: A powerful cosmic particle accelerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    astrophysical systems such as pulsar wind nebulae and relativistic jets from supermassive black holes detected by the LANL-led High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory....

  9. Constraints On The Mechanism Of Long-Term, Steady Subsidence...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of an array of continuous GPS stations as part of a Plate Boundary Observatory volcano cluster will help to refine this model. Authors Michael Poland, Roland Burgmann, Daniel...

  10. FORGING THE FUTURE STAY CONNECTED: In This Issue Electricity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oregon, and determine the site's suitability as an observatory site for enhanced geothermal systems. Read more... Environmental Health and Remediation PNNL Shares Nuclear...

  11. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Astrophysical Observatory, NASA's Langley Research Center, and the Istituto di Fisica Applicata in Italy. Each organization is providing a different type of spectrometer...

  12. Alamos National Laboratory] 71; ANISOTROPY; CHERENKOV COUNTERS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory 71; ANISOTROPY; CHERENKOV COUNTERS; COSMIC RADIATION; EMISSION; ENERGY; MODULATION; PHYSICS; TIME DEPENDENCE; WATER The Milagro gamma-ray observatory is a...

  13. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    26, 2013 Facility News, Feature Stories and Releases Climate Data Now Flowing from Oliktok, Alaska Bookmark and Share New climate observatory records atmospheric measurements at...

  14. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    array profiling has been acquired over the east flank of the Coso geothermal system, CA, USA. Due to production related electromagnetic (EM) noise the permanent observatory at...

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - lindenbery_armstmeet04.html

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Meeting 2004 Lindenberg Observatory GERMANY Dirk.Engelbart@dwd.de From Weather Kites From Weather Kites to to Windprofilers Windprofilers : : A A Century Century of of...

  16. DISCLAIMER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Science (CIRES) at the University of Colorado. 2.0 Timeline and Deployment History SGP: April 1996-present NSA: (NOAA BRW Observatory) 1998-present AMF: * PYE:...

  17. Testimony of Secretary Ernest Moniz U.S. Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... In addition to climate modeling, the Department supports a multi-platform, multi-site system of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement observatories around the globe, with one permanent ...

  18. Facilities | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility provides the climate research community with strategically located, in situ, and remote sensing observatories. ...

  19. U.S. and Portugal Sign Agreement for Climate Research Collaboration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The portable observatory, or Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility, is part of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ARM Climate Research Facility, a collection of ...

  20. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Weakly Interacting Massive Particles that could make up most of the matter of our universe BATAVIA, Ill.- With the first data from their underground observatory in Northern...

  1. DE-FC26-06NT42877 - DE-FC26-02NT41628 - DE-FC26-00NT40920 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrates Sea-floor Observatory Project Last Reviewed 12/18/2013 DE-FE26-06NT42877, DE-FC26-02NT41628, and DE-FC26-00NT40920 Goal The goal of this project is to conduct activities leading to the development, implementation, and operation of a remote, multi-sensor seafloor observatory focused on behavior of the marine hydrocarbon system within the gas hydrate stability zone of the deepwater Gulf of Mexico and analysis of data resultant from that observatory over time. Attaining

  2. LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Aug. 21, 2013-The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico August 21, 2013 New site to observe supernovas and supermassive black holes LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Aug. 21, 2013-The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma Ray Observatory has begun formal operations at its site in Mexico. HAWC is designed to study the origin of very high-energy cosmic rays and observe the most energetic objects in the known universe. This extraordinary observatory, using a unique

  3. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We study the populations of X ray sources in the Milky Way in the keV band using a deep survey with the BAT instrument aboard the Swift observatory We present the logN logS...

  4. CX-000608: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Reaching for the Stars - California State University San Bernardino Observatory ProjectCX(s) Applied: B1.15Date: 01/27/2010Location(s): CaliforniaOffice(s): Science, Chicago Office

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - keahey-salishan [Compatibility Mode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3,500 3,000 0.5 1 30 60 98 196 294 454 Solexa Next gen Solexa GB From Folker Meyer, "The M5 Platform" Ocean Observatory Initiative CI: Linking the marine infrastructure...

  6. DETECTION OF SUPERSONIC DOWNFLOWS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING EVENTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States) High Altitude ObservatoryNCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO...

  7. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4 $\\times$ 10$^...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4 times 1018 eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory Citation Details In-Document...

  8. A FILAMENT ERUPTION ON 2010 OCTOBER 21 FROM THREE VIEWPOINTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippov, Boris

    2013-08-10

    A filament eruption on 2010 October 21 observed from three different viewpoints by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and the Solar Dynamic Observatory is analyzed by also invoking data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and the Kanzelhoehe Solar Observatory. The position of the filament just before the eruption at the central meridian not far from the center of the solar disk was favorable for photospheric magnetic field measurements in the area below the filament. Because of this, we were able to calculate with high precision the distribution of the coronal potential magnetic field near the filament. We found that the filament began to erupt when it approached the height in the corona where the magnetic field decay index was greater than 1. We also determined that during the initial stage of the eruption the filament moved along the magnetic neutral surface.

  9. R and D ekes out an increase in FY 2015 budget request

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2014-05-01

    With spending caps in place, President Obama proposes an off-budget fund to support additional R and D. NASA would ground a flying observatory, and DOE would sharply curtail its nonproliferation programs.

  10. Digital Data Management Plans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Digital Data Management Plans Digital Data Management Plans Investigating the field of high energy physics through experiments that strengthen our fundamental understanding of matter, energy, space, and time. Plans HAWC gamma-Ray Observatory Data Management Plan (pdf)

  11. Closest Type Ia Supernova in Decades Solves a Cosmic Mystery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    observations of SN 2011fe were carried out at the Liverpool Telescope at La Palma in the Canary Islands, followed within hours by the Shane Telescope at Lick Observatory in...

  12. Recent News from the National Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Energy Department has you covered. August 21, 2014 Stars above the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile where the DECam is located. | Photo courtesy of Reidar...

  13. Observation of two new L4 Neptune Trojans in the Dark Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4-meter Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory. Both are in high-inclination orbits (18.8 and 19.4...

  14. Los Alamos technologies help scientists detect, record & interpret...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Mullard Space Sciences Laboratory in the United Kingdom; Brera Observatory and the Italian Space Agency in Italy; plus partners in Germany and Japan. See more about the RAPTOR...

  15. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ENERGY MODULATION PHYSICS TIME DEPENDENCE WATER The Milagro gamma ray observatory is a water Cherenkov detector with an energy response between GeV and TeV While the major...

  16. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MODULATION; PHYSICS; TIME DEPENDENCE; WATER",,"The Milagro gamma-ray observatory is a water Cherenkov detector with an energy response between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. While the...

  17. Science Magazine Articles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Magazine Articles "Second Bid for Brain Observatory," by Emily Underwood Science, 350, 6259, 365-366 (Oct. 23, 2015) (DOI: 10.1126science.350.6259.365 ) Summary Reprint...

  18. Geo-neutrino Observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-12-17

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  19. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    captures first image April 30, 2013 An international team of researchers, including scientists from Los Alamos, has taken the first image of the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory, or HAWC. The facility is designed to detect cosmic rays and the highest energy gamma rays ever observed from astrophysical sources. HAWC is under construction inside the Parque Nacional Pico de Orizaba, a Mexican national park. Although only 10 percent of the observatory is constructed, the team has made its

  20. Quarterly Progress Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quarterly Progress Reports Quarterly Progress Reports Investigating the field of high energy physics through experiments that strengthen our fundamental understanding of matter, energy, space, and time. 1QFY16 Progress Reports Accelerator R&D (pdf) CAPTAIN LAr Detector (pdf) HAWC y-Ray Observatory (pdf) Short Baseline Neutrino Oscillations (pdf) Theoretical Physics 4QFY15 Progress Reports Accelerator R&D (pdf) CAPTAIN LAr Detector (pdf) HAWC y-Ray Observatory (pdf) Short Baseline

  1. April

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April /newsroom/_assets/images/newsroom-icon.jpg April We are your source for reliable, up-to-date news and information; our scientists and engineers can provide technical insights on our innovations for a secure nation. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is under construction. HAWC Observatory captures first image The facility is designed to detect cosmic rays and the highest energy gamma rays ever observed from astrophysical sources. - 4/30/13 Lightning. Lightning strokes can

  2. Picture of the Week: Gamma-ray bursts, infographic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma-ray bursts: infographic Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful explosions in the universe. With the help of sophisticated instruments such as the ground based RAPTOR robotic observatory system in New Mexico and the High Altitude Water Chernekov (HAWC) Gamma Ray Observatory in Mexico, scientists at Los Alamos National Lab and around the world are working to understand the ongoing mysteries relating to their physics and origins. Gamma Ray Bursts Click the image to see a larger view.

  3. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characterizing Clouds at Arctic Atmospheric Observatories Download a printable PDF Submitter: Shupe, M., University of Colorado Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Shupe MD, VP Walden, E Eloranta, T Uttal, JR Campbell, SM Starkweather, and M Shiobara. 2011. "Clouds at Arctic atmospheric observatories, part I: occurrence and macrophysical properties." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 50(3), 626-644.

  4. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Speeding access to science information from DOE and Beyond HAWC; LANL; Los Alamos National Laboratory Topic High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory by Kathy Chambers 30 Apr, 2015 in In the OSTI Collections Image credit: HAWC Image credit: HAWCCheers of celebration erupted in March 2015 as the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma- Ray Observatory was formally inaugurated on the slopes of the Sierra Negra volcano in the State of Puebla, Mexico. The inaugural ceremony marked

  5. One ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols One ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols July 25, 2012 - 5:49pm Addthis This observatory is part of an air particles research initiative at Cape Cod National Seashore in Massachusetts, and includes dozens of sophisticated instruments that take continuous ground-based measurements of clouds, aerosols, and other atmospheric properties. | Photo courtesy of the ARM Climate Research Facility. This observatory is part of an air particles research

  6. ogren-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Enhanced Aerosol Measurements at NOAA's Baseline Observatory at Barrow, Alaska J. A. Ogren NOAA-Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction As a result of collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) aerosol measurement system at the Barrow, Alaska, observatory was modernized and upgraded in September 1997. The original four-wavelength

  7. 88-Inch Cyclotron Contributions to Space Exploration - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    88-Inch Cyclotron Contributions to Space Exploration Space missions and vehicles with electronic parts or materials tested at the 88-Inch Cyclotron BASE Facility: Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Solar Probe Plus Genesis (Solar Wind Sample Return) Messenger (Mercury) Pioneer Venus Van Allen Probes IMAGE/Explorer 78 Landsat Global Positioning System (GPS) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mars Pathfinder Mars Polar Lander Mars Climate Orbiter Mars

  8. FORGE Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FORGE Home The Energy Department envisions Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) as a dedicated site where scientists and engineers will be able to develop, test, and accelerate breakthroughs in enhanced geothermal system (EGS) technologies and techniques. The Energy Department envisions Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) as a dedicated site where scientists and engineers will be able to develop, test, and accelerate breakthroughs in enhanced

  9. Studies of High Energy Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitz, David F; Fick, Brian E

    2014-07-30

    This report covers the progress of the Michigan Technological University particle astrophysics group during the period April 15th, 2011 through April 30th, 2014. The principal investigator is Professor David Nitz. Professor Brian Fick is the Co-PI. The focus of the group is the study of the highest energy cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory. The major goals of the Pierre Auger Observatory are to discover and understand the source or sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10**19 eV, to identify the particle type(s), and to investigate the interactions of those cosmic particles both in space and in the Earth's atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina was completed in June 2008 with 1660 surface detector stations and 24 fluorescence telescopes arranged in 4 stations. It has a collecting area of 3,000 square km, yielding an aperture of 7,000 km**2 sr.

  10. High-Powered Dark Energy Camera Can See Billions of Light Years Away |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Powered Dark Energy Camera Can See Billions of Light Years Away High-Powered Dark Energy Camera Can See Billions of Light Years Away August 21, 2014 - 10:19am Addthis Stars above the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile where the DECam is located. | Photo courtesy of Reidar Hahn at Fermilab. Stars above the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile where the DECam is located. | Photo courtesy of Reidar Hahn at Fermilab. Allison Lantero Allison Lantero

  11. Geek-Up[12.23.2010]: Muons at the South Pole and Dr. Nick Holoynak |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy 23.2010]: Muons at the South Pole and Dr. Nick Holoynak Geek-Up[12.23.2010]: Muons at the South Pole and Dr. Nick Holoynak December 23, 2010 - 12:05pm Addthis Illustration of the IceCube neutrino observatory. Source: LBNL Illustration of the IceCube neutrino observatory. Source: LBNL Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Earlier today, the Energy Blog featured Los Alamos National Lab's system to track Santa. However, while there is

  12. New Galaxy-Hunting Sky Camera Sees Redder Better | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Galaxy-Hunting Sky Camera Sees Redder Better New Galaxy-Hunting Sky Camera Sees Redder Better March 9, 2016 - 11:00am Addthis Star trails take shape around Kitt Peak National Observatory in this long-exposure image. The 4-meter Mayall telescope building, at right, now houses Mosaic-3, a new infrared camera built by a collaboration that includes Berkeley Lab scientists. | Photo credit: P. Marenfeld and NOAO/AURA/NSF. Star trails take shape around Kitt Peak National Observatory in this

  13. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  14. Windows beyond the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernabei, R.

    2007-10-12

    DAMA is an observatory for rare processes at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the I.N.F.N. (LNGS). Here some arguments will be shortly summarised on the investigation on dark matter (DM) particles by annual modulation signature and on some of the performed searches for double beta decay modes.

  15. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya; Graham, David

    2013-12-08

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  16. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya

    2014-03-24

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  17. Swift-BAT Survey of Galactic Sources: Catalog and Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study the populations of X-ray sources in the Milky Way in the 15-55 keV band using a deep survey with the BAT instrument aboard the Swift observatory. We present the logN-logS...

  18. Populations Voss, R.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Ajello...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study the populations of X-ray sources in the Milky Way in the 15-55 keV band using a deep survey with the BAT instrument aboard the Swift observatory. We present the logN-logS...

  19. Road Tripping through the Geothermal Frontier

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    After more than a year since the announcement of available funding, the project teams for our Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) each hosted our geothermal experts at their candidate sites this fall. Were calling it our road trip through the geothermal frontier.

  20. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  1. Road Tripping through the Geothermal Frontier

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    And they’re off! After more than a year since the announcement of available funding, the project teams selected for our Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) each hosted our geothermal experts at their candidate sites this fall. We’re calling it our road trip through the geothermal frontier.

  2. IMAGING COMET ISON C/2012 S1 IN THE INNER CORONA AT PERIHELION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Druckmller, Miloslav; Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Aniol, Peter; Ding, Adalbert; Morgan, Huw

    2014-04-01

    Much anticipation and speculation were building around comet ISON, or C/2012 S1, discovered on 2012 September 21 by the International Scientific Optical Network telescope in Russia, and bound for the Sun on 2013 November 28, with a closest heliocentric approach distance of 2.7 R {sub ?}. Here we present the first white light image of the comet's trail through the inner corona. The image was taken with a wide field Lyot-type coronagraph from the Mees Observatory on Haleakala at 19:12 UT, past its perihelion passage at 18:45 UT. The perfect match between the comet's trail captured in the inner corona and the trail that had persisted across the field of view of 2-6 R {sub ?} of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment/C2 coronagraph at 19:12 UT demonstrates that the comet survived its perihelion passage.

  3. USING CORONAL CELLS TO INFER THE MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE AND CHIRALITY OF FILAMENT CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheeley, N. R. Jr.; Warren, H. P.; Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.

    2013-08-01

    Coronal cells are visible at temperatures of {approx}1.2 MK in Fe XII coronal images obtained from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft. We show that near a filament channel, the plumelike tails of these cells bend horizontally in opposite directions on the two sides of the channel like fibrils in the chromosphere. Because the cells are rooted in magnetic flux concentrations of majority polarity, these observations can be used with photospheric magnetograms to infer the direction of the horizontal field in filament channels and the chirality of the associated magnetic field. This method is similar to the procedure for inferring the direction of the magnetic field and the chirality of the fibril pattern in filament channels from H{alpha} observations. However, the coronal cell observations are easier to use and provide clear inferences of the horizontal field direction for heights up to {approx}50 Mm into the corona.

  4. The dynamic character of the polar solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H.-S.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P. E-mail: hsyu@ucsd.edu E-mail: pphick@ucsd.edu

    2014-09-20

    The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph C2 and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) COR2A coronagraph images, when analyzed using correlation tracking techniques, show a surprising result in places ordinarily thought of as 'quiet' solar wind above the poles in coronal hole regions. Instead of the static well-ordered flow and gradual acceleration normally expected, coronagraph images show outflow in polar coronal holes consisting of a mixture of intermittent slow and fast patches of material. We compare measurements of this highly variable solar wind from C2 and COR2A images and show that both coronagraphs measure essentially the same structures. Measurements of the mean velocity as a function of height of these structures are compared with mass flux determinations of the solar wind outflow in the large polar coronal hole regions and give similar results.

  5. Science & Technology - 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Science & Technology - 2014 July International Team Conducts First Collisionless Shock Experiment on NIF The first NIF Discovery Science experiment designed to create and study fully formed collisionless shocks, such as those responsible for the properties of many astrophysical phenomena including supernova remnants, gamma-ray bursts, jets from active galactic nuclei, and cosmic ray acceleration, was performed on July 29. Tycho Supernova Chandra X-ray Observatory photo of the Tycho

  6. Analysis of High Precision GPS Time Series and Strain Rates for the Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of Washington State Prospects Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-22

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time series from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earthscopes Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Central Washington Universitys Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA). GPS station velocities were used to infer strain rates using the splines in tension method. Strain rates were derived separately for subduction zone locking at depth and block rotation near the surface within crustal block boundaries.

  7. SSRL HEADLINES Mar 2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 March, 2007 __________________________________________________________________________ Contents of this Issue: Science Highlight - Taming a Potent Toxin Science Highlight - Ancient Warriors and the Origin of Chinese Purple Stanford-Caltech Collaboration Creates New X-ray "Molecular Observatory" Rapid Access Beam Time for SMB XAS BL7-3 SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering: Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences 2007 Ultrafast Summer School - June 18-22 SMB XAS Short Course

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: A new era of astronomy begins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A new era of astronomy begins By Mike Desjarlais Thursday, March 03, 2016 Detection of gravitational waves called one of the century's great science breakthroughs Mike Desjarlais is a Sandia Senior Scientist and Fellow of the American Physical Society. Note: When the news broke that scientists at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory had for the first time detected gravitational waves emanating from the collision of two blacks holes, we asked Sandia Senior Scientist and Fellow

  9. August 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 2014 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues » submit IN THIS ISSUE Articles Tracking Transients Never miss a burst with thinking-telescope eyes always on the skies Running Low The critical effort to preserve helium-3, a nuclear endangered species Sampling Sky Deploying global observatories to improve climate models Critical Subcriticals Nuclear weapons science without all the death and destruction Spotlights Heat flow Stop and Go

  10. PPPL physicists find clue to formation of magnetic fields around stars and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    galaxies | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab physicists find clue to formation of magnetic fields around stars and galaxies By Raphael Rosen November 6, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook An image of coronal loops on the sun that are linked to magnetic fields (Photo by NASA/Solar Dynamics Observatory) An image of coronal loops on the sun that are linked to magnetic fields An enduring astronomical mystery is how stars and galaxies acquire their magnetic fields. Physicists Jonathan

  11. PPPL physicists find clue to formation of magnetic fields around stars and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    galaxies | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab physicists find clue to formation of magnetic fields around stars and galaxies By Raphael Rosen November 6, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook An image of coronal loops on the sun that are linked to magnetic fields (Photo by NASA/Solar Dynamics Observatory) An image of coronal loops on the sun that are linked to magnetic fields An enduring astronomical mystery is how stars and galaxies acquire their magnetic fields. Physicists Jonathan

  12. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    West Antarctic Radiation Experiment of the most advanced atmospheric research instrumentation for cloud, radiative, and aerosol observations. From the fall of 2015 to early 2017, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) will gather data from McMurdo Station at the southern tip of Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf. Using a portable observatory ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), researchers will be measuring clouds, aerosols, and energy coming from the sun and

  13. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton physicists share in excitement of gravitational waves Einstein predicted Click on an image below to view the high resolution image. Then right click on the image and select "Save Image" or "Save Image As..." The collision of two black holes - an event detected for the first time ever by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO - is seen in this still from a computer simulation. (Image by SXS)

  14. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 31, 2008 [Facility News] Phase 2 of Orbiting Carbon Observatory Field Campaign Begins Bookmark and Share A camera, weather station, and sun tracker with a protective dome are located on the roof of the fully automated FTS mobile laboratory. Inside the shelter, the spectrometer receives the reflected solar beam from the sun tracker, while the main computer system operates all the instruments and acquires the data. A camera, weather station, and sun tracker with a protective dome are

  15. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 15, 2006 [Facility News] TWP Site Hosts Preliminary Study for Long Term Measurements of Greenhouse Gases Bookmark and Share To validate the space-based carbon dioxide retrievals by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) through comparative carbon dioxide measurements, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific site in Darwin, Australia, is hosting a ground-based solar-viewing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) mobile laboratory, sponsored by the OCO Science Team. Between January 15 and February 7,

  16. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analytical Model of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties with Account for Hygroscopic Growth Khvorostyanov, V.I., Central Aerological Observatory; Curry, J.A., University of Colorado Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting A microphysical model of aerosol size spectra that includes hygroscopic growth is presented. In the presence of atmospheric humidity, an aerosol size spectrum of the Junge-type transforms into a superposition of two equilibrium power law

  17. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interaction: A Comparison of GCM Results versus Surface Observations Liepert, B.G., Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University; Lohmann, U., Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada Ninth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The change in cloud properties due to increased anthropogenic emissions of aerosols and their precursor gases is referred to as "indirect aerosol effect." Estimates with general circulation models (GCMs)

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Thermal Regime Induced by Aerosol as Measured by MTP-5 Koldaev, A.V.(a), Kadygrov, E.N.(a), Khaikine, M.N.(a), Kuznetsova, I.N.(b), and Golitsyn, G.S.(c), Central Aerological Observatory (a), Hydrometeorological Center (b), A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Science (c) Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Change in atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) radiation balance as caused by natural and

  19. Analysis of High Precision GPS Time Series and Strain Rates for the Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of Washington State Prospects Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-22

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time series from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earthscope’s Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Central Washington University’s Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA). GPS station velocities were used to infer strain rates using the ‘splines in tension’ method. Strain rates were derived separately for subduction zone locking at depth and block rotation near the surface within crustal block boundaries.

  20. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-INL-15-036.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 SECTION A. Project Title: Lab A19 Cleanroom Construction SECTION B. Project Description: The international Neutrino Ettore Majorana Observatory (NEMO) collaboration of scientists is studying the process of nuclear double- beta decay to study the properties of the neutrino. Double-beta decay half-lives are the order of 1E20 years, or longer, and very sensitive measurements are conducted underground to shield against cosmic rays and with ultrapure materials, including mass- separated isotopes.

  1. Development of Cryogenic Bolometer for 0{nu}{beta}{beta} in {sup 124}Sn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Vivek; Mathimalar, S.; Dokania, Neha [INO, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Yashwant, G.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G. [Dept. of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Datar, V. M. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-11-23

    Cryogenic bolometer detectors, with their high resolution spectroscopy capability, are ideal for neutrino mass experiments as well as for search of rare processes like neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) and dark matter. A feasibility study for investigation of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} in {sup 124}Sn at the upcoming underground facility of India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) has been initiated. This paper describes endeavors towards cryogenic tin bolometer development.

  2. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Biotechnology --

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy, science, and technology for the research community -- hosted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy Q R S T U V W X Y Z Pagani, Mark (Mark Pagani) - Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University Pahnke, Katharina (Katharina Pahnke) - Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University Palmer, Paul (Paul Palmer) - School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh Palmer, Robert D. (Robert D. Palmer) - Atmospheric Radar Research Center

  3. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Biotechnology --

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy, science, and technology for the research community -- hosted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy V W X Y Z Uitz, Julia (Julia Uitz) - Marine Optics and Remote Sensing Lab,, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche Ulich, Thomas (Thomas Ulich) - Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu Ullrich, Paul (Paul Ullrich) - Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis Ulrych, Tadeusz J. (Tadeusz J.

  4. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Biotechnology --

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy, science, and technology for the research community -- hosted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy Y Z Xiao, Jingfeng (Jingfeng Xiao) - Complex Systems Research Center, University of New Hampshire Xie, Jiakang "Jack" (Jiakang "Jack" Xie) - Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University Xie, Shang-Ping (Shang-Ping Xie) - International Pacific Research Center, School of Earth and Ocean Science and Technology,

  5. Astrophysical Accelerators of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Astrophysical Accelerators of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Astrophysical Accelerators of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays We discuss the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in light of the latest observational results from the Pierre Auger Observatory, highlighting potential astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and clusters of galaxies. Key issues include their energy budget, the

  6. About FORGE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About FORGE About FORGE Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) FORGE's mission is to enable cutting-edge research and drilling and technology testing, as well as to allow scientists to identify a replicable, commercial pathway to EGS. In addition to the site itself, the FORGE effort will include a robust instrumentation, data collection, and data dissemination component to capture and share data and activities occurring at FORGE in real time. The innovative research,

  7. Princeton physicists share in excitement of gravitational waves Einstein

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predicted | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Princeton physicists share in excitement of gravitational waves Einstein predicted By Catherine Zandonella, Office of the Dean for Research February 12, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The collision of two black holes - an event detected for the first time ever by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO - is seen in this still from a computer simulation. (Image by SXS) The collision of two black holes - an

  8. Princeton physicists share in excitement of gravitational waves Einstein

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predicted | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Princeton physicists share in excitement of gravitational waves Einstein predicted By Catherine andonella, Office of the Dean for Research February 12, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The collision of two black holes - an event detected for the first time ever by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO - is seen in this still from a computer simulation. (Image by SXS) The collision of two black holes - an

  9. kadygrov(2)-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characteristics of the Low-Level Temperature Inversion at the North Slope of Alaska on the Base of Microwave Remote Sensing Data E. N. Kadygrov and A. S. Viazankin Central Aerological Observatory Russia E. R. Westwater University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado K. B. Widener Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The structure of the Polar atmosphere has been of interest to scientists since 1906. The presence of the stable planetary boundary layer (PBL) is related

  10. kadygrov-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potential Performance of Boundary Layer Temperature Profile Microwave Remote Sensing: Results of Field Testing at Various Latitude Zones E. N. Kadygrov and K. P. Gaikovich Central Aerological Observatory Russia E. R. Westwater and Y. Han Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado NOAA-Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado K. B. Widener Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Remote sensing of low-altitude

  11. kadygrov-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Method and Research System for Remote Measurements of Turbulence Characteristics for the Purposes of Improving PBL Modeling E. N. Kadygrov, A. V. Toitsky, and A. S. Viazankin Central Aerological Observatory Russia Introduction The thermal microwave emission of the atmosphere in the molecular oxygen absorption band centre at 60 GHz (5 mm) is forming in the skin depth about 300 m and its intensity depends on only the temperature of this layer (Gajkovich et al. 1993; Khaikin et al. 1996; Kadygrov

  12. koldaev-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Remote Sensing of Average Liquid Water Content Layer Height in Winter Clouds A. V. Koldaev, E. N. Kadygrov, and A. V. Troitsky Central Aerological Observatory Moscow, Russia J. W. Strapp Atmospheric Environment Service of Canada Ottawa, Canada Introduction The importance of cloud liquid water in the radiation balance does not need to be proven. The main parameters that influence the optical properties of clouds are: total amount of the liquid water in the vertical column-liquid water path

  13. Fermilab | Science | Questions for the Universe | The Particle World | What

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory? someday shed light on dark matter: Large Hadron Collider, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Fermilab, Batavia, IL VERITAS, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Amado, Arizona Xenon 10, Gran Sasso, Italy COUPP, Fermilab, Batavia, IL ZEPLIN II Cryogenic Dark Matter Search GLAST International Linear Collider (proposed) Further reading courtesy of Symmetry magazine Explain it in 60 Seconds: Dark Matter Listening for Whispers

  14. Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs The RAPTOR system is a network of small robotic observatories that scan the skies for optical anomalies such as flashes emanating from a star in its death throes as it collapses and becomes a black hole. November 21, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory astrophysicist Tom Vestrand poses with a telescope array that is part of the RAPTOR (RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response) system. RAPTOR is an intelligent

  15. Experimental Highlights - 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July International Team Conducts First Collisionless Shock Experiment on NIF The first NIF Discovery Science experiment designed to create and study fully formed collisionless shocks, such as those responsible for the properties of many astrophysical phenomena including supernova remnants, gamma-ray bursts, Tycho Supernova Chandra X-ray Observatory photo of the Tycho supernova remnant discovered by astronomer Tycho Brahe in 1572. The supersonic expansion of the exploded star produced a shock

  16. Name of National Lab

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Technologies Office Eric Hass, Hydrothermal Program Manager TAS Energy GRC NREL Ted Clutter Ted Clutter Elisabet Metcalfe GTO Major Initiatives New Geothermal Opportunities * "Play Fairway" FOA * Pathway to next-step drilling validation Accelerate EGS * Build upon R&D and demonstration * project successes * EGS R&D FOA * Frontier Observatory for Research in * Geothermal Energy (FORGE) FOA kicked off Tackle Deployment Barriers * Regulatory Roadmap: Streamlining *

  17. "Coordinated Solar Energetic Events", Professor Alan M. Title, Lockheed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Martin Advance Technology Center/Stanford University | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab September 19, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia "Coordinated Solar Energetic Events", Professor Alan M. Title, Lockheed Martin Advance Technology Center/Stanford University The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamic Observatory with obtains full disk images that span the temperature range from 6000 to 20,000,000K with arcsecond resolution and a 12 second cadence. Because of the enhanced

  18. Inorganic Carbon Isotopes and Chemical Characterization of Watershed Drainages, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy J.; Newman, Brent D.; Heikoop, Jeffrey H.; Throckmorton, Heather M.

