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Sample records for observatory nainital uttarkhand

  1. ARM - VAP Product - sondeadjust

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retired HFE M1 Browse Data Shouxian, Anhui, China retired NIM M1 Browse Data Niamey, Niger retired PGH M1 Browse Data ARIES Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1...

  2. ARM - Instrument - sashe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AMF1 PGH M1 Browse Data ARIES Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1 retired PVC M1 Browse Data Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF1 retired retired Originating...

  3. ARM - Datastreams - nfov2ch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1 retired PVC M1 Browse Data Browse Plots Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF1 retired PYE M1 Browse Data Browse Plots Point Reyes, CA...

  4. ARM - Instrument - mwr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plots ARIES Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1 retired PVC M1 Browse Data Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF1 retired PYE M1 Browse Data Browse Plots Point Reyes, CA...

  5. HAWC ?-Ray Observatory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the volcanoes Sierra Negra and Pico de Orizaba at the border between the states of Puebla and Veracruz. The observatory, which is still under construction, uses an array of...

  6. HAWC Observatory captures first image

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HAWC Observatory captures first image HAWC Observatory captures first image The facility is designed to detect cosmic rays and the highest energy gamma rays ever observed from astrophysical sources. April 30, 2013 The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is under construction. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is under construction. HAWC is under construction inside the Parque Nacional Pico de Orizaba, a Mexican national park. An international team of researchers,

  7. HAWC γ-Ray Observatory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HAWC γ-Ray Observatory HAWC γ-Ray Observatory Investigating the field of high energy physics through experiments that strengthen our fundamental understanding of matter, energy, space, and time. Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505) 667-5657 Email HAWC γ-Ray Observatory On August 1, 2013, the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma Ray Observatory formally began operations. HAWC is designed to study the origin of very high-energy cosmic rays and observe the

  8. The Enriched Xenon Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolinski, M. J. [Stanford University Physics Department, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2009-12-17

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe. The EXO Collaboration is actively pursuing both liquid-phase and gas-phase Xe detector technologies with scalability to the ton-scale. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe is especially attractive because of the possibility of tagging the resulting Ba daughter ion, eliminating all sources of background other than the two neutrino decay mode. EXO-200, the first phase of the project, is a liquid Xe time projection chamber with 200 kg of Xe enriched to 80% in {sup 136}Xe. EXO-200, which does not include Ba-tagging, will begin taking data in 2009, with two-year sensitivity to the half-life for neutrinoless double beta decay of 6.4x10{sup 25} years. This corresponds to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.13 to 0.19 eV.

  9. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  10. New observatory studies universe's most energetic phenomena

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New observatory Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit New observatory studies universe's most energetic phenomena Facility replaces Milagro Observatory near Los Alamos May 1, 2015 From its perch atop the highest accessible peak in Mexico, Milagro's replacement will have 15 percent of the sky within its sights at any given time. From its perch atop the highest accessible peak

  11. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-02-04

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above $10^{17}$ eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water-Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km$^2$ overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km$^2$, 61 detector infill array. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km$^2$ sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Auger Observatory.

  12. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-07-08

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 1017 eV and study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km2 overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. Additionally, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km2, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completionmore » in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km2 sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.« less

  13. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-07-08

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 1017 eV and study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km2 overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. Additionally, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km2, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km2 sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.

  14. The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe,...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY) The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield...

  15. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  16. HAWC Observatory to study universe's most energetic phenomena

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HAWC Observatory to study universe's most energetic phenomena HAWC Observatory to study universe's most energetic phenomena Inaugural ceremony to mark completion of powerful system to detect gamma rays and cosmic rays March 20, 2015 HAWC Observatory HAWC Observatory to study universe's most energetic phenomena Contact Los Alamos National Laboratory Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email University of Maryland Matthew Wright (30) 405-9267 Email "HAWC will be more than 10

  17. Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) July 17, 2014 - 2:59pm Addthis Open Date: 07/17/2014 Close Date: 10/01/2014 Funding Organization: U.S. Department of Energy Summary: The objective of this announcement is to establish a dedicated Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) field laboratory called the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE). FORGE is envisioned as a dedicated

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsBlack Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory 2016.06.15 - 2016.10.01 Lead Scientist : Daniel Jaffe Abstract Black carbon (BC) is a key component in the earth system and a significant climate forcing agent. Observations at remote sites and in free-tropospheric air are extremely sparse. We propose to utilize one of the ARM SP2 (Single

  19. NGEE Arctic Webcam Photographs, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman

    2012-04-01

    The NGEE Arctic Webcam (PTZ Camera) captures two views of seasonal transitions from its generally south-facing position on a tower located at the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Alaska. Images are captured every 30 minutes. Historical images are available for download. The camera is operated by the U.S. DOE sponsored Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project.

  20. NGEE Arctic Webcam Photographs, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman

    The NGEE Arctic Webcam (PTZ Camera) captures two views of seasonal transitions from its generally south-facing position on a tower located at the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Alaska. Images are captured every 30 minutes. Historical images are available for download. The camera is operated by the U.S. DOE sponsored Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project.

  1. New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New gamma-ray observatory begins operations New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov ...

  2. Sandia's Frontier Observatory for Research In Geothermal Energy (FORGE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase 1 Proposals Were Both Successful Frontier Observatory for Research In Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Phase 1 Proposals Were Both Successful - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear

  3. James Cronin, CP Violation, and the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    James Cronin, CP Violation and the Pierre Auger Observatory Resources with Additional Information James Cronin Courtesy Brookhaven National Laboratory James Watson Cronin "received his B.S. degree from Southern Methodist University in 1951. He then attended the University of Chicago for graduate school, earning his M.S. in 1953 and his Ph.D. in 1955. He began his scientific career at Brookhaven National Laboratory, where he served as an assistant physicist from 1955 to 1958. Cronin joined

  4. Technology Development for a Neutrino AstrophysicalObservatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.; He, Y.D.; Jackson, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lai, K.W.; Learned, J.; Ling, J.; Liu, D.; Lowder, D.; Moorhead, M.; Morookian, J.M.; Nygren, D.R.; Price, P.B.; Richards, A.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.; Smoot, George F.; Stokstad, R.G.; VanDalen, G.; Wilkes, J.; Wright, F.; Young, K.

    1996-02-01

    We propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory.

  5. Technology development for a neutrino astrophysical observatory. Letter of intent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.

    1996-02-01

    The authors propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory.

  6. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  7. INDIA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Location: 29° 21' 33.84" N, 79° 27' 29.27" E The AMF is operating at the ARIES Observatory in Nainital from June 2011 to March 2012. In June 2011, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) began operations at the ARIES Observatory in Nainital for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX). The objective of GVAX is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. This complex field study will use

  8. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  9. Gravitational Waves Amber L. Stuver LIGO Livingston Observatory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LIGO and the Detection of Gravitational Waves Amber L. Stuver LIGO Livingston Observatory July 27, 2016 4:00 p.m. - Wilson Hall, One West This colloquium will discuss what gravitational waves are and how they are used to observe the universe in a new way. The history of the search for gravitational waves will be reviewed leading up to today's advanced detectors and how they operate. Most sources of detectable gravitational waves are some of the most violent, energetic events in the universe from

  10. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Wycoff, Gary L. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2011-08-15

    The results of 3362 intensified CCD observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each observation of a system represents a combination of over 2000 short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 1970 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''78 to 72.''17, with a mean separation of 14.''76. This is the 17th in this series of papers and covers the period 2010 January 6 through December 20. Also presented are 10 pairs that are resolved for the first time.

  11. Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; et al

    2013-01-01

    The observation of ultrahigh energy neutrinos (UHE ν s) has become a priority in experimental astroparticle physics. UHE ν s can be detected with a variety of techniques. In particular, neutrinos can interact in the atmosphere (downward-going ν ) or in the Earth crust (Earth-skimming ν ), producing air showers that can be observed with arrays of detectors at the ground. With the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory we can detect these types of cascades. The distinguishing signature for neutrino events is the presence of very inclined showers produced close to the ground (i.e., after havingmore » traversed a large amount of atmosphere). In this work we review the procedure and criteria established to search for UHE ν s in the data collected with the ground array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This includes Earth-skimming as well as downward-going neutrinos. No neutrino candidates have been found, which allows us to place competitive limits to the diffuse flux of UHE ν s in the EeV range and above.« less

  12. DOE Announces Notice of Intent for EGS Observatory | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Notice of Intent for EGS Observatory DOE Announces Notice of Intent for EGS Observatory February 21, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Energy Department announced today its intent to issue a funding opportunity to establish a dedicated subsurface laboratory called the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE). This first-of-its-kind effort will promote transformative and high-risk/high-reward science and engineering focused on addressing critical barriers to Enhanced Geothermal

  13. Cosmic-ray physics with the milagro gamma-ray observatory (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Milagro gamma-ray observatory is a water Cherenkov detector with an energy response ... COUNTERS; COSMIC RADIATION; EMISSION; ENERGY; MODULATION; PHYSICS; TIME DEPENDENCE; WATER

  14. Astrophysical Sources of Cosmic Rays and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects in Pierre Auger Observatory data; (2) Discriminating potential astrophysical sources of the highest energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Intrinsic anisotropy of the UHECR from the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Ultra-high energy photon studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) Limits on the flux of diffuse ultra high energy neutrinos set using the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) Search for sidereal modulation of the arrival directions of events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (7) Cosmic Ray Solar Modulation Studies in the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) Investigation of the Displacement Angle of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays Caused by the Galactic Magnetic Field; (9) Search for coincidences with astrophysical transients in Pierre Auger Observatory data; and (10) An alternative method for determining the energy of hybrid events at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  15. The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 10{sup 18} eV with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) The cosmic ray flux observed at zenith angles larger than 60 degrees with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Energy calibration of data recorded with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Exposure of the Hybrid Detector of The Pierre Auger Observatory; and (5) Energy scale derived from Fluorescence Telescopes using Cherenkov Light and Shower Universality.

  16. New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos...

  17. Digital Elevation Model, 0.5-m, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rowland,Joel; Gangodagamage,Chandana; Wilson,Cathy

    2013-12-08

    The dataset is a digital elevation model, DEM, of a 2km by 7km region in the vicinity of the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Ak.

  18. Informational Webinar: Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Funding Opportunity Announcement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled “Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Funding Opportunity Announcement Informational Webinar," focusing on the...

  19. Precision Solar Neutrino Measurements with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblath, Noah

    2007-10-26

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is the first experiment to measure the total flux of active, high-energy neutrinos from the sun. Results from SNO have solved the long-standing 'Solar Neutrino Problem' by demonstrating that neutrinos change flavor. SNO measured the total neutrino flux with the neutral-current interaction of solar neutrinos with 1000 tonnes of D{sub 2}O. In the first two phases of the experiment we detected the neutron from that interaction by capture on deuterium and capture on chlorine, respectively. In the third phase an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters was deployed in the detector. This allows a measurement of the neutral-current neutrons that is independent of the Cherenkov light detected by the PMT array. We are currently developing a unique, detailed simulation of the current pulses from the proportional-counter array that will be used to help distinguish signal and background pulses.

  20. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVIII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Friedman, Elizabeth A. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2012-05-15

    The results of 2490 intensified CCD observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each observation of a system represents a combination of over 2000 short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 1462 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''56 to 71.''80, with a mean separation of 14.''81. This is the 18th in this series of papers and covers the period 2011 January 3 through 2011 December 18. Also presented are four pairs which are resolved for the first time, thirteen other pairs which appear to be lost, and linear elements for four additional pairs.

  1. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Hurowitz, Haley M. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2013-09-15

    The results of 2916 intensified CCD observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each observation of a system represents a combination of over two thousand short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 1584 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''54 to 98.''09, with a median separation of 11.''73. This is the 19th in this series of papers and covers the period 2012 January 5 through 2012 December 18. Also presented are 10 pairs that are reported for the first time, 17 pairs that appear to be lost, linear elements for 18 pairs, and orbital elements for 2 additional pairs.

  2. The Final Results from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was a water Cherenkov detector dedicated to investigate elementary particles called neutrinos. It successfully took data between 1999 and 2006. The detector was unique in its use of heavy water as a detection medium, permitting it to make a solar model-independent test of solar neutrino mixing. In fact, SNO conclusively showed that solar neutrinos oscillate on their way from the core of the Sun to the Earth. This groundbreaking observation was made during three independent phases of the experiment. Even if data taking ended, SNO is still in a mode of precise determination of the solar neutrino oscillation parameters because all along SNO had developed several methods to tell charged-current events apart from neutral-current events. This ability is crucial for the final and ultimate data analysis of all the phases. The physics reach of a combined three-phase solar analysis will be reviewed together with results and subtleties about solar neutrino physics.

  3. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Wycoff, Gary L. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2011-05-15

    The results of 1031 speckle-interferometric observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each speckle-interferometric observation of a system represents a combination of over two thousand short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 457 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''15 to 16.''94, with a median separation of 3.''03. The range in V-band magnitudes for the primary (secondary) of observed targets is 3.1-12.9 (3.2-13.3). This is the sixteenth in a series of papers presenting measurements obtained with this system and covers the period 2009 January 12 through 2009 December 17. Included in these data are 12 older measurements whose positions were previously deemed possibly aberrant, but are no longer classified this way following a confirming observation. Also, 10 pairs with a single observation are herein confirmed. This paper also includes the first data obtained using a new ICCD with fiber optic cables.

  4. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  5. SNO Data: Results from Experiments at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was built 6800 feet under ground, in INCO's Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario. SNO is a heavy-water Cherenkov detector that is designed to detect neutrinos produced by fusion reactions in the sun. It uses 1000 tonnes of heavy water, on loan from Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), contained in a 12 meter diameter acrylic vessel. Neutrinos react with the heavy water (D2O) to produce flashes of light called Cherenkov radiation. This light is then detected by an array of 9600 photomultiplier tubes mounted on a geodesic support structure surrounding the heavy water vessel. The detector is immersed in light (normal) water within a 30 meter barrel-shaped cavity (the size of a 10 story building!) excavated from Norite rock. Located in the deepest part of the mine, the overburden of rock shields the detector from cosmic rays. The detector laboratory is extremely clean to reduce background signals from radioactive elements present in the mine dust which would otherwise hide the very weak signal from neutrinos. (From http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/]

    The SNO website provides access to various datasets. See also the SNO Image Catalog at http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/sno/images/ and computer-generated images of SNO events at http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/sno/events/ and the list of published papers.

  6. The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): A High Resolution Spectroscopic Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, M P; Cruddace, R G; Wood, K S; Yentis, D J; Gursky, H; Barbee, T W; Goldstein, W H; Kordas, J F; Fritz, G G; Hunter, W R; Barstow, M A; Bannister, N P; Culhane, J L; Lapington, J S

    2002-07-18

    EUVE and the ROSAT WFC have left a tremendous legacy in astrophysics at EUV wavelengths. More recently, Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated at X-ray wavelengths the power of high-resolution astronomical spectroscopy, which allows the identification of weak emission lines, the measurement of Doppler shifts and line profiles, and the detection of narrow absorption features. This leads to a complete understanding of the density, temperature, abundance, magnetic, and dynamic structure of astrophysical plasmas. However, the termination of the EUVE mission has left a gaping hole in spectral coverage at crucial EUV wavelengths ({approx}100-300 {angstrom}), where hot (10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} K) plasmas radiate most strongly and produce critical spectral diagnostics. CHIPS will fill this hole only partially as it is optimized for diffuse emission and has only moderate resolution (R {approx} 150). For discrete sources, we have successfully flown a follow-on instrument to the EUVE spectrometer (A{sub eff} {approx} 1 cm{sup 2}, R {approx} 400), the high-resolution spectrometer J-PEX(A{sub eff} {approx} 3 cm{sup 2}, R {approx} 3000). Here we build on the J-PEX prototype and present a strawman design for an orbiting spectroscopic observatory, APEX, a SMEX-class instrument containing a suite of 8 spectrometers that together achieve both high effective area (A{sub eff} > 20 cm{sup 2}) and high spectral resolution (R {approx} 10,000) over the range 100-300 {angstrom}. We also discuss alternate configurations for shorter and longer wavelengths.

  7. INSIGHTS INTO FILAMENT ERUPTION ONSET FROM SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Freeland, Samuel L. E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.gov

    2011-04-10

    We examine the buildup to and onset of an active region filament confined eruption of 2010 May 12, using EUV imaging data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Array and line-of-sight magnetic data from the SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. Over the hour preceding eruption the filament undergoes a slow rise averaging {approx}3 km s{sup -1}, with a step-like trajectory. Accompanying a final rise step {approx}20 minutes prior to eruption is a transient preflare brightening, occurring on loops rooted near the site where magnetic field had canceled over the previous 20 hr. Flow-type motions of the filament are relatively smooth with speeds {approx}50 km s{sup -1} prior to the preflare brightening and appear more helical, with speeds {approx}50-100 km s{sup -1}, after that brightening. After a final plateau in the filament's rise, its rapid eruption begins, and concurrently an outer shell 'cocoon' of the filament material increases in emission in hot EUV lines, consistent with heating in a newly formed magnetic flux rope. The main flare brightenings start {approx}5 minutes after eruption onset. The main flare arcade begins between the legs of an envelope-arcade loop that is nearly orthogonal to the filament, suggesting that the flare results from reconnection among the legs of that loop. This progress of events is broadly consistent with flux cancellation leading to formation of a helical flux rope that subsequently erupts due to onset of a magnetic instability and/or runaway tether cutting.

  8. THE FOURTH US NAVAL OBSERVATORY CCD ASTROGRAPH CATALOG (UCAC4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharias, N.; Finch, C. T.; Bartlett, J. L.; Girard, T. M.; Henden, A.; Monet, D. G.; Zacharias, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The fourth United States Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog, UCAC4, was released in 2012 August (double-sided DVD and CDS data center Vizier catalog I/322). It is the final release in this series and contains over 113 million objects; over 105 million of them with proper motions (PMs). UCAC4 is an updated version of UCAC3 with about the same number of stars also covering all-sky. Bugs were fixed, Schmidt plate survey data were avoided, and precise five-band photometry was added for about half the stars. Astrograph observations have been supplemented for bright stars by FK6, Hipparcos, and Tycho-2 data to compile a UCAC4 star catalog complete from the brightest stars to about magnitude R = 16. Epoch 1998-2004 positions are obtained from observations with the 20 cm aperture USNO Astrograph's 'red lens', equipped with a 4k by 4k CCD. Mean positions and PMs are derived by combining these observations with over 140 ground- and space-based catalogs, including Hipparcos/Tycho and the AC2000.2, as well as unpublished measures of over 5000 plates from other astrographs. For most of the faint stars in the southern hemisphere, the first epoch plates from the Southern Proper Motion program form the basis for PMs, while the Northern Proper Motion first epoch plates serve the same purpose for the rest of the sky. These data are supplemented by 2MASS near-IR photometry for about 110 million stars and five-band (B, V, g, r, i) APASS data for over 51 million stars. Thus the published UCAC4, as were UCAC3 and UCAC2, is a compiled catalog with the UCAC observational program being a major component. The positional accuracy of stars in UCAC4 at mean epoch is about 15-100 mas per coordinate, depending on magnitude, while the formal errors in PMs range from about 1 to 10 mas yr{sup -1} depending on magnitude and observing history. Systematic errors in PMs are estimated to be about 1-4 mas yr{sup -1}.

  9. Detecting gamma-ray bursts with the pierre auger observatory using the single particle technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allard, Denis; Parizot, E.; Bertou, Xavier; Beatty, J.; Vernois, M.Du; Nitz, D.; Rodriguez, G.