    2015-09-25

    Data include results from geochemical and isotopic analyses for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska during July and September 2013. Samples were soil pore waters from 17 drainages that could be interlake (basins with polygonal terrain), different-aged drain thaw lake basins (young, medium, old, or ancient), or a combination of the two. Samples taken in different drainage flow types at three different depths at each location in and around the Barrow Environmental Observatory. This dataset used in Throckmorton, et.al. 2015.

  19. EXO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The EXO Project The Enriched Xenon Observatory 200, or EXO-200, is designed to look for an ultra-rare phenomenon that could reveal key secrets about the nature of the neutrino. Neutrinos - meaning "small neutral ones" - are subatomic particles lacking an electric charge. Double beta decay is the radioactive decay of the nucleus of an atom - such as xenon. Typically, two electrons or positrons (beta particles) and two antineutrinos -- are emitted from the nucleus when two neutrons

  20. Economic Development Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tri Cities Tech Business Update This monthly e-mailed update contains news, opportunities, upcoming events, and other information about Mid-Columbia tech businesses and the organizations that support them. Visit the EDO Home page to subscribe to this Newsletter. Browse the archives for back issues. March 2016 Issue LIGO Experiment Detects Gravitational Waves Scientists at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory-or LIGO-on the Hanford Site in Washington State have detected the

  1. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 27, 2008 [Feature Stories and Releases] Argonne National Laboratory Wins Award for Ocean-Going Climate Observatory Bookmark and Share Mobile facility to provide key data about atmosphere/ocean interface for use in climate models. Contact: Lynne Roeder, ARM Public Information Officer, 509.372.4331 The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science has awarded Argonne National Laboratory a $2.6 million/year contract to design, build, and operate a mobile laboratory for obtaining cloud and

  2. Discovery Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery Science Since the beginning of civilization, humans have marveled at the night sky and pondered the vast stretches of the universe. The invention of telescopes in the 17th century revealed the first details of the Moon and the planets in our solar system. Four hundred years later, space-based observatories such as NASA's Hubble and Kepler regularly capture amazing vistas of billions of galaxies millions of light years away. Despite these advances, astronomers have only been able to

  3. Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. Warm African winds combine with the cool sea surface temperatures and form a large stratocumulus deck, transitioning to year-round trade-wind shallow cumulus at the location of Ascension Island. These clouds and myriad aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions will be studied. Using a portable observatory, or ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), that contains some of most advanced atmospheric research instrumentation for cloud,

  4. Kadygrov-EN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Thermodynamics on the Base of Microwave Remote Sensing E. N. Kadygrov, V. E. Kadygrov, A. D. Lykov, E. A. Miller, and A. V. Troitsky Central Aerological Observatory Russia Introduction Temperature profiles through the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are important in studying the energy balance near the ground surface and in validating satellite remote sensing retrievals. For continuous measurement of atmospheric temperature during the last several

  5. Geothermal Energy and FORGE Program Current Outlook

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Technologies Office Current Outlook Courtesy Ben Phillips Geothermal Resource Council Annual Meeting September 2015 2 Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov GTO Major Initiatives EGS HRC SALT Accelerate EGS * Build upon R&D and demonstration project successes * EGS Integrated R&D FOA * Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) FOA kicked off New Geothermal Opportunities * Play Fairway Analysis * Pathway to next-step drilling validation

  6. OSCILLATORY BEHAVIOR IN THE QUIET SUN OBSERVED WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andic, A.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Abramenko, V.; Chae, J.; Ahn, K.

    2010-07-10

    Surface photometry of the quiet Sun has achieved an angular resolution of 0.''1 with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, revealing that a disproportionate fraction of the oscillatory events appear above observed bright point-like structures. During the tracking of these structures, we noted that the more powerful oscillatory events are cospatial with them, indicating that observed flux tubes may be the source of many observed oscillatory events.

  7. Stanford Geothermal Workshop - Geothermal Technologies Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stanford Geothermal Workshop February 11-13, 2013 Doug Hollett, Director Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Desert Peak (Source: Ormat Nevada, Inc) 2 Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov Geothermal Program: Key Goals and Objectives Creating Impact Increased Focus * Identify New Geothermal Opportunities * Lowered risk and cost * New prospecting workflow * EGS R&D and Underground Field Observatory * New techniques and technologies *

  8. FORGE News | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    News FORGE News November 18, 2015 Road Tripping through the Geothermal Frontier April 27, 2015 Energy Department Announces Project Selections in First Phase of Cutting-Edge Enhanced Geothermal Systems Effort July 29, 2014 Energy Department Hosts FORGE Webinar and Resource Reporting Methodology Workshop at the Upcoming National Geothermal Summit, August 4-5 July 17, 2014 The Energy Department Announces up to $31 Million for Initial Phases of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Field Observatory Q&A:

  9. FORGE: The Next Frontier of Renewable Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FORGE: The Next Frontier of Renewable Energy FORGE: The Next Frontier of Renewable Energy May 20, 2015 - 11:56am Addthis FORGE: The Next Frontier of Renewable Energy David Danielson David Danielson Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Douglas Hollett Douglas Hollett Deputy Assistant Secretary for Renewable Power The Energy Department recently announced the teams selected for negotiation for Phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE).

  10. What is FORGE? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    What is FORGE? What is FORGE? The FORGE subsurface laboratory will yield a fully instrumented research site to enable a commercial pathway for EGS technologies. The FORGE subsurface laboratory will yield a fully instrumented research site to enable a commercial pathway for EGS technologies. Our flagship effort over the next five years is the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative - the first dedicated field site of its kind for testing targeted enhanced

  11. Amped Up! Volume 1, No. 3 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Amped Up! Volume 1, No. 3 Amped Up! is a bimonthly newsletter that highlights the initiatives, events, and technologies in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy that influence change. Features in this issue include: Grid Modernization Initiative NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy Initiative 2014 Hydropower Market Report Wind Vision Report Revitalizing American Manufacturing Competitiveness Race to Zero Student

  12. EGS Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EGS Success Stories EGS Success Stories November 18, 2015 Geothermal Well Head, Utah Road Tripping through the Geothermal Frontier And they're off! After more than a year since the announcement of available funding, the project teams selected for our Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) each hosted our geothermal experts at their candidate sites this fall. We're calling it our road trip through the geothermal frontier. June 9, 2015 EGS Success Stories Energy Department

  13. Mechanisms and observations of coronal dimming for the 201 August 7 event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, James Paul; Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Hock, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    Coronal dimming of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission has the potential to be a useful forecaster of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As emitting material leaves the corona, a temporary void is left behind which can be observed in spectral images and irradiance measurements. The velocity and mass of the CMEs should impact the character of those observations. However, other physical processes can confuse the observations. We describe these processes and the expected observational signature, with special emphasis placed on the differences. We then apply this understanding to a coronal dimming event with an associated CME that occurred on 2010 August 7. Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) are used for observations of the dimming, while the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory's COR1 and COR2 are used to obtain velocity and mass estimates for the associated CME. We develop a technique for mitigating temperature effects in coronal dimming from full-disk irradiance measurements taken by EVE. We find that for this event, nearly 100% of the dimming is due to mass loss in the corona.

  14. Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating primordial black holes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; H. A. Ayala Solares; et al

    2015-04-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ~ 5.0 × 10¹⁴ g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV – TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 tomore » 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.« less

  15. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Tom McGee; Carol Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2006-06-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort was made to locate and retain the services of a suitable vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) following the storms and the loss of the contracted vessel, the M/V Ocean Quest and its two submersibles, but these efforts have been fruitless due to the demand for these resources in the tremendous recovery effort being made in the Gulf area. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The seafloor monitoring station/observatory is funded approximately equally by three federal Agencies: Minerals Management Services (MMS) of the Department of the Interior (DOI), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST), an agency of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  16. Clues to the nature of SN 2009ip from photometric and spectroscopic evolution to late times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, M. L. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sand, D. J. [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; Parrent, J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Halford, M.; Zaritsky, D. [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bianco, F. [Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dilday, B., E-mail: melissagraham@berkeley.edu [North Idaho College, 1000 W. Garden Avenue, Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present time series photometric and spectroscopic data for the transient SN 2009ip from the start of its outburst in 2012 September until 2013 November. These data were collected primarily with the new robotic capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, a specialized facility for time domain astrophysics, and includes supporting high-resolution spectroscopy from the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Gemini Observatory. Based on our nightly photometric monitoring, we interpret the strength and timing of fluctuations in the light curve as interactions between fast-moving ejecta and an inhomogeneous circumstellar material (CSM) produced by past eruptions of this massive luminous blue variable (LBV) star. Our time series of spectroscopy in 2012 reveals that, as the continuum and narrow H? flux from CSM interactions declines, the broad component of H? persists with supernova (SN)-like velocities that are not typically seen in LBVs or SN impostor events. At late times, we find that SN 2009ip continues to decline slowly, at ? 0.01 mag day{sup 1}, with small fluctuations in slope similar to Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) or SN impostors but no further LBV-like activity. The late-time spectrum features broad calcium lines similar to both late-time SNe and SN impostors. In general, we find that the photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2009ip is more similar to SNe IIn than either continued eruptions of an LBV star or SN impostors but we cannot rule out a nonterminal explosion. In this context, we discuss the implications for episodic mass loss during the late stages of massive star evolution.

  17. Dark matter search with CUORE-0 and CUORE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguirre, C. P.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale experiment made of TeO₂ bolometers that will probe the neutrinoless double beta decay of ¹³⁰Te. Excellent energy resolution, low threshold and low background make CUORE sensitive to nuclear recoils, allowing a search for dark matter interactions. With a total mass of 741 kg of TeO₂, CUORE can search for an annual modulation of the counting rate at low energies. We present data obtained with CUORE-like detectors and the prospects for a dark matter search in CUORE-0, a 40-kg prototype, and CUORE.

  18. NERSC Supports Top Breakthroughs of 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supports 2013's Top Breakthroughs NERSC Supports Top Breakthroughs of 2013 December 20, 2013 Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov Research supported by NERSC is being honored by end-of-year reviews in two leading magazines: Physics World and WIRED. The IceCube South Pole Neutrino Observatory was notably named to both lists, being honored as the most important discovery by Physics World. Three of Physics World's top 10 breakthroughs of 2013 went to discoveries that used NERSC resources. In

  19. A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaev, S. N.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Krysanov, V. A.; Oreshkin, S. I.; Motylev, A. M.; Popov, S. M.; Samoilenko, A. A.; Yudin, I. S.; Rudenko, V. N.

    2014-06-15

    A new setup OGRANthe large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare eventsgravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS.

  20. Dark matter annihilation and the PAMELA, FERMI, and ATIC anomalies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Zant, A. A.; Okada, H.; Khalil, S.

    2010-06-15

    If dark matter annihilation accounts for the tantalizing excess of cosmic ray electron/positrons, as reported by the PAMELA, ATIC, HESS, and FERMI observatories, then the implied annihilation cross section must be relatively large. This results, in the context of standard cosmological models, in very small relic dark matter abundances that are incompatible with astrophysical observations. We explore possible resolutions to this apparent conflict in terms of nonstandard cosmological scenarios; plausibly allowing for large cross sections, while maintaining relic abundances in accord with current observations.

  1. Inorganic Carbon Isotopes and Chemical Characterization of Watershed Drainages, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Heikoop, Jeffrey H.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.

    2015-09-25

    Data include results from geochemical and isotopic analyses for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska during July and September 2013. Samples were soil pore waters from 17 drainages that could be interlake (basins with polygonal terrain), different-aged drain thaw lake basins (young, medium, old, or ancient), or a combination of different aged basins. Samples taken in different drainage flow types at three different depths at each location in and around the Barrow Environmental Observatory. This dataset used in Throckmorton, et.al. 2015.

  2. Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moggi, N.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decays. Observation of the process would unambiguously establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles and provide information on their absolute mass scale hierarchy. CUORE is now under construction and will consist of an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK, but the first tower (CUORE-0) is already taking data. The experimental techniques used will be presented as well as the preliminary CUORE-0 results. The current status of the full-mass experiment and its expected sensitivity will then be discussed.

  3. CT Scans of Cores Metadata, Barrow, Alaska 2015

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich

    2015-03-11

    Individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, throughout 2013 and 2014. Cores were drilled along different transects to sample polygonal features (i.e. the trough, center and rim of high, transitional and low center polygons). Most cores were drilled around 1 meter in depth and a few deep cores were drilled around 3 meters in depth. Three-dimensional images of the frozen cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. TIFF files can be uploaded to ImageJ (an open-source imaging software) to examine soil structure and densities within each core.

  4. Searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te with CUORE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te with CUORE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te with CUORE Neutrinoless double-beta (0#23;{nu}{beta}{beta}#12;#12;) decay is a hypothesized lepton-number-violating process that offers the only known means of asserting the possible Majorana nature of neutrino mass. The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an

  5. A search for correlation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with IRAS-PSCz

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and 2MASS-6dF galaxies (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A search for correlation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with IRAS-PSCz and 2MASS-6dF galaxies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A search for correlation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with IRAS-PSCz and 2MASS-6dF galaxies We study the arrival directions of 69 ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) observed at the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) with energies exceeding 55 EeV. We investigate whether the UHECRs exhibit the

  6. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Energy Storage,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion and Utilization -- Energy, science, and technology for the research community -- hosted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z D'Antona, Francesca (Francesca D'Antona) - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Da Costa, Gary (Gary Da Costa) - Mt. Stromlo Observatory & Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University Daerr, Adrian (Adrian Daerr) - Laboratoire Matière et

  7. NASA and DOE Collaborate on Dark Energy Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NASA and DOE Collaborate on Dark Energy Research NASA and DOE Collaborate on Dark Energy Research November 19, 2008 - 4:58pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -- NASA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have signed a memorandum of understanding for the implementation of the Joint Dark Energy Mission, or JDEM. The mission will feature the first space-based observatory designed specifically to understand the nature of dark energy. Dark energy is a form of energy that pervades and dominates the universe.

  8. untitled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0591 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Physics Division Presented at the Super Nova Watch Workshop Los Angeles, CA, November 26-27, 1990, and to be published in the Proceedings Progress Report on the Berkeley/Anglo-Australian Observatory High-Redshift Supernova Search G. Goldhaber, S. Perlmutter, C. Pennypacker, H. Marvin, R.A. Muller, W. Couch, and B. Boyle November 1990 II \ I J\ Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract Number DE-AC03-76SF00098 LBL-30591

  9. Inverse Compton Origin of the Hard X-ray and Soft gamma-ray Emission from the Galactic Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, Troy A.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Orlando, Elena; Bouchet, Laurent

    2008-09-30

    A recent re-determination of the non-thermal component of the hard X-ray to soft {gamma}-ray emission from the Galactic ridge, using the SPI instrument on the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) Observatory, is shown to be well reproduced as inverse-Compton emission from the interstellar medium. Both cosmic-ray primary electrons and secondary electrons and positrons contribute to the emission. The prediction uses the GALPROP model and includes a new calculation of the interstellar radiation field. This may solve a long-standing mystery of the origin of this emission, and potentially opens a new window on Galactic cosmic rays.

  10. Dark matter search with CUORE-0 and CUORE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguirre, C. P.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; De Biasi, A.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; ODonnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale experiment made of TeO? bolometers that will probe the neutrinoless double beta decay of ?Te. Excellent energy resolution, low threshold and low background make CUORE sensitive to nuclear recoils, allowing a search for dark matter interactions. With a total mass of 741 kg of TeO?, CUORE can search for an annual modulation of the counting rate at low energies. We present data obtained with CUORE-like detectors and the prospects for a dark matter search in CUORE-0, a 40-kg prototype, and CUORE.

  11. Promoting India's development: energy security and climate security are convergent goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, Gupta; Shankar, Harihar; Joshi, Sunjoy

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates three aspects of the energy-climate challenges faced by India. First, we examine energy security in light of anticipated growth in power generation in response to the national goal of maintaining close to 10% growth in GDP. Second, we examine possible options for mitigation and adaptation to climate change for India that it can take to the coming Copenhagen meeting on climate change. Lastly, we introduce an open web based tool for analyzing and planning global energy systems called the Global Energy Observatory (GEO).

  12. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Database Browse

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Database Browse Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory; SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R.

  13. EXO project equipment successfully placed underground at WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office (505) 234-7327 Dennis.hurtt@wipp.ws http://www.wipp.energy.gov U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Waste Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 DOENews For Immediate Release EXO project equipment successfully placed underground at WIPP Carlsbad, NM July 24, 2007 - The first two clean room modules for the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) project have been successfully placed in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation

  14. COLLOQUIUM: One Second After the Big Bang | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 16, 2013, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: One Second After the Big Bang Professor Christopher Tully Princeton University Presentation: File WC16OCT2013_CTully.pptx iCal A new experiment called PTOLEMY (Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early-Universe, Massive-Neutrino Yield) is under development at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with the goal of challenging one of the most fundamental predictions of the Big Bang - the present-day existence of relic

  15. Celeste: A New Model for Cataloging the Universe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Celeste: A New Model for Cataloging the Universe Celeste: A New Model for Cataloging the Universe MANTISSA Collaboration Uses Statistical Inference to Revolutionize Sky Surveys September 9, 2015 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov blancoscope4 The Víctor M. Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, where the Dark Energy Camera is being used to collect image data for the DECam Legacy Survey. The glint off the dome is moonlight; the small and

  16. Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moggi, N.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Delloro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; ODonnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.; Fabbri, F.; Giacomelli, P.

    2015-03-24

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decays. Observation of the process would unambiguously establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles and provide information on their absolute mass scale hierarchy. CUORE is now under construction and will consist of an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK, but the first tower (CUORE-0) is already taking data. The experimental techniques used will be presented as well as the preliminary CUORE-0 results. The current status of the full-mass experiment and its expected sensitivity will then be discussed.

  17. Light propagation in the South Pole ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dawn; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is located in the ice near the geographic South Pole. Particle showers from neutrino interactions in the ice produce light which is detected by IceCube modules, and the amount and pattern of deposited light are used to reconstruct the properties of the incident neutrino. Since light is scattered and absorbed by ice between the neutrino interaction vertex and the sensor, IceCube event reconstruction depends on understanding the propagation of light through the ice. This paper presents the current status of modeling light propagation in South Pole ice, including the recent observation of an azimuthal anisotropy in the scattering.

  18. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The group is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently received increased attention and the group of researchers working on the station has expanded to include several microbial biologists. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments are planned for fall 2005 and center about the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles. The subs will be used to effect bottom surveys, emplace sensors and sea floor experiments and make connections between sensor data loggers and the integrated data power unit (IDP). Station/observatory completion is anticipated for 2007 following the construction, testing and deployment of the horizontal line arrays, not yet funded. The seafloor monitoring station/observatory is funded approximately equally by three federal Agencies: Minerals Management Services (MMS) of the Department of the Interior (DOI), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST), an agency of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  19. Effect of soil property uncertainties on permafrost thaw projections: a calibration-constrained analysis: Modeling Archive

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    E.T. Coon; C.J. Wilson; S.L. Painter; V.E. Romanovsky; D.R. Harp; A.L. Atchley; J.C. Rowland

    2016-02-02

    This dataset contains an ensemble of thermal-hydro soil parameters including porosity, thermal conductivity, thermal conductivity shape parameters, and residual saturation of peat and mineral soil. The ensemble was generated using a Null-Space Monte Carlo analysis of parameter uncertainty based on a calibration to soil temperatures collected at the Barrow Environmental Observatory site by the NGEE team. The micro-topography of ice wedge polygons present at the site is included in the analysis using three 1D column models to represent polygon center, rim and trough features. The Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) was used in the calibration to model multiphase thermal and hydrological processes in the subsurface.

  20. FORGE Site FOA | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site FOA FORGE Site FOA How to Get Involved Phase-image100x640px.png YOU ARE HERE.png Check out the phase activitives above to see what interests you! Closed Funding Opportunities The full application material for Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) FOA DE-FOA-0000890 is available on EERE's Funding Opportunity Exchange. The FORGE FOA deadline of November 12, 2014, 8 PM EDT, has passed. Applications are no longer being accepted. Phase 1 Countdown DAYS HOURS MIN SEC Just

  1. Geek-Up[12.10.2010]: A New Planet in Another Solar System, Fast-Tracked

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Drug Treatments and Better Batteries | Department of Energy 2.10.2010]: A New Planet in Another Solar System, Fast-Tracked Drug Treatments and Better Batteries Geek-Up[12.10.2010]: A New Planet in Another Solar System, Fast-Tracked Drug Treatments and Better Batteries December 10, 2010 - 3:46pm Addthis Schematic representation of the HR8799 system compared to our own solar system. | Photo Courtesy of NRC-HIA, Christian Marois and the W.M Keck Observatory Schematic representation of the

  2. New Mariners and a Massive Map: Berkeley Computers Calculate What's in the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sky | Department of Energy Mariners and a Massive Map: Berkeley Computers Calculate What's in the Sky New Mariners and a Massive Map: Berkeley Computers Calculate What's in the Sky February 2, 2012 - 12:08pm Addthis This is the Southern Galactic Cap view as recorded by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico took in light from over a third of the total area of the sky (14,000 square degrees) including 1.5 million galaxies. | Photo

  3. Astronomical Images from the Very Large Array (VLA) FIRST Survey Images from the STScI Archive (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    FIRST, Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters was a project designed to produce the radio equivalent of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey over 10,000 square degrees of the North Galactic Cap. Using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) in its B-configuration, the Survey acquired 3-minute snapshots covering a hexagonal grid. The binary data are available in detailed source catalogs, but the full images themselves, developed through special techniques, are also available for public access. Note that the images are fairly large, typically 1150x1550 pixels. Access to the images is simple through the search interface; the images are also available via anonymous ftp at ftp://archive.stsci.edu/pub/vla_first/data. Another convenient way to obtain images is through the FIRST Cutout Server, which allows an image section to be extracted from the coadded image database at a user-specified position. The cutout server is also linked to the FIRST Search Engine, so that the catalog can be searched for sources of interest and then images can be obtained for those objects. All images taken through 2011 are available through the cutout server at http://third.ucllnl.org/cgi-bin/firstcutout.

  4. THE EFFECT OF LIMITED SPATIAL RESOLUTION OF STELLAR SURFACE MAGNETIC FIELD MAPS ON MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WIND AND CORONAL X-RAY EMISSION MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garraffo, C.; Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Downs, C.

    2013-02-10

    We study the influence of the spatial resolution on scales of 5 Degree-Sign and smaller of solar surface magnetic field maps on global magnetohydrodynamic solar wind models, and on a model of coronal heating and X-ray emission. We compare the solutions driven by a low-resolution Wilcox Solar Observatory magnetic map, the same map with spatial resolution artificially increased by a refinement algorithm, and a high-resolution Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager map. We find that both the wind structure and the X-ray morphology are affected by the fine-scale surface magnetic structure. Moreover, the X-ray morphology is dominated by the closed loop structure between mixed polarities on smaller scales and shows significant changes between high- and low-resolution maps. We conclude that three-dimensional modeling of coronal X-ray emission has greater surface magnetic field spatial resolution requirements than wind modeling, and can be unreliable unless the dominant mixed polarity magnetic flux is properly resolved.

  5. Source Catalog Data from FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Becker, Robert H.; Helfand, David J.; White, Richard L.; Gregg, Michael D.; Laurent-Muehleisen, Sally A.

    FIRST, Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters, is a project designed to produce the radio equivalent of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey over 10,000 square degrees of the North Galactic Cap. Using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) in its B-configuration, the Survey acquired 3-minute snapshots covering a hexagonal grid using 2?7 3-MHz frequency channels centered at 1365 and 1435 MHz. The data were edited, self-calibrated, mapped, and CLEANed using an automated pipeline based largely on routines in the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS). A final atlas of maps is produced by coadding the twelve images adjacent to each pointing center. Source catalogs with flux densities and size information are generated from the coadded images also. The 2011 catalog is the latest version and has been tested to ensure reliability and completness. The catalog, generated from the 1993 through 2004 images, contains 816,000 sources and covers more than 9000 square degrees. A specialized search interface for the catalog resides at this website, and the catalog is also available as a compressed ASCII file. The user may also view earlier versions of the source catalog. The FIRST survey area was chosen to coincide with that of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS); at the m(v)~24 limit of SDSS, ~50% of the optical counterparts to FIRST sources will be detected.

  6. FIRST: Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (Data Catalogs from the Very Large Array (VLA) First Survey)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Becker, Robert H.; Helfand, David J.; White, Richard L.; Gregg, Michael D.; Laurent-Muehleisen, Sally A.

    FIRST, Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm, is a project designed to produce the radio equivalent of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey over 10,000 square degrees of the North Galactic Cap. Using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) in its B-configuration, the Survey acquired 3-minute snapshots covering a hexagonal grid using 27 3-MHz frequency channels centered at 1365 and 1435 MHz. The data were edited, self-calibrated, mapped, and cleaned using an automated pipeline based largely on routines in the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS). Data were collected from 1993 through 2002, with enhanced images produced up through 2011. The Data Catalogs have been cleaned and reissued over time, with the latest version coming out in March, 2014. They contain maps, images, and binary data. The FIRST survey area was chosen to coincide with that of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS); at the m(v)~24 limit of SDSS, ~50% of the optical counterparts to FIRST sources will be detected.

  7. A deep proper motion catalog within the Sloan digital sky survey footprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy M.; Hippel, Ted von; Kilic, Mukremin; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGenarro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu E-mail: jamesliebert@gmail.com E-mail: studiofortytwo@yahoo.com

    2014-12-01

    A new proper motion catalog is presented, combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with second epoch observations in the r band within a portion of the SDSS imaging footprint. The new observations were obtained with the 90prime camera on the Steward Observatory Bok 90 inch telescope, and the Array Camera on the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 1.3 m telescope. The catalog covers 1098 square degrees to r = 22.0, an additional 1521 square degrees to r = 20.9, plus a further 488 square degrees of lesser quality data. Statistical errors in the proper motions range from 5 mas year{sup ?1} at the bright end to 15 mas year{sup ?1} at the faint end, for a typical epoch difference of six years. Systematic errors are estimated to be roughly 1 mas year{sup ?1} for the Array Camera data, and as much as 24 mas year{sup ?1} for the 90prime data (though typically less). The catalog also includes a second epoch of r band photometry.

  8. A BROKEN SOLAR TYPE II RADIO BURST INDUCED BY A CORONAL SHOCK PROPAGATING ACROSS THE STREAMER BOUNDARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, X. L.; Chen, Y.; Li, G.; Feng, S. W.; Song, H. Q.; Jiao, F. R.; Guo, F.

    2012-05-10

    We discuss an intriguing type II radio burst that occurred on 2011 March 27. The dynamic spectrum was featured by a sudden break at about 43 MHz on the well-observed harmonic branch. Before the break, the spectrum drifted gradually with a mean rate of about -0.05 MHz s{sup -1}. Following the break, the spectrum jumped to lower frequencies. The post-break emission lasted for about 3 minutes. It consisted of an overall slow drift which appeared to have a few fast-drift sub-bands. Simultaneous observations from the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and the Solar Dynamics Observatory were also available and are examined for this event. We suggest that the slow-drift period before the break was generated inside a streamer by a coronal eruption driven shock, and the spectral break as well as the relatively wide spectrum after the break is a consequence of the shock crossing the streamer boundary where density drops abruptly. It is suggested that this type of radio bursts can be taken as a unique diagnostic tool for inferring the coronal density structure, as well as the radio-emitting source region.

  9. A TARGETED SEARCH FOR POINT SOURCES OF EeV NEUTRONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Arqueros, F.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration101; and others

    2014-07-10

    A flux of neutrons from an astrophysical source in the Galaxy can be detected in the Pierre Auger Observatory as an excess of cosmic-ray air showers arriving from the direction of the source. To avoid the statistical penalty for making many trials, classes of objects are tested in combinations as nine ''target sets'', in addition to the search for a neutron flux from the Galactic center or from the Galactic plane. Within a target set, each candidate source is weighted in proportion to its electromagnetic flux, its exposure to the Auger Observatory, and its flux attenuation factor due to neutron decay. These searches do not find evidence for a neutron flux from any class of candidate sources. Tabulated results give the combined p-value for each class, with and without the weights, and also the flux upper limit for the most significant candidate source within each class. These limits on fluxes of neutrons significantly constrain models of EeV proton emission from non-transient discrete sources in the Galaxy.

  10. The NASA-UC-UH Eta-Earth program. IV. A low-mass planet orbiting an M dwarf 3.6 PC from Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra A.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Becker, Juliette C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Wright, Jason T.; Johnson, John Asher

    2014-10-10

    We report the discovery of a low-mass planet orbiting Gl 15 A based on radial velocities from the Eta-Earth Survey using HIRES at Keck Observatory. Gl 15 Ab is a planet with minimum mass Msin i = 5.35 0.75 M {sub ?}, orbital period P = 11.4433 0.0016 days, and an orbit that is consistent with circular. We characterize the host star using a variety of techniques. Photometric observations at Fairborn Observatory show no evidence for rotational modulation of spots at the orbital period to a limit of ?0.1 mmag, thus supporting the existence of the planet. We detect a second RV signal with a period of 44 days that we attribute to rotational modulation of stellar surface features, as confirmed by optical photometry and the Ca II H and K activity indicator. Using infrared spectroscopy from Palomar-TripleSpec, we measure an M2 V spectral type and a sub-solar metallicity ([M/H] = 0.22, [Fe/H] = 0.32). We measure a stellar radius of 0.3863 0.0021 R {sub ?} based on interferometry from CHARA.

  11. The IceCube Collaboration:contributions to the 30 th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2007),

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Ackermann, M.

    2007-11-02

    This paper bundles 40 contributions by the IceCube collaboration that were submitted to the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference ICRC 2007. The articles cover studies on cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrinos, searches for non-localized, extraterrestrial {nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} signals, scans for steady and intermittent neutrino point sources, searches for dark matter candidates, magnetic monopoles and other exotic particles, improvements in analysis techniques, as well as future detector extensions. The IceCube observatory will be finalized in 2011 to form a cubic-kilometer ice-Cherenkov detector at the location of the geographic South Pole. At the present state of construction, IceCube consists of 52 paired IceTop surface tanks and 22 IceCube strings with a total of 1426 Digital Optical Modules deployed at depths up to 2350 m. The observatory also integrates the 19 string AMANDA subdetector, that was completed in 2000 and extends IceCube's reach to lower energies. Before the deployment of IceTop, cosmic air showers were registered with the 30 station SPASE-2 surface array. IceCube's low noise Digital Optical Modules are very reliable, show a uniform response and record waveforms of arriving photons that are resolvable with nanosecond precision over a large dynamic range. Data acquisition, reconstruction and simulation software are running in production mode and the analyses, profiting from the improved data quality and increased overall sensitivity, are well under way.

  12. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  13. Multiwavelength study of the northeastern outskirts of the extended TeV source HESS J1809193

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangelov, Blagoy; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Hare, Jeremy; Volkov, Igor; Posselt, Bettina; Pavlov, George G.

    2014-11-20

    HESS J1809193 is an extended TeV ?-ray source in the Galactic plane. Multiwavelength observations of the HESS J1809193 field reveal a complex picture. We present results from three Chandra X-Ray Observatory and two Suzaku observations of a region in the northeastern outskirts of HESS J1809-193, where enhanced TeV emission has been reported. Our analysis also includes GeV ?-ray and radio data. One of the X-ray sources in the field is the X-ray binary XTE J1810-189, for which we present the outburst history from multiple observatories and confirm that XTE J1810-189 is a strongly variable type I X-ray burster, which can hardly produce TeV emission. We investigate whether there is any connection between the possible TeV extension of HESS J1809193 and the sources seen at lower energies. We find that another X-ray binary candidate, Suzaku J1811-1900, and a radio supernova remnant, SNR G11.40.1, can hardly be responsible for the putative TeV emission. Our multiwavelength classification of fainter X-ray point sources also does not produce a plausible candidate. We conclude that the northeast extension of HESS J1809193, if confirmed by deeper observations, can be considered a dark acceleratora TeV source without a visible counterpart at lower energies.

  14. THE HARPS-TERRA PROJECT. I. DESCRIPTION OF THE ALGORITHMS, PERFORMANCE, AND NEW MEASUREMENTS ON A FEW REMARKABLE STARS OBSERVED BY HARPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul

    2012-06-01

    Doppler spectroscopy has uncovered or confirmed all the known planets orbiting nearby stars. Two main techniques are used to obtain precision Doppler measurements at optical wavelengths. The first approach is the gas cell method, which consists of least-squares matching of the spectrum of iodine imprinted on the spectrum of the star. The second method relies on the construction of a stabilized spectrograph externally calibrated in wavelength. The most precise stabilized spectrometer in operation is the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS), operated by the European Southern Observatory in La Silla Observatory, Chile. The Doppler measurements obtained with HARPS are typically obtained using the cross-correlation function (CCF) technique. This technique consists of multiplying the stellar spectrum by a weighted binary mask and finding the minimum of the product as a function of the Doppler shift. It is known that CCF is suboptimal in exploiting the Doppler information in the stellar spectrum. Here we describe an algorithm to obtain precision radial velocity measurements using least-squares matching of each observed spectrum to a high signal-to-noise ratio template derived from the same observations. This algorithm is implemented in our software HARPS-TERRA (Template-Enhanced Radial velocity Re-analysis Application). New radial velocity measurements on a representative sample of stars observed by HARPS are used to illustrate the benefits of the proposed method. We show that, compared with CCF, template matching provides a significant improvement in accuracy, especially when applied to M dwarfs.

  15. Ellerman bombsevidence for magnetic reconnection in the lower solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C. J.; Doyle, J. G.; Madjarska, M. S. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Shelyag, S. [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Mathioudakis, M. [Astrophysical Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Uitenbroek, H. [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, P.O. Box 62, Sunpsot, NM 88349 (United States); Erdlyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-20

    The presence of photospheric magnetic reconnection has long been thought to give rise to short and impulsive events, such as Ellerman bombs (EBs) and Type II spicules. In this article, we combine high-resolution, high-cadence observations from the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer and Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instruments at the Dunn Solar Telescope, National Solar Observatory, New Mexico, with co-aligned Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) data to observe small-scale events situated within an active region. These data are then compared with state-of-the-art numerical simulations of the lower atmosphere made using the MURaM code. It is found that brightenings, in both the observations and the simulations, of the wings of the H? line profile, interpreted as EBs, are often spatially correlated with increases in the intensity of the Fe I ?6302.5 line core. Bipolar regions inferred from Hinode/SOT magnetic field data show evidence of flux cancellation associated, co-spatially, with these EBs, suggesting that magnetic reconnection could be a driver of these high-energy events. Through the analysis of similar events in the simulated lower atmosphere, we are able to infer that line profiles analogous to the observations occur co-spatially with regions of strong opposite-polarity magnetic flux. These observed events and their simulated counterparts are interpreted as evidence of photospheric magnetic reconnection at scales observable using current observational instrumentation.

  16. Implementing Strategic Environmental Assessment of spatial planning tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Montis, Andrea

    2013-07-15

    After more than a decade from the publication of the European Directive 2001/42/CE (Directive) on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), the design and construction of the interested spatial planning instruments has gone through a variety of changes and integrations in European and in world states. This inhomogeneous panorama can be explained with a pattern of institutional structures that have so far affected the implementation of the Directive. The aim of this paper is to investigate the level of implementation of the Directive in Italy by developing a comparative analysis of the quality of integration of SEA within the design of the spatial coordination plan of a set of Italian provinces. Italian practice is analyzed in the framework of a comparative study of worldwide SEA implementation within spatial and land use planning. The results reveal strengths and weaknesses in SEA implementation at the provincial level and, in particular, the emergence of critical areas of research concerning institutional context, public participation, monitoring, and observatory of the spatial transformations. -- Highlights: This is a comparative analysis of SEA in strategic spatial planning in Italy. The adhesion of Provinces to the study is remarkable. SEA implementation and integration into spatial planning is still moderate. Participation via consultations should be more widespread. Monitoring and institution of observatories are still in an infancy stage.

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE SIMULTANEOUS ROTATION AND NON-RADIAL PROPAGATION OF AN ERUPTIVE FILAMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi Yi; Jiang Yunchun; Yang Jiayan; Zheng Ruisheng; Hong Junchao; Li Haidong; Yang Dan; Yang Bo

    2013-08-20

    The rotation of eruptive filaments is not only related to the kink instability occurring in the solar corona but also may result from the interaction between the large-scale magnetic field and the eruptions themselves. This interaction could likewise make the filament deflect in the radial direction. By means of data obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, we study an eruptive filament showing both rotation and non-radial motion. The consequence of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the filament axis indicates that a significant rotation was simultaneous with the severe deflection in the latitude during the eruption. In combination with the results of a derived coronal magnetic configuration, our observations suggested that the non-radial motion resulted from the interaction between the eruption and an overlying pseudostreamer. Moreover, we find that the deflection of the eruption is asymmetric, with its eastern segment being dragged more significantly than its western one. Therefore, we suggested that the action of the asymmetric deflection is possibly an alternative mechanism for the rotation of the eruptive filament.

  18. ERUPTION OF A SOLAR FILAMENT CONSISTING OF TWO THREADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi Yi; Jiang Yunchun; Li Haidong; Hong Junchao; Zheng Ruisheng E-mail: jyc@ynao.ac.cn

    2012-10-10

    The trigger and driving mechanism for the eruption of a filament consisting of two dark threads was studied with unprecedented high cadence and resolution of He II 304 A observations made by the Atmospheric Imagining Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the observations made by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) telescope on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A). The filament was located at the periphery of the active region NOAA 11228 and erupted on 2011 June 6. At the onset of the eruption, a turbulent filament thread was found to be heated and to elongate in stride over a second one. After it rose slowly, most interestingly, the elongating thread was driven to contact and interact with the second one, and it then erupted with its southern leg being wrapped by a newly formed thread produced by the magnetic reconnection between fields carried by the two threads. Combining the observations from STEREO-A/EUVI and SDO/AIA 304 A images, the three-dimensional shape of the axis of the filament was obtained and it was found that only the southern leg of the eruptive filament underwent rotation. We suggest that the eruption was triggered by the reconnection of the turbulent filament thread and the surrounding magnetic field, and that it was mainly driven by the kink instability of the southern leg of the eruptive filament that possessed a more twisted field introduced by the reconnection-produced thread.

  19. United States National Seismographic Network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN`s) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105{degree}W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN).

  20. OBSERVATION OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION DRIVEN BY GRANULAR SCALE ADVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng Zhicheng; Cao Wenda; Ji Haisheng

    2013-06-01

    We report the first evidence of magnetic reconnection driven by advection in a rapidly developing large granule using high spatial resolution observations of a small surge event (base size {approx} 4'' Multiplication-Sign 4'') with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The observations were carried out in narrowband (0.5 A) He I 10830 A and broadband (10 A) TiO 7057 A. Since He I 10830 A triplet has a very high excitation level and is optically thin, its filtergrams enable us to investigate the surge from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the lower corona. Simultaneous space data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory were used in the analysis. It is shown that the surge is spatio-temporally associated with magnetic flux emergence in the rapidly developing large granule. During the development of the granule, its advecting flow ({approx}2 km s{sup -1}) squeezed the magnetic flux into an intergranular lane area, where a magnetic flux concentration was formed and the neighboring flux with opposite magnetic polarity was canceled. During the cancellation, the surge was produced as absorption in He I 10830 A filtergrams while simultaneous EUV brightening occurred at its base. The observations clearly indicate evidence of a finest-scale reconnection process driven by the granule's motion.

  1. SECONDARY WAVES AND/OR THE 'REFLECTION' FROM AND 'TRANSMISSION' THROUGH A CORONAL HOLE OF AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVE ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2011 FEBRUARY 15 X2.2 FLARE OBSERVED WITH SDO/AIA AND STEREO/EUVI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmedo, Oscar; Vourlidas, Angelos; Zhang Jie; Cheng Xin

    2012-09-10

    For the first time, the kinematic evolution of a coronal wave over the entire solar surface is studied. Full Sun maps can be made by combining images from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory satellites, Ahead and Behind, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, thanks to the wide angular separation between them. We study the propagation of a coronal wave, also known as the 'Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope' wave, and its interaction with a coronal hole (CH) resulting in secondary waves and/or reflection and transmission. We explore the possibility of the wave obeying the law of reflection. In a detailed example, we find that a loop arcade at the CH boundary cascades and oscillates as a result of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave passage and triggers a wave directed eastward that appears to have reflected. We find that the speed of this wave decelerates to an asymptotic value, which is less than half of the primary EUV wave speed. Thanks to the full Sun coverage we are able to determine that part of the primary wave is transmitted through the CH. This is the first observation of its kind. The kinematic measurements of the reflected and transmitted wave tracks are consistent with a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave interpretation. Eventually, all wave tracks decelerate and disappear at a distance. A possible scenario of the whole process is that the wave is initially driven by the expanding coronal mass ejection and subsequently decouples from the driver and then propagates at the local fast-mode speed.

  2. Nonlinear force-free field modeling of the solar magnetic carpet and comparison with SDO/HMI and Sunrise/IMAX observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitta, L. P.; Kariyappa, R.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Solanki, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    In the quiet solar photosphere, the mixed polarity fields form a magnetic carpet that continuously evolves due to dynamical interaction between the convective motions and magnetic field. This interplay is a viable source to heat the solar atmosphere. In this work, we used the line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory, as time-dependent lower boundary conditions, to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field. We use a magneto-frictional relaxation method, including hyperdiffusion, to produce a time series of three-dimensional nonlinear force-free fields from a sequence of photospheric LOS magnetograms. Vertical flows are added up to a height of 0.7 Mm in the modeling to simulate the non-force-freeness at the photosphere-chromosphere layers. Among the derived quantities, we study the spatial and temporal variations of the energy dissipation rate and energy flux. Our results show that the energy deposited in the solar atmosphere is concentrated within 2 Mm of the photosphere and there is not sufficient energy flux at the base of the corona to cover radiative and conductive losses. Possible reasons and implications are discussed. Better observational constraints of the magnetic field in the chromosphere are crucial to understand the role of the magnetic carpet in coronal heating.

  3. AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND TRACKING OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. MULTISCALE FILTERING OF CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Jason P.; Morgan, Huw; Habbal, Shadia R.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2012-06-20

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and future coronagraph missions also makes manual cataloging of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloging packages such as CACTus, SEEDS, and ARTEMIS. Here, we present the development of a new CORIMP (coronal image processing) CME detection and tracking technique that overcomes many of the drawbacks of current catalogs. It works by first employing the dynamic CME separation technique outlined in a companion paper, and then characterizing CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane of sky. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its application to a selection of SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI images, as well as to synthetic coronagraph images created from a model corona with a variety of CMEs. The algorithms described in this article are being applied to the whole LASCO and SECCHI data sets, and a catalog of results will soon be available to the public.

  4. NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF A FLUX ROPE TRACKED BY A FILAMENT ACTIVATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Xiang, Yongyuan E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-01

    One main goal of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) which is located at the Fuxian Solar Observatory is to image the Sun at high resolution. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST H? data and combined with the simultaneous observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for the first time, we investigate a flux rope tracked by filament activation. The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope; the filament is then activated by magnetic field cancellation. The activated filament rises and flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The length of the flux rope is about 75Mm, the average width of its individual threads is 1.11Mm, and the estimated twist is 1?. The flux rope appears as a dark structure in H? images, a partial dark and partial bright structure in 304 , and as a bright structure in 171 and 131 images. During this process, the overlying coronal loops are quite steady since the filament is confined within the flux rope and does not erupt successfully. It seems that, for the event in this study, the filament is located and confined within the flux rope threads, instead of being suspended in the dips of twisted magnetic flux.

  5. The detection of upwardly propagating waves channeling energy from the chromosphere to the low corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freij, N.; Nelson, C. J.; Mumford, S.; Erdlyi, R.; Scullion, E. M.; Wedemeyer, S.

    2014-08-10

    There have been ubiquitous observations of wave-like motions in the solar atmosphere for decades. Recent improvements to space- and ground-based observatories have allowed the focus to shift to smaller magnetic structures on the solar surface. In this paper, high-resolution ground-based data taken using the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope is combined with co-spatial and co-temporal data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite to analyze running penumbral waves (RPWs). RPWs have always been thought to be radial wave propagation that occurs within sunspots. Recent research has suggested that they are in fact upwardly propagating field-aligned waves (UPWs). Here, RPWs within a solar pore are observed for the first time and are interpreted as UPWs due to the lack of a penumbra that is required to support RPWs. These UPWs are also observed co-spatially and co-temporally within several SDO/AIA elemental lines that sample the transition region and low corona. The observed UPWs are traveling at a horizontal velocity of around 17 0.5 km s{sup 1} and a minimum vertical velocity of 42 21 km s{sup 1}. The estimated energy of the waves is around 150 W m{sup 2}, which is on the lower bound required to heat the quiet-Sun corona. This is a new, yet unconsidered source of wave energy within the solar chromosphere and low corona.

  6. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-05-18

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The primary objective of the group has been to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently achieved reality via the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology's (NIUST) solicitation for proposals for research to be conducted at the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, have had to be postponed and the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles sacrificed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort is being made to locate and retain the services of a replacement vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) but these efforts have been fruitless due to the demand for these resources in the tremendous recovery effort being made in the Gulf area. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The seafloor monitoring station/observatory is funded approximately equally by three federal Agencies: Minerals Management Services (MMS) of the Department of the Interior (DOI), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST), an agency of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Subcontractors with FY03 funding fulfilled their technical reporting requirements in the previous report (41628R10). Only unresolved matching funds issues remain and will be addressed in the report of the University of Mississippi's Office of Research and Sponsored Programs.

  7. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carol Lutken

    2006-09-30

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The CMRET has conducted several research cruises during this reporting period: one in April, one in June, one in September. April's effort was dedicated to surveying the mound at MC118 with the Surface-Source-Deep-Receiver (SSDR) seismic surveying system. This survey was completed in June and water column and bottom samples were collected via box coring. A microbial filtering system developed by Consortium participants at the University of Georgia was also deployed, run for {approx}12 hours and retrieved. The September cruise, designed to deploy, test, and in some cases recover, geochemical and microbial instruments and experiments took place aboard Harbor Branch's Seward Johnson and employed the Johnson SeaLink manned submersible. The seafloor monitoring station/observatory is funded approximately equally by three federal Agencies: Minerals Management Services (MMS) of the Department of the Interior (DOI), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST), an agency of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Subcontractors with FY03 funding fulfilled their technical reporting requirements in a previously submitted report (41628R10). Only unresolved matching funds issues remain and will be addressed in the report of the University of Mississippi's Office of Research and Sponsored Programs. In addition, Barrodale Computing Services Ltd. (BCS) completed their work; their final report is the bulk of the semiannual report that precedes (abstract truncated)

  8. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Carol Blanton Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2007-03-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. These delays caused scheduling and deployments difficulties but many sensors and instruments were completed during this period. Software has been written that will accommodate the data that the station retrieves, when it begins to be delivered. In addition, new seismic data processing software has been written to treat the peculiar data to be received by the vertical line array (VLA) and additional software has been developed that will address the horizontal line array (HLA) data. These packages have been tested on data from the test deployments of the VLA and on data from other, similar, areas of the Gulf (in the case of the HLA software). The CMRET has conducted one very significant research cruise during this reporting period: a March cruise to perform sea trials of the Station Service Device (SSD), the custom Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) built to perform several of the unique functions required for the observatory to become fully operational. March's efforts included test deployments of the SSD and Florida Southern University's mass spectrometer designed to measure hydrocarbon gases in the water column and The University of Georgia's microbial collector. The University of Georgia's rotational sea-floor camera was retrieved as was Specialty Devices storm monitor array. The former was deployed in September and the latter in June, 2006. Both were retrieved by acoustic release from a dispensable weight. Cruise participants also went prepared to recover any and all instruments left on the sea-floor during the September Johnson SeaLink submersible cruise. One of the pore-fluid samplers, a small ''peeper'' was retrieved successfully and in fine condition. Other instrumentation was left on the sea-floor until modifications of the SSD are complete and a return cruise is accomplished.

  9. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray bounds on nonbirefringent modified Maxwell theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinkhamer, F. R.; Risse, M.

    2008-01-01

    A particularly simple Lorentz-violating modification of the Maxwell theory of photons maintains gauge invariance, CPT, and renormalization. This modified Maxwell theory, coupled to standard Dirac particles, involves 19 dimensionless 'deformation parameters'. Ten of these parameters lead to birefringence and are already tightly constrained by astrophysics. New bounds on the remaining nine nonbirefringent parameters can be obtained from the absence of vacuum Cherenkov radiation for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). Using selected UHECR events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory and assigning pseudorandom directions (i.e., assuming large-scale isotropy), Cherenkov bounds are found at the 10{sup -18} level, which improve considerably upon current laboratory bounds. Future UHECR observations may reduce these Cherenkov bounds to the 10{sup -23} level.

  10. SUNRISE: INSTRUMENT, MISSION, DATA, AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Danilovic, S.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Bonet, J. A.; Pillet, V. MartInez; Domingo, V.; Palacios, J.; Knoelker, M.; Gonzalez, N. Bello; Berkefeld, T.; Franz, M.; Schmidt, W.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    The SUNRISE balloon-borne solar observatory consists of a 1 m aperture Gregory telescope, a UV filter imager, an imaging vector polarimeter, an image stabilization system, and further infrastructure. The first science flight of SUNRISE yielded high-quality data that revealed the structure, dynamics, and evolution of solar convection, oscillations, and magnetic fields at a resolution of around 100 km in the quiet Sun. After a brief description of instruments and data, the first qualitative results are presented. In contrast to earlier observations, we clearly see granulation at 214 nm. Images in Ca II H display narrow, short-lived dark intergranular lanes between the bright edges of granules. The very small-scale, mixed-polarity internetwork fields are found to be highly dynamic. A significant increase in detectable magnetic flux is found after phase-diversity-related reconstruction of polarization maps, indicating that the polarities are mixed right down to the spatial resolution limit and probably beyond.

  11. Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca; Mouser, Paula J.; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Biddle , Jennifer F.; Denis, Elizabeth; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, T. C.; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2014-09-12

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on “Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface” was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  12. A SEARCH FOR POINT SOURCES OF EeV NEUTRONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    A thorough search of the sky exposed at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory reveals no statistically significant excess of events in any small solid angle that would be indicative of a flux of neutral particles from a discrete source. The search covers from -90 Degree-Sign to +15 Degree-Sign in declination using four different energy ranges above 1 EeV (10{sup 18} eV). The method used in this search is more sensitive to neutrons than to photons. The upper limit on a neutron flux is derived for a dense grid of directions for each of the four energy ranges. These results constrain scenarios for the production of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in the Galaxy.

  13. NEW BV(RI){sub C} PHOTOMETRY FOR PRAESEPE: FURTHER TESTS OF BROADBAND PHOTOMETRIC CONSISTENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joner, Michael D.; Taylor, Benjamin J.; Laney, C. David; Van Wyk, Francois

    2011-11-15

    New BV(RI){sub C} measurements of Praesepe made at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) are presented. When those measurements are combined with those reported in previous papers in this series, it is found that they support previously determined V zero points for Praesepe, M67, and the Hyades. Support is also found for joint (V - R){sub C} and (R - I){sub C} zero points established previously for Praesepe and NGC 752. For the SAAO system of standard stars, a B - V correction to the Johnson system of about -9 mmag appears to be reasonably well established. The preferred (though not definitive) V correction is about +7 mmag. For the Landolt V system, zero-point identity with the Johnson system at a 2{sigma} level of 4.8 mmag is found, and no color term as large as 4 mmag (mag){sup -1} is detected. Updated CDS data files for Praesepe are briefly described.

  14. THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850 nm to 4000 nm: WAVENUMBERS AND LINE IDENTIFICATIONS FROM FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nave, Gillian [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    We provide new measurements of wavenumbers and line identifications of 10, 100 U I and U II near-infrared (NIR) emission lines between 2500 cm{sup -1} and 12, 000 cm{sup -1} (4000-850 nm) using archival Fourier transform spectrometer spectra from the National Solar Observatory. This line list includes isolated uranium lines in the Y, J, H, K, and L bands (0.9-1.1 {mu}m, 1.2-1.35 {mu}m, 1.5-1.65 {mu}m, 2.0-2.4 {mu}m, and 3.0-4.0 {mu}m, respectively), and provides six times as many calibration lines as thorium in the NIR spectral range. The line lists we provide enable inexpensive, commercially available uranium hollow cathode lamps to be used for high-precision wavelength calibration of existing and future high-resolution NIR spectrographs.

  15. INDECENT EXPOSURE IN SEYFERT 2 GALAXIES: A CLOSE LOOK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Hien D.; Lyke, J. E.; Mader, Jeff A.

    2011-01-10

    NGC 3147, NGC 4698, and 1ES 1927+654 are active galaxies that are classified as Seyfert 2s, based on the line ratios of strong narrow emission lines in their optical spectra. However, they exhibit rapid X-ray spectral variability and/or little indication of obscuration in X-ray spectral fitting, contrary to expectation from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) unification model. Using optical spectropolarimetry with LRIS and near-infrared spectroscopy with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we conducted a deep search for hidden polarized broad H{alpha} and direct broad Pa{beta} or Br{gamma} emission lines in these objects. We found no evidence for any broad emission lines from the active nuclei of these galaxies, suggesting that they are unobscured, completely 'naked' AGNs that intrinsically lack broad-line regions.

  16. A solar type II radio burst from coronal mass ejection-coronal ray interaction: Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing; Feng, Li; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-05-20

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nanay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  17. Observation of two new L4 Neptune Trojans in the Dark Energy Survey supernova fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gerdes, D. W.

    2016-01-28

    We report the discovery of the eighth and ninth known Trojans in stable orbits around Neptune's leading Lagrange point, L4. The objects 2014 QO441 and 2014 QP441 were detected in data obtained during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 observing seasons by the Dark Energy Survey, using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4-meter Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory. Both are in high-inclination orbits (18.8° and 19.4° respectively). Furthermore, with an eccentricity of 0.104, 2014 QO441 has the most eccentric orbit of the eleven known stable Neptune Trojans. We describe the search procedure and investigate the objects' long-termmore » dynamical stability and physical properties.« less

  18. Mass flows in a prominence spine as observed in EUV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gilbert, H. R.

    2014-07-20

    We analyze a quiescent prominence observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) with a focus on mass and energy flux in the spine, measured using Lyman continuum absorption. This is the first time this type of analysis has been applied with an emphasis on individual features and fluxes in a quiescent prominence. The prominence, observed on 2010 September 28, is detectable in most AIA wavebands in absorption and/or emission. Flows along the spine exhibit horizontal bands 5''-10'' wide and kinetic energy fluxes on the order of a few times 10{sup 5} erg s{sup 1}cm{sup 2}, consistent with quiet sun coronal heating estimates. For a discrete moving feature we estimate a mass of a few times 10{sup 11} g. We discuss the implications of our derived properties for a model of prominence dynamics, the thermal non-equilibrium model.