    2005-08-01

    During the past ten years, gamma-ray Bursts (GRB) have been extensively studied in the keV-MeV energy range but the higher energy emission still remains mysterious. Ground based observatories have the possibility to investigate energy range around one GeV using the ''single particle technique''. The aim of the present study is to investigate the capability of the Pierre Auger Observatory to detect the high energy emission of GRBs with such a technique. According to the detector response to photon showers around one GeV, and making reasonable assumptions about the high energy emission of GRBs, we show that the Pierre Auger Observatory is a competitive instrument for this technique, and that water tanks are very promising detectors for the single particle technique.

  10. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  11. Prospects for and Status of CUORE ? The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, E B

    2009-07-07

    CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) is a next generation experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless DBD of {sup 130}Te using a bolometric technique. The present status of the CUORE is presented along with the latest results from its prototype, CUORICINO.

  12. The search for extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, D.; Chau, J.; Galindo, F.; Huaman, A.; Solano, C. J.

    2009-04-30

    This paper presents the status of the project to detect extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We report on detected anomalous signals and present a toy model to estimate at what altitudes we might expect to see air shower signals. According to this model, a significant number of high altitude horizontal air showers could be observed by radar techniques.

  13. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander; et al.

    2014-08-08

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  14. INDIA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM instruments on top of the ARIES Observatory in Nainital Doppler Lidar (DL) Shortwave Array Spectroradiometers, both Hemispheric and Zenith (SASHE and SASZE) Shortwave Array Spectroradiometers, both Hemispheric and Zenith (SASHE and SASZE) Total Sky Imager (TSI) on the far left, Cimel Sunphotometer (CSPHOT) center, and Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD) to the right Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD) Total Sky Imager (TSI) Doppler Lidar (DL)

  15. High-Resolution Spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Canizares, Claude R. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    The capabilities of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton for high-resolution spectroscopy have brought tradition plasma diagnostic techniques to the study of cosmic plasma. Observations have probed nearly every class of astronomical object, from young proto-starts through massive O starts and black hole binaries, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and the intergalactic medium. Many of these sources show remarkable rich spectra that reveal new physical information, such as emission measure distributions, elemental abundances, accretion disk and wind signatures, and time variability. This talk will present an overview of the Chandra instrumentaton and selected examples of spectral observations of astrophysical and cosmological importance.

  16. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY: OBSERVATIONS OBTAINED IN 2006-2007 AND 35 NEW ORBITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartkopf, William I.; Mason, Brian D. E-mail: bdm@usno.navy.mil

    2009-09-15

    Results are presented for 607 speckle interferometric observations of double stars, as well as 222 measures of single stars or unresolved pairs. All data were obtained in 2006 and 2007 at the Mount Wilson Observatory, using the 2.5 m Hooker telescope. Separations range from 0.''06 to 6.''31, with a median of 0.''34. These three observing runs concentrated on binaries in need of confirmation (mainly Hipparcos and Tycho pairs), as well as systems in need of improved orbital elements. New orbital solutions have been determined for 35 systems as a result.

  17. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; et al

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe themore » design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.« less

  18. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W.H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S. L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Thomson, G. B.; Von Maluski, D.

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  19. Anisotropy studies around the Galactic Centre at EeV energies with the Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; Aramo, C.; ,

    2006-07-01

    Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for anisotropies near the direction of the Galactic Centre at EeV energies. The exposure of the surface array in this part of the sky is already significantly larger than that of the fore-runner experiments. Our results do not support previous findings of localized excesses in the AGASA and SUGAR data. We set an upper bound on a point-like flux of cosmic rays arriving from the Galactic Centre which excludes several scenarios predicting sources of EeV neutrons from Sagittarius A. Also the events detected simultaneously by the surface and fluorescence detectors (the ''hybrid'' data set), which have better pointing accuracy but are less numerous than those of the surface array alone, do not show any significant localized excess from this direction.

  20. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The 'hybrid' detection mode combines the information from the two subsystems. We describe the determination of the hybrid exposure for events observed by the fluorescence telescopes in coincidence with at least one water-Cherenkov detector of the surface array. A detailed knowledge of the time dependence of the detection operations is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the exposure. We discuss the relevance of monitoring data collected during operations, such as the status of the fluorescence detector, background light and atmospheric conditions, that are used in both simulation and reconstruction.

  1. The X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer for the International X-Ray Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, R. L.; Bandler, S. R.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Shirron, P.; Smith, S. J.; Whitehouse, P.; Ezoe, Y.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Sato, K.; Gottardi, L.; Hartog, R. den; Herder, J.-W. den; Hoevers, H.; Korte, P. de; Kuur, J. van der

    2009-12-16

    The International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) is under formulation by NASA, ESA and JAXA for deployment in 2022. IXO emerged over the last 18 months as the NASA Constellation-X and ESA/JAXA X-Ray Evolving Universe Spectrometer (XEUS) missions were combined. The driving performance requirements for the X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) are a spectral resolution of 2.5 eV over the central 2'x2' in the 0.3-7.0 keV band, and 10 eV to the edge of the 5'x5' field of view (FOV). The XMS is now based on a microcalorimeter array of Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) thermometers with Au/Bi absorbers and a SQUID MUX readout. One of the concepts studied as part of the mission formulation has a core 40x40 array corresponding to a 2'x2' FOV with 3'' pixels surrounded by an outer, annular 52x52 array of 6'' pixels that extends the field of view to 5.4'x5.4' with better than 10 eV resolution. There are several options for implementing the readout and cooling system of the XMS under study in the US, Europe and Japan. The ADR system will have from two to five stages depending on the performance of the cryocooler. Mechanical coolers with sufficient cooling power at 4K are available now, and {approx}2K coolers are under development. In this paper we give an overview of the XMS instrument, and some of the tradeoffs to be addressed for this observatory instrument.

  2. Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-06-14

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30 to 80MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy density is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two dimensional functionmore » that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge excess emission components. We found that the spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy – corrected for geometrical effects – is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. Finally we find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.« less

  3. Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-08-19

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30 to 80MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy density is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge excess emission components. We found that the spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy – corrected for geometrical effects – is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. Finally we find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.

  4. TARGET SELECTION FOR THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT (APOGEE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zasowski, G.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Andrews, B.; Epstein, C.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Jackson, K.; Majewski, S. R.; Chojnowski, S. D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Beaton, R. L.; Nidever, D. L.; Pinto, H. J. Rocha; Girardi, L.; Cudworth, K. M.; Munn, J.; Blake, C. H.; Covey, K.; Deshpande, R.; Fleming, S. W.; Fabbian, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Calle Via Lactea s and others

    2013-10-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution infrared spectroscopic survey spanning all Galactic environments (i.e., bulge, disk, and halo), with the principal goal of constraining dynamical and chemical evolution models of the Milky Way. APOGEE takes advantage of the reduced effects of extinction at infrared wavelengths to observe the inner Galaxy and bulge at an unprecedented level of detail. The survey's broad spatial and wavelength coverage enables users of APOGEE data to address numerous Galactic structure and stellar populations issues. In this paper we describe the APOGEE targeting scheme and document its various target classes to provide the necessary background and reference information to analyze samples of APOGEE data with awareness of the imposed selection criteria and resulting sample properties. APOGEE's primary sample consists of {approx}10{sup 5} red giant stars, selected to minimize observational biases in age and metallicity. We present the methodology and considerations that drive the selection of this sample and evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and caveats of the selection and sampling algorithms. We also describe additional target classes that contribute to the APOGEE sample, including numerous ancillary science programs, and we outline the targeting data that will be included in the public data releases.

  5. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-09

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80° . Our measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the Surface Detector array at an altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ± 0.04 ± 0.48 (sys.)) × 107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. Finally, the logarithmic gain d ln Nµ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 × 1018 eV and 5 × 1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ± 0.024 ± 0.030 (sys.)).

  6. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of UHE tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collaboration, The Pierre Auger

    2007-12-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau-neutrinos {nu}{sub {tau}} that interact in the Earth's crust. Tau leptons from {tau}{sub {tau}} charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 is used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of {nu}{sub {tau}} at EeV energies. Assuming an E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90 % C.L. is E{sub {nu}}{sup 2} dN{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}}/dE{sub {nu}} < 1.3 x 10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} in the energy range 2 x 10{sup 17} eV < E{sub {nu}} < 2 x 10{sup 19} eV.

  7. High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory in Mendoza, Argentina is the result of an international collaboration funded by 15 countries and many different organizations. Its mission is to capture high-energy cosmic ray events or air showers for research into their origin and nature. The Pierre Auger Collaboration agreed to make 1% of its data available to the public. The Public Event Explorer is a search tool that allows users to browse or search for and display figures and data plots of events collected since 2004. The repository is updated daily, and, as of June, 2014, makes more than 35,000 events publicly available. The energy of a cosmic ray is measured in Exa electron volts or EeV. These event displays can be browsed in order of their energy level from 0.1 to 41.1 EeV. Each event has an individual identification number.

    The event displays provide station data, cosmic ray incoming direction, various energy measurements, plots, vector-based images, and an ASCII data file.

  8. Prototype muon detectors for the AMIGA component of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-02-17

    AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory to extend its range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the particle showers. It consists of an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors accompanied by buried scintillator detectors used for muon counting. The main objectives of the AMIGA engineering array, referred to as the Unitary Cell, are to identify and resolve all engineering issues as well as to understand the muon-number counting uncertainties related to the design of the detector. The mechanical design, fabrication and deployment processes of the muonmore » counters of the Unitary Cell are described in this document. These muon counters modules comprise sealed PVC casings containing plastic scintillation bars, wavelength-shifter optical fibers, 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes, and acquisition electronics. The modules are buried approximately 2.25 m below ground level in order to minimize contamination from electromagnetic shower particles. The mechanical setup, which allows access to the electronics for maintenance, is also described in addition to tests of the modules' response and integrity. As a result, the completed Unitary Cell has measured a number of air showers of which a first analysis of a sample event is included here.« less

  9. THE VECTOR VORTEX CORONAGRAPH: LABORATORY RESULTS AND FIRST LIGHT AT PALOMAR OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mawet, D.; Serabyn, E.; Liewer, K.; Burruss, R.; Hickey, J.; Shemo, D.

    2010-01-20

    High-contrast coronagraphy will be needed to image and characterize faint extrasolar planetary systems. Coronagraphy is a rapidly evolving field, and many enhanced alternatives to the classical Lyot coronagraph have been proposed in the past 10 years. Here, we discuss the operation of the vector vortex coronagraph, which is one of the most efficient possible coronagraphs. We first present recent laboratory results and then first light observations at the Palomar observatory. Our near-infrared H-band (centered at approx1.65 mum) and K-band (centered at approx2.2 mum) vector vortex devices demonstrated excellent contrast results in the lab, down to approx10{sup -6} at an angular separation of approx3lambda/d. On sky, we detected a brown dwarf companion 3000 times fainter than its host star (HR 7672) in the K{sub s} band (centered at approx2.15 mum), at an angular separation of approx2.5lambda/d. Current and next-generation high-contrast instruments can directly benefit from the demonstrated capabilities of such a vector vortex: simplicity, small inner working angle, high optical throughput (>90%), and maximal off-axis discovery space.

  10. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-09

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80° . Our measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the Surface Detector array at anmore » altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ± 0.04 ± 0.48 (sys.)) × 107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. Finally, the logarithmic gain d ln Nµ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 × 1018 eV and 5 × 1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ± 0.024 ± 0.030 (sys.)).« less

  11. HOMOLOGOUS FLUX ROPES OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-12-01

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of four homologous flux ropes in the active region (AR) 11745 on 2013 May 20-22. The four flux ropes are all above the neutral line of the AR, with endpoints anchoring at the same region, and have a generally similar morphology. The first three flux ropes rose with a velocity of less than 30km s{sup 1} after their appearance, and subsequently their intensities at 131 decreased and the flux ropes became obscure. The fourth flux rope erupted last, with a speed of about 130km s{sup 1} and formed a coronal mass ejection (CME). The associated filament showed an obvious anti-clockwise twist motion at the initial stage, and the twist was estimated at 4?. This indicates that kink instability possibly triggers the early rise of the fourth flux rope. The activated filament material was spatially within the flux rope and showed consistent evolution in the early stages. Our findings provide new clues for understanding the characteristics of flux ropes. Firstly, multiple flux ropes are successively formed at the same location during an AR evolution process. Secondly, a slow-rise flux rope does not necessarily result in a CME, and a fast-eruption flux rope does result in a CME.

  12. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF AN ERUPTING FILAMENT WITH SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY AND STEREO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun; Zhang Yuzong; Yang Shuhong E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2011-09-20

    On 2010 August 1, a global solar event was launched involving almost the entire Earth-facing side of the Sun. This event mainly consisted of a C3.2 flare, a polar crown filament eruption, and two Earth-directed coronal mass ejections. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and STEREO showed that all the activities were coupled together, suggesting a global character of the magnetic eruption. We reconstruct the three-dimensional geometry of the polar crown filament using observations from three different viewpoints (STEREO A, STEREO B, and SDO) for the first time. The filament undergoes two eruption processes. First, the main body of the filament rises up, while it also moves toward the low-latitude region with a change in inclination by {approx}48{sup 0} and expands only in the altitudinal and latitudinal direction in the field of view of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. We investigate the true velocities and accelerations of different locations along the filament and find that the highest location always has the largest acceleration during this eruption process. During the late phase of the first eruption, part of the filament material separates from the eastern leg. This material displays a projectile motion and moves toward the west at a constant velocity of 141.8 km s{sup -1}. This may imply that the polar crown filament consists of at least two groups of magnetic systems.

  13. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  14. The search for TeV-scale dark matter with the HAWC observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harding, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a wide field-of-view detector sensitive to 100 GeV - 100 TeV gamma rays and cosmic rays. Located at an elevation of 4100 m on the Sierra Negra mountain in Mexico, HAWC observes extensive air showers from gamma and cosmic rays with an array of water tanks which produce Cherenkov light in the presence of air showers. With a field-of-view capable of observing 2/3 of the sky each day, and a sensitivity of 1 Crab/day, HAWC will be able to map out the sky in gamma and cosmic rays in detail. In thismore » paper, we discuss the capabilities of HAWC to map out the directions and spectra of TeV gamma rays and cosmic rays coming from sources of dark matter annihilation. We discuss the HAWC sensitivity to multiple extended sources of dark matter annihilation and the possibility of HAWC observations of annihilations in nearby dark matter subhalos.« less

  15. The next generation of axion helioscopes: The international axion observatory (IAXO)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vogel, J. K.; Armengaud, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Betz, M.; Brax, P.; Brun, P.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Carosi, G. P.; Caspers, F.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a proposed 4th-generation axion helioscope with the primary physics research goal to search for solar axions via their Primakoff conversion into photons of 1 – 10 keV energies in a strong magnetic field. IAXO will achieve a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling gaγ down to a few ×10⁻¹² GeV⁻¹ for a wide range of axion masses up to ~ 0.25 eV. This is an improvement over the currently best (3rd generation) axion helioscope, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), of about 5 orders of magnitude in signal strength, corresponding to a factor ~ 20more » in the axion photon coupling. IAXO’s sensitivity relies on the construction of a large superconducting 8-coil toroidal magnet of 20 m length optimized for axion research. Each of the eight 60 cm diameter magnet bores is equipped with x-ray optics focusing the signal photons into ~ 0.2 cm² spots that are imaged by very low background x-ray detectors. The magnet will be built into a structure with elevation and azimuth drives that will allow solar tracking for 12 hours each day. This contribution is a summary of our papers [1, 2, 3] and we refer to these for further details.« less

  16. EMERGING DIMMINGS OF ACTIVE REGIONS OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jun; Yang Shuhong [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu Yang; Sun Xudong, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: yliu@sun.stanford.edu, E-mail: xudong@sun.stanford.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Using the observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we statistically investigate the emerging dimmings (EDs) of 24 isolated active regions (IARs) from 2010 June to 2011 May. All the IARs show EDs in lower-temperature lines (e.g., 171 A) at their early emerging stages. Meanwhile, in higher temperature lines (e.g., 211 A), the ED regions brighten continuously. There are two types of EDs: fan-shaped and halo-shaped. There are 19 fan-shaped EDs and 5 halo-shaped ones. The EDs appear to be delayed by several to more than ten hours relative to the first emergence of the IARs. The shortest delay is 3.6 hr and the longest is 19.0 hr. The EDs last from 3.3 hr to 14.2 hr, with a mean duration of 8.3 hr. Before the appearance of the EDs, the emergence rate of the magnetic flux of the IARs is between 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx hr{sup -1} to 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx hr{sup -1}. The larger the emergence rate is, the shorter the delay time is. While the dimmings appear, the magnetic flux of the IARs ranges from 8.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx to 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} Mx. These observations imply that the reconfiguration of the coronal magnetic fields due to reconnection between the newly emerging flux and the surrounding existing fields results in a new thermal distribution which leads to a dimming for the cooler channel (171 A) and brightening in the warmer channels.

  17. Simulation of subsurface thermal regimes of polygonal tundra at Barrow Environmental Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Richard T. Mills; Jitendra Kumar; Vladimir Romanovsky; Peter E. Thornton; Gautam Bisht; Colleen M. Iversen; Nathan Collier

    2016-01-27

    Vast carbon stocks stored in permafrost soils of Arctic tundra are under risk of release to atmosphere under warming climate. Ice--wedge polygons in the low-gradient polygonal tundra create a complex mosaic of microtopographic features. The microtopography plays a critical role in regulating the fine scale variability in thermal and hydrological regimes in the polygonal tundra landscape underlain by continuous permafrost. Modeling of thermal regimes of this sensitive ecosystem is essential for understanding the landscape behaviour under current as well as changing climate. We present here an end-to-end effort for high resolution numerical modeling of thermal hydrology at real-world field sites, utilizing the best available data to characterize and parameterize the models. We develop approaches to model the thermal hydrology of polygonal tundra and apply them at four study sites at Barrow, Alaska spanning across low to transitional to high-centered polygon and representative of broad polygonal tundra landscape. A multi--phase subsurface thermal hydrology model (PFLOTRAN) was developed and applied to study the thermal regimes at four sites. Using high resolution LiDAR DEM, microtopographic features of the landscape were characterized and represented in the high resolution model mesh. Best available soil data from field observations and literature was utilized to represent the complex hetogeneous subsurface in the numerical model. This data collection provides the complete set of input files, forcing data sets and computational meshes for simulations using PFLOTRAN for four sites at Barrow Environmental Observatory. It also document the complete computational workflow for this modeling study to allow verification, reproducibility and follow up studies.

  18. URBAN ATMOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (UAO) FIRST PLANNING WORKSHOP, JANUARY 27-28-2003. WORKSHOP SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS,R.M.; LEE,H.N.

    2003-03-27

    The Urban Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) First Planning Workshop was held on 27-28 January 2003 at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) in downtown Manhattan, New York City. The meeting was well attended by local, state, and national administrators, as well as scientists and engineers from the national laboratories and academia. The real-time intensive UAO is a necessary step toward the development and validation of new technologies in support of the New York City emergency management and anti-terrorism effort. The real-time intensive UAO will be a dense array of meteorological instrumentation, remote sensing and satellite products and model output, as well as radiation detection, gamma spectrometer and aerosol measurements focused onto a small area in the heart of Manhattan. Such a test-bed, developed in a somewhat homogeneous urban area, and with a well-developed communication and data collection backbone, will be of immense utility for understanding how models of all scales can be improved and how they can best be integrated into the city's emergency program. The goal of the First Planning Workshop was to bring together a small group of experts in the fields of urban meteorology, modeling from mesoscale to fine-mesh computational fluid dynamics, instrumentation, communications and visualization, in order to (1) establish the importance of the observational program, (2) define the most efficient and cost-effective design for the program, (3) define needed intensive observational efforts and establish a schedule, and (4) define the importance of the UAO in emergency operations. The workshop achieved its goals with the enthusiastic participation of over forty persons. There was a synthesis of ideas towards a world-class facility that would benefit both immediate emergency management activities and, over an extended time, the entire field of urban meteorology and contaminant dispersion modeling.