  19. Observation of Two New L4 Neptune Trojans in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerdes, D. W.

    2015-07-18

    We report the discovery of the eighth and ninth known Trojans in stable orbits around Neptune's leading Lagrange point, L4. The objects 2014 QO441 and 2014 QP441 were detected in data obtained during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 observing seasons by the Dark Energy Survey, using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4-meter Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory. Both are in high-inclination orbits (18.8 and 19.4 respectively). Furthermore, with an eccentricity of 0.104, 2014 QO441 has the most eccentric orbit of the eleven known stable Neptune Trojans. We describe the search procedure and investigate the objects' long-term dynamical stability and physical properties.

  20. SECRETLY ECCENTRIC: THE GIANT PLANET AND ACTIVITY CYCLE OF GJ 328

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Boss, Alan P.

    2013-09-10

    We announce the discovery of a {approx}2 Jupiter-mass planet in an eccentric 11 yr orbit around the K7/M0 dwarf GJ 328. Our result is based on 10 years of radial velocity (RV) data from the Hobby-Eberly and Harlan J. Smith telescopes at McDonald Observatory, and from the Keck Telescope at Mauna Kea. Our analysis of GJ 328's magnetic activity via the Na I D features reveals a long-period stellar activity cycle, which creates an additional signal in the star's RV curve with amplitude 6-10 m s{sup -1}. After correcting for this stellar RV contribution, we see that the orbit of the planet is more eccentric than suggested by the raw RV data. GJ 328b is currently the most massive, longest-period planet discovered around a low-mass dwarf.

  1. THE MEMBERSHIP AND DISTANCE OF THE OPEN CLUSTER COLLINDER 419

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Gies, Douglas R.; Parks, J. Robert; Grundstrom, Erika D.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Berger, David H.; Mason, Brian D.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Turner, Nils H. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.ed E-mail: erika.grundstrom@vanderbilt.ed E-mail: dberger@sysplan.co E-mail: theo@chara-array.or

    2010-09-15

    The young open cluster Collinder 419 surrounds the massive O star, HD 193322, that is itself a remarkable multiple star system containing at least four components. Here we present a discussion of the cluster distance based upon new spectral classifications of the brighter members, UBV photometry, and an analysis of astrometric and photometric data from the third U. S. Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog and Two Micron All Sky Survey Catalog. We determine an average cluster reddening of E(B - V) = 0.37 {+-} 0.05 mag and a cluster distance of 741 {+-} 36 pc. The cluster probably contains some very young stars that may include a reddened M3 III star, IRAS 20161+4035.

  2. THE BATSE 5B GAMMA-RAY BURST SPECTRAL CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Adam; Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.; Burgess, J. Michael [University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Mallozzi, Robert S.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Paciesas, William S. [Universities Space Research Association, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present systematic spectral analyses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory during its entire nine years of operation. This catalog contains two types of spectra extracted from 2145 GRBs, and fitted with five different spectral models resulting in a compendium of over 19,000 spectra. The models were selected based on their empirical importance to the spectral shape of many GRBs, and the analysis performed was devised to be as thorough and objective as possible. We describe in detail our procedures and criteria for the analyses, and present the bulk results in the form of parameter distributions. This catalog should be considered an official product from the BATSE Science Team, and the data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC)

  3. THE ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION OF THE EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Landi, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

  4. WASP-36b: A NEW TRANSITING PLANET AROUND A METAL-POOR G-DWARF, AND AN INVESTIGATION INTO ANALYSES BASED ON A SINGLE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Collier Cameron, A.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Barros, S. C. C.; Pollacco, D.; Street, R. A.

    2012-04-15

    We report the discovery, from WASP and CORALIE, of a transiting exoplanet in a 1.54 day orbit. The host star, WASP-36, is a magnitude V = 12.7, metal-poor G2 dwarf (T{sub eff} = 5959 {+-} 134 K), with [Fe/H] =-0.26 {+-} 0.10. We determine the planet to have mass and radius, respectively, 2.30 {+-} 0.07 and 1.28 {+-} 0.03 times that of Jupiter. We have eight partial or complete transit light curves, from four different observatories, which allow us to investigate the potential effects on the fitted system parameters of using only a single light curve. We find that the solutions obtained by analyzing each of these light curves independently are consistent with our global fit to all the data, despite the apparent presence of correlated noise in at least two of the light curves.

  5. THREE NEW GALACTIC CENTER X-RAY SOURCES IDENTIFIED WITH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWitt, Curtis; Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sarajedini, Ata; Sellgren, Kris; Blum, Robert; Olsen, Knut; Bauer, Franz E.

    2013-11-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 47 candidate counterparts to X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory near the Galactic center (GC). Though a significant number of these astrometric matches are likely to be spurious, we sought out spectral characteristics of active stars and interacting binaries, such as hot, massive spectral types or emission lines, in order to corroborate the X-ray activity and certify the authenticity of the match. We present three new spectroscopic identifications, including a Be high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) or a ? Cassiopeiae (Cas) system, a symbiotic X-ray binary, and an O-type star of unknown luminosity class. The Be HMXB/? Cas system and the symbiotic X-ray binary are the first of their classes to be spectroscopically identified in the GC region.

  6. THE KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY AT CORONAL MASS EJECTION BOUNDARIES IN THE SOLAR CORONA: OBSERVATIONS AND 2.5D MHD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moestl, U. V.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.

    2013-03-20

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory observed a coronal mass ejection with an embedded filament on 2011 February 24, revealing quasi-periodic vortex-like structures at the northern side of the filament boundary with a wavelength of approximately 14.4 Mm and a propagation speed of about 310 {+-} 20 km s{sup -1}. These structures could result from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability occurring on the boundary. We perform 2.5D numerical simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and compare the simulated characteristic properties of the instability with the observations, where we obtain qualitative as well as quantitative accordance. We study the absence of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex-like structures on the southern side of the filament boundary and find that a magnetic field component parallel to the boundary with a strength of about 20% of the total magnetic field has stabilizing effects resulting in an asymmetric development of the instability.

  7. Massive Stars in Colliding Wind Systems: the GLAST Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-29

    Colliding winds of massive stars in binary systems are considered as candidate sites of high-energy non-thermal photon emission. They are already among the suggested counterparts for a few individual unidentified EGRET sources, but may constitute a detectable source population for the GLAST observatory. The present work investigates such population study of massive colliding wind systems at high-energy gamma-rays. Based on the recent detailed model (Reimer et al. 2006) for non-thermal photon production in prime candidate systems, we unveil the expected characteristics of this source class in the observables accessible at LAT energies. Combining the broadband emission model with the presently cataloged distribution of such systems and their individual parameters allows us to conclude on the expected maximum number of LAT-detections among massive stars in colliding wind binary systems.

  8. Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fryer, Christopher L; New, Kimberly C

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  9. Design and initial characterization of a compact, ultra high vacuum compatible, low frequency, tilt accelerometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OToole, A. E-mail: riccardo.desalvo@gmail.com; Pea Arellano, F. E.; Rodionov, A. V.; Kim, C.; Shaner, M.; Asadoor, M.; Sobacchi, E.; Dergachev, V.; DeSalvo, R. E-mail: riccardo.desalvo@gmail.com; Bhawal, A.; Gong, P.; Lottarini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Murphy, C.

    2014-07-15

    A compact tilt accelerometer with high sensitivity at low frequency was designed to provide low frequency corrections for the feedback signal of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory active seismic attenuation system. It has been developed using a Tungsten Carbide ceramic knife-edge hinge designed to avoid the mechanical 1/f noise believed to be intrinsic in polycrystalline metallic flexures. Design and construction details are presented; prototype data acquisition and control limitations are discussed. The instrument's characterization reported here shows that the hinge is compatible with being metal-hysteresis-free, and therefore also free of the 1/f noise generated by the dislocation Self-Organized Criticality in the metal. A tiltmeter of this kind will be effective to separate the ground tilt component from the signal of horizontal low frequency seismometers, and to correct the ill effects of microseismic tilt in advanced seismic attenuation systems.

  10. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; /Lisbon, IST /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb

    2010-02-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{sub max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10{sup 18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{sub -21}{sup +35}) g/cm{sup 2}/decade below 10{sup 18.24 {+-} 0.05}eV, and (24 {+-} 3) g/cm{sup 2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{sup 2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  11. SUBARCSECOND LOCATION OF IGR J17480-2446 WITH ROSSI XTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggio, A.; Burderi, L.; Egron, E.; Di Salvo, T.; D'Ai, A.; Iaria, R.; Robba, N. R.; Papitto, A.; Belloni, T.; Motta, S.; Floris, M.; Testa, V.; Menna, M. T.

    2012-07-20

    On 2010 October 13, the X-ray astronomical satellite Rossi XTE, during the observation of the newly discovered accretion powered X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446, detected a lunar occultation of the source. From knowledge of the lunar topography and Earth, Moon, and spacecraft ephemerides at the epoch of the event, we determined the source position with an accuracy of 40 mas (1{sigma} c.l.), which is interesting, given the very poor imaging capabilities of RXTE ({approx}1 Degree-Sign ). For the first time, using a non-imaging X-ray observatory, the position of an X-ray source with a subarcsecond accuracy is derived, demonstrating the neat capabilities of a technique that can be fruitfully applied to current and future X-ray missions.

  12. THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM SUN-GRAZING COMETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryans, P.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2012-11-20

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed two Sun-grazing comets as they passed through the solar atmosphere. Both passages resulted in a measurable enhancement of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiance in several of the AIA bandpasses. We explain this EUV emission by considering the evolution of the cometary atmosphere as it interacts with the ambient solar atmosphere. Molecules in the comet rapidly sublimate as it approaches the Sun. They are then photodissociated by the solar radiation field to create atomic species. Subsequent ionization of these atoms produces a higher abundance of ions than normally present in the corona and results in EUV emission in the wavelength ranges of the AIA telescope passbands.

  13. HOMOLOGOUS CYCLONES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xinting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Zhang, Yuzong; Yang, Shuhong E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn

    2014-02-20

    Through observations with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we tracked one rotating network magnetic field (RNF) near the solar equator. It lasted for more than 100 hr, from 2013 February 23 to 28. During its evolution, three cyclones were found to be rooted in this structure. Each cyclone event lasted for about 8 to 10 hr. While near the polar region, another RNF was investigated. It lasted for a shorter time (?70 hr), from 2013 July 7 to 9. There were two cyclones rooted in the RNF and each lasted for 8 and 11 hr, respectively. For the two given examples, the cyclones have a similar dynamic evolution, and thus we put forward a new term: homologous cyclones. The detected brightening in AIA 171 maps indicates the release of energy, which is potentially available to heat the corona.

  14. THE ACOUSTIC CUTOFF FREQUENCY OF THE SUN AND THE SOLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez, A.; Palle, P. L.; Garcia, R. A.

    2011-12-20

    The acoustic cutoff frequency-the highest frequency for acoustic solar eigenmodes-is an important parameter of the solar atmosphere as it determines the upper boundary of the p-mode resonant cavities. At frequencies beyond this value, acoustic disturbances are no longer trapped but are traveling waves. Interference among them gives rise to higher-frequency peaks-the pseudomodes-in the solar acoustic spectrum. The pseudomodes are shifted slightly in frequency with respect to p-modes, making possible the use of pseudomodes to determine the acoustic cutoff frequency. Using data from the GOLF and VIRGO instruments on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft, we calculate the acoustic cutoff frequency using the coherence function between both the velocity and intensity sets of data. By using data gathered by these instruments during the entire lifetime of the mission (1996 until the present), a variation in the acoustic cutoff frequency with the solar magnetic activity cycle is found.

  15. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  16. Science and Technology Review January/February 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blobaum, K J

    2010-11-22

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) World's Most Intense X-Ray Laser Focuses on Livermore Science - Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Groundbreaking Science with the World's Brightest X Rays - Experiments with x rays of unparalleled brightness and extremely short duration aim to reveal new information about atoms and molecules in motion; (3) From Data to Discovery - Ongoing control system enhancements at the National Ignition Facility bolster the understanding of experimental data and keep the system performing at its peak; (4) The Sun in All Its Splendor - Onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Livermore-developed multilayer mirrors are enabling unprecedented full-disk, high-resolution images of the Sun; and (5) Drilling Deep into Plant Veins - A novel combination of imaging techniques is being used to understand the three-dimensional architecture of plant cell walls.

  17. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  18. Statistical study of free magnetic energy and flare productivity of solar active regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, J. T.; Jing, J.; Wang, S.; Wang, H. M. [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Wiegelmann, T., E-mail: sjt@bao.ac.cn [Max-Planck-Institut fur Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2014-06-20

    Photospheric vector magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory are utilized as the boundary conditions to extrapolate both nonlinear force-free and potential magnetic fields in solar corona. Based on the extrapolations, we are able to determine the free magnetic energy (FME) stored in active regions (ARs). Over 3000 vector magnetograms in 61 ARs were analyzed. We compare FME with the ARs' flare index (FI) and find that there is a weak correlation (<60%) between FME and FI. FME shows slightly improved flare predictability relative to the total unsigned magnetic flux of ARs in the following two aspects: (1) the flare productivity predicted by FME is higher than that predicted by magnetic flux and (2) the correlation between FI and FME is higher than that between FI and magnetic flux. However, this improvement is not significant enough to make a substantial difference in time-accumulated FI, rather than individual flare, predictions.

  19. Cataclysmic variables in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Thorstensen, John R.; Lpine, Sbastien

    2014-12-01

    We have discovered a new high proper motion cataclysmic variable (CV) in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey, which is sensitive to stars with proper motions greater than 40 mas yr{sup ?1}. This CV was selected for follow-up observations as part of a larger search for CVs selected based on proper motions and their near-UV?V and V?K{sub s} colors. We present spectroscopic observations from the 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope at MDM Observatory. The new CV's orbital period is near 96 minutes, its spectrum shows the double-peaked Balmer emission lines characteristic of quiescent dwarf novae, and its V magnitude is near 18.2. Additionally, we present a full list of known CVs in the SUPERBLINK catalog.

  20. Uncertainty Estimates for SIRS, SKYRAD, & GNDRAD Data and Reprocessing the Pyrgeometer Data (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Habte, A.

    2014-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility work together in providing data from strategically located in situ measurement observatories around the world. Both work together in improving and developing new technologies that assist in acquiring high quality radiometric data. In this presentation we summarize the uncertainty estimates of the ARM data collected at the ARM Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS), Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD), and Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation (GNDRAD), which ultimately improve the existing radiometric data. Three studies are also included to show the difference between calibrating pyrgeometers (e.g., Eppley PIR) using the manufacturer blackbody versus the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), a pyrgeometer aging study, and the sampling rate effect of correcting historical data.

  1. A COOL DUST FACTORY IN THE CRAB NEBULA: A HERSCHEL STUDY OF THE FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, H. L.; Clark, C. J. R.; Gomez, E. L.; Gear, W. K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Krause, O.; Besel, M.-A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Barlow, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Owen, P. J.; Matsuura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Rho, J. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ivison, R. J.; Sibthorpe, B. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Polehampton, E. T. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-20

    Whether supernovae are major sources of dust in galaxies is a long-standing debate. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Crab Nebula between 51 and 670 {mu}m as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program. We compare the emission detected with Herschel with multiwavelength data including millimeter, radio, mid-infrared, and archive optical images. We carefully remove the synchrotron component using the Herschel and Planck fluxes measured in the same epoch. The contribution from line emission is removed using Herschel spectroscopy combined with Infrared Space Observatory archive data. Several forbidden lines of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are detected where multiple velocity components are resolved, deduced to be from the nitrogen-depleted, carbon-rich ejecta. No spectral lines are detected in the SPIRE wavebands; in the PACS bands, the line contribution is 5% and 10% at 70 and 100 {mu}m and negligible at 160 {mu}m. After subtracting the synchrotron and line emission, the remaining far-infrared continuum can be fit with two dust components. Assuming standard interstellar silicates, the mass of the cooler component is 0.24{sup +0.32} {sub -0.08} M {sub Sun} for T = 28.1{sup +5.5} {sub -3.2} K. Amorphous carbon grains require 0.11 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} of dust with T = 33.8{sup +2.3} {sub -1.8} K. A single temperature modified blackbody with 0.14 M {sub Sun} and 0.08 M {sub Sun} for silicate and carbon dust, respectively, provides an adequate fit to the far-infrared region of the spectral energy distribution but is a poor fit at 24-500 {mu}m. The Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust, suggesting the formation of dust in core-collapse supernova ejecta is efficient.

  2. INVESTIGATING THE RELIABILITY OF CORONAL EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION DIAGNOSTICS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-10-10

    Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on board Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the 'true' distributions from the model, we assess the limitations of the diagnostics as a function of the plasma parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with significantly different density overlap along the line of sight. When using AIA synthetic data the derived EMDs reproduce the true EMDs much less accurately, especially for broad EMDs. The differences between the two instruments are due to the: (1) smaller number of constraints provided by AIA data and (2) broad temperature response function of the AIA channels which provide looser constraints to the temperature distribution. Our results suggest that EMDs derived from current observatories may often show significant discrepancies from the true EMDs, rendering their interpretation fraught with uncertainty. These inherent limitations to the method should be carefully considered when using these distributions to constrain coronal heating.

  3. BROAD-LINE REVERBERATION IN THE KEPLER-FIELD SEYFERT GALAXY Zw 229-015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Nguyen, My L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Cenko, S. Bradley; Choi, Jieun; Duchene, Gaspard; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Gorjian, Varoujan; Joner, Michael D.; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Botyanszki, Janos; Childress, Michael; Cucciara, Antonino; Comerford, Julia M.; Da Silva, Robert; Gates, Elinor L.; Gerke, Brian F.

    2011-05-10

    The Seyfert 1 galaxy Zw 229-015 is among the brightest active galaxies being monitored by the Kepler mission. In order to determine the black hole mass in Zw 229-015 from H{beta} reverberation mapping, we have carried out nightly observations with the Kast Spectrograph at the Lick 3 m telescope during the dark runs from 2010 June through December, obtaining 54 spectroscopic observations in total. We have also obtained nightly V-band imaging with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory and with the 0.9 m telescope at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory over the same period. We detect strong variability in the source, which exhibited more than a factor of two change in broad H{beta} flux. From cross-correlation measurements, we find that the H{beta} light curve has a rest-frame lag of 3.86{sup +0.69}{sub -0.90} days with respect to the V-band continuum variations. We also measure reverberation lags for H{alpha} and H{gamma} and find an upper limit to the H{delta} lag. Combining the H{beta} lag measurement with a broad H{beta} width of {sigma}{sub line} = 1590 {+-} 47 km s{sup -1} measured from the rms variability spectrum, we obtain a virial estimate of M{sub BH} = 1.00{sup +0.19}{sub -0.24} x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun} for the black hole in Zw 229-015. As a Kepler target, Zw 229-015 will eventually have one of the highest-quality optical light curves ever measured for any active galaxy, and the black hole mass determined from reverberation mapping will serve as a benchmark for testing relationships between black hole mass and continuum variability characteristics in active galactic nuclei.

  4. Observation and modeling of geocoronal charge exchange X-ray emission during solar wind gusts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wargelin, B. J.; Kornbleuth, M.; Juda, M.; Martin, P. L.

    2014-11-20

    Solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions such as O{sup 7{sup +}} collide with neutral gas, including the Earth's tenuous outer atmosphere (exosphere or geocorona) and hydrogen and helium from the local interstellar medium drifting through the heliosphere. This geocoronal and heliospheric emission comprises a significant and varying fraction of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) and is seen in every X-ray observation, with the intensity dependent on solar wind conditions and observation geometry. Under the right conditions, geocoronal emission can increase the apparent SXRB by roughly an order of magnitude for an hour or more. In this work, we study a dozen occasions when the near-Earth solar wind flux was exceptionally high. These gusts of wind lead to abrupt changes in SWCX X-ray emission around Earth, which may or may not be seen by X-ray observatories depending on their line of sight. Using detailed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere, and element abundances and ionization states measured by ACE, we model the time-dependent brightness of major geocoronal SWCX emission lines during those gusts and compare with changes in the X-ray background measured by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We find reasonably good agreement between model and observation, with measured geocoronal line brightnesses averaged over 1 hr of up to 136 photons s{sup 1} cm{sup 2} sr{sup 1} in the O VII K? triplet around 564 eV.

  5. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidoni, S. E.; Plowman, J. E.

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  6. Overlying extreme-ultraviolet arcades preventing eruption of a filament observed by AIA/SDO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Huadong; Ma, Suli; Zhang, Jun

    2013-11-20

    Using the multi-wavelength data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamic Observatory (AIA/SDO) and the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation/Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (SECCHI/STEREO), we report a failed filament eruption in NOAA AR 11339 on 2011 November 3. The eruption was associated with an X1.9 flare, but without any coronal mass ejection (CME), coronal dimming, or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves. Some magnetic arcades above the filament were observed distinctly in EUV channels, especially in the AIA 94 and 131 wavebands, before and during the filament eruption process. Our results show that the overlying arcades expanded along with the ascent of the filament at first until they reached a projected height of about 49 Mm above the Sun's surface, where they stopped. The following filament material was observed to be confined by the stopped EUV arcades and not to escape from the Sun. After the flare, a new filament formed at the low corona where part of the former filament remained before its eruption. These results support that the overlying arcades play an important role in preventing the filament from successfully erupting outward. We also discuss in this paper the EUV emission of the overlying arcades during the flare. It is rare for a failed filament eruption to be associated with an X1.9 class flare, but not with a CME or EUV waves. Therefore, this study also provides valuable insight into the triggering mechanism of the initiation of CMEs and EUV waves.

  7. Observational evidence of torus instability as trigger mechanism for coronal mass ejections: The 2011 August 4 filament eruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuccarello, F. P.; Poedts, S.; Seaton, D. B.; Mierla, M.; Rachmeler, L. A.; Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F. E-mail: Stefaan.Poedts@wis.kuleuven.be E-mail: marilena@oma.be E-mail: Paolo.Romano@oact.inaf.it

    2014-04-20

    Solar filaments are magnetic structures often observed in the solar atmosphere and consist of plasma that is cooler and denser than their surroundings. They are visible for dayseven weekswhich suggests that they are often in equilibrium with their environment before disappearing or erupting. Several eruption models have been proposed that aim to reveal what mechanism causes (or triggers) these solar eruptions. Validating these models through observations represents a fundamental step in our understanding of solar eruptions. We present an analysis of the observation of a filament eruption that agrees with the torus instability model. This model predicts that a magnetic flux rope embedded in an ambient field undergoes an eruption when the axis of the flux rope reaches a critical height that depends on the topology of the ambient field. We use the two vantage points of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory to reconstruct the three-dimensional shape of the filament, to follow its morphological evolution, and to determine its height just before eruption. The magnetograms acquired by SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager are used to infer the topology of the ambient field and to derive the critical height for the onset of the torus instability. Our analysis shows that the torus instability is the trigger of the eruption. We also find that some pre-eruptive processes, such as magnetic reconnection during the observed flares and flux cancellation at the neutral line, facilitated the eruption by bringing the filament to a region where the magnetic field was more vulnerable to the torus instability.

  8. A flare observed in coronal, transition region, and helium I 10830 emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Zhicheng; Cao, Wenda; Qiu, Jiong; Judge, Philip G.

    2014-10-01

    On 2012 June 17, we observed the evolution of a C-class flare associated with the eruption of a filament near a large sunspot in the active region NOAA 11504. We obtained high spatial resolution filtergrams using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory in broadband TiO at 706 nm (bandpass: 10 ) and He I 10830 narrow band (bandpass: 0.5 , centered 0.25 to the blue). We analyze the spatio-temporal behavior of the He I 10830 data, which were obtained over a 90''90'' field of view with a cadence of 10 s. We also analyze simultaneous data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, and data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and GOES spacecrafts. Non-thermal effects are ignored in this analysis. Several quantitative aspects of the data, as well as models derived using the '0D' enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops model code, indicate that the triplet states of the 10830 multiplet are populated by photoionization of chromospheric plasma followed by radiative recombination. Surprisingly, the He II 304 line is reasonably well matched by standard emission measure calculations, along with the C IV emission which dominates the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly 1600 channel during flares. This work lends support to some of our previous work combining X-ray, EUV, and UV data of flares to build models of energy transport from corona to chromosphere.

  9. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF A LARGE-SCALE WAVE EVENT IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE: FROM PHOTOSPHERE TO CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu

    2012-06-20

    For the first time, we report a large-scale wave that was observed simultaneously in the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and low corona layers of the solar atmosphere. Using the high temporal and high spatial resolution observations taken by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope at Hida Observatory and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board Solar Dynamic Observatory, we find that the wave evolved synchronously at different heights of the solar atmosphere, and it propagated at a speed of 605 km s{sup -1} and showed a significant deceleration (-424 m s{sup -2}) in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations. During the initial stage, the wave speed in the EUV observations was 1000 km s{sup -1}, similar to those measured from the AIA 1700 A (967 km s{sup -1}) and 1600 A (893 km s{sup -1}) observations. The wave was reflected by a remote region with open fields, and a slower wave-like feature at a speed of 220 km s{sup -1} was also identified following the primary fast wave. In addition, a type-II radio burst was observed to be associated with the wave. We conclude that this wave should be a fast magnetosonic shock wave, which was first driven by the associated coronal mass ejection and then propagated freely in the corona. As the shock wave propagated, its legs swept the solar surface and thereby resulted in the wave signatures observed in the lower layers of the solar atmosphere. The slower wave-like structure following the primary wave was probably caused by the reconfiguration of the low coronal magnetic fields, as predicted in the field-line stretching model.

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF THE INTERACTION OF ACOUSTIC WAVES AND SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS IN A QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitta, Lakshmi Pradeep; Kariyappa, R.; Jain, Rekha; Jefferies, Stuart M. E-mail: rkari@iiap.res.in E-mail: stuartj@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2012-01-10

    The effect of the magnetic field on photospheric intensity and velocity oscillations at the sites of small-scale magnetic fields (SMFs) in a quiet Sun near the solar disk center is studied. We use observations made by the G-band filter in the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode for intensity oscillations; Doppler velocity, magnetic field, and continuum intensity are derived from an Ni I photospheric absorption line at 6767.8 A using the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Our analysis shows that both the high-resolution intensity observed in the G band and velocity oscillations are influenced by the presence of a magnetic field. While intensity oscillations are suppressed at all frequencies in strong magnetic field regions compared to weak magnetic field regions, velocity oscillations show an enhancement of power in the frequency band 5.5-7 mHz. We find that there is a drop of 20%-30% in the p-mode power of velocity oscillations within the SMFs when compared to the regions surrounding them. Our findings indicate that the nature of the interaction of acoustic waves with the quiet Sun SMFs is similar to that of large-scale magnetic fields in active regions. We also report the first results of the center-to-limb variation of such effects using the observations of the quiet Sun from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The independent verification of these interactions using SDO/HMI suggests that the velocity power drop of 20%-30% in p-modes is fairly constant across the solar disk.

  11. SOLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES, CORONAL POTENTIAL FIELD MODELS AND ERUPTION RATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie, G. J. D.

    2013-05-10

    We study the evolution of the observed photospheric magnetic field and the modeled global coronal magnetic field during the past 3 1/2 solar activity cycles observed since the mid-1970s. We use synoptic magnetograms and extrapolated potential-field models based on longitudinal full-disk photospheric magnetograms from the National Solar Observatory's three magnetographs at Kitt Peak, the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun vector spectro-magnetograph, the spectro-magnetograph and the 512-channel magnetograph instruments, and from Stanford University's Wilcox Solar Observatory. The associated multipole field components are used to study the dominant length scales and symmetries of the coronal field. Polar field changes are found to be well correlated with active fields over most of the period studied, except between 2003 and 2006 when the active fields did not produce significant polar field changes. Of the axisymmetric multipoles, only the dipole and octupole follow the poles whereas the higher orders follow the activity cycle. All non-axisymmetric multipole strengths are well correlated with the activity cycle. The tilt of the solar dipole is therefore almost entirely due to active-region fields. The axial dipole and octupole are the largest contributors to the global field except while the polar fields are reversing. This influence of the polar fields extends to modulating eruption rates. According to the Computer Aided CME Tracking, Solar Eruptive Event Detection System, and Nobeyama radioheliograph prominence eruption catalogs, the rate of solar eruptions is found to be systematically higher for active years between 2003 and 2012 than for those between 1997 and 2002. This behavior appears to be connected with the weakness of the late-cycle 23 polar fields as suggested by Luhmann. We see evidence that the process of cycle 24 field reversal is well advanced at both poles.

  12. THE LONGITUDINAL PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT INVESTIGATED USING MODERN SOLAR IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Sheeley, N. R.; Tylka, A.; Vourlidas, A.; Rakowski, C.; Ng, C. K.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mason, G. M.; Reames, D.; Savani, N. P.; StCyr, O. C.; Szabo, A.

    2012-06-10

    We use combined high-cadence, high-resolution, and multi-point imaging by the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory to investigate the hour-long eruption of a fast and wide coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2011 March 21 when the twin STEREO spacecraft were located beyond the solar limbs. We analyze the relation between the eruption of the CME, the evolution of an Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) wave, and the onset of a solar energetic particle (SEP) event measured in situ by the STEREO and near-Earth orbiting spacecraft. Combined ultraviolet and white-light images of the lower corona reveal that in an initial CME lateral 'expansion phase', the EUV disturbance tracks the laterally expanding flanks of the CME, both moving parallel to the solar surface with speeds of {approx}450 km s{sup -1}. When the lateral expansion of the ejecta ceases, the EUV disturbance carries on propagating parallel to the solar surface but devolves rapidly into a less coherent structure. Multi-point tracking of the CME leading edge and the effects of the launched compression waves (e.g., pushed streamers) give anti-sunward speeds that initially exceed 900 km s{sup -1} at all measured position angles. We combine our analysis of ultraviolet and white-light images with a comprehensive study of the velocity dispersion of energetic particles measured in situ by particle detectors located at STEREO-A (STA) and first Lagrange point (L1), to demonstrate that the delayed solar particle release times at STA and L1 are consistent with the time required (30-40 minutes) for the CME to perturb the corona over a wide range of longitudes. This study finds an association between the longitudinal extent of the perturbed corona (in EUV and white light) and the longitudinal extent of the SEP event in the heliosphere.

  13. TWO DISTANT HALO VELOCITY GROUPS DISCOVERED BY THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sesar, Branimir; Cohen, Judith G.; Levitan, David; Kirby, Evan N.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Prince, Thomas A.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason A.; Juric, Mario; Ofek, Eran O.

    2012-08-20

    We report the discovery of two new halo velocity groups (Cancer groups A and B) traced by eight distant RR Lyrae stars and observed by the Palomar Transient Factory survey at R.A. {approx} 129 Degree-Sign , decl. {approx} 20 Degree-Sign (l {approx} 205 Degree-Sign , b {approx} 32 Degree-Sign ). Located at 92 kpc from the Galactic center (86 kpc from the Sun), these are some of the most distant substructures in the Galactic halo known to date. Follow-up spectroscopic observations with the Palomar Observatory 5.1 m Hale telescope and W. M. Keck Observatory 10 m Keck I telescope indicate that the two groups are moving away from the Galaxy at v-bar{sub gsr}{sup A} = 78.0{+-}5.6 km s{sup -1} (Cancer group A) and v-bar{sub gsr}{sup B} = 16.3{+-}7.1 km s{sup -1} (Cancer group B). The groups have velocity dispersions of {sigma}{sub v{sub g{sub s{sub r}{sup A}}}} = 12.4{+-}5.0 km s{sup -1} and {sigma}B{sub v{sub g{sub s{sub r}{sup B}}}} =14.9{+-}6.2 km s{sup -1} and are spatially extended (about several kpc), making it very unlikely that they are bound systems, and more likely to be debris of tidally disrupted dwarf galaxies or globular clusters. Both groups are metal-poor (median metallicities of [Fe/H]{sup A} = -1.6 dex and [Fe/H]{sup B} = -2.1 dex) and have a somewhat uncertain (due to small sample size) metallicity dispersion of {approx}0.4 dex, suggesting dwarf galaxies as progenitors. Two additional RR Lyrae stars with velocities consistent with those of the Cancer groups have been observed {approx}25 Degree-Sign east, suggesting possible extension of the groups in that direction.

  14. DESIGN AND TEST OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING MICROTHERMAL SEEING ON THE MAGDALENA RIDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Klinglesmith, D. A.; Speights, J.; Clements, A.; Patel, J.

    2009-05-15

    We have constructed and operated an automated instrument for measuring ground-level microthermal seeing at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO). The MRO is located at an altitude of 10500' in the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico, USA. It is the planned site for the MRO Optical Interferometer (MROI) planned for up to 10 collecting elements, each with a diameter of 1.4 m, and baselines eventually up to approximately 400 m. As part of the preparation for construction we deployed a system to characterize the ground-level seeing across the observatory site. The instrument is built largely of off-the-shelf components, with only the sensor head and power supply requiring electronic board assembly. Even in those cases the board architecture is very simple. The first proof-of-concept system was deployed for several weeks in the autumn of 2004, and has since undergone several iterations. The latest configuration operates entirely off batteries, incorporates wireless data acquisition, and is thus able to operate in an area with no shelter, power, or communications. In this paper we present the design of the instrument, and show initial data. The microthermal tower has four sensor pairs at heights from 0.8 to 4.41 m, significantly lower than other microthermal experiments, because of the need to characterize the seeing near the ground. We find significant variation in the contribution of this range of heights to the seeing, contributing up to 0.''3 of the seeing at some times and only 0.''02 at other times. The individual sensor power spectra have a slope in the range of 1.4--1.5, which is lower than the 1.67 slope predicted by Kolmogorov turbulence theory. We measure the well known effect of improved seeing immediately around sunset. While we find significant variation in the microthermal seeing, we did not find a pattern of corresponding variations in weather conditions, suggesting that a complicated set of factors control microthermal turbulence.

  15. TIME-SERIES PHOTOMETRY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: M62 (NGC 6266), THE MOST RR LYRAE-RICH GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN THE GALAXY?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contreras, R.; Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.; Kuehn, C. A.; Pritzl, B. J.; Borissova, J.

    2010-12-15

    We present new time-series CCD photometry, in the B and V bands, for the moderately metal-rich ([Fe/H] {approx_equal} -1.3) Galactic globular cluster M62 (NGC 6266). The present data set is the largest obtained so far for this cluster and consists of 168 images per filter, obtained with the Warsaw 1.3 m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory and the 1.3 m telescope of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, in two separate runs over the time span of 3 months. The procedure adopted to detect the variable stars was the optimal image subtraction method (ISIS v2.2), as implemented by Alard. The photometry was performed using both ISIS and Stetson's DAOPHOT/ALLFRAME package. We have identified 245 variable stars in the cluster fields that have been analyzed so far, of which 179 are new discoveries. Of these variables, 133 are fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars (RRab), 76 are first overtone (RRc) pulsators, 4 are type II Cepheids, 25 are long-period variables (LPVs), 1 is an eclipsing binary, and 6 are not yet well classified. Such a large number of RR Lyrae stars places M62 among the top two most RR Lyrae-rich (in the sense of total number of RR Lyrae stars present) globular clusters known in the Galaxy, second only to M3 (NGC 5272) with a total of 230 known RR Lyrae stars. Since this study covers most but not all of the cluster area, it is not unlikely that M62 is in fact the most RR Lyrae-rich globular cluster in the Galaxy. In like vein, thanks to the time coverage of our data sets, we were also able to detect the largest sample of LPVs known so far in a Galactic globular cluster. We analyze a variety of Oosterhoff type indicators for the cluster, including mean periods, period distribution, Bailey diagrams, and Fourier decomposition parameters (as well as the physical parameters derived therefrom). All of these indicators clearly show that M62 is an Oosterhoff type I system. This is in good agreement with the moderately high metallicity of the cluster, in spite of its predominantly blue horizontal branch morphology-which is more typical of Oosterhoff type II systems. We thus conclude that metallicity plays a key role in defining Oosterhoff type. Finally, based on an application of the 'A-method', we conclude that the cluster RR Lyrae stars have a similar He abundance as M3, although more work on the temperatures of the M62 RR Lyrae is needed before this result can be conclusively established.

  16. Multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a small-scale emerging magnetic flux event and the chromospheric and coronal response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas Domnguez, Santiago; Kosovichev, Alexander; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2014-10-20

    State-of-the-art solar instrumentation is now revealing magnetic activity of the Sun with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolutions. Observations with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) of the Big Bear Solar Observatory are making next steps in our understanding of the solar surface structure. Granular-scale magnetic flux emergence and the response of the solar atmosphere are among the key research topics of high-resolution solar physics. As part of a joint observing program with NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission on 2013 August 7, the NST observed active region NOAA 11,810 in the photospheric TiO 7057 band with a resolution of pixel size of 0.''034 and chromospheric He I 10830 and H? 6563 wavelengths. Complementary data are provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Hinode space-based telescopes. The region displayed a group of solar pores, in the vicinity of which we detect a small-scale buoyant horizontal magnetic flux tube causing granular alignments and interacting with the preexisting ambient field in the upper atmospheric layers. Following the expansion of distorted granules at the emergence site, we observed a sudden appearance of an extended surge in the He I 10830 data (bandpass of 0.05 ). The IRIS transition region imaging caught ejection of a hot plasma jet associated with the He I surge. The SDO/HMI data used to study the evolution of the magnetic and Doppler velocity fields reveal emerging magnetic loop-like structures. Hinode/Ca II H and IRIS filtergrams detail the connectivities of the newly emerged magnetic field in the lower solar chromosphere. From these data, we find that the orientation of the emerging magnetic field lines from a twisted flux tube formed an angle of ?45 with the overlying ambient field. Nevertheless, the interaction of emerging magnetic field lines with the pre-existing overlying field generates high-temperature emission regions and boosts the surge/jet production. The localized heating is detected before and after the first signs of the surge/jet ejection. We compare the results with previous observations and theoretical models and propose a scenario for the activation of plasma jet/surges and confined heating triggered by buoyant magnetic flux tubes rising up into a magnetized upper environment. Such process may play a significant role in the mass and energy flow from the interior to the corona.

  17. Searching for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of130Te with CUORE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; et al

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta (0???) decay is a hypothesized lepton-number-violating process that offers the only known means of asserting the possible Majorana nature of neutrino mass. The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for 0???decay of130Te using an array of 988 TeO2crystal bolometers operated at 10?mK. The detector will contain 206?kg of130Te and have an average energy resolution of 5?keV; the projected 0???decay half-life sensitivity after five years of livetime is 1.6??1026?y at 1?(9.5??1025?y at the 90% confidence level), which corresponds to an upper limit on the effective Majorana massmorein the range 40100?meV (50130?meV). In this paper, we review the experimental techniques used in CUORE as well as its current status and anticipated physics reach.less

  18. CUORE and beyond: Bolometric techniques to explore inverted neutrino mass hierarchy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. With 741 kg of TeO2 crystals and an excellent energy resolution of 5 keV (0.2%) at the region of interest, CUORE will be one of the most competitive neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the horizon. With five years of live time, CUORE projected neutrinoless double beta decay half-life sensitivity is 1.6 × 1026 y at 1σ (9.5 × 1025 y at the 90% confidence level), which corresponds to an upper limit on the effective Majorana mass in the range 40–100 meVmore » (50–130 meV). Further background rejection with auxiliary light detector can significantly improve the search sensitivity and competitiveness of bolometric detectors to fully explore the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy with 130Te and possibly other double beta decay candidate nuclei.« less

  19. IceVeto: Extended PeV neutrino astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere with IceCube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    IceCube, the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the South Pole, recently reported evidence of an astrophysical neutrino flux extending to PeV energies in the Southern Hemisphere. This observation raises the question of how the sensitivity in this energy range could be further increased. In the down-going sector, in IceCube's case the Southern Hemisphere, backgrounds from atmospheric muons and neutrinos pose a challenge to the identification of an astrophysical neutrino flux. The IceCube analysis, that led to the evidence for astrophysical neutrinos, is based on an in-ice veto strategy for background rejection. One possibility available to IceCube is the concept of an extended surface detector, IceVeto, which could allow the rejection of a large fraction of atmospheric backgrounds, primarily for muons from cosmic ray (CR) air showers as well as from neutrinos in the same air showers. Building on the experience of IceTop/IceCube, possibly the most cost-effective and sensitive way to build IceVeto is as an extension of the IceTop detector, with simple photomultiplier based detector modules for CR air shower detection. Initial simulations and estimates indicate that such a veto detector will significantly increase the sensitivity to an astrophysical flux of ?{sub ?} induced muon tracks in the Southern Hemisphere compared to current analyses. Here we present the motivation and capabilities based on initial simulations. Conceptual ideas for a simplified surface array will be discussed briefly.

  20. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  1. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mariska, John T. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  2. Measuring temperature-dependent propagating disturbances in coronal fan loops using multiple SDO/AIA channels and the surfing transform technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon [Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    A set of co-aligned high-resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling a quantitative description of subvisual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1%. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional 'surfing' signals extracted from position-time plots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency-velocity space that exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square-root dependence predicted for slow mode magneto-acoustic waves which seem to be the dominating wave mode in the loop structures studied. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. to a more general class of fan loop system not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  3. Fe-rich ejecta in the supernova remnant G352.70.1 with Suzaku

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sezer, A.; Gk, F.

    2014-07-20

    In this work, we present results from a ?201.6 ks observation of G352.70.1 using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer on board Suzaku X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission from the remnant is well described by two-temperature thermal models of non-equilibrium ionization with variable abundances with a column density of N{sub H} ? 3.3 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2}. The soft component is characterized by an electron temperature of kT{sub e} ? 0.6 keV, an ionization timescale of ? ? 3.4 10{sup 11} cm{sup 3} s, and enhanced Si, S, Ar, and Ca abundances. The hard component has kT{sub e} ? 4.3 keV, ? ? 8.8 10{sup 9} cm{sup 3} s, and enhanced Fe abundance. The elemental abundances of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe are found to be significantly higher than the solar values that confirm the presence of ejecta. We detected strong Fe K-shell emission and determined its origin to be the ejecta for the first time. The detection of Fe ejecta with a lower ionization timescale favors a Type Ia origin for this remnant.

  4. Understanding the SNO+ Detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kamdin, K.

    2015-03-24

    SNO+, a large liquid scintillator experiment, is the successor of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment. The scintillator volume will be loaded with large quantities of 130Te, an isotope that undergoes double beta decay, in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. In addition to this search, SNO+ has a broad physics program due to its sensitivity to solar and supernova neutrinos, as well as reactor and geo anti-neutrinos. SNO+ can also place competitive limits on certain modes of invisible nucleon decay during its first phase. The detector is currently undergoing commissioning in preparation for its first phase, inmore » which the detector is filled with ultra pure water. This will be followed by a pure scintillator phase, and then a Tellurium-loaded scintillator phase to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Here we present the work done to model detector aging, which was first observed during SNO. The aging was found to reduce the optical response of the detector. We also describe early results from electronics calibration of SNO+.« less

  5. AN ARECIBO SURVEY FOR ZEEMAN SPLITTING IN OH MEGAMASER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, James; Heiles, Carl E-mail: heiles@astro.berkeley.edu

    2013-01-20

    We present the results of a comprehensive survey using the Arecibo Observatory for Zeeman splitting of OH lines in OH megamasers (OHMs). A total of 77 sources were observed with the Arecibo telescope. Of these, maser emission could not be detected for eight sources, and two sources were only ambiguously detected. Another 27 sources were detected at low signal-to-noise ratios or with interference that prevented placing any useful limits on the presence of magnetic fields. In 26 sources, it was possible to place upper limits on the magnitude of magnetic fields, typically between 10 and 30 mG. For 14 sources, the Stokes V spectra exhibit features consistent with Zeeman splitting. Eleven of these 14 are new detections, and the remaining three are re-detections of Stokes V detections in Robishaw et al. Among confident new detections, we derive magnetic fields associated with maser regions with magnitudes ranging from 6.1 to 27.6 mG. The distribution of magnetic field strengths suggests the magnetic fields in OH masing clouds in OHMs are larger than those in Galactic OH masers. The results are consistent with magnetic fields playing a dynamically important role in OH masing clouds in OHMs.

  6. DEEP, LOW MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XIII. DZ PISCIUM WITH INTRINSIC LIGHT VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B. E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn

    2013-08-01

    New multi-color photometry for the eclipsing binary DZ Psc was performed in 2011 and 2012 using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code, we deduced two sets of photometric solutions. The overcontact degree is f = 89.7({+-} 1.0)%, identifying DZ Psc as a deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary. The asymmetric light curves (i.e., LC{sub 2} in 2012) were modeled by a hot spot on the primary star. Based on all of the available light minimum times, we discovered that the orbital period of DZ Psc may be undergoing a secular period increase with a cyclic variation. The modulated period and semi-amplitude of this oscillation are P{sub mod} = 11.89({+-} 0.19) yr and A = 0.0064({+-} 0.0006) days, which may be possibly attributed to either cyclic magnetic activity or light-time effect due to the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt=+7.43({+-}0.17) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted as conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transferring, DZ Psc will finally merge into a rapid-rotation single star when J{sub spin}/J{sub orb} > 1/3.

  7. On the Unreasonable Effectiveness of post-Newtonian Theory in Gravitational-Wave Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Clifford M. Will

    2010-01-08

    The first indirect detection of gravitational waves involved a binary system of neutron stars.  In the future, the first direct detection may also involve binary systems -- inspiralling and merging binary neutron stars or black holes. This means that it is essential to understand in full detail the two-body system in general relativity, a notoriously difficult problem with a long history. Post-Newtonian approximation methods are thought to work only under slow motion and weak field conditions, while numerical solutions of Einstein's equations are thought to be limited to the final merger phase.  Recent results have shown that post-Newtonian approximations seem to remain unreasonably valid well into the relativistic regime, while advances in numerical relativity now permit solutions for numerous orbits before merger.  It is now possible to envision linking post-Newtonian theory and numerical relativity to obtain a complete ``solution'' of the general relativistic two-body problem.  These solutions will play a central role in detecting and understanding gravitational wave signals received by interferometric observatories on Earth and in space.

  8. Contribution from biogenic organic compounds to particle growth during the 2010 BEACHON-ROCS campaign in a Colorado temperate needleleaf forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, L.; Gierens, R.; Sogachev, A.; Mogensen, D.; Ortega, J.; Smith, J. N.; Harley, P. C.; Prenni, A. J.; Levin, E. J. T.; Turnipseed, A.; et al

    2015-08-06

    New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric phenomenon. During an NPF event, particles first form by nucleation and then grow further in size. The growth step is crucial because it controls the number of particles that can become cloud condensation nuclei. Among various physical and chemical processes contributing to particle growth, condensation by organic vapors has been suggested as important. In order to better understand the influence of biogenic emissions on particle growth, we carried out modeling studies of NPF events during the BEACHON-ROCS (Bio–hydro–atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosol, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Organic Carbonmore » Study) campaign at Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory in Colorado, USA. The site is representative of the semi-arid western USA. With the latest Criegee intermediate reaction rates implemented in the chemistry scheme, the model underestimates sulfuric acid concentration by 50 %, suggesting either missing sources of atmospheric sulfuric acid or an overestimated sink term. The results emphasize the contribution from biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to particle growth by demonstrating the effects of the oxidation products of monoterpenes and 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO). Monoterpene oxidation products are shown to influence the nighttime particle loadings significantly, while their concentrations are insufficient to grow the particles during the day. The growth of ultrafine particles in the daytime appears to be closely related to the OH oxidation products of MBO.« less

  9. MODELING SUPER-FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES OBSERVED BY SDO IN ACTIVE REGION FUNNELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofman, L.; Liu, W.; Title, A.; Aschwanden, M.

    2011-10-20

    Recently, quasi-periodic, rapidly propagating waves have been observed in extreme ultraviolet by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument in about 10 flare/coronal mass ejection (CME) events thus far. A typical example is the 2010 August 1 C3.2 flare/CME event that exhibited arc-shaped wave trains propagating in an active region (AR) magnetic funnel with {approx}5% intensity variations at speeds in the range of 1000-2000 km s{sup -1}. The fast temporal cadence and high sensitivity of AIA enabled the detection of these waves. We identify them as fast magnetosonic waves driven quasi-periodically at the base of the flaring region and develop a three-dimensional MHD model of the event. For the initial state we utilize the dipole magnetic field to model the AR and include gravitationally stratified density at coronal temperature. At the coronal base of the AR, we excite the fast magnetosonic wave by periodic velocity pulsations in the photospheric plane confined to a funnel of magnetic field lines. The excited fast magnetosonic waves have similar amplitude, wavelength, and propagation speeds as the observed wave trains. Based on the simulation results, we discuss the possible excitation mechanism of the waves, their dynamical properties, and the use of the observations for coronal MHD seismology.

  10. Physics Division progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollen, G.Y.; Schappert, G.T.

    1994-07-01

    This report discusses its following topics: Recent Weapons-Physics Experiments on the Pegasus II Pulsed Power Facility; Operation of a Large-Scale Plasma Source Ion Implantation Experiment; Production of Charm and Beauty Mesons at Fermilab Sudbury Neutrino Observatory; P-Division`s Essential Role in the Redirected Inertial Confinement Fusion Program; Trident Target Physics Program; Comparative Studies of Brain Activation with Magnetocephalography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cellular Communication, Interaction of G-Proteins, and Single-Photon Detection; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Oxygen-doped La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} Thermoacoustic Engines; A Shipborne Raman Water-Vapor Lidar for the Central Pacific Experiment; Angara-5 Pinch Temperature Verification with Time-resolved Spectroscopy; Russian Collaborations on Megagauss Magnetic Fields and Pulsed-Power Applications; Studies of Energy Coupling from Underground Explosions; Trapping and Cooling Large Numbers of Antiprotons: A First Step Toward the Measurement of Gravity on Antimatter; and Nuclear-Energy Production Without a Long-Term High-Level Waste Stream.

  11. Results of the IGEC-2 search for gravitational wave bursts during 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astone, P.; Babusci, D.; Giordano, G.; Marini, A.; Modestino, G.; Quintieri, L.; Ronga, F.; Baggio, L.; Bassan, M.; Fafone, V.; Moleti, A.; Bignotto, M.; Cerdonio, M.; Conti, L.; Drago, M.; Liguori, N.; Bonaldi, M.; Falferi, P.; Vinante, A.; Camarda, M.

    2007-11-15

    The network of resonant bar detectors of gravitational waves resumed coordinated observations within the International Gravitational Event Collaboration (IGEC-2). Four detectors are taking part in this Collaboration: ALLEGRO, AURIGA, EXPLORER and NAUTILUS. We present here the results of the search for gravitational wave bursts over 6 months during 2005, when IGEC-2 was the only gravitational wave observatory in operation. The implemented network data analysis is based on a time coincidence search among AURIGA, EXPLORER and NAUTILUS; ALLEGRO data was reserved for follow-up studies. The network amplitude sensitivity to bursts improved by a factor {approx_equal}3 over the 1997-2000 IGEC observations; the wider sensitive band also allowed the analysis to be tuned over a larger class of waveforms. Given the higher single-detector duty factors, the analysis was based on threefold coincidence, to ensure the identification of any single candidate of gravitational waves with high statistical confidence. The false detection rate was as low as 1 per century. No candidates were found.

  12. The Origin of Cosmic Rays

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Blasi, Pasquale [INAF/Arcetri-Italy and Fermilab, Italy

    2010-01-08

    Cosmic Rays reach the Earth from space with energies of up to more than 1020 eV, carrying information on the most powerful particle accelerators that Nature has been able to assemble. Understanding where and how cosmic rays originate has required almost one century of investigations, and, although the last word is not written yet, recent observations and theory seem now to fit together to provide us with a global picture of the origin of cosmic rays of unprecedented clarity. Here we will describe what we learned from recent observations of astrophysical sources (such as supernova remnants and active galaxies) and we will illustrate what these observations tell us about the physics of particle acceleration and transport. We will also discuss the ?end? of the Galactic cosmic ray spectrum, which bridges out attention towards the so called ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). At ~1020 eV the gyration scale of cosmic rays in cosmic magnetic fields becomes large enough to allow us to point back to their sources, thereby allowing us to perform ?cosmic ray astronomy?, as confirmed by the recent results obtained with the Pierre Auger Observatory. We will discuss the implications of these observations for the understanding of UHECRs, as well as some questions which will likely remain unanswered and will be the target of the next generation of cosmic ray experiments.

  13. MEASURING THE SOLAR RADIUS FROM SPACE DURING THE 2012 VENUS TRANSIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emilio, M.; Couvidat, S.; Bush, R. I.; Kuhn, J. R.; Scholl, I. F. E-mail: kuhn@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: couvidat@stanford.edu

    2015-01-01

    We report in this work the determination of the solar radius from observations by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory during the 2012 June Venus transit of the Sun. Two different methods were utilized to determine the solar radius using images of Sun taken by the HMI instrument. The first technique fit the measured trajectory of Venus in front of the Sun for seven wavelengths across the Fe I absorption line at 6173 . The solar radius determined from this method varies with the measurement wavelength, reflecting the variation in the height of line formation. The second method measured the area of the Sun obscured by Venus to determine the transit duration from which the solar radius was derived. This analysis focused on measurements taken in the continuum wing of the line, and applied a correction for the instrumental point spread function (PSF) of the HMI images. Measurements taken in the continuum wing of the 6173 line, resulted in a derived solar radius at 1 AU of 959.''57 0.''02 (695, 946 15 km). The AIA instrument observed the Venus transit at ultraviolet wavelengths. Using the solar disk obscuration technique, similar to that applied to the HMI images, analysis of the AIA data resulted in values of R {sub ?} = 963.''04 0.''03 at 1600 and R {sub ?} = 961.''76 0.''03 at 1700 .

  14. HerMES: A DEFICIT IN THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS OF THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND DUE TO GALAXY CLUSTER GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemcov, M.; Cooray, A.; Bock, J.; Dowell, C. D.; Nguyen, H. T.; Blain, A.; Bethermin, M.; Conley, A.; Glenn, J.; Conversi, L.; Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G.; Griffin, M.; Halpern, M.; Marsden, G.; Jullo, E.; Kneib, J.-P.; Richard, J.; and others

    2013-06-01

    We have observed four massive galaxy clusters with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory and measure a deficit of surface brightness within their central region after removing detected sources. We simulate the effects of instrumental sensitivity and resolution, the source population, and the lensing effect of the clusters to estimate the shape and amplitude of the deficit. The amplitude of the central deficit is a strong function of the surface density and flux distribution of the background sources. We find that for the current best fitting faint end number counts, and excellent lensing models, the most likely amplitude of the central deficit is the full intensity of the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Our measurement leads to a lower limit to the integrated total intensity of the CIB of I{sub 250{mu}m}>0.69{sub -0.03}{sup +0.03}(stat.){sub -0.06}{sup +0.11}(sys.) MJy sr{sup -1}, with more CIB possible from both low-redshift sources and from sources within the target clusters. It should be possible to observe this effect in existing high angular resolution data at other wavelengths where the CIB is bright, which would allow tests of models of the faint source component of the CIB.

  15. COLD DUST BUT WARM GAS IN THE UNUSUAL ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4125

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C. D.; Cridland, A.; Foyle, K.; Parkin, T. J.; Cooper, E. Mentuch; Roussel, H.; Sauvage, M.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S.; Baes, M.; De Looze, I.; Bendo, G.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Galametz, M.; and others

    2013-10-20

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and H I emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5 10{sup 6} M {sub ?}. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (<12-30), including the ionized gas traced by [C II] emission raises this limit to <39-100. The dust emission follows a similar r {sup 1/4} profile to the stellar light and the dust to stellar mass ratio is toward the high end of what is found in nearby elliptical galaxies. We suggest that NGC 4125 is currently in an unusual phase where evolved stars produced in a merger-triggered burst of star formation are pumping large amounts of gas and dust into the interstellar medium. In this scenario, the low neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is explained by the gas being heated to temperatures ?10{sup 4} K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.

  16. A NEW LARGE SUPER-FAST ROTATOR: (335433) 2005 UW163

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Ip, Wing-Huen; Waszczak, Adam; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason

    2014-08-20

    Asteroids of size larger than 150m generally do not have rotation periods smaller than 2.2 hr. This spin cutoff is believed to be due to the gravitationally bound rubble-pile structures of the asteroids. Rotation with periods exceeding this critical value will cause asteroid breakup. Up until now, only one object, 2001 OE84, has been found to be an exception to this spin cutoff. We report the discovery of a new super-fast rotator, (335433) 2005 UW163, spinning with a period of 1.290 hr and a light curve variation of r' ? 0.8mag from the observations made at the P48 telescope and the P200 telescope of the Palomar Observatory. Its H{sub r{sup ?}}=17.690.27mag and multi-band colors (i.e., g' r' = 0.68 0.03mag, r' i' = 0.19 0.02mag and SDSS i z = 0.45mag) show it is a V-type asteroid with a diameter of 0.6 + 0.3/ 0.2 km. This indicates (335433) 2005 UW163 is a super-fast rotator beyond the regime of the small monolithic asteroid.