  19. Observations of comet ISON (C/2012 S1) from Lowell observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.

    2015-01-01

    We observed the dynamically new sungrazing comet ISON (C/2012 S1) extensively at Lowell Observatory throughout 2013 in order to characterize its behavior prior to perihelion. ISON had typical abundances for an Oort Cloud comet. Its dust production, as measured by Af?, remained nearly constant during the apparition but its CN gas production increased by ?50 . The minimum active area necessary to support observed water production rates exceeded the likely surface area of the nucleus and suggests a population of icy grains in the coma. Together with the flattening of the dust radial profile over time, this is consistant with ejection of a large quantity of slow moving dust and icy grains in the coma at large heliocentric distance. The dust morphology was dominated by the tail, but a faint sunward dust fan was detected in March, April, May, and September. We imaged multiple gas species in September, October, and November. All gas species were more extended than the dust coma, although only CN had sufficient signal-to-noise for detailed morphological study. Excess CN signal was observed in the sunward hemisphere in September and early October. In November the excess CN signal was in the tailward hemisphere and two faint CN features appeared approximately orthogonal to the tail with position angles varying by about 20 from night to night. Using numerical modeling, we best reproduced the orientation and shape of these features as well as the bulk brightness with a pole oriented approximately toward the Sun and a single source located within ?35 of the equator. Variations in position angle and relative brightness of the CN features from night to night suggest a rotation period shorter than 24 hr. The production rates and coma morphology suggest a nucleus that was active over nearly its entire sunward facing hemisphere in September and October but which underwent a significant mass loss event, potentially including fragmentation, shortly before November 1. Significant

  20. Quartz tube extensometer for observation of Earth tides and local tectonic deformations at the Sopronbanfalva Geodynamic Observatory, Hungary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mentes, Gy.

    2010-07-15

    In May 1990, a quartz tube extensometer was installed in the Sopronbanfalva Geodynamic Observatory of the Geodetic and Geophysical Research Institute (GGRI) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences for recording Earth tides and recent tectonic movements. The paper describes the construction of the extensometer and a portable calibrator used for the in situ calibration of the instrument. The extensometer is very sensitive. Its scale factor is 2.093{+-}0.032 nm/mV according to the highly precise calibration method developed at the GGRI. Since the stability of extensometers is strongly influenced by the geological structure and properties of the rocks in the vicinity of the recording site, the observatory instrument system was tested by coherence analysis between theoretical (as the input signal) and measured tidal data series (as the output signal). In the semidiurnal tidal frequency band the coherence is better than 0.95, while in the diurnal band it is about 0.8. Probably this is due to the fact that the noise is higher in the diurnal band (0.4-0.5 nstr) than in the semidiurnal band (0.19-0.22 nstr). Coherence analysis between theoretical and measured data corrected for barometric changes yielded a small improvement of coherence in both frequency bands, while using temperature data correction, no observable improvement was obtained. Results of the tidal analysis also show that the observatory instrument system is suitable for recording very small tectonic movements. The 18 years of continuous data series measured by the extensometer prove the high quality of the extensometer. On the basis of investigations, it was pointed out that further efforts should be done to improve the barometric correction method and that correction for ocean load, as well as considering topographic and cavity effects are necessary to increase the accuracy of determining tidal parameters.

  1. Measurement of the Proton-Air Cross Section at ?s=57 TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almeda, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anti?i?, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Buml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belltoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blmer, H.; Boh?ov, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceio, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; del Ro, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Daz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; DOlivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; DUrso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filip?i?, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Frhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garca, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gmez Berisso, M.; Gonalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hrandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsk, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kgl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krmer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leo, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lpez, R.; Lopez Agera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martnez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mi?anovi?, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostaf, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mller, G.; Mnchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Noka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; P?kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.

    2012-08-10

    We report a measurement of the proton-air cross section for particle production at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 57 TeV. This is derived from the distribution of the depths of shower maxima observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory: systematic uncertainties are studied in detail. Analyzing the tail of the distribution of the shower maxima, a proton-air cross section of [50522(stat)+28-36(syst)] mb is found.

  2. The Pierre Auger Observatory scaler mode for the study of solar activity modulation of galactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Lisbon, LIFEP /Lisbon, IST

    2011-01-01

    Since data-taking began in January 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has been recording the count rates of low energy secondary cosmic ray particles for the self-calibration of the ground detectors of its surface detector array. After correcting for atmospheric effects, modulations of galactic cosmic rays due to solar activity and transient events are observed. Temporal variations related with the activity of the heliosphere can be determined with high accuracy due to the high total count rates. In this study, the available data are presented together with an analysis focused on the observation of Forbush decreases, where a strong correlation with neutron monitor data is found.

  3. HIGH-RESOLUTION LABORATORY SPECTRA ON THE λ131 CHANNEL OF THE AIA INSTRUMENT ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Träbert, Elmar; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Golub, Leon

    2014-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet spectra of C, O, F, Ne, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni have been excited in an electron beam ion trap and studied with much higher resolution than available on Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in order to ascertain the spectral composition of the SDO observations. We presently show our findings in the wavelength range 124-134 Å, which encompasses the λ131 observation channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). While the general interpretation of the spectral composition of the λ131 Fe channel is being corroborated, a number of new lines have been observed that might help to improve the diagnostic value of the SDO/AIA data.

  4. Bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    We derive lower bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the lack of significant clustering in the arrival directions of the highest energy events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The density of uniformly distributed sources of equal intrinsic intensity was found to be larger than ∼ (0.06−5) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3} at 95% CL, depending on the magnitude of the magnetic deflections. Similar bounds, in the range (0.2−7) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3}, were obtained for sources following the local matter distribution.

  5. Bluer Skies and Brighter Days: The U.S. and India Collaborate in First

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long-Term Climate Experiment | Department of Energy Bluer Skies and Brighter Days: The U.S. and India Collaborate in First Long-Term Climate Experiment Bluer Skies and Brighter Days: The U.S. and India Collaborate in First Long-Term Climate Experiment June 27, 2011 - 12:42pm Addthis ARM Mobile Facility instrumentation is installed in June 2011 at the ARIES Observatory in Nainital, India, for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX). | Courtesy of ARM.gov ARM Mobile Facility

  6. Bo Zhen | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Term Climate Experiment | Department of Energy Bluer Skies and Brighter Days: The U.S. and India Collaborate in First Long-Term Climate Experiment Bluer Skies and Brighter Days: The U.S. and India Collaborate in First Long-Term Climate Experiment June 27, 2011 - 12:42pm Addthis ARM Mobile Facility instrumentation is installed in June 2011 at the ARIES Observatory in Nainital, India, for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX). | Courtesy of ARM.gov ARM Mobile Facility

  7. Search for signatures of magnetically-induced alignment in the arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Nijmegen U., IMAPP

    2011-11-01

    We present the results of an analysis of data recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in which we search for groups of directionally-aligned events (or ''multiplets'') which exhibit a correlation between arrival direction and the inverse of the energy. These signatures are expected from sets of events coming from the same source after having been deflected by intervening coherent magnetic fields. The observation of several events from the same source would open the possibility to accurately reconstruct the position of the source and also measure the integral of the component of the magnetic field orthogonal to the trajectory of the cosmic rays. We describe the largest multiplets found and compute the probability that they appeared by chance from an isotropic distribution. We find no statistically significant evidence for the presence of multiplets arising from magnetic deflections in the present data.

  8. Infrared Spectroscopic Data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), SDSS-III Data Release 10

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 10 is the first spectroscopic release from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), including spectra and derived stellar parameters for more than 50,000 stars. APOGEE is an ongoing survey of ~100,000 stars accessing all parts of the Milky Way. By operating in the infrared (H-band) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, APOGEE is better able to detect light from stars lying in dusty regions of the Milky Way than surveys conducted in the optical, making this survey particularly well-suited for exploring the Galactic disk and bulge. APOGEE's high resolution spectra provide detailed information about the stellar atmospheres; DR10 provides derived effective temperatures, surface gravities, overall metallicities, and information on the abundances of several chemical elements. [copied from http://www.sdss3.org/dr10/irspec/

  9. Ocean pC02 Data from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 1994 - 2009

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Takahashi, T.

    The Earth Institute of Columbia University has, as an overarching goal, to help achieve sustainable development primarily by expanding the world's understanding of Earth as one integrated system. The Earth Institute encompasses centers of excellence with an established reputation for groundbreaking research, including the renowned Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), home to more than 200 researchers who study Earth and its systems. The Carbon Dioxide Research Group, led by Dr. Taro Takahashi, studies pCO2 in seawater, carbon sequestration models related to deep aquifers, and air-sea CO2 flux. Datasets from ocean cruises in the years 1994 to the present are made available from this website, along with a list of publications, and cruise maps.

  10. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-06-20

    Energy-dependent patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays are searched for using data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We investigate local regions around the highest-energy cosmic rays with E ≥ 6×1019 eV by analyzing cosmic rays with energies above E ≥ 5×1018 eV arriving within an angular separation of approximately 15°. We characterize the energy distributions inside these regions by two independent methods, one searching for angular dependence of energy-energy correlations and one searching for collimation of energy along the local system of principal axes of the energy distribution. No significant patterns are found with this analysis. As a result, the comparison of these measurements with astrophysical scenarios can therefore be used to obtain constraints on related model parameters such as strength of cosmic-ray deflection and density of point sources.

  11. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-06-20

    Energy-dependent patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays are searched for using data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We investigate local regions around the highest-energy cosmic rays with E ≥ 6×1019 eV by analyzing cosmic rays with energies above E ≥ 5×1018 eV arriving within an angular separation of approximately 15°. We characterize the energy distributions inside these regions by two independent methods, one searching for angular dependence of energy-energy correlations and one searching for collimation of energy along the local system of principal axes of the energy distribution. No significant patterns are found with this analysis. As amore » result, the comparison of these measurements with astrophysical scenarios can therefore be used to obtain constraints on related model parameters such as strength of cosmic-ray deflection and density of point sources.« less

  12. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; et al

    2015-06-20

    Energy-dependent patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays are searched for using data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We investigate local regions around the highest-energy cosmic rays with $E \\ge 6 \\times 10^{19}$ eV by analyzing cosmic rays with energies above $E \\ge 5 \\times 10^{18}$ eV arriving within an angular separation of approximately 15$^{\\circ }$ . We characterize the energy distributions inside these regions by two independent methods, one searching for angular dependence of energy-energy correlations and one searching for collimation of energy along the local system of principal axes of the energy distribution. No significant patterns aremorefound with this analysis. As a result, the comparison of these measurements with astrophysical scenarios can therefore be used to obtain constraints on related model parameters such as strength of cosmic-ray deflection and density of point sources.less

  13. Measurement of the Muon Atmospheric Production Depth with the Water Cherenkov Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina Bueno, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are particles of uncertain origin and composition, with energies above 1 EeV (1018 eV or 0.16 J). The measured flux of UHECR is a steeply decreasing function of energy. The largest and most sensitive apparatus built to date to record and study cosmic ray Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is the Pierre Auger Observatory. The Pierre Auger Observatory has produced the largest and finest amount of data ever collected for UHECR. A broad physics program is being carried out covering all relevant topics of the field. Among them, one of the most interesting is the problem related to the estimation of the mass composition of cosmic rays in this energy range. Currently the best measurements of mass are those obtained by studying the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic part of the EAS with the Fluorescence Detector. However, the collected statistics is small, specially at energies above several tens of EeV. Although less precise, the volume of data gathered with the Surface Detector is nearly a factor ten larger than the fluorescence data. So new ways to study composition with data collected at the ground are under investigation. The subject of this thesis follows one of those new lines of research. Using preferentially the time information associated with the muons that reach the ground, we try to build observables related to the composition of the primaries that initiated the EAS. A simple phenomenological model relates the arrival times with the depths in the atmosphere where muons are produced. The experimental confirmation that the distributions of muon production depths (MPD) correlate with the mass of the primary particle has opened the way to a variety of studies, of which this thesis is a continuation, with the aim of enlarging and improving its range of applicability. We revisit the phenomenological model which is at the root of the analysis and discuss a new way to improve some aspects of the model. We carry

  14. A Search for Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in Highly Inclined Events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abreu, P

    2011-12-30

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos can be distinguished from regular hadronic cosmic rays by the broad time structure of their shower signals in the water-Cherenkov detectors. In this paper we present for the first time an analysis based on down-going neutrinos. We describe the search procedure, the possible sources of background, the method to compute the exposure and the associatedmore » systematic uncertainties. No candidate neutrinos have been found in data collected from 1 January 2004 to 31 May 2010. Assuming an E-2 differential energy spectrum the limit on the single-flavor neutrino is E2dN/dE < 1.74 x 10-7 GeV cm-2s-1sr-1 at 90% C.L. in the energy range 1 x 1017eV < E < 1 x 1020 eV.« less

  15. Measurement of the proton-air cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}=57$ TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collaboration, Auger

    2012-08-01

    We report a measurement of the proton-air cross section for particle production at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 57 TeV. This is derived from the distribution of the depths of shower maxima observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory: systematic uncertainties are studied in detail. Analyzing the tail of the distribution of the shower maxima, a proton-air cross section of [505 {+-} 22(stat){sub -36}{sup +28}(syst)] mb is found.

  16. Measurement of the Proton-Air Cross Section at √s=57 TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almeda, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; et al

    2012-08-10

    We report a measurement of the proton-air cross section for particle production at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 57 TeV. This is derived from the distribution of the depths of shower maxima observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory: systematic uncertainties are studied in detail. Analyzing the tail of the distribution of the shower maxima, a proton-air cross section of [505±22(stat)+28-36(syst)] mb is found.

  17. A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; ,

    2012-01-01

    Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Veron-Cetty Veron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt-L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20, 30, ..., 110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 51 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays.

  18. OVERVIEW OF THE SDSS-IV MaNGA SURVEY: MAPPING NEARBY GALAXIES AT APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Wake, David A.; Tremonti, Christy; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Law, David R.; Cherinka, Brian; Yan, Renbin; Snchez-Gallego, Jos R.; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Aragn-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcn-Barroso, Jsus; Belfiore, Francesco; and others

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary in diameter from 12'' (19 fibers) to 32'' (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 at R ? 2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 ({sup 1} per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsec{sup 2}, which is typical for the outskirts of MaNGA galaxies. Targets are selected with M {sub *} ? 10{sup 9} M {sub ?} using SDSS-I redshifts and i-band luminosity to achieve uniform radial coverage in terms of the effective radius, an approximately flat distribution in stellar mass, and a sample spanning a wide range of environments. Analysis of our prototype observations demonstrates MaNGA's ability to probe gas ionization, shed light on recent star formation and quenching, enable dynamical modeling, decompose constituent components, and map the composition of stellar populations. MaNGA's spatially resolved spectra will enable an unprecedented study of the astrophysics of nearby galaxies in the coming 6yr.

  19. Overview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: site description and selected science results from 2008 to 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortega, John; Turnipseed, A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas G.; Day, D. A.; Gochis, David; Huffman, J. A.; Prenni, Anthony J.; Levin, E. J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; DeMott, Paul J.; Tobo, Y.; Patton, E. G.; Hodzic, Alma; Cui, Y. Y.; Harley, P.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Monson, Russell K.; Eller, A. S.; Greenberg, J. P.; Barth, Mary; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Palm, B. B.; Jiminez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Geron, Chris; Offenberg, J.; Ryan, M. G.; Fornwalt, Paula J.; Pryor, S. C.; Keutsch, Frank N.; DiGangi, J. P.; Chan, A. W.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Kim, S.; Kaser, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Cantrell, Chris; Mauldin, R. L.; Smith, James N.

    2014-01-01

    The Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen (BEACHON) project seeks to understand the feedbacks and interrelationships between hydrology, biogenic emissions, carbon assimilation, aerosol properties, clouds and associated feedbacks within water-limited ecosystems. The Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory (MEFO) was established in 2008 by the National Center for Atmospheric Research to address many of the BEACHON research objectives, and it now provides a fixed field site with significant infrastructure. MEFO is a mountainous, semi-arid ponderosa pine-dominated forest site that is normally dominated by clean continental air but is periodically influenced by anthropogenic sources from Colorado Front Range cities. This article summarizes the past and ongoing research activities at the site, and highlights some of the significant findings that have resulted from these measurements. These activities include soil property measurements; hydrological studies; measurements of high-frequency turbulence parameters; eddy covariance flux measurements of water, energy, aerosols and carbon dioxide through the canopy; determination of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions and their influence on regional atmospheric chemistry; aerosol number and mass distributions; chemical speciation of aerosol particles; characterization of ice and cloud condensation nuclei; trace gas measurements; and model simulations using coupled chemistry and meteorology. In addition to various long-term continuous measurements, three focused measurement campaigns with state-of-the-art instrumentation have taken place since the site was established, and two of these studies are the subjects of this special issue: BEACHON-ROCS (Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study, 2010) and BEACHON-RoMBAS (Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study, 2011).

  20. A digital seismogram archive of nuclear explosion signals, recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory, Kazakhstan, from 1966 to 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Vadim A.; Ovtchinnikov, Vladimir M.; Kaazik, Pyotr B.; Adushkin, Vitaly V.; Sokolova, Inna N.; Aleschenko, Iraida B.; Mikhailova, Natalya N.; Kim, Won -Young; Richards, Paul G.; Patton, Howard J.; Scott Phillips, W.; Randall, George; Baker, Diane

    2015-03-27

    Seismologists from Kazakhstan, Russia, and the United States have rescued the Soviet-era archive of nuclear explosion seismograms recorded at Borovoye in northern Kazakhstan during the period 1966–1996. The signals had been stored on about 8000 magnetic tapes, which were held at the recording observatory. After hundreds of man-years of work, these digital waveforms together with significant metadata are now available via the project URL, namely http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/Monitoring/Data/ as a modern open database, of use to diverse communities. Three different sets of recording systems were operated at Borovoye, each using several different seismometers and different gain levels. For some explosions, more than twenty different channels of data are available. A first data release, in 2001, contained numerous glitches and lacked many instrument responses, but could still be used for measuring accurate arrival times and for comparison of the strengths of different types of seismic waves. The project URL also links to our second major data release, for nuclear explosions in Eurasia recorded in Borovoye, in which the data have been deglitched, all instrument responses have been included, and recording systems are described in detail. This second dataset consists of more than 3700 waveforms (digital seismograms) from almost 500 nuclear explosions in Eurasia, many of them recorded at regional distances. It is important as a training set for the development and evaluation of seismological methods of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions, and can be used for assessment of three-dimensional models of the Earth’s interior structure.

  1. Searches for anisotropies in the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in 10 years of operation. The data set, about three times larger than that used in earlier studies, includes arrival directions with zenith angles up to 80°, thus covering from -90° to +45° in declination. After updating the fraction of events correlating with the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Véron-Cetty and Véron catalog, we subject the arrival directions of the data with energies in excess of 40 EeV to different tests for anisotropy. We search for localized excess fluxes, self-clustering of event directions at angular scales up to 30°, and different threshold energies between 40 and 80 EeV. We then look for correlations of cosmic rays with celestial structures both in the Galaxy (the Galactic Center and Galactic Plane) and in the local universe (the Super-Galactic Plane). We also examine their correlation with different populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2MRS catalog, AGNs detected by Swift-BAT, radio galaxies with jets, and the Centaurus A (Cen A) galaxy. None of the tests show statistically significant evidence of anisotropy. As a result, the strongest departures from isotropy (post-trial probabilitymore » $$\\sim 1.4$$%) are obtained for cosmic rays with $$E\\gt 58$$ EeV in rather large windows around Swift AGNs closer than 130 Mpc and brighter than 1044 erg s-1 (18° radius), and around the direction of Cen A (15° radius).« less

  2. Searches for anisotropies in the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Buml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blmer, H.; Boh?ov, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceio, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; Almeida, R. M. de; Domenico, M. De; Jong, S. J. de; Neto, J. R. T. de Mello; Mitri, I. De; Oliveira, J. de; Souza, V. de; Peral, L. del; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Giulio, C. Di; Matteo, A. Di; Diaz, J. C.; Castro, M. L. Daz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; DOlivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filip?i?, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Frhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; Garca, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia-; Pinto, D. Garcia-; Garilli, G.; Bravo, A. Gascon; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Berisso, M. Gmez; Vitale, P. F. Gmez; Gonalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzlez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hrandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsk, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kp, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kgl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krmer, O.; Hansen, D. Kruppke-; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Coz, S. Le; Leo, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lpez, R.; Louedec, K.; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mari?, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martnez; Martraire, D.; Meza, J. J. Masas; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Tanco, G. Medina-; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi?anovi?, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Bueno, L. Molina-; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostaf, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mller, G.; Mller, S.; Mnchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Noka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Dei, D. Pakk Selmi-; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; P?kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we analyze the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in 10 years of operation. The data set, about three times larger than that used in earlier studies, includes arrival directions with zenith angles up to 80, thus covering from $-90{}^\\circ $ to $+45{}^\\circ $ in declination. After updating the fraction of events correlating with the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Vron-Cetty and Vron catalog, we subject the arrival directions of the data with energies in excess of 40 EeV to different tests for anisotropy. We search for localized excess fluxes, self-clustering of event directions at angular scales up to 30, and different threshold energies between 40 and 80 EeV. We then look for correlations of cosmic rays with celestial structures both in the Galaxy (the Galactic Center and Galactic Plane) and in the local universe (the Super-Galactic Plane). We also examine their correlation with different populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2MRS catalog, AGNs detected by Swift-BAT, radio galaxies with jets, and the Centaurus A (Cen A) galaxy. None of the tests show statistically significant evidence of anisotropy. The strongest departures from isotropy (post-trial probability $\\sim 1.4$%) are obtained for cosmic rays with $E\\gt 58$ EeV in rather large windows around Swift AGNs closer than 130 Mpc and brighter than 1044 erg/s (18 radius), and around the direction of Centaurus A (15 radius).

  3. Searches for anisotropies in the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in 10 years of operation. The data set, about three times larger than that used in earlier studies, includes arrival directions with zenith angles up to 80°, thus covering from -90° to +45° in declination. After updating the fraction of events correlating with the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Véron-Cetty and Véron catalog, we subject the arrival directions of the data with energies in excess of 40 EeV to different tests for anisotropy. We search for localized excess fluxes, self-clustering of event directions at angular scales up to 30°, and different threshold energies between 40 and 80 EeV. We then look for correlations of cosmic rays with celestial structures both in the Galaxy (the Galactic Center and Galactic Plane) and in the local universe (the Super-Galactic Plane). We also examine their correlation with different populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2MRS catalog, AGNs detected by Swift-BAT, radio galaxies with jets, and the Centaurus A (Cen A) galaxy. None of the tests show statistically significant evidence of anisotropy. As a result, the strongest departures from isotropy (post-trial probability $\\sim 1.4$%) are obtained for cosmic rays with $E\\gt 58$ EeV in rather large windows around Swift AGNs closer than 130 Mpc and brighter than 1044 erg s-1 (18° radius), and around the direction of Cen A (15° radius).

  4. Searches for anisotropies in the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; et al

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we analyze the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in 10 years of operation. The data set, about three times larger than that used in earlier studies, includes arrival directions with zenith angles up to 80, thus covering from $-90{}^\\circ $ to $+45{}^\\circ $ in declination. After updating the fraction of events correlating with the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Vron-Cetty and Vron catalog, we subject the arrival directions of the data with energies in excess of 40 EeV to different tests for anisotropy. We search for localizedmoreexcess fluxes, self-clustering of event directions at angular scales up to 30, and different threshold energies between 40 and 80 EeV. We then look for correlations of cosmic rays with celestial structures both in the Galaxy (the Galactic Center and Galactic Plane) and in the local universe (the Super-Galactic Plane). We also examine their correlation with different populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2MRS catalog, AGNs detected by Swift-BAT, radio galaxies with jets, and the Centaurus A (Cen A) galaxy. None of the tests show statistically significant evidence of anisotropy. The strongest departures from isotropy (post-trial probability $\\sim 1.4$%) are obtained for cosmic rays with $E\\gt 58$ EeV in rather large windows around Swift AGNs closer than 130 Mpc and brighter than 1044 erg/s (18 radius), and around the direction of Centaurus A (15 radius).less

  5. A digital seismogram archive of nuclear explosion signals, recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory, Kazakhstan, from 1966 to 1996

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    An, Vadim A.; Ovtchinnikov, Vladimir M.; Kaazik, Pyotr B.; Adushkin, Vitaly V.; Sokolova, Inna N.; Aleschenko, Iraida B.; Mikhailova, Natalya N.; Kim, Won -Young; Richards, Paul G.; Patton, Howard J.; et al

    2015-03-27

    Seismologists from Kazakhstan, Russia, and the United States have rescued the Soviet-era archive of nuclear explosion seismograms recorded at Borovoye in northern Kazakhstan during the period 1966–1996. The signals had been stored on about 8000 magnetic tapes, which were held at the recording observatory. After hundreds of man-years of work, these digital waveforms together with significant metadata are now available via the project URL, namely http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/Monitoring/Data/ as a modern open database, of use to diverse communities. Three different sets of recording systems were operated at Borovoye, each using several different seismometers and different gain levels. For some explosions, more thanmore » twenty different channels of data are available. A first data release, in 2001, contained numerous glitches and lacked many instrument responses, but could still be used for measuring accurate arrival times and for comparison of the strengths of different types of seismic waves. The project URL also links to our second major data release, for nuclear explosions in Eurasia recorded in Borovoye, in which the data have been deglitched, all instrument responses have been included, and recording systems are described in detail. This second dataset consists of more than 3700 waveforms (digital seismograms) from almost 500 nuclear explosions in Eurasia, many of them recorded at regional distances. It is important as a training set for the development and evaluation of seismological methods of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions, and can be used for assessment of three-dimensional models of the Earth’s interior structure.« less

  6. Radio-optical reference frame link using the U.S. Naval observatory astrograph and deep CCD imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharias, N.; Zacharias, M. I.

    2014-05-01

    Between 1997 and 2004 several observing runs were conducted, mainly with the CTIO 0.9 m, to image International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) counterparts (mostly QSOs) in order to determine accurate optical positions. Contemporary to these deep CCD images, the same fields were observed with the U.S. Naval Observatory astrograph in the same bandpass. They provide accurate positions on the Hipparcos/Tycho-2 system for stars in the 10-16 mag range used as reference stars for the deep CCD imaging data. Here we present final optical position results of 413 sources based on reference stars obtained by dedicated astrograph observations that were reduced following two different procedures. These optical positions are compared to radio very long baseline interferometry positions. The current optical system is not perfectly aligned to the ICRF radio system with rigid body rotation angles of 3-5 mas (= 3σ level) found between them for all three axes. Furthermore, statistically, the optical-radio position differences are found to exceed the total, combined, known errors in the observations. Systematic errors in the optical reference star positions and physical offsets between the centers of optical and radio emissions are both identified as likely causes. A detrimental, astrophysical, random noise component is postulated to be on about the 10 mas level. If confirmed by future observations, this could severely limit the Gaia to ICRF reference frame alignment accuracy to an error of about 0.5 mas per coordinate axis with the current number of sources envisioned to provide the link. A list of 36 ICRF sources without the detection of an optical counterpart to a limiting magnitude of about R = 22 is provided as well.

  7. HIGH-RESOLUTION LABORATORY SPECTRA OF THE λ193 CHANNEL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY INSTRUMENT ON BOARD SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Träbert, Elmar; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Golub, Leon

    2014-11-01

    Extreme ultraviolet spectra of C, O, F, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni have been excited in an electron beam ion trap and studied with much higher resolution than available on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in order to ascertain the spectral composition of the SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations. We present our findings in the wavelength range 182-200 Å, which, overall, corroborate the working models of how to interpret the SDO/AIA data. We find, however, that the inclusion of a number of additional lines might improve the data interpretation.

  8. HYDRATE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES THAT BOTH SUPPORT AND DERIVE FROM THE MONITORING STATION/SEA-FLOOR OBSERVATORY, MISSISSIPPI CANYON 118, NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutken, Carol

    2013-07-31

    A permanent observatory has been installed on the seafloor at Federal Lease Block, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118), northern Gulf of Mexico. Researched and designed by the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) with the geological, geophysical, geochemical and biological characterization of in situ gas hydrates systems as the research goal, the site has been designated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management as a permanent Research Reserve where studies of hydrates and related ocean systems may take place continuously and cooperatively into the foreseeable future. The predominant seafloor feature at MC118 is a carbonate-hydrate complex, officially named Woolsey Mound for the founder of both the GOM-HRC and the concept of the permanent seafloor hydrates research facility, the late James Robert “Bob” Woolsey. As primary investigator of the overall project until his death in mid-2008, Woolsey provided key scientific input and served as chief administrator for the Monitoring Station/ Seafloor Observatory (MS-SFO). This final technical report presents highlights of research and accomplishments to date. Although not all projects reached the status originally envisioned, they are all either complete or positioned for completion at the earliest opportunity. All Department of Energy funds have been exhausted in this effort but, in addition, leveraged to great advantage with additional federal input to the project and matched efforts and resources. This report contains final reports on all subcontracts issued by the University of Mississippi, Administrators of the project, Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico, as well as status reports on the major components of the project. All subcontractors have fulfilled their primary obligations. Without continued funds designated for further project development, the Monitoring Station

  9. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10**19-eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; ,

    2006-06-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 19} eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  10. On the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray using the muon arrival times from extensive air showers: Application for Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arsene, N.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O.

    2012-11-20

    In this paper we study the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray by observing the muon arrival times in ground detectors. We analyzed extensive air showers (EAS) induced by proton and iron nuclei with the same energy 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} eV simulated with CORSIKA, and analyzed the muon arrival times at ground measured by the infill array detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO). From the arrival times of the core and of the muons the atmospheric depth of muon generation locus is evaluated. The results suggest a potential mass discrimination on the basis of muon arrival times and of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muon production. An analysis of a larger set of CORSIKA simulations carried out for primary energies above 10{sup 18} eV is in progress.

  11. Large scale distribution of ultra high energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with zenith angles up to 80°

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-30

    In this study, we present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in the right ascension and one in the azimuth angle distributions, that are sensitive to modulations in right ascension and declination, respectively. The largest departure from isotropy appears in the $E\\gt 8$ EeV energy bin, with an amplitude for the first harmonic in right ascension $r_{1}^{\\alpha }=(4.4\\pm 1.0)\\times {{10}^{-2}}$, that has a chance probability $P(\\geqslant r_{1}^{\\alpha })=6.4\\times {{10}^{-5}}$, reinforcing the hint previously reported with vertical events alone.

  12. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. I. Measurements at energies above $$10^{17.8}$$ eV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2014-12-31

    We report a study of the distributions of the depth of maximum, Xmax, of extensive air-shower profiles with energies above 1017.8 eV as observed with the fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The analysis method for selecting a data sample with minimal sampling bias is described in detail as well as the experimental cross-checks and systematic uncertainties. Furthermore, we discuss the detector acceptance and the resolution of the Xmax measurement and provide parametrizations thereof as a function of energy. Finally, the energy dependence of the mean and standard deviation of the Xmax distributions are compared to air-shower simulations formore » different nuclear primaries and interpreted in terms of the mean and variance of the logarithmic mass distribution at the top of the atmosphere.« less

  13. A Proposal for Geologic Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental Zero-State and Subsequent Monitoring Definition - First Lessons Learned from the French Environment Observatory - 13188

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landais, Patrick; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Mariotti, Andre

    2013-07-01

    Obtaining a reference state of the environment before the beginning of construction work for a geological repository is essential as it will be useful for further monitoring during operations and beyond, thus keeping a memory of the original environmental state. The area and the compartments of the biosphere to be observed and monitored as well as the choice of the markers (e.g. bio-markers, biodiversity, quality of the environment, etc.) to be followed must be carefully selected. In parallel, the choice and selection of the environmental monitoring systems (i.e. scientific and technical criteria, social requirements) will be of paramount importance for the evaluation of the perturbations that could be induced during the operational phase of the repository exploitation. This paper presents learning points of the French environment observatory located in the Meuse/Haute-Marne that has been selected for studying the feasibility of the underground disposal of high level wastes in France. (authors)

  14. Large scale distribution of ultra high energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with zenith angles up to 80°

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-30

    In this study, we present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in the right ascension and one in the azimuth angle distributions, that are sensitive to modulations in right ascension and declination, respectively. The largest departure from isotropy appears in themore » $$E\\gt 8$$ EeV energy bin, with an amplitude for the first harmonic in right ascension $$r_{1}^{\\alpha }=(4.4\\pm 1.0)\\times {{10}^{-2}}$$, that has a chance probability $$P(\\geqslant r_{1}^{\\alpha })=6.4\\times {{10}^{-5}}$$, reinforcing the hint previously reported with vertical events alone.« less

  15. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4$\\times$10$^{18}$ eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander; et al.

    2015-08-26

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 41018 eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60 detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.31018 eV, the ``ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E? with index ?=2.70 0.02 (stat) 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (Es) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value inmorethe absence of suppression, we find Es=(5.120.25 (stat)+1.01.2 (sys))1019 eV.less

  16. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4×1018 eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4×1018 eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3×1018 eV, the ``ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E–γ with index γ=2.70 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (Es) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value inmore » the absence of suppression, we find Es=(5.12±0.25 (stat)+1.0–1.2 (sys))×1019 eV.« less

  17. LARGE-SCALE DISTRIBUTION OF ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS OF COSMIC RAYS DETECTED ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. This search is performed as a function of both declination and right ascension in several energy ranges above 10{sup 18} eV, and reported in terms of dipolar and quadrupolar coefficients. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Assuming that any cosmic-ray anisotropy is dominated by dipole and quadrupole moments in this energy range, upper limits on their amplitudes are derived. These upper limits allow us to test the origin of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV from stationary Galactic sources densely distributed in the Galactic disk and predominantly emitting light particles in all directions.

  18. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV FROM LARGE-SCALE ANISOTROPY SEARCHES IN DATA OF THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is reported. For the first time, these large-scale anisotropy searches are performed as a function of both the right ascension and the declination and expressed in terms of dipole and quadrupole moments. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Upper limits on dipole and quadrupole amplitudes are derived under the hypothesis that any cosmic ray anisotropy is dominated by such moments in this energy range. These upper limits provide constraints on the production of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV, since they allow us to challenge an origin from stationary galactic sources densely distributed in the galactic disk and emitting predominantly light particles in all directions.

  19. The effect of the geomagnetic field on cosmic ray energy estimates and large scale anisotropy searches on data from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; ,

    2011-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the energy estimation of extensive air showers with a zenith angle smaller than 60{sup o}, detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The geomagnetic field induces an azimuthal modulation of the estimated energy of cosmic rays up to the {approx} 2% level at large zenith angles. We present a method to account for this modulation of the reconstructed energy. We analyse the effect of the modulation on large scale anisotropy searches in the arrival direction distributions of cosmic rays. At a given energy, the geomagnetic effect is shown to induce a pseudo-dipolar pattern at the percent level in the declination distribution that needs to be accounted for. In this work, we have identified and quantified a systematic uncertainty affecting the energy determination of cosmic rays detected by the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This systematic uncertainty, induced by the influence of the geomagnetic field on the shower development, has a strength which depends on both the zenith and the azimuthal angles. Consequently, we have shown that it induces distortions of the estimated cosmic ray event rate at a given energy at the percent level in both the azimuthal and the declination distributions, the latter of which mimics an almost dipolar pattern. We have also shown that the induced distortions are already at the level of the statistical uncertainties for a number of events N {approx_equal} 32 000 (we note that the full Auger surface detector array collects about 6500 events per year with energies above 3 EeV). Accounting for these effects is thus essential with regard to the correct interpretation of large scale anisotropy measurements taking explicitly profit from the declination distribution.

  20. Mass composition studies of Ultra High Energy cosmic rays through the measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collica, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) in Argentina studies Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) physics. The flux of cosmic rays at these energies (above 1018 eV) is very low (less than 100 particle/km2-year) and UHECR properties must be inferred from the measurements of the secondary particles that the cosmic ray primary produces in the atmosphere. These particles cascades are called Extensive Air Showers (EAS) and can be studied at ground by deploying detectors covering large areas. The EAS physics is complex, and the properties of secondary particles depend strongly on the first interaction, which takes place at an energy beyond the ones reached at accelerators. As a consequence, the analysis of UHECRs is subject to large uncertainties and hence many of their properties, in particular their composition, are still unclear. Two complementary techniques are used at Auger to detect EAS initiated by UHE- CRs: a 3000 km2 surface detector (SD) array of water Cherenkov tanks which samples particles at ground level and fluorescence detectors (FD) which collect the ultraviolet light emitted by the de-excitation of nitrogen nuclei in the atmosphere, and can operate only in clear, moonless nights. Auger is the largest cosmic rays detector ever built and it provides high-quality data together with unprecedented statistics. The main goal of this thesis is the measurement of UHECR mass composition using data from the SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Measuring the cosmic ray composition at the highest energies is of fundamental importance from the astrophysical point of view, since it could discriminate between different scenarios of origin and propagation of cosmic rays. Moreover, mass composition studies are of utmost importance for particle physics. As a matter of fact, knowing the composition helps in exploring the hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies, inaccessible to present accelerator experiments.

  1. EVIDENCE FOR THE WAVE NATURE OF AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVE OBSERVED BY THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu

    2012-07-20

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves have been found for about 15 years. However, significant controversy remains over their physical natures and origins. In this paper, we report an EUV wave that was accompanied by an X1.9 flare and a partial halo coronal mass ejection (CME). Using high temporal and spatial resolution observations taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory, we are able to investigate the detailed kinematics of the EUV wave. We find several arguments that support the fast-mode wave scenario. (1) The speed of the EUV wave (570 km s{sup -1}) is higher than the sound speed of the quiet-Sun corona. (2) Significant deceleration of the EUV wave (-130 m s{sup -2}) is found during its propagation. (3) The EUV wave resulted in the oscillations of a loop and a filament along its propagation path, and a reflected wave from the polar coronal hole is also detected. (4) Refraction or reflection effect is observed when the EUV wave was passing through two coronal bright points. (5) The dimming region behind the wavefront stopped to expand when the wavefront started to become diffuse. (6) The profiles of the wavefront exhibited a dispersive nature, and the magnetosonic Mach number of the EUV wave derived from the highest intensity jump is about 1.4. In addition, triangulation indicates that the EUV wave propagated within a height range of about 60-100 Mm above the photosphere. We propose that the EUV wave observed should be a nonlinear fast-mode magnetosonic wave that propagated freely in the corona after it was driven by the CME expanding flanks during the initial period.

  2. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of Violin-Mode resonances in advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level Violin-Mode (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent noise-gain peaking arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillationsthis output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 1.20) MV(rms) m{sup ?1}(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 13) picometres/?Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of 0.1 mm.