  17. A very small and super strong zebra pattern burst at the beginning of a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Baolin; Tan, Chengming; Zhang, Yin; Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua; Mszrosov, Hana; Karlick, Marian

    2014-08-01

    Microwave emission with spectral zebra pattern structures (ZPs) is frequently observed in solar flares and the Crab pulsar. The previous observations show that ZP is a structure only overlapped on the underlying broadband continuum with slight increments and decrements. This work reports an unusually strong ZP burst occurring at the beginning of a solar flare observed simultaneously by two radio telescopes located in China and the Czech Republic and by the EUV telescope on board NASA's satellite Solar Dynamics Observatory on 2013 April 11. It is a very short and super strong explosion whose intensity exceeds several times that of the underlying flaring broadband continuum emission, lasting for just 18 s. EUV images show that the flare starts from several small flare bursting points (FBPs). There is a sudden EUV flash with extra enhancement in one of these FBPs during the ZP burst. Analysis indicates that the ZP burst accompanying an EUV flash is an unusual explosion revealing a strong coherent process with rapid particle acceleration, violent energy release, and fast plasma heating simultaneously in a small region with a short duration just at the beginning of the flare.

  18. The CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giachero, A.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Dell’Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nastasi, M.; Nisi, S.; C. Nones; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O’Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.; Bravina, L.; Foka, Y.; Kabana, S.

    2015-05-29

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 130Te and other rare processes. CUORE is a cryogenic detector composed of 988 TeO2 bolometers for a total mass of about 741 kg. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, where it will start taking data in 2015. If the target background of 0.01 counts/(keV·kg·y) will be reached, in five years of data taking CUORE will have an half life sensitivity around 1 × 1026 y at 90% C.L. As a first step towards CUORE a smaller experiment CUORE-0, constructed to test and demonstrate the performances expected for CUORE, has been assembled and is running. The detector is a single tower of 52 CUORE-like bolometers that started taking data in spring 2013. The status and perspectives of CUORE will be discussed, and the first CUORE-0 data will be presented.

  19. Upper limits on the total cosmic-ray luminosity of individual sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anjos, R.C.; De Souza, V.; Supanitsky, A.D. E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, upper limits on the total luminosity of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) E>10{sup 18} eV) are determined for five individual sources. The upper limit on the integral flux of GeV--TeV gamma-rays is used to extract the upper limit on the total UHECR luminosity of individual sources. The correlation between upper limit on the integral GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux and upper limit on the UHECR luminosity is established through the cascading process that takes place during propagation of the cosmic rays in the background radiation fields, as explained in reference [1]. Twenty-eight sources measured by FERMI-LAT, VERITAS and MAGIC observatories have been studied. The measured upper limit on the GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux is restrictive enough to allow the calculation of an upper limit on the total UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of five sources. The upper limit on the UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of these sources is shown for several assumptions on the emission mechanism. For all studied sources an upper limit on the ultra-high-energy proton luminosity is also set.

  20. Toward the detection of exoplanet transits with polarimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Laughlin, Gregory P.

    2014-11-01

    In contrast to photometric transits, whose peak signal occurs at mid-transit due to occultation of the brightest region of the disk, polarimetric transits provide a signal upon ingress and egress due to occultation of the polarized stellar limb. Limb polarization, the bright corollary to limb darkening, arises from the 90 scattering angle and low optical depth experienced by photons at the limb. In addition to the ratio R {sub p}/R {sub *}, the amplitude of a polarimetric transit is expected to be controlled by the strength and width of the stellar limb polarization profile, which depend on the scattering-to-total opacity ratio at the stellar limb. We present a short list of the systems providing the highest expected signal-to-noise ratio for detection of this effect, and we draw particular attention to HD 80606b. This planet is spin/orbit misaligned, has a three-hour ingress, and has a bright parent star, which make it an attractive target. We report on test observations of an HD 80606b ingress with the POLISH2 polarimeter at the Lick Observatory Shane 3 m telescope. We conclude that unmodeled telescope systematic effects prevented polarimetric detection of this event. We outline a roadmap for further refinements of exoplanet polarimetry, whose eventual success will require a further factor of ten reduction in systematic noise.

  1. SOLAR PHOTOIONIZATION RATES FOR INTERSTELLAR NEUTRALS IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE: H, He, O, AND Ne

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bochsler, P.; Kucharek, H.; Mbius, E.; Bzowski, Maciej; Sok?, Justyna M.; Didkovsky, Leonid; Wieman, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Extreme UV (EUV) spectra from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED)/Solar EUV Experiment are used to infer photoionization rates in the inner heliosphere. Relating these rates to various proxies describing the solar EUV radiation, we construct a multi-linear model which allows us to extrapolate ionization rates back to periods when no routine measurements of the solar EUV spectral distribution have been available. Such information is important, e.g., for comparing conditions of the interstellar neutral particles in the inner heliosphere at the time of Ulysses/GAS observations with conditions during the more recent observations of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer. From a period of 11yr when detailed spectra from both TIMED and three proxiesSolar and Heliospheric Observatory/CELIAS/SEM-rates, F10.7 radio flux, and Mg II core-to-wing indiceshave been available, we conclude that the simple model is able to reproduce the photoionization rates with an uncertainty of typically 5%.

  2. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    2015-02-22

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  3. The lick AGN monitoring project 2011: Fe II reverberation from the outer broad-line region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Cooper, Michael C.; Pancoast, Anna; Treu, Tommaso; Bennert, Vardha N.; Brewer, Brendon J.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Gates, Elinor L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Sand, David J.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Buehler, Tabitha; and others

    2013-06-01

    The prominent broad Fe II emission blends in the spectra of active galactic nuclei have been shown to vary in response to continuum variations, but past attempts to measure the reverberation lag time of the optical Fe II lines have met with only limited success. Here we report the detection of Fe II reverberation in two Seyfert 1 galaxies, NGC 4593 and Mrk 1511, based on data from a program carried out at Lick Observatory in Spring 2011. Light curves for emission lines including H? and Fe II were measured by applying a fitting routine to decompose the spectra into several continuum and emission-line components, and we use cross-correlation techniques to determine the reverberation lags of the emission lines relative to V-band light curves. In both cases, the measured lag (?{sub cen}) of Fe II is longer than that of H?, although the inferred lags are somewhat sensitive to the choice of Fe II template used in the fit. For spectral decompositions done using the Fe II template of Vron-Cetty et al., we find ?{sub cen}(Fe II)/?{sub cen}(H?) = 1.9 0.6 in NGC 4593 and 1.5 0.3 in Mrk 1511. The detection of highly correlated variations between Fe II and continuum emission demonstrates that the Fe II emission in these galaxies originates in photoionized gas, located predominantly in the outer portion of the broad-line region.

  4. Spin structure in high energy processes: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePorcel, L.; Dunwoodie, C.

    1994-12-01

    This report contains papers as the following topics: Spin, Mass, and Symmetry; physics with polarized Z{sup 0}s; spin and precision electroweak physics; polarized electron sources; polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics; polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; polarized targets in high energy physics; spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators; spin formalism and applications to new physics searches; precision electroweak physics at LEP; recent results on heavy flavor physics from LEP experiments using 1990--1992 data; precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions; preliminary results on heavy flavor physics at SLD; QCD tests with SLD and polarized beams; recent results from TRISTAN at KEK; recent B physics results from CLEO; searching for the H dibaryon at Brookhaven; recent results from the compton observatory; the spin structure of the deuteron; spin structure of the neutron ({sup 3}HE) and the Bjoerken sum rule; a consumer`s guide to lattice QCD results; top ten models constrained by b {yields} sy; a review of the Fermilab fixed target program; results from the D0 experiment; results from CDF at FNAL; quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung; report from the ZEUS collaboration at HERA; physics from the first year of H1 at HERA, and hard diffraction. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere.

  5. Seismicity and structure of Akutan and Makushin Volcanoes, Alaska, using joint body and surface wave tomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Syracuse, E. M.; Maceira, M.; Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.

    2015-02-18

    Joint inversions of seismic data recover models that simultaneously fit multiple constraints while playing upon the strengths of each data type. Here, we jointly invert 14 years of local earthquake body wave arrival times from the Alaska Volcano Observatory catalog and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves based upon ambient noise measurements for local Vp, Vs, and hypocentral locations at Akutan and Makushin Volcanoes using a new joint inversion algorithm.The velocity structure and relocated seismicity of both volcanoes are significantly more complex than many other volcanoes studied using similar techniques. Seismicity is distributed among several areas beneath or beyond the flanks ofmore » both volcanoes, illuminating a variety of volcanic and tectonic features. The velocity structures of the two volcanoes are exemplified by the presence of narrow high-Vp features in the near surface, indicating likely current or remnant pathways of magma to the surface. A single broad low-Vp region beneath each volcano is slightly offset from each summit and centered at approximately 7 km depth, indicating a potential magma chamber, where magma is stored over longer time periods. Differing recovery capabilities of the Vp and Vs datasets indicate that the results of these types of joint inversions must be interpreted carefully.« less

  6. INTENSITY ENHANCEMENT OF OVI ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION LINES IN SOLAR SPECTRA DUE TO OPACITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keenan, F. P.; Mathioudakis, M.; Doyle, J. G.; Madjarska, M. S.; Rose, S. J.; Bowler, L. A.; Britton, J.; McCrink, L.

    2014-04-01

    Opacity is a property of many plasmas. It is normally expected that if an emission line in a plasma becomes optically thick, then its intensity ratio to that of another transition that remains optically thin should decrease. However, radiative transfer calculations undertaken both by ourselves and others predict that under certain conditions the intensity ratio of an optically thick to an optically thin line can show an increase over the optically thin value, indicating an enhancement in the former. These conditions include the geometry of the emitting plasma and its orientation to the observer. A similar effect can take place between lines of differing optical depths. While previous observational studies have focused on stellar point sources, here we investigate the spatially resolved solar atmosphere using measurements of the I(1032 )/I(1038 ) intensity ratio of OVI in several regions obtained with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite. We find several I(1032 )/I(1038 ) ratios observed on the disk to be significantly larger than the optically thin value of 2.0, providing the first detection (to our knowledge) of intensity enhancement in the ratio arising from opacity effects in the solar atmosphere. The agreement between observation and theory is excellent and confirms that the OVI emission originates from a slab-like geometry in the solar atmosphere, rather than from cylindrical structures.

  7. Concept for lightweight spaced-based deposition technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulton, Michael; Anders, Andre

    2006-02-28

    In this contribution we will describe a technology path to very high quality coatings fabricated in the vacuum of space. To accomplish the ambitious goals set out in NASA's Lunar-Mars proposal, advanced thin-film deposition technology will be required. The ability to deposit thin-film coatings in the vacuum of lunar-space could be extremely valuable for executing this new space mission. Developing lightweight space-based deposition technology (goal:<300 g, including power supply) will enable the future fabrication and repair of flexible large-area space antennae and fixed telescope mirrors for lunar-station observatories. Filtered Cathodic Arc (FCA) is a proven terrestrial energetic thin-film deposition technology that does not need any processing gas but is well suited for ultra-high vacuum operation. Recently, miniaturized cathodic arcs have already been developed and considered for space propulsion. It is proposed to combine miniaturized pulsed FCA technology and robotics to create a robust, enabling space-based deposition system for the fabrication, improvement, and repair of thin films, especially of silver and aluminum, on telescope mirrors and eventually on large area flexible substrates. Using miniature power supplies with inductive storage, the typical low-voltage supply systems used in space are adequate. It is shown that high-value, small area coatings are within the reach of existing technology, while medium and large area coatings are challenging in terms of lightweight technology and economics.

  8. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloisio, R.; Blasi, P.

    2014-10-01

    We use a kinetic-equation approach to describe the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei and calculate the expected spectra and mass composition at the Earth for different assumptions on the source injection spectra and chemical abundances. When compared with the spectrum, the elongation rate X{sub max}(E) and dispersion ?(X{sub max}) as observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, several important consequences can be drawn: a) the injection spectra of nuclei must be very hard, ?E{sup -?} with ??1- 1.6; b) the maximum energy of nuclei of charge Z in the sources must be ?5Zנ10{sup 18} eV, thereby not requiring acceleration to extremely high energies; c) the fit to the Auger spectrum can be obtained only at the price of adding an ad hoc light extragalactic component with a steep injection spectrum ?E{sup -2.7}). In this sense, at the ankle E{sub A}?5נ10{sup 18} eV) all the components are of extragalactic origin, thereby suggesting that the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays occurs below the ankle. Interestingly, the additional light extragalactic component postulated above compares well, in terms of spectrum and normalization, with the one recently measured by KASCADE-Grande.

  9. Short-duration radio bursts with apparent extragalactic dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saint-Hilaire, P.; Benz, A. O.; Monstein, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of the longest yet undertaken search for apparently extragalactic radio bursts at the Bleien Radio Observatory covering 21,000 hr (898 days). The data were searched for events of less than 50 ms FWHM duration showing a ?{sup 2} drift in the spectrogram characteristic of the delay of radio waves in plasma. We have found five cases suggesting dispersion measures between 350 and 400 cm{sup 3} pc while searching in the range of 75-2000 cm{sup 3} pc. Four of the five events occurred between 10:27 and 11:24 a.m. local civil time. The only exception occurred at night with the full Moon in the beam. It was an event that poorly fits plasma dispersion, but had the characteristics of a solar Type III burst. However, we were not able to confirm that it was a lunar reflection. All events were observed with a log-periodic dipole within 6800 hr, but none with a more directional horn antenna observing the rest of the time. These properties suggest a terrestrial origin of the 'peryton' type reported before. However, the cause of these events remains ambiguous.

  10. Generation mechanism of the slowly drifting narrowband structure in the type IV solar radio bursts observed by AMATERAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Iwai, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the type IV burst event observed by AMATERAS on 2011 June 7, and reveal that the main component of the burst was emitted from the plasmoid eruption identified in the EUV images of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA. We show that a slowly drifting narrowband structure (SDNS) appeared in the burst's spectra. Using statistical analysis, we reveal that the SDNS appeared for a duration of tens to hundreds of milliseconds and had a typical bandwidth of 3 MHz. To explain the mechanism generating the SDNS, we propose wave-wave coupling between Langmuir waves and whistler-mode chorus emissions generated in a post-flare loop, which were inferred from the similarities in the plasma environments of a post-flare loop and the equatorial region of Earth's inner magnetosphere. We assume that a chorus element with a rising tone is generated at the top of a post-flare loop. Using the magnetic field and plasma density models, we quantitatively estimate the expected duration of radio emissions generated from coupling between Langmuir waves and chorus emissions during their propagation in the post-flare loop, and we find that the observed duration and bandwidth properties of the SDNS are consistently explained by the proposed generation mechanism. While observations in the terrestrial magnetosphere show that the chorus emissions are a group of large-amplitude wave elements generated naturally and intermittently, the mechanism proposed in the present study can explain both the intermittency and the frequency drift in the observed spectra.

  11. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from PKS 1424+240 and Multiwavelength Constraints on its Redshift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciari, V.A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M. Benbow, W.; Bottcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S.M.; Buckley, J.H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Chow, Y.C.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; /more authors..

    2012-04-05

    We report the first detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140GeV from PKS 1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 {+-}0.5{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub syst} and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 {+-} 0.9{sub stat} {+-} 0.5{sub syst}) x 10{sup -11} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainty, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light (EBL) absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66.

  12. The Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; /Fermilab

    2011-09-09

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a next generation optical survey aimed at understanding the expansion rate of the Universe using four complementary methods: weak gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster counts, baryon acoustic oscillations, and Type Ia supernovae. To perform the survey, the DES Collaboration is building the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera that will be mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. CCD production has finished, yielding roughly twice the required 62 2k x 4k detectors. The construction of DECam is nearly finished. Integration and commissioning on a 'telescope simulator' of the major hardware and software components, except for the optics, recently concluded at Fermilab. Final assembly of the optical corrector has started at University College, London. Some components have already been received at CTIO. 'First-light' will be sometime in 2012. This oral presentation concentrates on the technical challenges involved in building DECam (and how we overcame them), and the present status of the instrument.

  13. Understanding the SNO+ Detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kamdin, K.

    2015-03-24

    SNO+, a large liquid scintillator experiment, is the successor of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment. The scintillator volume will be loaded with large quantities of 130Te, an isotope that undergoes double beta decay, in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. In addition to this search, SNO+ has a broad physics program due to its sensitivity to solar and supernova neutrinos, as well as reactor and geo anti-neutrinos. SNO+ can also place competitive limits on certain modes of invisible nucleon decay during its first phase. The detector is currently undergoing commissioning in preparation for its first phase, inmore »which the detector is filled with ultra pure water. This will be followed by a pure scintillator phase, and then a Tellurium-loaded scintillator phase to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Here we present the work done to model detector aging, which was first observed during SNO. The aging was found to reduce the optical response of the detector. We also describe early results from electronics calibration of SNO+.« less

  14. DIRECT SPECTRUM OF THE BENCHMARK T DWARF HD19467B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Rice, Emily L.; Giorla, Paige; Veicht, AAron; Nilsson, Ricky; Luszcz-Cook, Statia H.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Brenner, Douglas; Aguilar, Jonathan; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi; Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Vasisht, Gautam; Cady, Eric; Lockhart, Thomas; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Beichman, Charles A.; and others

    2015-01-10

    HD19467B is presently the only directly imaged T dwarf companion known to induce a measurable Doppler acceleration around a solar-type star. We present spectroscopy measurements of this important benchmark object taken with the Project 1640 integral field unit at Palomar Observatory. Our high-contrast R ? 30 observations obtained simultaneously across the JH bands confirm the cold nature of the companion as reported from the discovery article and determine its spectral type for the first time. Fitting the measured spectral energy distribution to SpeX/IRTF T dwarf standards and synthetic spectra from BT-Settl atmospheric models, we find that HD19467B is a T5.5 1 dwarf with effective temperature T{sub eff}=978{sub ?43}{sup +20}K. Our observations reveal significant methane absorption affirming its substellar nature. HD19467B shows promise to become the first T dwarf that simultaneously reveals its mass, age, and metallicity independent from the spectrum of light that it emits.

  15. CO2 and CH4 Fluxes across Polygon Geomorphic Types, Barrow, Alaska, 2006-2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tweedie,Craig; Lara, Mark

    2014-09-17

    Carbon flux data are reported as Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE), Ecosystem Respiration (ER), and Methane (CH4) flux. Measurements were made at 82 plots across various polygon geomorphic classes at research sites on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), the Biocomplexity Experiment site on the BEO, and the International Biological Program (IBP) site a little west of the BEO. This product is a compilation of data from 27 plots as presented in Lara et al. (2012), data from six plots presented in Olivas et al. (2010); and from 49 plots described in (Lara et al. 2014). Measurements were made during the peak of the growing seasons during 2006 to 2010. At each of the measurement plots (except Olivas et al., 2010) four different thicknesses of shade cloth were used to generate CO2 light response curves. Light response curves were used to normalize photosynthetically active radiation that is diurnally variable to a peak growing season average ~400 umolm-2sec-1. At the Olivas et al. (2010) plots, diurnal patterns were characterized by repeated sampling. CO2 measurements were made using a closed-chamber photosynthesis system and CH4 measurements were made using a photo-acoustic multi-gas analyzer. In addition, plot-level measurements for thaw depth (TD), water table depth (WTD), leaf area index (LAI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are summarized by geomorphic polygon type.

  16. Constraining absolute neutrino masses via detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at JUNO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jia-Shu; Cao, Jun; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun

    2015-05-26

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses m{sub ν} via the detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with a 20 kiloton liquid-scintillator detector. In assumption of a nearly-degenerate neutrino mass spectrum and a normal mass ordering, the upper bound on the absolute neutrino mass is found to be m{sub ν}<(0.83±0.24) eV at the 95% confidence level for a typical galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc, where the mean value and standard deviation are shown to account for statistical fluctuations. For comparison, we find that the bound in the Super-Kamiokande experiment is m{sub ν}<(0.94±0.28) eV at the same confidence level. However, the upper bound will be relaxed when the model parameters characterizing the time structure of supernova neutrino fluxes are not exactly known, and when the neutrino mass ordering is inverted.

  17. Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: qualitative features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.

    2015-07-16

    Because of physical processes ranging from microscopic particle collisions to macroscopic hydrodynamic fluctuations, any plasma in thermal equilibrium emits gravitational waves. For the largest wavelengths the emission rate is proportional to the shear viscosity of the plasma. In the Standard Model at T>160 GeV, the shear viscosity is dominated by the most weakly interacting particles, right-handed leptons, and is relatively large. We estimate the order of magnitude of the corresponding spectrum of gravitational waves. Even though at small frequencies (corresponding to the sub-Hz range relevant for planned observatories such as eLISA) this background is tiny compared with that from non-equilibrium sources, the total energy carried by the high-frequency part of the spectrum is non-negligible if the production continues for a long time. We suggest that this may constrain (weakly) the highest temperature of the radiation epoch. Observing the high-frequency part directly sets a very ambitious goal for future generations of GHz-range detectors.

  18. Contribution from biogenic organic compounds to particle growth during the 2010 BEACHON-ROCS campaign in a Colorado temperate needleleaf forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, L.; Gierens, R.; Sogachev, A.; Mogensen, D.; Ortega, J.; Smith, J. N.; Harley, P. C.; Prenni, A. J.; Levin, E. J. T.; Turnipseed, A.; Rusanen, A.; Smolander, S.; Guenther, A. B.; Kulmala, M.; Karl, T.; Boy, M.

    2015-08-06

    New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric phenomenon. During an NPF event, particles first form by nucleation and then grow further in size. The growth step is crucial because it controls the number of particles that can become cloud condensation nuclei. Among various physical and chemical processes contributing to particle growth, condensation by organic vapors has been suggested as important. In order to better understand the influence of biogenic emissions on particle growth, we carried out modeling studies of NPF events during the BEACHON-ROCS (Bio–hydro–atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosol, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study) campaign at Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory in Colorado, USA. The site is representative of the semi-arid western USA. With the latest Criegee intermediate reaction rates implemented in the chemistry scheme, the model underestimates sulfuric acid concentration by 50 %, suggesting either missing sources of atmospheric sulfuric acid or an overestimated sink term. The results emphasize the contribution from biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to particle growth by demonstrating the effects of the oxidation products of monoterpenes and 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO). Monoterpene oxidation products are shown to influence the nighttime particle loadings significantly, while their concentrations are insufficient to grow the particles during the day. The growth of ultrafine particles in the daytime appears to be closely related to the OH oxidation products of MBO.

  19. A search for point sources of EeV photons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Arqueros, F.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration102; and others

    2014-07-10

    Measurements of air showers made using the hybrid technique developed with the fluorescence and surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory allow a sensitive search for point sources of EeV photons anywhere in the exposed sky. A multivariate analysis reduces the background of hadronic cosmic rays. The search is sensitive to a declination band from –85° to +20°, in an energy range from 10{sup 17.3} eV to 10{sup 18.5} eV. No photon point source has been detected. An upper limit on the photon flux has been derived for every direction. The mean value of the energy flux limit that results from this, assuming a photon spectral index of –2, is 0.06 eV cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, and no celestial direction exceeds 0.25 eV cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. These upper limits constrain scenarios in which EeV cosmic ray protons are emitted by non-transient sources in the Galaxy.

  20. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  1. DETECTING NANOFLARE HEATING EVENTS IN SUBARCSECOND INTER-MOSS LOOPS USING Hi-C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Moore, Ronald; Cirtain, Jonathan; Walsh, Robert W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; Kobayashi, Ken; DeForest, Craig; Kuzin, Sergey

    2013-07-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July 11 and captured roughly 345 s of high-spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 A channel. In this paper, we analyze a set of rapidly evolving loops that appear in an inter-moss region. We select six loops that both appear in and fade out of the Hi-C images during the short flight. From the Hi-C data, we determine the size and lifetimes of the loops and characterize whether these loops appear simultaneously along their length or first appear at one footpoint before appearing at the other. Using co-aligned, co-temporal data from multiple channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we determine the temperature and density of the loops. We find the loops consist of cool ({approx}10{sup 5} K), dense ({approx}10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) plasma. Their required thermal energy and their observed evolution suggest they result from impulsive heating similar in magnitude to nanoflares. Comparisons with advanced numerical simulations indicate that such dense, cold and short-lived loops are a natural consequence of impulsive magnetic energy release by reconnection of braided magnetic field at low heights in the solar atmosphere.

  2. The CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments at Gran Sasso

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Giachero, A.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-05-29

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 130Te and other rare processes. CUORE is a cryogenic detector composed of 988 TeO2 bolometers for a total mass of about 741 kg. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, where it will start taking data in 2015. If the target background of 0.01 counts/(keV·kg·y) will be reached, in five years of data taking CUORE will have an half life sensitivity around 1 × 1026 y at 90% C.L. As a first step towardsmore » CUORE a smaller experiment CUORE-0, constructed to test and demonstrate the performances expected for CUORE, has been assembled and is running. The detector is a single tower of 52 CUORE-like bolometers that started taking data in spring 2013. The status and perspectives of CUORE will be discussed, and the first CUORE-0 data will be presented.« less

  3. KINETIC MODELING OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN A SOLAR NULL-POINT RECONNECTION REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, G.; Haugbolle, T.; Nordlund, A.

    2013-07-10

    The primary focus of this paper is on the particle acceleration mechanism in solar coronal three-dimensional reconnection null-point regions. Starting from a potential field extrapolation of a Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) magnetogram taken on 2002 November 16, we first performed magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with horizontal motions observed by SOHO applied to the photospheric boundary of the computational box. After a build-up of electric current in the fan plane of the null point, a sub-section of the evolved MHD data was used as initial and boundary conditions for a kinetic particle-in-cell model of the plasma. We find that sub-relativistic electron acceleration is mainly driven by a systematic electric field in the current sheet. A non-thermal population of electrons with a power-law distribution in energy forms in the simulated pre-flare phase, featuring a power-law index of about -1.78. This work provides a first step toward bridging the gap between macroscopic scales on the order of hundreds of Mm and kinetic scales on the order of centimeter in the solar corona, and explains how to achieve such a cross-scale coupling by utilizing either physical modifications or (equivalent) modifications of the constants of nature. With their exceptionally high resolution-up to 135 billion particles and 3.5 billion grid cells of size 17.5 km-these simulations offer a new opportunity to study particle acceleration in solar-like settings.

  4. SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR AND CIRCULAR OPTICAL POLARIMETRY OF ASTEROID (4) VESTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Nofi, Larissa A.

    2015-02-10

    From a single 3.8 hr observation of the asteroid (4) Vesta at 13.7 phase angle with the POlarimeter at Lick for Inclination Studies of Hot jupiters 2 (POLISH2) at the Lick Observatory Shane 3 m telescope, we confirm rotational modulation of linear polarization in the B and V bands. We measure the peak-to-peak modulation in the degree of linear polarization to be ?P = (294 35) 10{sup ?6} (ppm) and time-averaged ?P/P = 0.0575 0.0069. After rotating the plane of linear polarization to the scattering plane, asteroidal rotational modulation is detected with 12? confidence and observed solely in Stokes Q/I. POLISH2 simultaneously measures Stokes I, Q, U (linear polarization), and V (circular polarization), but we detect no significant circular polarization with a 1? upper limit of 78 ppm in the B band. Circular polarization is expected to arise from multiple scattering of sunlight by rough surfaces, and it has previously been detected in nearly all other classes of solar system bodies except for asteroids. Subsequent observations may be compared with surface albedo maps from the Dawn Mission, which may allow the identification of compositional variation across the asteroidal surface. These results demonstrate the high accuracy achieved by POLISH2 at the Lick 3 m telescope, which is designed to directly detect scattered light from spatially unresolvable exoplanets.