  3. Gravitational waves from individual supermassive black hole binaries in circular orbits: limits from the North American nanohertz observatory for gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Dolch, T.; Lam, M. T.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Ellis, J. A.; Demorest, P. B.; Deng, X.; Koop, M.; Ferdman, R. D.; Kaspi, V. M.; Garver-Daniels, N.; Lorimer, D. R.; Jenet, F.; Jones, G.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Lommen, A. N.; Collaboration: NANOGrav Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    We perform a search for continuous gravitational waves from individual supermassive black hole binaries using robust frequentist and Bayesian techniques. We augment standard pulsar timing models with the addition of time-variable dispersion measure and frequency variable pulse shape terms. We apply our techniques to the Five Year Data Release from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves. We find that there is no evidence for the presence of a detectable continuous gravitational wave; however, we can use these data to place the most constraining upper limits to date on the strength of such gravitational waves. Using the full 17 pulsar data set we place a 95% upper limit on the strain amplitude of h {sub 0} ? 3.0 10{sup 14} at a frequency of 10 nHz. Furthermore, we place 95% sky-averaged lower limits on the luminosity distance to such gravitational wave sources, finding that d{sub L} ? 425 Mpc for sources at a frequency of 10 nHz and chirp mass 10{sup 10} M {sub ?}. We find that for gravitational wave sources near our best timed pulsars in the sky, the sensitivity of the pulsar timing array is increased by a factor of ?four over the sky-averaged sensitivity. Finally we place limits on the coalescence rate of the most massive supermassive black hole binaries.

  4. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4×1018 eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4×1018 eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3×1018 eV, the ``ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E–γ with index γ=2.70 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (Es) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value in the absence of suppression, we find Es=(5.12±0.25 (stat)+1.0–1.2 (sys))×1019 eV.

  5. Measurement of the nue and Total 8B Solar Neutrino Fluxes with theSudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmad, Q.R.; Ahmed, S.N.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen,T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Buehler, G.; Barton, J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch,M.; Bergevin, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler, M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Deng, H.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon,N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J.T.M.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Henning, R.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime,A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar,R.J.; Kormos, L.L.; Kos, M.; Kouzes, R.; Krueger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss,C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,A.B.; McDonald, D.S.; McFarlane, K.; McGee, S.; McGregor, G.; MeijerDrees, R.; Mes, H.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, M.L.; Milton,G.; Moffat, B.A.; Monreal, B.; Moorhead, M.; Morrissette, B.; Nally,C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; et al.

    2007-02-01

    This article provides the complete description of resultsfrom the Phase I data set of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). ThePhase I data set is based on a 0.65 kt-year exposure of heavy water tothe solar 8B neutrino flux. Included here are details of the SNO physicsand detector model, evaluations of systematic uncertainties, andestimates of backgrounds. Also discussed are SNO's approach tostatistical extraction of the signals from the three neutrino reactions(charged current, neutral current, and elastic scattering) and theresults of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the ?e flux. Under theassumption that the 8B spectrum is undistorted, the measurements fromthis phase yield a solar ?e flux of ?(?e) =1.76+0.05?0.05(stat.)+0.09?0.09 (syst.) x 106 cm?2 s?1, and a non-?ecomponent ?(? mu) = 3.41+0.45?0.45(stat.)+0.48?0.45 (syst.) x 106 cm?2s?1. The sum of these components provides a total flux in excellentagreement with the predictions of Standard Solar Models. The day-nightasymmetry in the ?e flux is found to be Ae = 7.0 +- 4.9 (stat.)+1.3?1.2percent (sys.), when the asymmetry in the total flux is constrained to bezero.

  6. OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF THE EMERGING EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET LOOPS IN THE QUIET SUN AS SEEN WITH THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitta, L. P.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Kariyappa, R.; Hasan, S. S.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2013-05-01

    We used data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to study coronal loops at small scales, emerging in the quiet Sun. With HMI line-of-sight magnetograms, we derive the integrated and unsigned photospheric magnetic flux at the loop footpoints in the photosphere. These loops are bright in the EUV channels of AIA. Using the six AIA EUV filters, we construct the differential emission measure (DEM) in the temperature range 5.7-6.5 in log T (K) for several hours of observations. The observed DEMs have a peak distribution around log T Almost-Equal-To 6.3, falling rapidly at higher temperatures. For log T < 6.3, DEMs are comparable to their peak values within an order of magnitude. The emission-weighted temperature is calculated, and its time variations are compared with those of magnetic flux. We present two possibilities for explaining the observed DEMs and temperatures variations. (1) Assuming that the observed loops are composed of a hundred thin strands with certain radius and length, we tested three time-dependent heating models and compared the resulting DEMs and temperatures with the observed quantities. This modeling used enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops (EBTEL), a zero-dimensional (0D) hydrodynamic code. The comparisons suggest that a medium-frequency heating model with a population of different heating amplitudes can roughly reproduce the observations. (2) We also consider a loop model with steady heating and non-uniform cross-section of the loop along its length, and find that this model can also reproduce the observed DEMs, provided the loop expansion factor {gamma} {approx} 5-10. More observational constraints are required to better understand the nature of coronal heating in the short emerging loops on the quiet Sun.

  7. HAWC Observatory captures first image

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Energy Physics program, the National Science Foundation and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologa (Mexico's science funding agency) fund the construction of HAWC. The...

  8. z {approx} 4 H{alpha} EMITTERS IN THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ORIGINS DEEP SURVEY: TRACING THE DOMINANT MODE FOR GROWTH OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Hyunjin; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Dickinson, Mark; Lin Lihwai; Yan, Chi-Hung; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    We present evidence for strong H{alpha} emission in galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range of 3.8 < z < 5.0 over the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields. Among 74 galaxies detected in the Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands, more than 70% of the galaxies show clear excess at 3.6 {mu}m compared to the expected flux density from stellar continuum only. We provide evidence that this 3.6 {mu}m excess is due to H{alpha} emission redshifted into the 3.6 {mu}m band, and classify these 3.6 {mu}m excess galaxies to be H{alpha} emitter (HAE) candidates. The selection of HAE candidates using an excess in broadband filters is sensitive to objects whose rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width (EW) is larger than 350 A. The H{alpha} inferred star formation rates (SFRs) of the HAEs range between 20 and 500 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and are a factor of {approx}6 larger than SFRs inferred from the UV continuum. The ratio between the H{alpha} luminosity and UV luminosity of HAEs is also on average larger than that of local starbursts. Possible reasons for such strong H{alpha} emission in these galaxies include different dust extinction properties, young stellar population ages, extended star formation histories, low metallicity, and a top-heavy stellar initial mass function. Although the correlation between UV slope {beta} and L{sub H{alpha}}/L{sub UV} raises the possibility that HAEs prefer a dust extinction curve which is steeper in the UV, the most dominant factor that results in strong H{alpha} emission appears to be star formation history. The H{alpha} EWs of HAEs are large despite their relatively old stellar population ages constrained by spectral energy distribution fitting, suggesting that at least 60% of HAEs produce stars at a constant rate. Under the assumption that the gas supply is sustained, HAEs are able to produce {approx}> 50% of the stellar mass density that is encompassed in massive (M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) galaxies at z {approx} 3

  9. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J. -D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; et al

    2015-03-16

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water solublemore » fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was estimated to be ~ 0.15 for the

  10. Searches for Large-Scale Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Cosmic Rays Detected above Energy of $10^{19}$ eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander; et al,

    2014-10-07

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 1019 eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 1019 eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  11. Searches for large-scale anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above energy of 10{sup 19} eV at the Pierre Auger observatory and the telescope array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Asorey, H.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Arqueros, F.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 10{sup 19} eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 10{sup 19} eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  12. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J. -D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; Weigand, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-03-16

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water soluble fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode.

    The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments.

    The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was

  13. X6.9-CLASS FLARE-INDUCED VERTICAL KINK OSCILLATIONS IN A LARGE-SCALE PLASMA CURTAIN AS OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY/ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, A. K. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263 002 (India); Goossens, M. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-01

    We present rare observational evidence of vertical kink oscillations in a laminar and diffused large-scale plasma curtain as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The X6.9-class flare in active region 11263 on 2011 August 9 induces a global large-scale disturbance that propagates in a narrow lane above the plasma curtain and creates a low density region that appears as a dimming in the observational image data. This large-scale propagating disturbance acts as a non-periodic driver that interacts asymmetrically and obliquely with the top of the plasma curtain and triggers the observed oscillations. In the deeper layers of the curtain, we find evidence of vertical kink oscillations with two periods (795 s and 530 s). On the magnetic surface of the curtain where the density is inhomogeneous due to coronal dimming, non-decaying vertical oscillations are also observed (period ? 763-896 s). We infer that the global large-scale disturbance triggers vertical kink oscillations in the deeper layers as well as on the surface of the large-scale plasma curtain. The properties of the excited waves strongly depend on the local plasma and magnetic field conditions.

  14. X{sub max}{sup μ} vs. N{sup μ} from extensive air showers as estimator for the mass of primary UHECR's. Application for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arsene, Nicusor; Sima, Octavian

    2015-02-24

    We study the possibility of primary mass estimation for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR's) using the X{sub max}{sup μ} (the height where the number of muons produced on the core of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is maximum) and the number N{sup μ} of muons detected on ground. We use the 2D distribution - X{sub max}{sup μ} against N{sup μ} in order to find its sensitivity to the mass of the primary particle. For that, we construct a 2D Probability Function Prob(p,Fe | X{sub max}{sup μ}, N{sup μ}) which estimates the probability that a certain point from the plane (X{sub max}{sup μ}, N{sup μ}) corresponds to a shower induced by a proton, respectively an iron nucleus. To test the procedure, we analyze a set of simulated EAS induced by protons and iron nuclei at energies of 10{sup 19}eV and 20° zenith angle with CORSIKA. Using the Bayesian approach and taking into account the geometry of the infill detectors from the Pierre Auger Observatory, we observe an improvement in the accuracy of the primary mass reconstruction in comparison with the results obtained using only the X{sub max}{sup μ} distributions.

  15. Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aartsen, M. G.

    2016-01-20

    This study presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of high-energy neutrino-induced muon tracks, which provided evidence for a neutrino flux of astrophysical origin, and study their cross-correlation with the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) samples as a function of angular separation. We also study their possible directional correlations using a likelihood method stacking the neutrino arrival directions and adopting different assumptions on the size of the UHECRmore » magnetic deflections. Finally, we perform another likelihood analysis stacking the UHECR directions and using a sample of through-going muon tracks optimized for neutrino point-source searches with sub-degree angular resolution. No indications of correlations at discovery level are obtained for any of the searches performed. The smallest of the p-values comes from the search for correlation between UHECRs with IceCube high-energy cascades, a result that should continue to be monitored.« less

  16. DIRECT IMAGING OF QUASI-PERIODIC FAST PROPAGATING WAVES OF {approx}2000 km s{sup -1} IN THE LOW SOLAR CORONA BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Wei; Title, Alan M.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; De Pontieu, Bart; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Zhao Junwei; Ofman, Leon

    2011-07-20

    Quasi-periodic propagating fast mode magnetosonic waves in the solar corona were difficult to observe in the past due to relatively low instrument cadences. We report here evidence of such waves directly imaged in EUV by the new Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. In the 2010 August 1 C3.2 flare/coronal mass ejection event, we find arc-shaped wave trains of 1%-5% intensity variations (lifetime {approx}200 s) that emanate near the flare kernel and propagate outward up to {approx}400 Mm along a funnel of coronal loops. Sinusoidal fits to a typical wave train indicate a phase velocity of 2200 {+-} 130 km s{sup -1}. Similar waves propagating in opposite directions are observed in closed loops between two flare ribbons. In the k-{omega} diagram of the Fourier wave power, we find a bright ridge that represents the dispersion relation and can be well fitted with a straight line passing through the origin. This k-{omega} ridge shows a broad frequency distribution with power peaks at 5.5, 14.5, and 25.1 mHz. The strongest signal at 5.5 mHz (period 181 s) temporally coincides with quasi-periodic pulsations of the flare, suggesting a common origin. The instantaneous wave energy flux of (0.1-2.6) x 10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} estimated at the coronal base is comparable to the steady-state heating requirement of active region loops.

  17. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. IV. THE NGC 1333 CLOUD IN PERSEUS IN CO J = 2-1 AND {sup 13}CO J = 2-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieging, John H.; Revelle, Melissa; Peters, William L.

    2014-09-01

    We mapped the NGC 1333 section of the Perseus Molecular Cloud in the J = 2-1 emission lines of {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO over a 50' 60' region (3.4 4.1 pc at the cloud distance of 235 pc), using the Arizona Radio Observatory Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The angular resolution is 38'' (0.04 pc) and velocity resolution is 0.3 km s{sup 1}. We compare our velocity moment maps with known positions of young stellar objects (YSOs) and (sub)millimeter dust continuum emission. The CO emission is brightest at the center of the cluster of YSOs, but is detected over the full extent of the mapped region at ?10 rms. The morphology of the CO channel maps shows a kinematically complex structure, with many elongated features extending from the YSO cluster outward by ?1 pc. One notable feature appears as a narrow serpentine structure that curves and doubles back, with a total length of ?3 pc. The {sup 13}CO velocity channel maps show evidence for many low-density cavities surrounded by partial shell-like structures, consistent with previous studies. Maps of the velocity moments show localized effects of bipolar outflows from embedded YSOs, as well as a large-scale velocity gradient around the central core of YSOs, suggestive of large-scale turbulent cloud motions determining the location of current star formation. The CO/{sup 13}CO intensity ratios show the distribution of the CO opacity, which exhibits a complex kinematic structure. Identified YSOs are located mainly at the positions of greatest CO opacity. The maps are available for download as FITS files.

  18. THE 2011 FEBRUARY 15 X2 FLARE, RIBBONS, CORONAL FRONT, AND MASS EJECTION: INTERPRETING THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL VIEWS FROM THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY AND STEREO GUIDED BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC FLUX-ROPE MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Aulanier, Guillaume; Pariat, Etienne; Delannee, Cecile E-mail: title@lmsal.com E-mail: etienne.pariat@obspm.fr

    2011-09-10

    The 2011 February 15 X2.2 flare and associated Earth-directed halo coronal mass ejection were observed in unprecedented detail with high resolution in spatial, temporal, and thermal dimensions by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, as well as by instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft, then at near-quadrature relative to the Sun-Earth line. These observations enable us to see expanding loops from a flux-rope-like structure over the shearing polarity-inversion line between the central {delta}-spot groups of AR 11158, developing a propagating coronal front ('EIT wave'), and eventually forming the coronal mass ejection moving into the inner heliosphere. The observations support the interpretation that all of these features, including the 'EIT wave', are signatures of an expanding volume traced by loops (much larger than the flux rope only), surrounded by a moving front rather than predominantly wave-like perturbations; this interpretation is supported by previously published MHD models for active-region and global scales. The lateral expansion of the eruption is limited to the local helmet-streamer structure and halts at the edges of a large-scale domain of connectivity (in the process exciting loop oscillations at the edge of the southern polar coronal hole). The AIA observations reveal that plasma warming occurs within the expansion front as it propagates over quiet Sun areas. This warming causes dimming in the 171 A (Fe IX and Fe X) channel and brightening in the 193 and 211 A (Fe XII-XIV) channels along the entire front, while there is weak 131 A (Fe VIII and Fe XXI) emission in some directions. An analysis of the AIA response functions shows that sections of the front running over the quiet Sun are consistent with adiabatic warming; other sections may require additional heating which MHD modeling suggests could be caused by Joule dissipation. Although for the events studied here the effects of volumetric expansion are much

  19. Observatory of Renewable Energy for Latin America and the Caribbean...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay UN Region Caribbean, Central America, South America References...

  20. The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe,...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    assembled at PPPL will test principles and equipment while providing preliminary data on neutrinos before the next phase of the experiment. Introduction * In a matter of...

  1. Simulations for a next-generation UHECR observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oikonomou, Foteini; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Kotera, Kumiko E-mail: kotera@iap.fr

    2015-01-01

    We explore the potential of a future, ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) experiment, that is able to overcome the limitation of low statistics, to detect anisotropy in the arrival directions of UHECRs. We concentrate on the lower energy range of future instruments (E∼> 50 EeV), where, if the UHECR source number density is not too low, the sources should be numerous enough to imprint a clustering pattern in the sky, and thus possibly in the UHECR arrival directions. Under these limits, the anisotropy signal should be dominated by the clustering of astrophysical sources per se in the large-scale structures, and not the clustering of events around individual sources. We study the potential for a statistical discrimination between different astrophysical models which we parametrise by the number density of UHECR sources, the possible bias of the UHECR accelerators with respect to the galaxy distribution, and the unknown fraction of UHECRs that have been deflected by large angles. We demonstrate that an order-of-magnitude increase in statistics would allow to discriminate between a variety of astrophysical models, provided that a sub-sample of light elements can be extracted, and that it represents a fraction ∼> 70% of the overall flux, sensitive to the UHECR source number density. Discrimination should be possible even without knowledge of the composition of the UHECRs, as long as the data are proton-dominated. We find that an anisotropy at the 99.7% level should be detectable when the number of detected events exceeds 2000 beyond 50 EeV, as long as the composition is proton dominated, and the number density of UHECR sources is relatively high, n-bar  ≥ 10{sup −3} Mpc{sup −3}. If the UHECR sources are strongly biased relative to the galaxy distribution, as are for example galaxy clusters, in which the sources might be embedded, an anisotropy at the 99.7% level should be detectable once the number of detected events exceeds 1000, if the fraction of protons at the highest energies is ∼> 60%.

  2. Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy: Fallon, Nevada

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-31

    The data is associated to the Fallon FORGE project and includes mudlogs for all wells used to characterize the subsurface, as wells as gravity, magnetotelluric, earthquake seismicity, and temperature data from the Navy GPO and Ormat. Also included are geologic maps from the USGS and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology for the Fallon, NV area.

  3. The Enriched Xenon Observatory (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 2009-12-17 OSTI Identifier: 21325784 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1182; Journal ...

  4. Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy: Fallon, Nevada

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-05-23

    The data is associated to the Fallon FORGE project and includes mudlogs for all wells used to characterize the subsurface, as wells as gravity, magnetotelluric, earthquake seismicity, and temperature data from the Navy GPO and Ormat. Also included are geologic maps from the USGS and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology for the Fallon, NV area.

  5. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the ... This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an ...

  6. Adaptive optics and laser guide stars at Lick observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brase, J.M.

    1994-11-15

    For the past several years LLNL has been developing adaptive optics systems for correction of both atmospheric turbulence effects and thermal distortions in optics for high-power lasers. Our early work focused on adaptive optics for beam control in laser isotope separation and ground-based free electron lasers. We are currently developing innovative adaptive optics and laser systems for sodium laser guide star applications at the University of California`s Lick and Keck Observeratories. This talk will describe our adaptive optics technology and some of its applications in high-resolution imaging and beam control.

  7. HAWC Observatory to study universe's most energetic phenomena

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... followed by more keys in a defined order as you flatten your palm across the keyboard. ... and the active galactic nucleus Markarian 421. From its perch atop the highest accessible ...

  8. The Pierre Auger Observatory: Contributions to the 34th International...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 2015-09-12 OSTI Identifier: 1223251 Report Number(s): FERMILAB-CONF-15-396-AD-AE-CD-TD arXiv eprint number arXiv:1509.03732 DOE Contract Number: AC02-07CH11359 ...

  9. Sandia's Frontier Observatory for Research In Geothermal Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The team will develop additional scientific data including detailed analyses of rock samples, natural seismicity, surface and borehole characteristics, and other geological ...

  10. Los Alamos observatory fingers cosmic ray 'hot spots'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for these observations." Cosmic rays are high-energy particles that move through our Galaxy from sources far away. No one knows exactly where cosmic rays come from, but...

  11. A Nobel for Neutrinos: Sudbury Neutrino Observatory | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    The success of nuclear-physics calculations of solar energy generation has been dramatically confirmed. The discovery, moreover, opens new doors to an understanding of such basic ...

  12. The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Idaho Falls, Idaho on September 23-25, 2014.

  13. The Pierre Auger Observatory: Contributions to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander; et al.

    2015-09-12

    One or more papers on each of the following topics are included in this volume: energy spectrum, arrival directions and anisotropies, composition, hadronic interactions, cosmology and geophysics, detectors, and otureach.

  14. Remote sensing-based characterization of plant functional type distributions at the Barrow Environmental Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest M.

    2014-03-18

    Arctic ecosystems have been observed to be warming faster than the global average and are predicted to experience accelerated changes in climate due to global warming. Arctic vegetation is particularly sensitive to warming conditions and likely to exhibit shifts in species composition, phenology and productivity under changing climate. Mapping and monitoring of changes in vegetation is essential to understand the effect of climate change on the ecosystem functions. Vegetation exhibits unique spectral characteristics which can be harnessed to discriminate plant types and develop quantitative vegetation indices. We have combined high resolution multi-spectral remote sensing from the WorldView 2 satellite with LIDAR-derived digital elevation models to characterize the tundra landscape on the North Slope of Alaska. Classification of landscape using spectral and topographic characteristics yields spatial regions with expectedly similar vegetation characteristics. A field campaign was conducted during peak growing season to collect vegetation harvests from a number of 1m x 1m plots in the study region, which were then analyzed for distribution of vegetation types in the plots. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic characteristics and vegetation type distributions at the vegetation plots. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale the vegetation distributions for the landscape based on spectral characteristics. Vegetation distributions developed are being used to provide Plant Functional Type (PFT) maps for use in the Community Land Model (CLM).

  15. A Nobel for Neutrinos: Sudbury Neutrino Observatory | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    produced by neutrino interactions in the heavy water with which the vessel will be filled. ... He proposed a detector based on heavy water that could detect all flavors equally. The ...

  16. Cosmic-ray physics with the milagro gamma-ray observatory (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Milagro has made the first measurement of the Galactic diffuse emission in the TeV energy ... also discovered a time dependence to this anisotropy, perhaps due to solar modulation. ...

  17. The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY) Prototype

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Potential of Geothermal Energy The Power and Potential of Geothermal Energy October 3, 2011 - 7:03pm Addthis Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of Public Affairs As Secretary Chu noted this weekend, America finds itself in a fierce global competition for the clean energy jobs and industries of the future - with countries like China, Germany and others investing tens of billions of dollars to expand their domestic renewable energy industry and capture the lead in a rapidly

  18. Digital Elevation Model, 0.25 m, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cathy Wilson; Garrett Altmann

    2015-11-20

    This 0.25m horizontal resolution digital elevation model, DEM, was developed from Airborne Laser Altimetry flown by Aerometric Inc, now known as Quantum Spatial, Inc. on 12 July, 2013. One Mission was flown and the data jointly processed with LANL personnel to produce a 0.25m DEM covering a region approximately 2.8km wide and 12.4km long extending from the coast above North Salt Lagoon to south of Gas Well Road. This DEM encompasses a diverse range of hydrologic, geomorphic, geophysical and biological features typical of the Barrow Peninsula. Vertical accuracy at the 95% confidence interval was computed as 0.143m. The coordinate system, datum, and geoid for this DEM are UTM Zone 4N, NAD83 (2011), NAVD88 (GEOID09).

  19. Remote sensing-based characterization, 2-m, Plant Functional Type Distributions, Barrow Environmental Observatory, 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Zachary Langford; Forrest Hoffman; Jitendra Kumar

    Arctic ecosystems have been observed to be warming faster than the global average and are predicted to experience accelerated changes in climate due to global warming. Arctic vegetation is particularly sensitive to warming conditions and likely to exhibit shifts in species composition, phenology and productivity under changing climate. Mapping and monitoring of changes in vegetation is essential to understand the effect of climate change on the ecosystem functions. Vegetation exhibits unique spectral characteristics which can be harnessed to discriminate plant types and develop quantitative vegetation indices. We have combined high resolution multi-spectral remote sensing from the WorldView 2 satellite with LIDAR-derived digital elevation models to characterize the tundra landscape on the North Slope of Alaska. Classification of landscape using spectral and topographic characteristics yields spatial regions with expectedly similar vegetation characteristics. A field campaign was conducted during peak growing season to collect vegetation harvests from a number of 1m x 1m plots in the study region, which were then analyzed for distribution of vegetation types in the plots. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic characteristics and vegetation type distributions at the vegetation plots. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale the vegetation distributions for the landscape based on spectral characteristics. Vegetation distributions developed are being used to provide Plant Functional Type (PFT) maps for use in the Community Land Model (CLM).

  20. Remote sensing-based characterization of plant functional type distributions at the Barrow Environmental Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest M.

    Arctic ecosystems have been observed to be warming faster than the global average and are predicted to experience accelerated changes in climate due to global warming. Arctic vegetation is particularly sensitive to warming conditions and likely to exhibit shifts in species composition, phenology and productivity under changing climate. Mapping and monitoring of changes in vegetation is essential to understand the effect of climate change on the ecosystem functions. Vegetation exhibits unique spectral characteristics which can be harnessed to discriminate plant types and develop quantitative vegetation indices. We have combined high resolution multi-spectral remote sensing from the WorldView 2 satellite with LIDAR-derived digital elevation models to characterize the tundra landscape on the North Slope of Alaska. Classification of landscape using spectral and topographic characteristics yields spatial regions with expectedly similar vegetation characteristics. A field campaign was conducted during peak growing season to collect vegetation harvests from a number of 1m x 1m plots in the study region, which were then analyzed for distribution of vegetation types in the plots. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic characteristics and vegetation type distributions at the vegetation plots. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale the vegetation distributions for the landscape based on spectral characteristics. Vegetation distributions developed are being used to provide Plant Functional Type (PFT) maps for use in the Community Land Model (CLM).

  1. GLAST Observatory Renamed for Fermi, Reveals Entire Gamma-Ray Sky

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA announced today that the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) has revealed its first all-sky map in gamma rays.  The onboard...

  2. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-04-07

    The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, (secθ)max, sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above 3 x 1018 eV. By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for bothmore » of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Furthermore, the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understanding of shower modelling that must be resolved before the mass composition can be inferred from (secθ)max.« less

  3. Remote sensing-based characterization, 2-m, Plant Functional Type Distributions, Barrow Environmental Observatory, 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Zachary Langford; Forrest Hoffman; Jitendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems have been observed to be warming faster than the global average and are predicted to experience accelerated changes in climate due to global warming. Arctic vegetation is particularly sensitive to warming conditions and likely to exhibit shifts in species composition, phenology and productivity under changing climate. Mapping and monitoring of changes in vegetation is essential to understand the effect of climate change on the ecosystem functions. Vegetation exhibits unique spectral characteristics which can be harnessed to discriminate plant types and develop quantitative vegetation indices. We have combined high resolution multi-spectral remote sensing from the WorldView 2 satellite with LIDAR-derived digital elevation models to characterize the tundra landscape on the North Slope of Alaska. Classification of landscape using spectral and topographic characteristics yields spatial regions with expectedly similar vegetation characteristics. A field campaign was conducted during peak growing season to collect vegetation harvests from a number of 1m x 1m plots in the study region, which were then analyzed for distribution of vegetation types in the plots. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic characteristics and vegetation type distributions at the vegetation plots. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale the vegetation distributions for the landscape based on spectral characteristics. Vegetation distributions developed are being used to provide Plant Functional Type (PFT) maps for use in the Community Land Model (CLM).

  4. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment In northeastern India, the fertile land around the Ganges River supports several hundred million people. This river, the largest in India, is fed by monsoon rains and runoff from the nearby Himalayan Mountains. Through an intergovernmental agreement with India, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed its portable laboratory, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), to Nainital, India, in June 2011. During

  5. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P

    2011-06-17

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 x 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrative values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.

  6. Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array: Joint Contributions to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasi, R.U.; et al.

    2015-11-06

    Joint contributions of the Pierre Auger Collaboration and the Telescope Array Collaboration to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 30 July - 6 August 2015, The Hague, The Netherlands.

  7. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abreu, P

    2011-06-17

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 x 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrativemore » values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.« less

  8. NEW ATLAS9 AND MARCS MODEL ATMOSPHERE GRIDS FOR THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT (APOGEE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meszaros, Sz.; Allende Prieto, C.; De Vicente, A.; Edvardsson, B.; Gustafsson, B.; Castelli, F.; Garcia Perez, A. E.; Majewski, S. R.; Plez, B.; Schiavon, R.; Shetrone, M.

    2012-10-01

    We present a new grid of model photospheres for the SDSS-III/APOGEE survey of stellar populations of the Galaxy, calculated using the ATLAS9 and MARCS codes. New opacity distribution functions were generated to calculate ATLAS9 model photospheres. MARCS models were calculated based on opacity sampling techniques. The metallicity ([M/H]) spans from -5 to 1.5 for ATLAS and -2.5 to 0.5 for MARCS models. There are three main differences with respect to previous ATLAS9 model grids: a new corrected H{sub 2}O line list, a wide range of carbon ([C/M]) and {alpha} element [{alpha}/M] variations, and solar reference abundances from Asplund et al. The added range of varying carbon and {alpha}-element abundances also extends the previously calculated MARCS model grids. Altogether, 1980 chemical compositions were used for the ATLAS9 grid and 175 for the MARCS grid. Over 808,000 ATLAS9 models were computed spanning temperatures from 3500 K to 30,000 K and log g from 0 to 5, where larger temperatures only have high gravities. The MARCS models span from 3500 K to 5500 K, and log g from 0 to 5. All model atmospheres are publicly available online.

  9. Prospects for Relic Neutrino Detection at PTOLEMY: Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early-Universe, Massive-Neutrino Yield

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the 32nd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Germantown, Maryland on April 23-25, 2013.

  10. Using star tracks to determine the absolute pointing of the Fluorescence Detector telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Donato, Cinzia; Sanchez, Federico; Santander, Marcos; Natl.Tech.U., San Rafael; Camin, Daniel; Garcia, Beatriz; Grassi, Valerio; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan

    2005-05-01

    To accurately reconstruct a shower axis from the Fluorescence Detector data it is essential to establish with high precision the absolute pointing of the telescopes. To d that they calculate the absolute pointing of a telescope using sky background data acquired during regular data taking periods. The method is based on the knowledge of bright star's coordinates that provide a reliable and stable coordinate system. it can be used to check the absolute telescope's pointing and its long-term stability during the whole life of the project, estimated in 20 years. They have analyzed background data taken from January to October 2004 to determine the absolute pointing of the 12 telescopes installed both in Los Leones and Coihueco. The method is based on the determination of the mean-time of the variance signal left by a star traversing a PMT's photocathode which is compared with the mean-time obtained by simulating the track of that star on the same pixel.

  11. Estimation of the mixing layer height over a high altitude site in Central Himalayan region by using Doppler lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Newsom, Rob K.; Kumar, Niranjan; Ratnam, Venkat; Naja, M.; Singh, Narendra

    2014-03-01

    A Doppler lidar was installed at Manora Peak, Nainital (29.4 N; 79.2 E, 1958 amsl) to estimate mixing layer height for the first time by using vertical velocity variance as basic measurement parameter for the period September-November 2011. Mixing layer height is found to be located ~0.57 +/- 0.1and 0.45 +/- 0.05km AGL during day and nighttime, respectively. The estimation of mixing layer height shows good correlation (R>0.8) between different instruments and with different methods. Our results show that wavelet co-variance transform is a robust method for mixing layer height estimation.

  12. DOE Science Showcase - Gamma-Ray Bursts | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Milagro Gamma-Ray Observatory, LANL High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory (HAWC), HAWC Collaboration GLAST Observatory Renamed ...

  13. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-01-06

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more » on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  14. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-08-26

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the lower 50 m of the atmosphere has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes; hence data at this level are necessary for addressing carbon-cycle- and public-health-related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more » on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We assess the magnitude of known point sources of CH4 and also identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  15. SOLAR MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION FROM DOPPLER SHIFTS OF THE Fe I LINE AT 5250 A AS MEASURED BY THE 150-FOOT SOLAR TOWER TELESCOPE AT THE MT. WILSON OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, Roger K.

    2010-12-10

    Doppler shifts of the Fe I spectral line at 5250 A from the full solar disk obtained over the period 1986 to 2009 are analyzed to determine the circulation velocity of the solar surface along meridional planes. Simultaneous measurements of the Zeeman splitting of this line are used to obtain measurements of the solar magnetic field that are used to select low field points and impose corrections for the magnetically induced Doppler shift. The data utilized is from a new reduction that preserves the full spatial resolution of the original observations so that the circulation flow can be followed to latitudes of 80{sup 0} N/S. The deduced meridional flow is shown to differ from the circulation velocities derived from magnetic pattern movements. A reversed circulation pattern is seen in polar regions for three successive solar minima. A surge in circulation velocity at low latitudes is seen during the rising phases of cycles 22 and 23.

  16. THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ORIGINS DEEP SURVEY: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LYMAN CONTINUUM ESCAPE FRACTION DISTRIBUTION OF LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AT 3.4 < z < 4.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanzella, E.; Nonino, M.; Fontanot, F.; Cristiani, S.; Tozzi, P.; Giavalisco, M.; Inoue, A. K.; Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Boutsia, K.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Dickinson, M.; Stern, D.; Ferguson, H.; Spinrad, H.; Rosati, P.

    2010-12-10

    We use ultra-deep ultraviolet VLT/VIMOS intermediate-band and VLT/FORS1 narrowband imaging in the GOODS Southern field to derive limits on the distribution of the escape fraction (f{sub esc}) of ionizing radiation for L {>=} L*{sub z=3} Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at redshift 3.4-4.5. Only one LBG, at redshift z = 3.795, is detected in its Lyman continuum (LyC; S/N {approx_equal} 5.5), the highest redshift galaxy currently known with a direct detection. Its ultraviolet morphology is quite compact (R{sub eff} = 0.8 kpc physical). Three out of seven active galactic nuclei are also detected in their LyC, including one at redshift z = 3.951 and z{sub 850} = 26.1. From stacked data (LBGs), we set an upper limit to the average f{sub esc} in the range 5%-20%, depending on how the data are selected (e.g., by magnitude and/or redshift). We undertake extensive Monte Carlo simulations that take into account intergalactic attenuation, stellar population synthesis models, dust extinction, and photometric noise in order to explore the moments of the distribution of the escaping radiation. Various distributions (exponential, log-normal, and Gaussian) are explored. We find that the median f{sub esc} is lower than {approx_equal}6% with an 84% percentile limit not larger than 20%. If this result remains valid for fainter LBGs down to current observational limits, then the LBG population might be not sufficient to account for the entire photoionization budget at the redshifts considered here, with the exact details dependent upon the assumed ionizing background and QSO contribution thereto. It is possible that f{sub esc} depends on the UV luminosity of the galaxies, with fainter galaxies having higher f{sub esc}, and estimates of f{sub esc} from a sample of faint LBGs from HUDF (i{sub 775} {<=}28.5) are in broad quantitative agreement with such a scenario.

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - lindenbery_armstmeet04.html

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Meeting 2004 Lindenberg Observatory GERMANY Dirk.Engelbart@dwd.de From Weather Kites From Weather Kites to to Windprofilers Windprofilers : : A A Century Century of of Atmospheric Atmospheric Profiling Profiling at at Lindenberg Lindenberg Observatory Observatory ARM - Meeting 2004 Lindenberg Observatory GERMANY Dirk.Engelbart@dwd.de 16.10.1905: 16.10.1905: Official Official Inauguration of Inauguration of the the Royal Royal Prussian Aeronautical Observatory Prussian Aeronautical Observatory

  18. Nan Li | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He obtained his Ph.D. in astrophysics from National Astronomical Observatory of China in ... Ph.D., National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, ...

  19. Hubble space telescope and ground-based observations of the type...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... CA 93117 (United States) Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile) Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San ...

  20. HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TX 78712-0259 (United States) Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile) George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental ...

  1. ON THE PROGENITOR AND SUPERNOVA OF THE SN 2002cx-LIKE SUPERNOVA...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Republica 252, Santiago (Chile) Departamento de AstronomIa, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile) Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile) ...

  2. OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory by Kathy Chambers on Thu, April 30, ... in March 2015 as the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma- Ray Observatory ...

  3. Connections: November 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory has begun formal...

  4. High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory Title: High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory The Pierre ...

  5. The properties of cross-correlation and spectra of the low-mass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Affiliations Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China) Particle Astrophysics Center, Institute...

  6. Cosmic Gamma Rays | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Rays VERITAS is a major ground-based gamma-ray observatory located at the basecamp of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona. VERITAS is a major ground-based gamma-ray observatory located at the basecamp of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona. One of the greatest challenges associated with modeling the formation history of the Universe is the general lack of knowledge regarding the nature of Dark Matter. The existence of astrophysical non-baryonic

  7. OSTIblog Articles in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observatory (LIGO) Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) Topic Incredible Laser Interferometers by Kathy Chambers 12 Aug, 2016 in ligo_300.jpg Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in Livingston, LA. Image credit: LIGO Laboratory Interferometers are investigative tools used in many fields in science and engineering. They work by merging two or more sources of light or

  8. LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, November 24, 2008-A Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    observatory fingers cosmic ray 'hot spots' November 24, 2008 Milagro Observatory unveils something never before seen from Earth LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, November 24, 2008-A Los Alamos National Laboratory cosmic-ray observatory has seen for the first time two distinct hot spots that appear to be bombarding Earth with an excess of cosmic rays. The research calls into question nearly a century of understanding about galactic magnetic fields near our solar system. Joining an international team of

  9. Energy Department Announces Up to $31 Million for Initial Phases of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems Field Observatory | Department of Energy Up to $31 Million for Initial Phases of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Field Observatory Energy Department Announces Up to $31 Million for Initial Phases of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Field Observatory July 17, 2014 - 4:25pm Addthis News Media Contact (202)586-4940 As part of the Administration's all-of-the-above energy strategy, the Energy Department today announced up to $31 million to establish the initial phases of the

  10. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Data From Pico Observatory Now Part of Value-Added Product Bookmark and Share Day with <em>moderate</em> aerosol loading (22 June 2010): AOD at five wavelengths (top) and Angstrom exponent (bottom) at the Pico Observatory site. Day with moderate aerosol loading (22 June 2010): AOD at five wavelengths (top) and Angstrom exponent (bottom) at the Pico Observatory site. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements have been provided for the Above-Cloud Radiation Budget field campaign

  11. OSTIblog Articles in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observatory (LIGO), a national facility for gravitational wave research. LIGO is funded by the National Science Foundation and other public and private institutions. ...

  12. The {sup 13}C(α,n){sup 16}O reaction as a neutron source for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States) INAF - Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Firenze (Italy) Departamento de Fsica Terica y del Cosmsos, Universidad de Granada,Granada (Spain) Publication Date: ...

  13. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... We collected data across four polygons within the Barrow Environmental Observatory site. Our prototype microclimate arrays were based on an Arduino microcontroller, DS18B20 ...

  14. Lossy compression of weak lensing data (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Lossy compression of weak lensing data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lossy compression of weak lensing data Future orbiting observatories will survey...

  15. LSST ISSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Telescope http:www.lsst.org 8.4-meter diameter primary mirror 10 square degrees Hello (design, construction, and operations of telescope, observatory, and data system:...

  16. Microsoft Word - TPL-007-1 Review_LANL_2015_09_14.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    monograph, Washington, DC, 1980. 10 The Dst index is the average value of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field measured at four geomagnetic observatories near...

  17. NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth Observatory - Pallisades NY, Consortium for Ocean Leadership - Washington DC, Cameron Test and Training Facility - Cameron TX, UT - Office space - Austin TX FETDICOil...

  18. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Geosciences...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Ziurys, Lucy M. (Lucy M. Ziurys) - Steward Observatory & Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona Zubarev, ...

  19. SSGSS: THE SPITZER-SDSS-GALEX SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MD 21218 (United States) NAT, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 868 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil) Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United ...

  20. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    these covariations: high-pollution cases are shown to originate as a highly polluted boundary layer air mass approaching the observatory from a northwesterly direction. ...

  1. 8.5x11 ARM Brochure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... University Japan * Nauru * Clouds and Radiation (CLARA) Study Netherlands * Papua New Guinea * Central Aerological Observatory Russia * Institute for Atmospheric Optics (IAO) ...