  5. DETECTION OF HIGH VELOCITY OUTFLOWS IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY Mrk 590

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, A.; Mathur, S.; Krongold, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the detection of ultra-fast outflows in the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 590. These outflows are identified through highly blueshifted absorption lines of O VIII and Ne IX in the medium energy grating spectrum and Si XIV and Mg XII in the high energy grating spectrum on board the Chandra X-ray observatory. Our best-fit photoionization model requires two absorber components at outflow velocities of 0.176c and 0.0738c and a third tentative component at 0.0867c. The components at 0.0738c and 0.0867c have high ionization parameters and high column densities, similar to other ultra-fast outflows detected at low resolution by Tombesi etal. We also found suggestive evidence for super-solar silicon in these components. These outflows carry sufficient mass and energy to provide effective feedback proposed by theoretical models. The component at 0.176c, on the other hand, has a low ionization parameter and low column density, similar to those detected by Gupta etal. in Ark 564. These absorbers occupy a different locus on the velocity versus ionization parameter plane and have opened up a new parameter space of active galactic nucleus (AGN) outflows. The presence of ultra-fast outflows in moderate luminosity AGNs poses a challenge to models of AGN outflows.

  6. Plasma dynamics above solar flare soft x-ray loop tops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P.; McKenzie, D. E.

    2014-06-10

    We measure non-thermal motions in flare loop tops and above the loop tops using profiles of highly ionized spectral lines of Fe XXIV and Fe XXIII formed at multimillion-degree temperatures. Non-thermal motions that may be due to turbulence or multiple flow regions along the line of sight are extracted from the line profiles. The non-thermal motions are measured for four flares seen at or close to the solar limb. The profile data are obtained using the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on the Hinode spacecraft. The multimillion-degree non-thermal motions are between 20 and 60 km s{sup 1} and appear to increase with height above the loop tops. Motions determined from coronal lines (i.e., lines formed at about 1.5 MK) tend to be smaller. The multimillion-degree temperatures in the loop tops and above range from about 11 MK to 15 MK and also tend to increase with height above the bright X-ray-emitting loop tops. The non-thermal motions measured along the line of sight, as well as their apparent increase with height, are supported by Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly measurements of turbulent velocities in the plane of the sky.

  7. FABSOAR--A Fabry-Perot Spectrometer for Oxygen A-band Research Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watchorn, Steven

    2010-09-10

    Because this was a Phase I project, it did not add extensively to the body of A-band knowledge. There was no basic research performed on that subject. The principal addition was that a mechanical and optical design for a triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer (FABSOAR) capable of A-band sensing was sketched out and shown to be within readily feasible instrument fabrication parameters. The parameters for the proposed triple-etalon Fabry-Perot were shown to be very similar to existing Fabry-Perots built by Scientific Solutions. The mechanical design for the FABSOAR instrument incorporated the design of previous Scientific Solutions imagers, condensing the three three-inch-diameter etalons into a single, sturdy tube. The design allowed for the inclusion of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) filter wheel and a thermocooled CCD detector from Andor. The tube has supports to mount to a horizontal or vertical opticaltable surface, and was to be coupled to a Scientific Solutions pointing head at the Millstone Hill Observatory in Massachusetts for Phase II calibration and testing.

  8. DEPLETION OF MOLECULAR GAS BY AN ACCRETION OUTBURST IN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banzatti, A.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bruderer, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fr Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany); Meyer, M. R., E-mail: banzatti@stsci.edu [ETH Zrich, Institut fr Astronomie, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zrich (Switzerland)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate new and archival 3-5 ?m high-resolution (?3 km s{sup 1}) spectroscopy of molecular gas in the inner disk of the young solar-mass star EX Lupi, taken during and after the strong accretion outburst of 2008. The data were obtained using the CRIRES spectrometer at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope in 2008 and 2014. In 2008, emission lines from CO, H{sub 2}O, and OH were detected with broad profiles tracing gas near and within the corotation radius (0.02-0.3 AU). In 2014, the spectra display marked differences. The CO lines, while still detected, are much weaker, and the H{sub 2}O and OH lines have disappeared altogether. At 3 ?m a veiled stellar photospheric spectrum is observed. Our analysis finds that the molecular gas mass in the inner disk has decreased by an order of magnitude since the outburst, matching a similar decrease in the accretion rate onto the star. We discuss these findings in the context of a rapid depletion of material accumulated beyond the disk corotation radius during quiescent periods, as proposed by models of episodic accretion in EXor-type young stars.

  9. Ceci N'est Pas a globular cluster: the metallicity distribution of the stellar system Terzan 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Dalessandro, E.; Lovisi, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universit degli Studi di Bologna, v.le Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Origlia, L.; Bellazzini, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Rich, R. M.; Reitzel, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Math-Sciences 8979, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Valenti, E. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany); Ibata, R. [Observatoire Astronomique, Universit de Strasbourg, CNRS, 11, rue de l'Universit. F-67000 Strasbourg (France)

    2014-11-01

    We present new determinations of the iron abundance for 220 stars belonging to the stellar system Terzan 5 in the Galactic bulge. The spectra have been acquired with FLAMES at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory and DEIMOS at the Keck II Telescope. This is by far the largest spectroscopic sample of stars ever observed in this stellar system. From this data set, a subsample of targets with spectra unaffected by TiO bands was extracted and statistically decontaminated from field stars. Once combined with 34 additional stars previously published by our group, a total sample of 135 member stars covering the entire radial extent of the system has been used to determine the metallicity distribution function of Terzan 5. The iron distribution clearly shows three peaks: a super-solar component at [Fe/H] ? 0.25 dex, accounting for ?29% of the sample, a dominant sub-solar population at [Fe/H] ? 0.30 dex, corresponding to ?62% of the total, and a minor (6%) metal-poor component at [Fe/H] ? 0.8 dex. Such a broad, multi-modal metallicity distribution demonstrates that Terzan 5 is not a genuine globular cluster but the remnant of a much more complex stellar system.

  10. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): Data Release 3

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the most ambitious and influential surveys in the history of astronomy.Over eight years of operations (SDSS-I, 2000-2005; SDSS-II, 2005-2008), it obtained deep, multi-color images covering more than a quarter of the sky and created 3-dimensional maps containing more than 930,000 galaxies and more than 120,000 quasars. The SDSS used a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, equipped with two powerful special-purpose instruments. SDSS data have supported fundamental work across an extraordinary range of astronomical disciplines, including the properties of galaxies, the evolution of quasars, the structure and stellar populations of the Milky Way, the dwarf galaxy companions of the Milky Way and M31, asteroids and other small bodies in the solar system, and the large scale structure and matter and energy contents of the universe. (Taken from home page of www.sdss.org). DR3 provides provides images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download.

  11. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): Data Release 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the most ambitious and influential surveys in the history of astronomy.Over eight years of operations (SDSS-I, 2000-2005; SDSS-II, 2005-2008), it obtained deep, multi-color images covering more than a quarter of the sky and created 3-dimensional maps containing more than 930,000 galaxies and more than 120,000 quasars. The SDSS used a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, equipped with two powerful special-purpose instruments. SDSS data have supported fundamental work across an extraordinary range of astronomical disciplines, including the properties of galaxies, the evolution of quasars, the structure and stellar populations of the Milky Way, the dwarf galaxy companions of the Milky Way and M31, asteroids and other small bodies in the solar system, and the large scale structure and matter and energy contents of the universe. (Taken from home page of www.sdss.org). DR1 was the first major data release, providing images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download.

  12. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): Data Release 5

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the most ambitious and influential surveys in the history of astronomy.Over eight years of operations (SDSS-I, 2000-2005; SDSS-II, 2005-2008), it obtained deep, multi-color images covering more than a quarter of the sky and created 3-dimensional maps containing more than 930,000 galaxies and more than 120,000 quasars. The SDSS used a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, equipped with two powerful special-purpose instruments. SDSS data have supported fundamental work across an extraordinary range of astronomical disciplines, including the properties of galaxies, the evolution of quasars, the structure and stellar populations of the Milky Way, the dwarf galaxy companions of the Milky Way and M31, asteroids and other small bodies in the solar system, and the large scale structure and matter and energy contents of the universe. (Taken from home page of www.sdss.org). DR5 provides provides images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download.

  13. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): Data Release 4

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the most ambitious and influential surveys in the history of astronomy.Over eight years of operations (SDSS-I, 2000-2005; SDSS-II, 2005-2008), it obtained deep, multi-color images covering more than a quarter of the sky and created 3-dimensional maps containing more than 930,000 galaxies and more than 120,000 quasars. The SDSS used a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, equipped with two powerful special-purpose instruments. SDSS data have supported fundamental work across an extraordinary range of astronomical disciplines, including the properties of galaxies, the evolution of quasars, the structure and stellar populations of the Milky Way, the dwarf galaxy companions of the Milky Way and M31, asteroids and other small bodies in the solar system, and the large scale structure and matter and energy contents of the universe. (Taken from home page of www.sdss.org). DR4 provides provides images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download.

  14. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): Data Release 2

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the most ambitious and influential surveys in the history of astronomy.Over eight years of operations (SDSS-I, 2000-2005; SDSS-II, 2005-2008), it obtained deep, multi-color images covering more than a quarter of the sky and created 3-dimensional maps containing more than 930,000 galaxies and more than 120,000 quasars. The SDSS used a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, equipped with two powerful special-purpose instruments. SDSS data have supported fundamental work across an extraordinary range of astronomical disciplines, including the properties of galaxies, the evolution of quasars, the structure and stellar populations of the Milky Way, the dwarf galaxy companions of the Milky Way and M31, asteroids and other small bodies in the solar system, and the large scale structure and matter and energy contents of the universe. (Taken from home page of www.sdss.org). DR2 provides provides images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download.

  15. Decaying vector dark matter as an explanation for the 3.5 keV line from galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, Yasaman; Akbarieh, Amin Rezaei E-mail: am_rezaei@physics.sharif.ir

    2014-11-01

    We present a Vector Dark Matter (VDM) model that explains the 3.5 keV line recently observed in the XMM-Newton observatory data from galaxy clusters. In this model, dark matter is composed of two vector bosons, V and V', which couple to the photon through an effective generalized Chern-Simons coupling, g{sub V}. V' is slightly heavier than V with a mass splitting m{sub V'}m{sub V}?3.5 keV. The decay of V' to V and a photon gives rise to the 3.5 keV line. The production of V and V' takes place in the early universe within the freeze-in framework through the effective g{sub V} coupling when m{sub V'}

  16. Prototype secondary mirror assembly design for the space infrared telescope facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stier, M.; Duffy, M.; Gullapalli, S.; Rockwell, R.; Sileo, F.; Krim, M.

    1989-02-01

    The authors describe their design of a liquid helium temperature prototype secondary mirror assembly (PSMA) under development for the NASA Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) program. The SIRTF secondary mirror assembly must operate below 4 K and provide the functions of highly precise 2-axis dynamic tilting (chopping) in addition to the conventional functions needed by the SIRTF observatory. Their PSMA design employs a fused quartz mirror kinematically attached at its center to an aluminium cruciform. The mirror/cruciform assembly is driven in tilt about its combined center of mass using a unique flexure pivot and a four-actuator control system with feedback provided by pairs of differential position sensors. The voice coil actuators are mounted on a second flexure-pivoted mass enhancing servo system stability and isolating the telescope from vibration-induced disturbances. The mirror/cruciform and the reaction mass are attached to opposite sides of an aluminum mounting plate whose dimensional characteristics are nominally identical to that of the aluminum flexure pivot material. The mounting plate is connected to the outer housing by a six degree of freedom focus and centering mechanism using pivoted actuation levers driven by lead screw/harmonic drive/stepper motor assemblies.

  17. DARK MATTER IN THE CLASSICAL DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES: A ROBUST CONSTRAINT ON THE ASTROPHYSICAL FACTOR FOR {gamma}-RAY FLUX CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, M. G.; Combet, C.; Hinton, J. A.; Maurin, D.; Wilkinson, M. I. E-mail: dmaurin@lspc.in2p3.fr

    2011-06-01

    We present a new analysis of the relative detectability of dark matter annihilation in the Milky Way's eight 'classical' dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies. Ours is similar to previous analyses in that we use Markov-Chain Monte Carlo techniques to fit dark matter halo parameters to empirical velocity dispersion profiles via the spherical Jeans equation, but more general in the sense that we do not adopt priors derived from cosmological simulations. We show that even without strong constraints on the shapes of dSph dark matter density profiles (we require only that the inner profile satisfies -liM{sub r {yields} 0} dln {rho}/dln r {<=} 1), we obtain a robust and accurate constraint on the astrophysical component of a prospective dark matter annihilation signal, provided that the integration angle is approximately twice the projected half-light radius of the dSph divided by distance to the observer, {alpha}{sub int} {approx} 2r{sub h} /d. Using this integration angle, which represents a compromise between maximizing prospective flux and minimizing uncertainty in the dSph's dark matter distribution, we calculate the relative detectability of the classical dSphs by ground- and space-based {gamma}-ray observatories.

  18. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in agency documents including the Final Technical Report to DOE covering Cooperative Agreement DEFC26-00NT40920 and Semiannual Progress Reports for this award, DE-FC26-02NT41628. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in MC118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. SFO completion, now anticipated for 2009-10, has, therefore, been delayed. Although delays caused scheduling and deployment difficulties, many sensors and instruments were completed during this period. Software has been written that will accommodate the data that the station retrieves, when it begins to be delivered. In addition, new seismic data processing software has been written to treat the peculiar data to be received by the vertical line array (VLA) and additional software has been developed that will address the horizontal line array (HLA) data. These packages have been tested on data from the test deployments of the VLA and on data from other, similar, areas of the Gulf (in the case of the HLA software). During the life of this Cooperative Agreement (CA), the CMRET conducted many cruises. Early in the program these were executed primarily to survey potential sites and test sensors and equipment being developed for the SFO. When MC118 was established as the observatory site, subsequent cruises focused on this location. Beginning in 2005 and continuing to the present, 13 research cruises to MC118 have been conducted by the Consortium. During September, 2006, the Consortium was able to secure 8 days aboard the R/V Seward Johnson with submersible Johnson SeaLink, a critical chapter in the life of the Observatory project as important documentation, tests, recoveries and deployments were accomplished during this trip (log appended). Consortium members have participated materially in a number of additional cruises including several of the NIUST autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), Ea

  19. On Assessing the Robustness of Structural Health Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, Christopher J.; Hemez, Francois M.; Farrar, Charles R.

    2012-08-24

    As Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) continues to gain popularity, both as an area of research and as a tool for use in industrial applications, the number of technologies associated with SHM will also continue to grow. As a result, the engineer tasked with developing a SHM system is faced with myriad hardware and software technologies from which to choose, often adopting an ad hoc qualitative approach based on physical intuition or past experience to making such decisions. This paper offers a framework that aims to provide the engineer with a quantitative approach for choosing from among a suite of candidate SHM technologies. The framework is outlined for the general case, where a supervised learning approach to SHM is adopted, and the presentation will focus on applying the framework to two commonly encountered problems: (1) selection of damage-sensitive features and (2) selection of a damage classifier. The data employed for these problems will be drawn from a study that examined the feasibility of applying SHM to the RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response observatory network.

  20. Update on the correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Lisbon, IST

    2010-06-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory through 31 August 2007 showed evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin energy threshold, 6 x 10{sup 19} eV. The anisotropy was measured by the fraction of arrival directions that are less than 3.1{sup o} from the position of an active galactic nucleus within 75 Mpc (using the Veron-Cetty and Veron 12th catalog). An updated measurement of this fraction is reported here using the arrival directions of cosmic rays recorded above the same energy threshold through 31 December 2009. The number of arrival directions has increased from 27 to 69, allowing a more precise measurement. The correlating fraction is (38{sub -6}{sup +7})%, compared with 21% expected for isotropic cosmic rays. This is down from the early estimate of (69{sub -13}{sup +11})%. The enlarged set of arrival directions is examined also in relation to other populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2 Microns All Sky Survey and active galactic nuclei detected in hard X-rays by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. A celestial region around the position of the radiogalaxy Cen A has the largest excess of arrival directions relative to isotropic expectations. The 2-point autocorrelation function is shown for the enlarged set of arrival directions and compared to the isotropic expectation.

  1. CONSTRAINING SOLAR FLARE DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURES WITH EVE AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspi, Amir [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); McTiernan, James M. [Space Sciences Laboratory University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from ?2 to ?50MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ?2-25MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to ?10MK; together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ?0.4-5nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  2. Spatially resolving the very high energy emission from MGRO J2019+37 with VERITAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Federici, S. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dwarkadas, V. V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: ealiu@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: nahee@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-06-10

    We present very high energy (VHE) imaging of MGRO J2019+37 obtained with the VERITAS observatory. The bright extended (?2) unidentified Milagro source is located toward the rich star formation region Cygnus-X. MGRO J2019+37 is resolved into two VERITAS sources. The faint, point-like source VER J2016+371 overlaps CTB 87, a filled-center remnant (SNR) with no evidence of a supernova remnant shell at the present time. Its spectrum is well fit in the 0.65-10 TeV energy range by a power-law model with photon index 2.3 0.4. VER J2019+378 is a bright extended (?1) source that likely accounts for the bulk of the Milagro emission and is notably coincident with PSR J2021+3651 and the star formation region Sh 2104. Its spectrum in the range 1-30 TeV is well fit with a power-law model of photon index 1.75 0.3, among the hardest values measured in the VHE band, comparable to that observed near Vela-X. We explore the unusual spectrum and morphology in the radio and X-ray bands to constrain possible emission mechanisms for this source.

  3. SNO+: Physics program and status update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibley, L. [Department of Physics, 4-181 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, T6G 2E1 (Canada); Collaboration: SNO+ Collaboration

    2014-06-24

    Joining the current generation of neutrinoless double beta decay experiments, SNO+ is a kilotonne-scale liquid scintillator neutrino detector housed 2 km underground in Vale Canada Ltds Creighton Mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Through re-purposing existing hardware in place for the now decommissioned Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), and employing a rigourous materials purification and selection program, SNO+ will investigate neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. Owing to its size, SNO+ expects a sensitivity to the effective Majorana neutrino mass near 100 meV with a 0.3% loading of natural Te and several years of data collection. Designed as a general purpose detector, SNO+ also has a robust physics program that includes investigations of solar and supernova neutrinos, and reactor and geo anti-neutrinos. Construction of the detector is nearly complete, with the first water-fill commissioning phase set to begin at the end of this year and the neutrinoless double beta decay phase following in late 2014.

  4. Status of EXO-200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, Nicole; /SLAC

    2011-12-06

    EXO-200 is the first phase of the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment, which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}Xe to measure the mass and probe the Majorana nature of the neutrino. EXO-200 consists of 200 kg of liquid Xe enriched to 80% in {sup 136}Xe in an ultra-low background TPC. Energy resolution is enhanced through the simultaneous collection of scintillation light using Large Area Avalanche Photodiodes (LAAPD's) and ionization charge. It is being installed at the WIPP site in New Mexico, which provides a 2000 meter water-equivalent overburden. EXO-200 will begin taking data in 2009, with the expected two-year sensitivity to the half-life for neutrinoless double beta decay of 6.4 x 10{sup 25} years. According to the most recent nuclear matrix element calculations, this corresponds to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.13 to 0.19 eV. It will also measure the two neutrino mode for the first time in {sup 136}Xe.

  5. Expanding the Discovery Potential of VERITAS via Moonlight Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benbow, Wystan R. [PI

    2014-10-27

    This grant partially supported the base research efforts of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), Very-High-Energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray research group from 8/1/09 to 7/31/14. During the project period, the SAO gamma-ray group carried out a wide-range of research efforts, but focused on VHE observations of extragalactic sources with VERITAS. The SAO group led or co-lead nearly all VERITAS extragalactic working groups and the observations addressed themes in Particle Physics and Fundamental Laws, Cosmology, and Black Holes. The primary topics of this research were processes in exotic galaxies, especially active galactic nuclei and starburst galaxies, which have implications for cosmology and Lorentz invariance violation, as well as indirect dark matter detection via VERITAS observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In addition, the SAO group let the development of unique capabilities for VERITAS to observe during all periods of moonlight. Overall, this has increased the VERITAS data yield by 60% and these data are both scientifically useful and regularly published. This grant funded research that led to contributions towards the publication of 51 refereed journal articles during the project period, including several led by, or with significant contributions from, the SAO group.

  6. Comptonization signatures in the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frontera, F.; Farinelli, R.; Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Titarchuk, L. [Dipartimento di Fisicae Scienze della Terra, Universit di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Amati, L.; Landi, R., E-mail: frontera@fe.infn.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-20

    We report results of a systematic study of the broadband (2-2000 keV) time-resolved prompt emission spectra of a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with both Wide Field Cameras (WFCs) on board the BeppoSAX satellite and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The main goal of this paper is to test spectral models of the GRB prompt emission that have recently been proposed. In particular, we test a recent photospheric model proposed, i.e., blackbody plus power law, the addition of a blackbody emission to the Band function in the cases in which this function does not fit the data, and a recent Comptonization model. By considering the few spectra for which the simple Band function does not provide a fully acceptable fit to the data, we find a statistically significant better fit by adding a blackbody to this function only in one case. We confirm earlier results found fitting the BATSE spectra alone with a blackbody plus power law. Instead, when the BATSE GRB spectra are joined to those obtained with WFCs (2-28 keV), this model becomes unacceptable in most time intervals in which we subdivide the GRB light curves. We find instead that the Comptonization model is always acceptable, even in the few cases in which the Band function is inconsistent with the data. We discuss the implications of these results.

  7. Investigation of EMIC wave scattering as the cause for the BARREL 17 January 2013 relativistic electron precipitation event: A quantitative comparison of simulation with observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Zan; Millan, Robyn M.; Hudson, Mary K.; Woodger, Leslie A.; Smith, David M.; Chen, Yue; Friedel, Reiner; Rodriguez, Juan V.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Goldstein, Jerry; et al

    2014-12-23

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were observed at multiple observatory locations for several hours on 17 January 2013. During the wave activity period, a duskside relativistic electron precipitation (REP) event was observed by one of the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) balloons and was magnetically mapped close to Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 13. We simulate the relativistic electron pitch angle diffusion caused by gyroresonant interactions with EMIC waves using wave and particle data measured by multiple instruments on board GOES 13 and the Van Allen Probes. We show that the count rate, the energy distribution,more » and the time variation of the simulated precipitation all agree very well with the balloon observations, suggesting that EMIC wave scattering was likely the cause for the precipitation event. The event reported here is the first balloon REP event with closely conjugate EMIC wave observations, and our study employs the most detailed quantitative analysis on the link of EMIC waves with observed REP to date.« less

  8. DETAILED RADIO VIEW ON TWO STELLAR EXPLOSIONS AND THEIR HOST GALAXY: XRF 080109/SN 2008D AND SN 2007uy in NGC 2770

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van der Horst, A. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Paragi, Z.; Sage, L. J.; Pal, S.; Taylor, G. B.; Granot, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Garrett, M. A.; Wiersema, K.; Starling, R. L. C.; Bhattacharya, D.; Curran, P. A.

    2011-01-10

    The galaxy NGC 2770 hosted two core-collapse supernova (SN) explosions, SN 2008D and SN 2007uy, within 10 days of each other and 9 years after the first SN of the same type, SN 1999eh, was found in that galaxy. In particular, SN 2008D attracted a lot of attention due to the detection of an X-ray outburst, which has been hypothesized to be caused by either a (mildly) relativistic jet or the SN shock breakout. We present an extensive study of the radio emission from SN 2008D and SN 2007uy: flux measurements with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, covering {approx}600 days with observing frequencies ranging from 325 MHz to 8.4 GHz. The results of two epochs of global Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations are also discussed. We have examined the molecular gas in the host galaxy NGC 2770 with the Arizona Radio Observatory 12 m telescope, and present the implications of our observations for the star formation and seemingly high SN rate in this galaxy. Furthermore, we discuss the near-future observing possibilities of the two SNe and their host galaxy at low radio frequencies with the Low Frequency Array.

  9. Seismicity and structure of Akutan and Makushin Volcanoes, Alaska, using joint body and surface wave tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syracuse, E. M.; Maceira, M.; Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.

    2015-02-18

    Joint inversions of seismic data recover models that simultaneously fit multiple constraints while playing upon the strengths of each data type. Here, we jointly invert 14 years of local earthquake body wave arrival times from the Alaska Volcano Observatory catalog and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves based upon ambient noise measurements for local Vp, Vs, and hypocentral locations at Akutan and Makushin Volcanoes using a new joint inversion algorithm.The velocity structure and relocated seismicity of both volcanoes are significantly more complex than many other volcanoes studied using similar techniques. Seismicity is distributed among several areas beneath or beyond the flanks of both volcanoes, illuminating a variety of volcanic and tectonic features. The velocity structures of the two volcanoes are exemplified by the presence of narrow high-Vp features in the near surface, indicating likely current or remnant pathways of magma to the surface. A single broad low-Vp region beneath each volcano is slightly offset from each summit and centered at approximately 7 km depth, indicating a potential magma chamber, where magma is stored over longer time periods. Differing recovery capabilities of the Vp and Vs datasets indicate that the results of these types of joint inversions must be interpreted carefully.

  10. EVIDENCE FOR ROTATIONAL MOTIONS IN THE FEET OF A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orozco Suarez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2012-12-20

    We present observational evidence of apparent plasma rotational motions in the feet of a solar prominence. Our study is based on spectroscopic observations taken in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. We recorded a time sequence of spectra with 34 s cadence placing the slit of the spectrograph almost parallel to the solar limb and crossing two feet of an intermediate size, quiescent hedgerow prominence. The data show opposite Doppler shifts, {+-}6 km s{sup -1}, at the edges of the prominence feet. We argue that these shifts may be interpreted as prominence plasma rotating counterclockwise around the vertical axis to the solar surface as viewed from above. The evolution of the prominence seen in EUV images taken with the Solar Dynamics Observatory provided us with clues to interpret the results as swirling motions. Moreover, time-distance images taken far from the central wavelength show plasma structures moving parallel to the solar limb with velocities of about 10-15 km s{sup -1}. Finally, the shapes of the observed intensity profiles suggest the presence of, at least, two components at some locations at the edges of the prominence feet. One of them is typically Doppler shifted (up to {approx}20 km s{sup -1}) with respect to the other, thus suggesting the existence of supersonic counter-streaming flows along the line of sight.

  11. Stellar Evolution/Supernova Research Data Archives from the SciDAC Computational Astrophysics Consortium

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Woosley, Stan [University of California, Santa Cruz

    Theoretical high-energy astrophysics studies the most violent explosions in the universe - supernovae (the massive explosions of dying stars) and gamma ray bursts (mysterious blasts of intense radiation). The evolution of massive stars and their explosion as supernovae and/or gamma ray bursts describes how the "heavy" elements needed for life, such as oxygen and iron, are forged (nucleosynthesis) and ejected to later form new stars and planets. The Computational Astrophysics Consortium's project includes a Science Application Partnership on Adaptive Algorithms that develops software involved. The principal science topics are - in order of priority - 1) models for Type Ia supernovae, 2) radiation transport, spectrum formation, and nucleosynthesis in model supernovae of all types; 3) the observational implications of these results for experiments in which DOE has an interest, especially the Joint Dark Energy Mission, Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) satellite observatory, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and ground based supernova searches; 4) core collapse supernovae; 5) gamma-ray bursts; 6) hypernovae from Population III stars; and 7) x-ray bursts. Models of these phenomena share a common need for nuclear reactions and radiation transport coupled to multi-dimensional fluid flow. The team has developed and used supernovae simulation codes to study Type 1A and core-collapse supernovae. (Taken from http://www.scidac.gov/physics/grb.html) The Stellar Evolution Data Archives contains more than 225 Pre-SN models that can be freely accessed.

  12. SAGE: Solar Neutrino Data from SAGE, the Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    SAGE Collaboration

    SAGE is a solar neutrino experiment based on the reaction 71Ga + n goes to 71Ge + e-. The 71Ge atoms are chemically extracted from a 50-metric ton target of Ga metal and concentrated in a sample of germane gas mixed with xenon. The atoms are then individually counted by observing their decay back to 71Ga in a small proportional counter. The distinguishing feature of the experiment is its ability to detect the low-energy neutrinos from proton-proton fusion. These neutrinos, which are made in the primary reaction that provides the Sun's energy, are the major component of the solar neutrino flux and have not been observed in any other way. To shield the experiment from cosmic rays, it is located deep underground in a specially built facility at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia. Nearly 100 measurements of the solar neutrino flux have been made during 1990-2000, and their combined result is a neutrino capture rate that is well below the prediction of the Standard Solar Model. The significant suppression of the solar neutrino flux that SAGE and other solar neutrino experiments have observed gives a strong indication for the existence of neutrino oscillations. [copied from the SAGE homepage at http://ewi.npl.washington.edu/SAGE/SAGE.html

  13. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  14. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION SURVEY IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CORRELATIONS AND TRENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Lucas, Phil W.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2014-11-01

    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of 10 sub-regions in 6 star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20%, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star-forming regions.