  2. EVIDENCE FOR AN FU ORIONIS-LIKE OUTBURST FROM A CLASSICAL T TAURI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, M5S 3H4 Ontario (Canada) Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,...

  3. Microsoft Word - ARESE&.21

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... and (ii) the slope of cloud reflectance versus transmission. ... into a vertical velocity 9 distribution at each height. ... Observatory (BAO) tower measurements (Cess et al., ...

  4. In the OSTI Collections: Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay-Are Neutrinos...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Reference Figure 1. The multistep solar process that ultimately results in the ... chart also courtesy of NASA, the National Solar Observatory, and Steve Albers. 2010 ...

  5. Astrophysical Accelerators of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cosmic rays in light of the latest observational results from the Pierre Auger Observatory, highlighting potential astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray ...

  6. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    26, 2013 Facility News, Feature Stories and Releases Climate Data Now Flowing from Oliktok, Alaska Bookmark and Share New climate observatory records atmospheric measurements at...

  7. Alamos National Laboratory] 71; ANISOTROPY; CHERENKOV COUNTERS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory 71; ANISOTROPY; CHERENKOV COUNTERS; COSMIC RADIATION; EMISSION; ENERGY; MODULATION; PHYSICS; TIME DEPENDENCE; WATER The Milagro gamma-ray observatory is a...

  8. Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics Observatory data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar...

  9. NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET PROPERTIES OF A LARGE SAMPLE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hicken, Malcolm ; Kirshner, Robert P. ; Challis, Peter J. 6 ; Mazzali, Paolo 7 ; Schmidt, Brian P. 8 + Show Author Affiliations Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, ...

  10. Using NERSC Systems, Physicists Close In on a Rare-Particle Decay...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observatory experiment (EXO-200) has placed the most stringent constraints yet on the nature of a process called neutrinoless double beta decay. In doing so, the physicists have...

  11. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    array profiling has been acquired over the east flank of the Coso geothermal system, CA, USA. Due to production related electromagnetic (EM) noise the permanent observatory at...

  12. SEARCHING FOR z {approx} 7.7 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS IN THE COSMOS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States) Gemini Observatory, co AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile) NOAO, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States) Publication ...

  13. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fryer Christopher L Los Alamos National Laboratory Hughes John P Rutgers University Smith Randall K Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Badenes Carles University of...

  14. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Christopher L. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hughes, John P. Rutgers University; Smith, Randall K. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; Badenes, Carles University of...

  15. FORGING THE FUTURE STAY CONNECTED: In This Issue Electricity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oregon, and determine the site's suitability as an observatory site for enhanced geothermal systems. Read more... Environmental Health and Remediation PNNL Shares Nuclear...

  16. Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics Observatory data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar ...

  17. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Weakly Interacting Massive Particles that could make up most of the matter of our universe BATAVIA, Ill.- With the first data from their underground observatory in Northern...

  18. OSTIblog Articles in the HAWC; LANL; Los Alamos National Laboratory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gamma- Ray Observatory was formally inaugurated on the slopes of the Sierra Negra volcano in the State of Puebla... Related Topics: HAWC; LANL; Los Alamos National Laboratory

  19. Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes The High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory has released ...

  20. Constraints On The Mechanism Of Long-Term, Steady Subsidence...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of an array of continuous GPS stations as part of a Plate Boundary Observatory volcano cluster will help to refine this model. Authors Michael Poland, Roland Burgmann, Daniel...

  1. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Transport Capability at SC07 111207 Auger Observatory closes in on long-standing mystery, links highest-energy cosmic rays with violent black holes 110807 Fermilab...

  2. SORD Technical Memorandum SORD 2006-3

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    from the average hourly wind speeds for each MEDA station, the solar angle, and the hourly cloud-cover observations reported at the Desert Rock Meteorological Observatory (DRA). ...

  3. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Biotechnolog...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Y Z Xiao, Jingfeng (Jingfeng Xiao) - Complex Systems Research Center, University of New Hampshire Xie, Jiakang "Jack" (Jiakang "Jack" Xie) - Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory,...

  4. THE TRANSITION REGION RESPONSE TO A CORONAL NANOFLARE: FORWARD...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    are fundamentally coupled through the processes of thermal conduction and mass exchange. ... (AR) made by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. ...

  5. Prospects for Relic Neutrino Detection at PTOLEMY: Princeton...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Prospects for Relic Neutrino Detection at PTOLEMY: Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early-Universe, Massive-Neutrino Yield Prospects for Relic Neutrino Detection at...

  6. FORGE Home | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    FORGE Home The Energy Department envisions Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) as a dedicated site where scientists and engineers will be able to...

  7. Sandia Energy Geothermal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wable-energy-official-visits-sandiafeed 0 Sandia's Frontier Observatory for Research In Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Phase 1 Proposals Were Both Successful http:energy.sandia.gov...

  8. What is FORGE? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    dedicated field site of its kind for testing targeted ... site for transformative science that will create a ... to compete for locating the new federal observatory. *NEW* ...

  9. THE RECENT STAR FORMATION IN NGC 6822: AN ULTRAVIOLET STUDY ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CA 91125 (United States) Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, BP 8, Traverse du Siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France) Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of...

  10. Search for: All records | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of these results for experiments in which DOE has an interest, especially the Joint Dark Energy Mission, SupernovaAcceleration Probe (SNAP) satellite observatory, the Large ...

  11. A New Proposal to the High Intensity Gamma-Ray Source (HIS) PAC...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VA 22801, USA C. Travaglio INAF - Astronomical Observatory Turin, Italy and B2FH - Association - Turin, Italy October 19 th , 2012 2 1. Experiment Summary The proposed research ...

  12. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blue, violet or ultraviolet cone. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory in western Argentina, in operation since 2004, uses similar surface detector tanks to catch cosmic rays,...

  13. Digital Data Management Plans

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    energy physics through experiments that strengthen our fundamental understanding of matter, energy, space, and time. Plans HAWC gamma-Ray Observatory Data Management Plan (pdf)...

  14. DE-FC26-06NT42877 - DE-FC26-02NT41628 - DE-FC26-00NT40920 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrates Sea-floor Observatory Project Last Reviewed 12/18/2013 DE-FE26-06NT42877, DE-FC26-02NT41628, and DE-FC26-00NT40920 Goal The goal of this project is to conduct activities leading to the development, implementation, and operation of a remote, multi-sensor seafloor observatory focused on behavior of the marine hydrocarbon system within the gas hydrate stability zone of the deepwater Gulf of Mexico and analysis of data resultant from that observatory over time. Attaining

  15. LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Aug. 21, 2013-The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico August 21, 2013 New site to observe supernovas and supermassive black holes LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Aug. 21, 2013-The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma Ray Observatory has begun formal operations at its site in Mexico. HAWC is designed to study the origin of very high-energy cosmic rays and observe the most energetic objects in the known universe. This extraordinary observatory, using a unique

  16. Compact dark matter objects, asteroseismology, and gravitational waves radiated by sun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokrovsky, Yu. E.

    2015-12-15

    The solar surface oscillations observed by Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and Solar Helioseismic Observatory are considered to be excited by a small fraction of Dark Matter in form of Compact Dark Matter Objects (CDMO) in the solar structure. Gravitational Waves (GW) radiated by these CDMO are predicted to be the strongest at the Earth and are easily detectable by European Laser Interferometer Space Antenna or by Gravitational-Wave Observatory “Dulkyn” which can solve two the most challenging tasks in the modern physics: direct detection of GW and DM.

  17. CX-000608: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reaching for the Stars - California State University San Bernardino Observatory ProjectCX(s) Applied: B1.15Date: 01/27/2010Location(s): CaliforniaOffice(s): Science, Chicago Office

  18. CX-013846: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy - Newberry Volcano, OR (Phase One) CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11Date: 06/24/2015 Location(s): WashingtonOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  19. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We study the populations of X ray sources in the Milky Way in the keV band using a deep survey with the BAT instrument aboard the Swift observatory We present the logN logS...

  20. Recent News from the National Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Energy Department has you covered. August 21, 2014 Stars above the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile where the DECam is located. | Photo courtesy of Reidar...

  1. Observation of two new L4 Neptune Trojans in the Dark Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4-meter Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory. Both are in high-inclination orbits (18.8 and 19.4...

  2. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ENERGY MODULATION PHYSICS TIME DEPENDENCE WATER The Milagro gamma ray observatory is a water Cherenkov detector with an energy response between GeV and TeV While the major...

  3. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MODULATION; PHYSICS; TIME DEPENDENCE; WATER",,"The Milagro gamma-ray observatory is a water Cherenkov detector with an energy response between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. While the...

  4. Science Magazine Articles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Magazine Articles "Second Bid for Brain Observatory," by Emily Underwood Science, 350, 6259, 365-366 (Oct. 23, 2015) (DOI: 10.1126science.350.6259.365 ) Summary Reprint...

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - keahey-salishan [Compatibility Mode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3,500 3,000 0.5 1 30 60 98 196 294 454 Solexa Next gen Solexa GB From Folker Meyer, "The M5 Platform" Ocean Observatory Initiative CI: Linking the marine infrastructure...

  6. A FILAMENT ERUPTION ON 2010 OCTOBER 21 FROM THREE VIEWPOINTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippov, Boris

    2013-08-10

    A filament eruption on 2010 October 21 observed from three different viewpoints by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and the Solar Dynamic Observatory is analyzed by also invoking data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and the Kanzelhoehe Solar Observatory. The position of the filament just before the eruption at the central meridian not far from the center of the solar disk was favorable for photospheric magnetic field measurements in the area below the filament. Because of this, we were able to calculate with high precision the distribution of the coronal potential magnetic field near the filament. We found that the filament began to erupt when it approached the height in the corona where the magnetic field decay index was greater than 1. We also determined that during the initial stage of the eruption the filament moved along the magnetic neutral surface.

  7. CX-013873: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Milford Site for Frontier Observatory for Geothermal Energy (FORGE) CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11Date: 07/01/2015 Location(s): UtahOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. CX-013849: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy - Fallon, NV (Phase One) CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11Date: 06/23/2015 Location(s): New MexicoOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in March 2015 as the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma- Ray Observatory was formally inaugurated on the slopes of the Sierra Negra volcano in the State of Puebla, Mexico. ...

  10. Présentation PowerPoint

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    M. Haeffelin 1 , J-C. Dupont 1 , C. Long 2 1 Institut Pierre et Simon Laplace, Ecole ... Outline Outline 4 Aerosols Water Vapor Dupont and Haeffelin, JGR 2008 Ground Observatory ...

  11. CX-013844: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy - Coso, CA (Phase One) CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11Date: 06/25/2015 Location(s): New MexicoOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  12. OSTIblog Articles in the HAWC; LANL; Los Alamos National Laboratory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HAWC; LANL; Los Alamos National Laboratory Topic High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray ... in March 2015 as the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma- Ray Observatory ...

  13. New Method Relates Greenland Ice Sheet Changes to Sea-Level Rise...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo jpg image, 244418 bytes Image courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory via a Creative Commons ...

  14. R and D ekes out an increase in FY 2015 budget request

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2014-05-01

    With spending caps in place, President Obama proposes an off-budget fund to support additional R and D. NASA would ground a flying observatory, and DOE would sharply curtail its nonproliferation programs.

  15. Closest Type Ia Supernova in Decades Solves a Cosmic Mystery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    observations of SN 2011fe were carried out at the Liverpool Telescope at La Palma in the Canary Islands, followed within hours by the Shane Telescope at Lick Observatory in...

  16. Brochure_2003.2.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University College Station, TX 77843-3366 Phone: (979) 845-1411 Fax: (979) 845-1899 Email: ... The deployment of new ground-based and satellite-based observatories, including the ...

  17. For your calendar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 8, 15, 22, 29: Open observatory nights Head to the top of Ivan Hilton Science ... Learn more about the Secret City during ScienceFest, July 14-16. Through July 20: Back to ...

  18. Improved Design of Nuclear Reactor Control System | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    half of the neutron-rich atomic nuclei that are heavier than the element iron. ... References: 1 Composite image of G292.0+1.8 from the Chandra X-ray Observatory website; ...

  19. DETECTION OF SUPERSONIC DOWNFLOWS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING EVENTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States) High Altitude ObservatoryNCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO...

  20. FORGE: The Next Frontier of Renewable Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department recently announced the teams selected for negotiation for Phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE), a dedicated site where researchers can develop and test enhanced geothermal system technologies.

  1. Photo of the Week: We Mustache You a Question | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... of Santiago, Chile. The observatory is home to a four-meter telescope, part of the Dark Energy Survey, which is a research collaboration between institutions from the U.S., ...

  2. Celeste: A New Model for Cataloging the Universe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Vctor M. Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, where the Dark Energy Camera is being used to collect image data for the DECam Legacy ...

  3. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4 $\\times$ 10$^...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4 times 1018 eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory Citation Details In-Document...

  4. Neutrino Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory A.W.P. Poon 1 Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D 2 O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar ν e flux and the total flux of all active neutrino

  5. One ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols One ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols July 25, 2012 - 5:49pm Addthis This observatory is part of an air particles research initiative at Cape Cod National Seashore in Massachusetts, and includes dozens of sophisticated instruments that take continuous ground-based measurements of clouds, aerosols, and other atmospheric properties. | Photo courtesy of the ARM Climate Research Facility. This observatory is part of an air particles research

  6. FPGA Architectures and CAD Algorithms with Dynamic Power Gating Support |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FORGE Home The Energy Department envisions Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) as a dedicated site where scientists and engineers will be able to develop, test, and accelerate breakthroughs in enhanced geothermal system (EGS) technologies and techniques. The Energy Department envisions Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) as a dedicated site where scientists and engineers will be able to develop, test, and accelerate breakthroughs in enhanced

  7. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characterizing Clouds at Arctic Atmospheric Observatories Download a printable PDF Submitter: Shupe, M., University of Colorado Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Shupe MD, VP Walden, E Eloranta, T Uttal, JR Campbell, SM Starkweather, and M Shiobara. 2011. "Clouds at Arctic atmospheric observatories, part I: occurrence and macrophysical properties." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 50(3), 626-644.

  8. U.S. and Portugal Sign Agreement for Climate Research Collaboration |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Portugal Sign Agreement for Climate Research Collaboration U.S. and Portugal Sign Agreement for Climate Research Collaboration March 27, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The United States signed an agreement with Portugal today to launch the installation of a portable climate observatory on Graciosa Island in the Azores. The mobile observatory will obtain measurements of cloud and aerosol properties from the island's marine environment for 20 months, beginning in

  9. Tide-triggered tremors give clues for earthquake prediction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tide-triggered tremors give clues for earthquake prediction Tide-triggered tremors give clues for earthquake prediction The study reports that the deepest part of California's 800-mile-long San Andreas Fault is weaker than expected and produces small earthquakes in response to tidal forces. July 21, 2016 A historic photo of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, courtesy USGS Earth Observatory. A historic photo of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, courtesy USGS Earth Observatory. Contact Los

  10. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    captures first image April 30, 2013 An international team of researchers, including scientists from Los Alamos, has taken the first image of the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory, or HAWC. The facility is designed to detect cosmic rays and the highest energy gamma rays ever observed from astrophysical sources. HAWC is under construction inside the Parque Nacional Pico de Orizaba, a Mexican national park. Although only 10 percent of the observatory is constructed, the team has made its

  11. Science Magazine Articles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Magazine Articles "Second Bid for Brain Observatory," by Emily Underwood Science, 350, 6259, 365-366 (Oct. 23, 2015) (DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6259.365) Before the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in nearby Chicago, nearly 100 top researchers and government officials met to discuss a bold proposal: the creation of a National Brain Observatory, a network of neurotechnology centers tied to the U.S. Department of Energy's national laboratories. Summary Reprint Full text

  12. April

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April April We are your source for reliable, up-to-date news and information; our scientists and engineers can provide technical insights on our innovations for a secure nation. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is under construction. HAWC Observatory captures first image The facility is designed to detect cosmic rays and the highest energy gamma rays ever observed from astrophysical sources. - 4/30/13 Lightning. Lightning strokes can probe the ionosphere Researchers have made

  13. Picture of the Week: Gamma-ray bursts, infographic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma-ray bursts: infographic Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful explosions in the universe. With the help of sophisticated instruments such as the ground based RAPTOR robotic observatory system in New Mexico and the High Altitude Water Chernekov (HAWC) Gamma Ray Observatory in Mexico, scientists at Los Alamos National Lab and around the world are working to understand the ongoing mysteries relating to their physics and origins. Gamma Ray Bursts Click the image to see a larger view.

  14. FORGE Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FORGE Home The Energy Department envisions Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) as a dedicated site where scientists and engineers will be able to develop, test, and accelerate breakthroughs in enhanced geothermal system (EGS) technologies and techniques. The Energy Department envisions Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) as a dedicated site where scientists and engineers will be able to develop, test, and accelerate breakthroughs in enhanced

  15. Geo-neutrino Observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-12-17

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  16. ABSTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BROWNE, MICHAEL CHARLES. Preparation for Deployment of the Neutral Current Detectors (NCDs) for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). (Under the direction of John F. Wilkerson and Christopher R. Gould.) The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is the latest generation of solar neutrino experiments designed to investigate the Solar Neutrino Problem (SNP). Through detection of all flavors of neutrinos, SNO will be capable of testing the neutrino oscillation hypothesis as a solution to the SNP.

  17. Instrumentation in astronomy VII; Proceedings of the SPIE Meeting, Vol. 1235, Pts. 1 2, Tucson, AZ, Feb. 13-17, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The topics discussed include IR detectors and instrumentation, detectors, other instrumentation, optical instrumentation, and space instrumentation. Papers are presented on the IR spectrometer/imager for the ESO VLT, the fiber-coupled high-resolution IR array spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, the Balloon-Borne Infrared Telescope for FIR spectroscopy, and a simple transputer-based CCD camera controller. Attention is given to CCD guidance system for William Herschel Telescope, the New Technology Telescope control/acquisition system as a prototype for the VLT, a control system for spincasting 8-m borosilicate honeycomb mirrors, echelle spectrographs for 8-m class telescopes, and fiber spectroscopy at Palomar Observatory. Other papers are on the Kitt Peak National Observatory fiber actuator device, a two-star photoelectric photometer, an ultrahigh-resolution XUV spectroheliograph, an optical monitor for X-ray satellites, and large-format electrographic and array detectors for a space Schmidt imaging telescope.

  18. Studies of High Energy Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitz, David F; Fick, Brian E

    2014-07-30

    This report covers the progress of the Michigan Technological University particle astrophysics group during the period April 15th, 2011 through April 30th, 2014. The principal investigator is Professor David Nitz. Professor Brian Fick is the Co-PI. The focus of the group is the study of the highest energy cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory. The major goals of the Pierre Auger Observatory are to discover and understand the source or sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10**19 eV, to identify the particle type(s), and to investigate the interactions of those cosmic particles both in space and in the Earth's atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina was completed in June 2008 with 1660 surface detector stations and 24 fluorescence telescopes arranged in 4 stations. It has a collecting area of 3,000 square km, yielding an aperture of 7,000 km**2 sr.

  19. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  20. High-Pressure Flame Speed Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy High-Powered Dark Energy Camera Can See Billions of Light Years Away High-Powered Dark Energy Camera Can See Billions of Light Years Away August 21, 2014 - 10:19am Addthis Stars above the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile where the DECam is located. | Photo courtesy of Reidar Hahn at Fermilab. Stars above the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile where the DECam is located. | Photo courtesy of Reidar Hahn at Fermilab. Allison Lantero Allison

  1. Windows beyond the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernabei, R.

    2007-10-12

    DAMA is an observatory for rare processes at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the I.N.F.N. (LNGS). Here some arguments will be shortly summarised on the investigation on dark matter (DM) particles by annual modulation signature and on some of the performed searches for double beta decay modes.