  15. RUPRECHT 147: THE OLDEST NEARBY OPEN CLUSTER AS A NEW BENCHMARK FOR STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Jason L.; Wright, Jason T.; Wolfgang, Angie; Brewer, John M.; Johnson, John Asher

    2013-05-15

    Ruprecht 147 is a hitherto unappreciated open cluster that holds great promise as a standard in fundamental stellar astrophysics. We have conducted a radial velocity survey of astrometric candidates with Lick, Palomar, and MMT observatories and have identified over 100 members, including 5 blue stragglers, 11 red giants, and 5 double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s). We estimate the cluster metallicity from spectroscopic analysis, using Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME), and find it to be [M/H] = +0.07 {+-} 0.03. We have obtained deep CFHT/MegaCam g'r'i'z' photometry and fit Padova isochrones to the (g' - i') and Two Micron All Sky Survey (J - K{sub S} ) color-magnitude diagrams, using the {tau}{sup 2} maximum-likelihood procedure of Naylor, and an alternative method using two-dimensional cross-correlations developed in this work. We find best fits for Padova isochrones at age t = 2.5 {+-} 0.25 Gyr, m - M = 7.35 {+-} 0.1, and A{sub V} = 0.25 {+-} 0.05, with additional uncertainty from the unresolved binary population and possibility of differential extinction across this large cluster. The inferred age is heavily dependent on our choice of stellar evolution model: fitting Dartmouth and PARSEC models yield age parameters of 3 Gyr and 3.25 Gyr, respectively. At {approx}300 pc and {approx}3 Gyr, Ruprecht 147 is by far the oldest nearby star cluster.

  16. New red jewels in Coma Berenices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cottaar, Michiel; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Jackson, Kelly M.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; and others

    2014-02-20

    We have used Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) radial velocity observations in the near-infrared H-band to explore the membership of the nearby (86.7 0.9 pc) open cluster Coma Berenices (Melotte 111), concentrating on the poorly populated low-mass end of the main sequence. Using SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity measurements, we confirm the membership of eight K/M dwarf members, providing the first confirmed low-mass members of the Coma Berenices cluster. Using R ? 2000 spectra from IRTF-SpeX, we confirm the independently luminosity classes of these targets, and find their metallicities to be consistent with the known solar mean metallicity of Coma Berenices and of M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. In addition, the APOGEE spectra have enabled measurement of vsin i for each target and detection for the first time of the low-mass secondary components of the known binary systems Melotte 111 102 and Melotte 111 120, as well as identification of the previously unknown binary system 2MASS J12214070+2707510. Finally, we use Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope photometry to measure photometric variability and rotation periods for a subset of the Coma Berenices members.

  17. SYNMAG PHOTOMETRY: A FAST TOOL FOR CATALOG-LEVEL MATCHED COLORS OF EXTENDED SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundy, Kevin; Yasuda, Naoki; Hogg, David W.; Higgs, Tim D.; Nichol, Robert C.; Masters, Karen L.; Lang, Dustin; Wake, David A.

    2012-12-01

    Obtaining reliable, matched photometry for galaxies imaged by different observatories represents a key challenge in the era of wide-field surveys spanning more than several hundred square degrees. Methods such as flux fitting, profile fitting, and PSF homogenization followed by matched-aperture photometry are all computationally expensive. We present an alternative solution called 'synthetic aperture photometry' that exploits galaxy profile fits in one band to efficiently model the observed, point-spread-function-convolved light profile in other bands and predict the flux in arbitrarily sized apertures. Because aperture magnitudes are the most widely tabulated flux measurements in survey catalogs, producing synthetic aperture magnitudes (SYNMAGs) enables very fast matched photometry at the catalog level, without reprocessing imaging data. We make our code public and apply it to obtain matched photometry between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz and UKIDSS YJHK imaging, recovering red-sequence colors and photometric redshifts with a scatter and accuracy as good as if not better than FWHM-homogenized photometry from the GAMA Survey. Finally, we list some specific measurements that upcoming surveys could make available to facilitate and ease the use of SYNMAGs.

  18. Kink instability evidenced by analyzing the leg rotation of a filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Ma, L.; Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. Q.; Liu, J. H.; Li, Z.

    2014-02-20

    Kink instability is a possible mechanism for solar filament eruption. However, it is very difficult to directly measure the twist of the solar filament from observation. In this paper, we measured the twist of a solar filament by analyzing its leg rotation. An inverse S-shaped filament in the active region NOAA 11485 was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the Solar Dynamics Observatory on 2012 May 22. During its eruption, the leg of the filament exhibited a significant rotation motion. The 304 images were used to uncurl the circles, the centers of which are the axis of the filament's leg. The result shows that the leg of the filament rotated up to about 510 (about 2.83?) around the axis of the filament within 23 minutes. The maximal rotation speed reached 100 degrees/minute (about 379.9 km s{sup 1} at radius 18''), which is the fastest rotation speed reported. We also calculated the decay index along the polarity inversion line in this active region and found that the decline of the overlying field with height is not fast enough to trigger the torus instability. According to the kink instability condition, this indicates that the kink instability is the trigger mechanism for the solar filament eruption.

  19. THE CONTRACTION OF OVERLYING CORONAL LOOP AND THE ROTATING MOTION OF A SIGMOID FILAMENT DURING ITS ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Xue, Z. K.; Deng, L. H.; Ma, L.; Kong, D. F.; Liu, J. H.

    2013-06-15

    We present an observation of overlying coronal loop contraction and rotating motion of the sigmoid filament during its eruption on 2012 May 22 observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Our results show that the twist can be transported into the filament from the lower atmosphere to the higher atmosphere. The successive contraction of the coronal loops was due to a suddenly reduced magnetic pressure underneath the filament, which was caused by the rising of the filament. Before the sigmoid filament eruption, there was a counterclockwise flow in the photosphere at the right feet of the filament and the contraction loops and a convergence flow at the left foot of the filament. The hot and cool materials have inverse motion along the filament before the filament eruption. Moreover, two coronal loops overlying the filament first experienced brightening, expansion, and contraction successively. At the beginning of the rising and rotation of the left part of the filament, the second coronal loop exhibited rapid contraction. The top of the second coronal loop also showed counterclockwise rotation during the contraction process. After the contraction of the second loop, the left part of the filament rotated counterclockwise and expanded toward the right of NOAA AR 11485. During the filament expansion, the right part of the filament also exhibited counterclockwise rotation like a tornado.

  20. TRANSIENT BRIGHTENINGS ASSOCIATED WITH FLUX CANCELLATION ALONG A FILAMENT CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Muglach, K. E-mail: karin.muglach@nasa.gov

    2013-02-15

    Filament channels coincide with large-scale polarity inversion lines of the photospheric magnetic field, where flux cancellation continually takes place. High-cadence Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) images recorded in He II 30.4 nm and Fe IX 17.1 nm during 2010 August 22 reveal numerous transient brightenings occurring along the edge of a filament channel within a decaying active region, where SDO line-of-sight magnetograms show strong opposite-polarity flux in close contact. The brightenings are elongated along the direction of the filament channel, with linear extents of several arcseconds, and typically last a few minutes; they sometimes have the form of multiple two-sided ejections with speeds on the order of 100 km s{sup -1}. Remarkably, some of the brightenings rapidly develop into larger scale events, forming sheetlike structures that are eventually torn apart by the diverging flows in the filament channel and ejected in opposite directions. We interpret the brightenings as resulting from reconnections among filament-channel field lines having one footpoint located in the region of canceling flux. In some cases, the flow patterns that develop in the channel may bring successive horizontal loops together and cause a cascade to larger scales.

  1. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURES OF FLUX ROPES TRACKED BY ERUPTING MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-06-20

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of two flux ropes tracked out by material from a surge and a failed filament eruption on 2012 July 29 and August 4, respectively. For the first event, the interaction between the erupting surge and a loop-shaped filament in the east seems to 'peel off' the filament and add bright mass into the flux rope body. The second event is associated with a C-class flare that occurs several minutes before the filament activation. The two flux ropes are, respectively, composed of 85 {+-} 12 and 102 {+-} 15 fine-scale structures, with an average width of about 1.''6. Our observations show that two extreme ends of the flux rope are rooted in opposite polarity fields and each end is composed of multiple footpoints (FPs) of fine-scale structures. The FPs of the fine-scale structures are located at network magnetic fields, with magnetic fluxes from 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} Mx to 8.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx. Moreover, almost half of the FPs show converging motion of smaller magnetic structures over 10 hr before the appearance of the flux rope. By calculating the magnetic fields of the FPs, we deduce that the two flux ropes occupy at least 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx and 7.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx magnetic fluxes, respectively.

  2. Solar filament material oscillations and drainage before eruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, Yi; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Hong, Junchao; Li, Haidong; Yang, Dan; Yang, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Both large-amplitude longitudinal (LAL) oscillations and material drainage in a solar filament are associated with the flow of material along the filament axis, often followed by an eruption. However, the relationship between these two motions and a subsequent eruption event is poorly understood. We analyze a filament eruption using EUV imaging data captured by the Atmospheric Imaging Array on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the H? images from the Global Oscillation Network Group. Hours before the eruption, the filament was activated, with one of its legs undergoing a slow rising motion. The asymmetric activation inclined the filament relative to the solar surface. After the active phase, LAL oscillations were observed in the inclined filament. The oscillation period increased slightly over time, which may suggest that the magnetic fields supporting the filament evolve to be flatter during the slow rising phase. After the oscillations, a significant amount of filament material was drained toward one filament endpoint, followed immediately by the violent eruption of the filament. The material drainage may further support the change in magnetic topology prior to the eruption. Moreover, we suggest that the filament material drainage could play a role in the transition from a slow to a fast rise of the erupting filament.

  3. Well-observed dynamics of flaring and peripheral coronal magnetic loops during an M-class limb flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jinhua; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng; Feng, Li; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Inhester, Bernd

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we present a variety of well-observed dynamic behaviors for the flaring and peripheral magnetic loops of the M6.6 class extreme limb flare that occurred on 2011 February 24 (SOL2011-02-24T07:20) from EUV observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory and X-ray observations by RHESSI. The flaring loop motion confirms the earlier contraction-expansion picture. We find that the U-shaped trajectory delineated by the X-ray corona source of the flare roughly follows the direction of a filament eruption associated with the flare. Different temperature structures of the coronal source during the contraction and expansion phases strongly suggest different kinds of magnetic reconnection processes. For some peripheral loops, we discover that their dynamics are closely correlated with the filament eruption. During the slow rising to abrupt, fast rising of the filament, overlying peripheral magnetic loops display different responses. Two magnetic loops on the elbow of the active region had a slow descending motion followed by an abrupt successive fast contraction, while magnetic loops on the top of the filament were pushed outward, slowly being inflated for a while and then erupting as a moving front. We show that the filament activation and eruption play a dominant role in determining the dynamics of the overlying peripheral coronal magnetic loops.

  4. SDO/AIA OBSERVATIONS OF LARGE-AMPLITUDE LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATIONS IN A SOLAR FILAMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2012-11-20

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of the large-amplitude longitudinal (LAL) oscillations in the south and north parts (SP and NP) of a solar filament on 2012 April 7. Both oscillations are triggered by flare activities close to the filament. The period varies with filamentary threads, ranging from 44 to 67 minutes. The oscillations of different threads are out of phase, and their velocity amplitudes vary from 30 to 60 km s{sup -1}, with a maximum displacement of about 25 Mm. The oscillations of the SP repeat for about four cycles without any significant damping and then a nearby C2.4 flare causes the transition from the LAL oscillations of the filament to its later eruption. The filament eruption is also associated with a coronal mass ejection and a B6.8 flare. However, the oscillations of the NP damp with time and die out at last. Our observations show that the activated part of the SP repeatedly shows a helical motion. This indicates that the magnetic structure of the filament is possibly modified during this process. We suggest that the restoring force is the coupling of the magnetic tension and gravity.

  5. MASS ESTIMATES OF RAPIDLY MOVING PROMINENCE MATERIAL FROM HIGH-CADENCE EUV IMAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, David R.; Baker, Deborah; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia

    2013-02-20

    We present a new method for determining the column density of erupting filament material using state-of-the-art multi-wavelength imaging data. Much of the prior work on filament/prominence structure can be divided between studies that use a polychromatic approach with targeted campaign observations and those that use synoptic observations, frequently in only one or two wavelengths. The superior time resolution, sensitivity, and near-synchronicity of data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Advanced Imaging Assembly allow us to combine these two techniques using photoionization continuum opacity to determine the spatial distribution of hydrogen in filament material. We apply the combined techniques to SDO/AIA observations of a filament that erupted during the spectacular coronal mass ejection on 2011 June 7. The resulting 'polychromatic opacity imaging' method offers a powerful way to track partially ionized gas as it erupts through the solar atmosphere on a regular basis, without the need for coordinated observations, thereby readily offering regular, realistic mass-distribution estimates for models of these erupting structures.

  6. EVIDENCE OF FILAMENT UPFLOWS ORIGINATING FROM INTENSITY OSCILLATIONS ON THE SOLAR SURFACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.; Ning, Zongjun; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Ji Haisheng

    2010-08-10

    A filament footpoint rooted in an active region (NOAA 11032) was well observed for about 78 minutes with the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory on 2009 November 18 in H{alpha} {+-}0.75 A. This data set had high cadence ({approx}15 s) and high spatial resolution ({approx}0.''1) and offered a unique opportunity to study filament dynamics. As in previous findings from space observations, several dark intermittent upflows were identified, and they behave in groups at isolated locations along the filament. However, we have two new findings. First, we find that the dark upflows propagating along the filament channel are strongly associated with the intensity oscillations on the solar surface around the filament footpoints. The upflows start at the same time as the peak in the oscillations, illustrating that the upflow velocities are well correlated with the oscillations. Second, the intensity of one of the seven upflows detected in our data set exhibits a clear periodicity when the upflow propagates along the filament. The periods gradually vary from {approx}10 to {approx}5 minutes. Our results give observational clues on the driving mechanism of the upflows in the filament.

  7. Direct evidence of an eruptive, filament-hosting magnetic flux rope leading to a fast solar coronal mass ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bin; Gary, D. E.; Bastian, T. S.

    2014-10-20

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are believed to be at the heart of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A well-known example is the prominence cavity in the low corona that sometimes makes up a three-part white-light (WL) CME upon its eruption. Such a system, which is usually observed in quiet-Sun regions, has long been suggested to be the manifestation of an MFR with relatively cool filament material collecting near its bottom. However, observational evidence of eruptive, filament-hosting MFR systems has been elusive for those originating in active regions. By utilizing multi-passband extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, we present direct evidence of an eruptive MFR in the low corona that exhibits a hot envelope and a cooler core; the latter is likely the upper part of a filament that undergoes a partial eruption, which is later observed in the upper corona as the coiled kernel of a fast, WL CME. This MFR-like structure exists more than 1 hr prior to its eruption, and displays successive stages of dynamical evolution, in which both ideal and non-ideal physical processes may be involved. The timing of the MFR kinematics is found to be well correlated with the energy release of the associated long-duration C1.9 flare. We suggest that the long-duration flare is the result of prolonged energy release associated with the vertical current sheet induced by the erupting MFR.

  8. EVOLUTION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE AND ITS OVERLYING ARCADE BASED ON NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD EXTRAPOLATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, Ju; Liu, Chang; Lee, Jeongwoo; Wang, Shuo; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin; Wiegelmann, Thomas

    2014-03-20

    Dynamic phenomena indicative of slipping reconnection and magnetic implosion were found in a time series of nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations for the active region 11515, which underwent significant changes in the photospheric fields and produced five C-class flares and one M-class flare over five hours on 2012 July 2. NLFFF extrapolation was performed for the uninterrupted 5 hour period from the 12 minute cadence vector magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. According to the time-dependent NLFFF model, there was an elongated, highly sheared magnetic flux rope structure that aligns well with an H? filament. This long filament splits sideways into two shorter segments, which further separate from each other over time at a speed of 1-4kms{sup 1}, much faster than that of the footpoint motion of the magnetic field. During the separation, the magnetic arcade arching over the initial flux rope significantly decreases in height from ?4.5Mm to less than 0.5Mm. We discuss the reality of this modeled magnetic restructuring by relating it to the observations of the magnetic cancellation, flares, a filament eruption, a penumbra formation, and magnetic flows around the magnetic polarity inversion line.

  9. A survey of satellite galaxies around NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Meghin; Loebman, Sarah; Yoachim, Peter

    2014-06-20

    We conduct a survey of satellite galaxies around the nearby spiral NGC 4258 by combining spectroscopic observations from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. New spectroscopy is obtained for 15 galaxies. Of the 47 observed objects, we categorize 8 of them as probable satellites, 8 as possible satellites, and 17 as unlikely to be satellites. We do not speculate on the membership of the remaining 14 galaxies due to a lack of velocity and distance information. Radially integrating our best-fit NFW profile for NGC 4258 yields a total mass of 1.8 10{sup 12} M {sub ?} within 200 kpc. We find that the angular distribution of the satellites appears to be random, and not preferentially aligned with the disk of NGC 4258. In addition, many of the probable satellite galaxies have blue ur colors and appear to be star-forming irregulars in SDSS images; this stands in contrast to the low number of blue satellites in the Milky Way and M31 systems at comparable distances.

  10. Understanding the SNO+ Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamdin, K.

    2015-03-24

    SNO+, a large liquid scintillator experiment, is the successor of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment. The scintillator volume will be loaded with large quantities of 130Te, an isotope that undergoes double beta decay, in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. In addition to this search, SNO+ has a broad physics program due to its sensitivity to solar and supernova neutrinos, as well as reactor and geo anti-neutrinos. SNO+ can also place competitive limits on certain modes of invisible nucleon decay during its first phase. The detector is currently undergoing commissioning in preparation for its first phase, in which the detector is filled with ultra pure water. This will be followed by a pure scintillator phase, and then a Tellurium-loaded scintillator phase to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Here we present the work done to model detector aging, which was first observed during SNO. The aging was found to reduce the optical response of the detector. We also describe early results from electronics calibration of SNO+.

  11. Atmospheric sensing for the H.E.S.S. array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aye, K.-M.; Brown, A.M.; Chadwick, P.M.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Latham, I.J.; Le Gallou, R.; McComb, T.J.L.; Nolan, S.J.; Noutsos, A.; Orford, K.J.; Osborne, J.L.; Rayner, S.M.

    2005-02-21

    Several atmospheric monitoring instruments have been installed at the H.E.S.S. gamma-ray observatory in Namibia. Firstly, Heitronics KT19 infrared radiometers, aligned paraxially with the H.E.S.S. telescopes, measure the infrared radiation of the water molecules. These allow us to detect clouds crossing the telescopes' field of view and to estimate the humidity present in the atmosphere. For a general estimate of the atmosphere's transmittance, i.e. the detection of any light-attenuating aerosols, a ceilometer, which is a LIDAR with built-in atmospheric data reduction code, is being used. It will be complemented soon by an instrument which will measure the transmissivity of the atmosphere at different wavelengths up to 500m above the ground. The overall status of the weather is monitored by a fully automated weatherstation. This paper describes the setup, the data analysis and how this will be used in order to improve the knowledge of the telescopes' effective collection area.

  12. Simultaneous Observations of PKS 2155--304 with H.E.S.S., Fermi, RXTE and ATOM: Spectral Energy Distributions and Variability in a Low State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A.R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Bernlohr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bochow, A.; Borrel, V.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Brun, P.; Buhler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P.M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R.C.G.; /more authors..

    2009-05-07

    We report on the first simultaneous observations that cover the optical, X-ray, and high-energy gamma-ray bands of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. The gamma-ray bands were observed for 11 days, between 2008 August 25 and 2008 September 6 (MJD 54704-54715), jointly with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the HESS atmospheric Cherenkov array, providing the first simultaneous MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution (SED) with the new generation of {gamma}-ray telescopes. The ATOM telescope and the RXTE and Swift observatories provided optical and X-ray coverage of the low-energy component over the same time period. The object was close to the lowest archival X-ray and very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) state, whereas the optical flux was much higher. The light curves show relatively little ({approx}30%) variability overall when compared to past flaring episodes, but we find a clear optical/VHE correlation and evidence for a correlation of the X-rays with the high-energy spectral index. Contrary to previous observations in the flaring state, we do not find any correlation between the X-ray and VHE components. Although synchrotron self-Compton models are often invoked to explain the SEDs of BL Lac objects, the most common versions of these models are at odds with the correlated variability we find in the various bands for PKS 2155-304.

  13. Tracing recent star formation of red early-type galaxies out to z ? 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Im, Myungshin; Le Borgne, Damien; Elbaz, David

    2014-08-20

    We study the mid-infrared (IR) excess emission of early-type galaxies (ETGs) on the red sequence at z < 1 using a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fields of Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). In the mass-limited sample of 1025 galaxies with M {sub star} > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ?} and 0.4 < z < 1.05, we identify 696 Spitzer 24 ?m detected (above the 5?) galaxies and find them to have a wide range of NUV-r and r-[12 ?m] colors despite their red optical u r colors. Even in the sample of very massive ETGs on the red sequence with M {sub star} > 10{sup 11.2} M {sub ?}, more than 18% show excess emission over the photospheric emission in the mid-IR. The combination with the results of red ETGs in the local universe suggests that the recent star formation is not rare among quiescent, red ETGs at least out to z ? 1 if the mid-IR excess emission results from intermediate-age stars or/and from low-level ongoing star formation. Our color-color diagram including near-UV and mid-IR emissions are efficient not only for identifying ETGs with recent star formation, but also for distinguishing quiescent galaxies from dusty star-forming galaxies.

  14. SODIUM AND OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC6791 FROM APOGEE H-BAND SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, Katia; Souto, Diogo; Smith, Verne V.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Bergemann, Maria; Mszros, Szabolcs; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Holtzman, Jon; Garca Prez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David; Beers, Timothy; Carrera, Ricardo; Geisler, Doug; Gunn, James; and others

    2015-01-10

    The open cluster NGC6791 is among the oldest, most massive, and metal-rich open clusters in the Galaxy. High-resolution H-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) of 11 red giants in NGC6791 are analyzed for their chemical abundances of iron, oxygen, and sodium. The abundances of these three elements are found to be homogeneous (with abundance dispersions at the level of ?0.05-0.07 dex) in these cluster red giants, which span much of the red-giant branch (T {sub eff} ? 3500-4600K), and include two red clump giants. From the infrared spectra, this cluster is confirmed to be among the most metal-rich clusters in the Galaxy (([Fe/H]) = 0.34 0.06) and is found to have a roughly solar value of [O/Fe] and slightly enhanced [Na/Fe]. Our non-LTE calculations for the studied Na I lines in the APOGEE spectral region (16373.86 and 16388.85 ) indicate only small departures from LTE (?0.04 dex) for the parameter range and metallicity of the studied stars. The previously reported double population of cluster members with different Na abundances is not found among the studied sample.

  15. RED CLUMP STARS IN THE SAGITTARIUS TIDAL STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Wilhelm, Ronald

    2012-07-15

    We have probed a section (l {approx} 150, b {approx} -60) of the trailing tidal arm of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy by identifying a sample of Red Clump (RC) stream stars. RC stars are not generally found in the halo field, but are found in significant numbers in both the Sagittarius galaxy and its tidal streams, making them excellent probes of stream characteristics. Our target sample was selected using photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 6, which was constrained in color to match the Sagittarius RC stars. Spectroscopic observations of the target stars were conducted at Kitt Peak National Observatory using the WIYN telescope. The resulting spectroscopic sample is magnitude limited and contains both main-sequence disk stars and evolved RC stars. We have developed a method to systematically separate these two stellar classes using kinematic information and a Bayesian approach for surface gravity determination. The resulting RC sample allows us to determine an absolute stellar density of {rho} = 2.7 {+-} 0.5 RC stars kpc{sup -3} at this location in the stream. Future measurements of stellar densities for a variety of populations and at various locations along the streams will lead to a much improved understanding of the original nature of the Sagittarius galaxy and the physical processes controlling its disruption and subsequent stream generation.

  16. Characterizing the AB Doradus moving group via high-resolution spectroscopy and kinematic traceback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, Kyle; Wilhelm, Ronald J.

    2014-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of 10 proposed F and G members of the nearby, young moving group AB Doradus (ABD). Our sample was obtained using the 2.7 m telescope at the McDonald Observatory with the coude echelle spectrograph, achieving R ? 60,000 and signal-to-noise ratio ?200. We derive spectroscopic T {sub eff}, log(g), [Fe/H], and microturbulance (v{sub t} ) using a bootstrap method of the TGVIT software resulting in typical errors of 33K in T {sub eff}, 0.08 dex in log(g), 0.03 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.13 km s{sup 1} in v{sub t} . Characterization of the ABD sample is performed in three ways: (1) chemical homogeneity, (2) kinematic traceback, and (3) isochrone fitting. We find the average metal abundance is [M/H] = 0.03 0.06 with a traceback age of 125 Myr. Our stars were fit to three different evolutionary models and we found that the best match to our ABD sample is the YREC [M/H] = 0.1 model. In our sample of 10 stars, we identify 1 star that is a probable non-member, 3 enigmatic stars, and 6 stars with confirmed membership. We also present a list of chemically coherent stars from this study and the Barenfeld et al. study.

  17. Searching for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of 130 Te with CUORE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; et al

    2015-01-01

    Neumore » trinoless double-beta (0 ν β β ) decay is a hypothesized lepton-number-violating process that offers the only known means of asserting the possible Majorana nature of neutrino mass. The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for 0 ν β β decay of 130 Te using an array of 988 TeO 2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK. The detector will contain 206 kg of 130 Te and have an average energy resolution of 5 keV; the projected 0 ν β β decay half-life sensitivity after five years of livetime is 1.6 × 10 26  y at 1 σ (9.5 × 10 25  y at the 90% confidence level), which corresponds to an upper limit on the effective Majorana mass in the range 40–100 meV (50–130 meV). In this paper, we review the experimental techniques used in CUORE as well as its current status and anticipated physics reach.« less

  18. FIRST SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES IN PHOTOSPHERIC INTENSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip

    2012-07-01

    The formation and the temporal evolution of a bipolar moving magnetic feature (MMF) was studied with high-spatial and temporal resolution. The photometric properties were observed with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory using a broadband TiO filter (705.7 nm), while the magnetic field was analyzed using the spectropolarimetric data obtained by Hinode. For the first time, we observed a bipolar MMF simultaneously in intensity images and magnetic field data, and studied the details of its structure. The vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity of the MMF were also studied. A bipolar MMF with its positive polarity closer to the negative penumbra formed, accompanied by a bright, filamentary structure in the TiO data connecting the MMF and a dark penumbral filament. A fast downflow ({<=}2 km s{sup -1}) was detected at the positive polarity. The vector magnetic field obtained from the full Stokes inversion revealed that a bipolar MMF has a U-shaped magnetic field configuration. Our observations provide a clear intensity counterpart of the observed MMF in the photosphere, and strong evidence of the connection between the MMF and the penumbral filament as a serpentine field.

  19. SOLAR FLARE PREDICTION USING SDO/HMI VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD DATA WITH A MACHINE-LEARNING ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobra, M. G.; Couvidat, S.

    2015-01-10

    We attempt to forecast M- and X-class solar flares using a machine-learning algorithm, called support vector machine (SVM), and four years of data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, the first instrument to continuously map the full-disk photospheric vector magnetic field from space. Most flare forecasting efforts described in the literature use either line-of-sight magnetograms or a relatively small number of ground-based vector magnetograms. This is the first time a large data set of vector magnetograms has been used to forecast solar flares. We build a catalog of flaring and non-flaring active regions sampled from a database of 2071 active regions, comprised of 1.5 million active region patches of vector magnetic field data, and characterize each active region by 25 parameters. We then train and test the machine-learning algorithm and we estimate its performances using forecast verification metrics with an emphasis on the true skill statistic (TSS). We obtain relatively high TSS scores and overall predictive abilities. We surmise that this is partly due to fine-tuning the SVM for this purpose and also to an advantageous set of features that can only be calculated from vector magnetic field data. We also apply a feature selection algorithm to determine which of our 25 features are useful for discriminating between flaring and non-flaring active regions and conclude that only a handful are needed for good predictive abilities.

  20. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.