  2. Swift-BAT Survey of Galactic Sources: Catalog and Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study the populations of X-ray sources in the Milky Way in the 15-55 keV band using a deep survey with the BAT instrument aboard the Swift observatory. We present the logN-logS...

  3. Populations Voss, R.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Ajello...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study the populations of X-ray sources in the Milky Way in the 15-55 keV band using a deep survey with the BAT instrument aboard the Swift observatory. We present the logN-logS...

  4. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Taniya; Graham, David

    2013-12-08

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  5. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya

    2014-03-24

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  6. Microsoft Word - DETF_Final.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE Andreas Albrecht, University of California, Davis Gary Bernstein, University of Pennsylvania Robert Cahn, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Wendy L. Freedman, Carnegie Observatories Jacqueline Hewitt, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wayne Hu, University of Chicago John Huth, Harvard University Marc Kamionkowski, California Institute of Technology Edward W. Kolb, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and The University of Chicago Lloyd Knox,

  7. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  8. Road Tripping through the Geothermal Frontier

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    After more than a year since the announcement of available funding, the project teams for our Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) each hosted our geothermal experts at their candidate sites this fall. Were calling it our road trip through the geothermal frontier.

  9. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  10. Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    After more than a year since the announcement of available funding, the project teams for our Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) each hosted our geothermal experts at their candidate sites this fall. We’re calling it our road trip through the geothermal frontier.

  11. THE HIGH-LATITUDE BRANCH OF THE SOLAR TORSIONAL OSCILLATION IN THE RISING PHASE OF CYCLE 24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, R.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Hill, F.; Komm, R.; Larson, T. P.; Schou, J.; Rempel, M.; Thompson, M. J.

    2013-04-10

    We use global heliseismic data from the Global Oscillation Network Group, the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, to examine the behavior, during the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24, of the migrating zonal flow pattern known as the torsional oscillation. Although the high-latitude part of the pattern appears to be absent in the new cycle when the flows are derived by subtracting a mean across a full solar cycle, it can be seen if we subtract the mean over a shorter period in the rising phase of each cycle, and these two mean rotation profiles differ significantly at high latitudes. This indicates that the underlying high-latitude rotation has changed; we speculate that this is in response to weaker polar fields, as suggested by a recent model.

  12. Surveying The TeV Sky With Milagro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, G. P.

    2006-11-17

    A wide field of view, high duty factor TeV gamma-ray observatory is essential for studying TeV astrophysical sources, because most of these sources are either highly variable or are extended. Milagro is such a TeV detector and has performed the deepest survey of the Northern Hemisphere sky. In addition to detecting the Crab Nebula and Mrk 421, which are known TeV sources, Milagro has made the first detection of diffuse TeV emission from the Galactic plane. The Milagro data has been searched for unknown point sources and extended sources. A new extended TeV source is seen and is coincident with an EGRET unidentified source. Based on the success of Milagro, a second generation water Cherenkov gamma-ray observatory is planned which will give an increase in sensitivity of more than an order of magnitude.

  13. DISENTANGLING THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE FU ORIONIS CANDIDATE HBC 722 WITH HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Joel D.; Evans, Neal J. II; Merello, Manuel; Pooley, David; Kospal, Agnes; Van Kempen, Tim A.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine; Herczeg, Gregory; Quanz, Sascha P.; Henning, Thomas; Bouwman, Jeroen; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Dunham, Michael M.; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Guedel, Manuel; Skinner, Stephen L.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Guieu, Sylvain

    2011-04-20

    We analyze the submillimeter emission surrounding the new FU Orionis-type object, HBC 722. We present the first epoch of observations of the active environs of HBC 722, with imaging and spectroscopy from PACS, SPIRE, and HIFI on board the Herschel Space Observatory, as well as CO J = 2-1 and 350 {mu}m imaging (SHARC-II) with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The primary source of submillimeter continuum emission in the region-2MASS 20581767+4353310-is located 16'' south-southeast of the optical flaring source while the optical and near-infrared emission is dominated by HBC 722. A bipolar outflow extends over HBC 722; the most likely driver is the submillimeter source. We detect warm (100 K) and hot (246 K) CO emission in the surrounding region, evidence of outflow-driven heating in the vicinity. The region around HBC 722 itself shows little evidence of heating driven by the new outbursting source itself.

  14. The dynamic character of the polar solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H.-S.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P. E-mail: hsyu@ucsd.edu E-mail: pphick@ucsd.edu

    2014-09-20

    The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph C2 and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) COR2A coronagraph images, when analyzed using correlation tracking techniques, show a surprising result in places ordinarily thought of as 'quiet' solar wind above the poles in coronal hole regions. Instead of the static well-ordered flow and gradual acceleration normally expected, coronagraph images show outflow in polar coronal holes consisting of a mixture of intermittent slow and fast patches of material. We compare measurements of this highly variable solar wind from C2 and COR2A images and show that both coronagraphs measure essentially the same structures. Measurements of the mean velocity as a function of height of these structures are compared with mass flux determinations of the solar wind outflow in the large polar coronal hole regions and give similar results.

  15. USING CORONAL CELLS TO INFER THE MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE AND CHIRALITY OF FILAMENT CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheeley, N. R. Jr.; Warren, H. P.; Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.

    2013-08-01

    Coronal cells are visible at temperatures of {approx}1.2 MK in Fe XII coronal images obtained from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft. We show that near a filament channel, the plumelike tails of these cells bend horizontally in opposite directions on the two sides of the channel like fibrils in the chromosphere. Because the cells are rooted in magnetic flux concentrations of majority polarity, these observations can be used with photospheric magnetograms to infer the direction of the horizontal field in filament channels and the chirality of the associated magnetic field. This method is similar to the procedure for inferring the direction of the magnetic field and the chirality of the fibril pattern in filament channels from H{alpha} observations. However, the coronal cell observations are easier to use and provide clear inferences of the horizontal field direction for heights up to {approx}50 Mm into the corona.

  16. Measurement of the radiation energy in the radio signal of extensive air showers as a universal estimator of cosmic-ray energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-06-14

    Here, we measure the energy emitted by extensive air showers in the form of radio emission in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. Exploiting the accurate energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we obtain a radiation energy of 15.8 ± 0.7 (stat) ± 6.7 (sys) MeV for cosmic rays with an energy of 1 EeV arriving perpendicularly to a geomagnetic field of 0.24 G, scaling quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy. A comparison with predictions from state-of-the-art first-principle calculations shows agreement with our measurement. The radiation energy provides direct access to the calorimetric energy in the electromagnetic cascademore » of extensive air showers. Comparison with our result thus allows the direct calibration of any cosmic-ray radio detector against the well-established energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory.« less

  17. IMAGING COMET ISON C/2012 S1 IN THE INNER CORONA AT PERIHELION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Druckmller, Miloslav; Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Aniol, Peter; Ding, Adalbert; Morgan, Huw

    2014-04-01

    Much anticipation and speculation were building around comet ISON, or C/2012 S1, discovered on 2012 September 21 by the International Scientific Optical Network telescope in Russia, and bound for the Sun on 2013 November 28, with a closest heliocentric approach distance of 2.7 R {sub ?}. Here we present the first white light image of the comet's trail through the inner corona. The image was taken with a wide field Lyot-type coronagraph from the Mees Observatory on Haleakala at 19:12 UT, past its perihelion passage at 18:45 UT. The perfect match between the comet's trail captured in the inner corona and the trail that had persisted across the field of view of 2-6 R {sub ?} of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment/C2 coronagraph at 19:12 UT demonstrates that the comet survived its perihelion passage.

  18. Name of National Lab

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Council| September 29, 2014 | Portland, Oregon Courtesy Ben Phillips Courtesy FORO Energy Courtesy Schlumberger Courtesy Enel Green Power Courtesy Geothermal Resources Council Courtesy Bill Goloski GTO Major Initiatives New Geothermal Opportunities  "Play Fairway" FOA  Pathway to next-step drilling validation Accelerating EGS  Build upon R&D and demonstration project successes  EGS R&D FOA  Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE)

  19. Name of National Lab

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Technologies Office Eric Hass, Hydrothermal Program Manager TAS Energy GRC NREL Ted Clutter Ted Clutter Elisabet Metcalfe GTO Major Initiatives New Geothermal Opportunities * "Play Fairway" FOA * Pathway to next-step drilling validation Accelerate EGS * Build upon R&D and demonstration * project successes * EGS R&D FOA * Frontier Observatory for Research in * Geothermal Energy (FORGE) FOA kicked off Tackle Deployment Barriers * Regulatory Roadmap: Streamlining *

  20. Fermilab | Science | Questions for the Universe | The Particle World | What

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory? someday shed light on dark matter: Large Hadron Collider, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Fermilab, Batavia, IL VERITAS, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Amado, Arizona Xenon 10, Gran Sasso, Italy COUPP, Fermilab, Batavia, IL ZEPLIN II Cryogenic Dark Matter Search GLAST International Linear Collider (proposed) Further reading courtesy of Symmetry magazine Explain it in 60 Seconds: Dark Matter Listening for Whispers

  1. Richard (Rick) F. Ambrose is Executive Vice President of Lockheed Martin's Space Systems Company

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Rick) F. Ambrose is Executive Vice President of Lockheed Martin's Space Systems Company business area and an officer of Lockheed Martin Corporation. Space Systems is a $9.1 billion enterprise that employs approximately 19,000 people. The company provides advanced technology systems for national security, civil, and commercial customers. Chief products include major satellite systems; human space flight systems; strategic and missile defense systems; space observatories and interplanetary

  2. Ground-Based Microwave Study of LWP Spatial Anisotropy in Winter Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ground-Based Microwave Study of LWP Spatial Anisotropy in Winter Clouds A. V. Koldaev, E. A. Miller, V. E. Kadygrov, and A. I. Gusev Central Aerological Observatory Moscow, Russia A. V. Troitsky Radio Physics Institute of Nigny Novgorod, Russia W. Strapp Meteorological Service of Canada Cloud Physics Research Division Ottawa, Canada Introduction The role of horizontal anisotropy of the cloud field in the radiation transfer is under investigation of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science

  3. STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE 2012 NOVEMBER 13/14 ECLIPSE WHITE-LIGHT CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Rušin, V.; Saniga, M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Davis, A. B. E-mail: vrusin@ta3.sk; and others

    2015-02-20

    Continuing our series of observations of coronal motion and dynamics over the solar-activity cycle, we observed from sites in Queensland, Australia, during the 2012 November 13 (UT)/14 (local time) total solar eclipse. The corona took the low-ellipticity shape typical of solar maximum (flattening index ε = 0.01), a change from the composite coronal images we observed and analyzed in this journal and elsewhere for the 2006 and 2008-2010 eclipses. After crossing the northeast Australian coast, the path of totality was over the ocean, so further totality was seen only by shipborne observers. Our results include velocities of a coronal mass ejection (CME; during the 36 minutes of passage from the Queensland coast to a ship north of New Zealand, we measured 413 km s{sup –1}) and we analyze its dynamics. We discuss the shapes and positions of several types of coronal features seen on our higher-resolution composite Queensland coronal images, including many helmet streamers, very faint bright and dark loops at the bases of helmet streamers, voids, and radially oriented thin streamers. We compare our eclipse observations with models of the magnetic field, confirming the validity of the predictions, and relate the eclipse phenomenology seen with the near-simultaneous images from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA), NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, ESA/Royal Observatory of Belgium's Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) on PROBA2, and Naval Research Laboratory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment on ESA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. For example, the southeastern CME is related to the solar flare whose origin we trace with a SWAP series of images.

  4. Audit Report: OAI-M-16-10 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Audit Report: OAI-M-16-10 May 16, 2016 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility The Department of Energy's Office of Science (Science) supports the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The ARM Facility was established in 1989 to provide strategically located observatories for studying the Earth's climate. It supports the Department's climate mission by providing comprehensive sets of observations in diverse climatic regimes and the associated

  5. FORGE Infographic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FORGE Infographic FORGE Infographic The Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) constitutes the strategic thrust of the Geothermal Technologies Office, Department of Energy, over the next five years. Advances in EGS technologies could unlock up to 10% of the nation's energy supply from enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), geothermal energy potential where there is little or no fluid or permeable rock. The FORGE infographic below shows the scope of this undertaking. Click

  6. Doug Hollett, Director Geothermal Technologies Office Hot Rocks and Hard Places

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hot Rocks and Hard Places Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting - September 30, 2013 Courtesy GRC Courtesy CPike/ACEP Courtesy RAM Power 2 Identify New Geothermal Opportunities * Lowered risk and cost * New prospecting workflow/"Play Fairway" Accelerate a Commercial Pathway to EGS * Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) * Reservoir characterization/creation technologies Overcome Deployment Barriers * Regulatory Roadmap: Streamlining * National Geothermal

  7. Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes The High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory has released its first map of the sky, including the first measurements of how often black holes flicker on and off. It has also caught pulsars, supernova remnants, and other bizarre cosmic beasts. April 24, 2016 Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Three new sources of gamma rays spotted by HAWC. Credit:

  8. On the Features of Radiative and Convective Regimes Under the Cumulus Cloudiness

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On the Features of Radiative and Convective Regimes Under the Cumulus Cloudiness B. M. Koprov, V. M. Koprov, G. S. Golitsyn A.M. Oboukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Moscow, Russia E. N. Kadygrov, A. V. Koldaev Central Aerological Observatory Dolgoprudny, Russia Introduction The study of instant temperature field transformation, convective and radiative regime perturbation within the layer of 0 to 650 m was fulfilled as caused by cloud modulation of solar radiation flux. It was made within

  9. PPPL physicists find clue to formation of magnetic fields around stars and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    galaxies | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab physicists find clue to formation of magnetic fields around stars and galaxies By Raphael Rosen November 6, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook An image of coronal loops on the sun that are linked to magnetic fields (Photo by NASA/Solar Dynamics Observatory) An image of coronal loops on the sun that are linked to magnetic fields An enduring astronomical mystery is how stars and galaxies acquire their magnetic fields. Physicists Jonathan

  10. PPPL physicists find clue to formation of magnetic fields around stars and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    galaxies | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab physicists find clue to formation of magnetic fields around stars and galaxies By Raphael Rosen November 6, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook An image of coronal loops on the sun that are linked to magnetic fields (Photo by NASA/Solar Dynamics Observatory) An image of coronal loops on the sun that are linked to magnetic fields An enduring astronomical mystery is how stars and galaxies acquire their magnetic fields. Physicists Jonathan

  11. MAESTRO Beamline Set to Open to Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MAESTRO Beamline Set to Open to Users MAESTRO Beamline Set to Open to Users Print It was 10 years ago that ALS Senior Staff Scientist Eli Rotenberg devised the name Microscopic and Electronic STRucture Observatory, or MAESTRO, for his long-envisioned beamline dedicated to the determination of the electronic structure of materials at the mesoscopic length scale. This September, the beamline, 7.0.2, will accept general user proposals for the first time, offering researchers unparalleled

  12. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Agreement Between Modeled and Observed 400 nm to 700 nm Surface Irradiance During INDOEX W. C. Conant and V. Ramanathan Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego LaJolla, California Introduction Two Biospherical Instruments GUV-511 photodiode flux radiometers were deployed at the Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (KCO) during the 1998 and 1999 field phases of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX; Ramanathan et al. 1996). The radiometers measure global and diffuse

  13. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microwave and IR Radiometry for Estimation of Atmospheric Radiation Balance and Sea Ice Formation A. G. Gorelik and V. Sterlijadkin Moscow State Academy for Instrument Making and Informatics Moscow, Russia E. Kadygrov and A. Koldaev Central Aerological Observatory Dolgoprudny, Russia Introduction It is well known that space-born microwave and infrared (IR) polarization measurements allow the development of advanced technologies for permanent snow and ice pack monitoring in the Arctic region. But

  14. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microwave Remote Sensing Investigation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Thermal Regime Above an Urban Area G. S. Golitsyn Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Science Moscow, Russia E. N. Kadygrov Central Aerological Observatory Dolgoprudny, Russia I. N. Kuznetsova Hydrometeorological Center Moscow, Russia Introduction During 2000-2002, three microwave temperature profilers (MTP-5) were used simultaneously in the Moscow region for continuous measurements of the atmospheric

  15. Picture of the Week: Shedding light on climate change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Shedding light on climate change Using data from their portable Antarctic observatory, researchers from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility hope to develop a comprehensive explanation for the warming of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. May 12, 2016 Recent models have studied how three quinones (a class of organic compounds) influence electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode to determine the best placement of enzymes on the electrode's surface. Using

  16. Tide-triggered tremors give clues for earthquake prediction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tide-triggered tremors give clues for earthquake prediction At the Bradbury Latest Issue:September 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Tide-triggered tremors give clues for earthquake prediction The study reports that the deepest part of California's 800-mile-long San Andreas Fault is weaker than expected and produces small earthquakes in response to tidal forces. September 1, 2016 A historic photo of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, courtesy USGS Earth Observatory. "These findings

  17. The eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, December 14,1989-August 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brantley, S.R.

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on explosive volcanic activity at Redoubt Volcano, 177 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, which generated numerous tephra plumes that disrupted air traffic above southern Alaska, damaged aircraft, and caused locally heavy tephra fall. Pyroclastic flows triggered debris flows that inundated part of an oil-tanker facility, temporarily suspending oil production in Cook Inlet. The newly established Alaska Volcano Observatory increased its monitoring effort and disseminated volcanic hazard information to government agencies, industry, and the public.

  18. Princeton physicists share in excitement of gravitational waves Einstein

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predicted | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Princeton physicists share in excitement of gravitational waves Einstein predicted By Catherine Zandonella, Office of the Dean for Research February 12, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The collision of two black holes - an event detected for the first time ever by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO - is seen in this still from a computer simulation. (Image by SXS) The collision of two black holes - an

  19. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    31, 2010 [Facility News] Instruments on Mt. Pico to Supplement Measurements from Graciosa Island Bookmark and Share At an elevation of about 2225 meters-usually above the marine boundary layer-the Pico Observatory is able to measure properties in the atmosphere transported from North America and Europe. Located high on Mount Pico in the Azores, the University of the Azores, the University of Colorado, and Michigan Technological University operate an instrumented observation station, the Pico

  20. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analytical Model of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties with Account for Hygroscopic Growth Khvorostyanov, V.I., Central Aerological Observatory; Curry, J.A., University of Colorado Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting A microphysical model of aerosol size spectra that includes hygroscopic growth is presented. In the presence of atmospheric humidity, an aerosol size spectrum of the Junge-type transforms into a superposition of two equilibrium power law

  1. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Thermal Regime Induced by Aerosol as Measured by MTP-5 Koldaev, A.V.(a), Kadygrov, E.N.(a), Khaikine, M.N.(a), Kuznetsova, I.N.(b), and Golitsyn, G.S.(c), Central Aerological Observatory (a), Hydrometeorological Center (b), A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Science (c) Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Change in atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) radiation balance as caused by natural and

  2. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  3. Energy Department Announces $29 Million Investment in Enhanced Geothermal

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Systems Efforts | Department of Energy 29 Million Investment in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Efforts Energy Department Announces $29 Million Investment in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Efforts August 31, 2016 - 10:36am Addthis News Media Contact DOENews@hq.doe.gov 202-586-4940 WASHINGTON, D.C. - As part of the Obama Administration's continued commitment to the President's Climate Action Plan, the Energy Department today announced $29 million in funding under the Frontier Observatory for

  4. Inorganic Carbon Isotopes and Chemical Characterization of Watershed Drainages, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy J.; Newman, Brent D.; Heikoop, Jeffrey H.; Throckmorton, Heather M.

    2015-09-25

    Data include results from geochemical and isotopic analyses for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska during July and September 2013. Samples were soil pore waters from 17 drainages that could be interlake (basins with polygonal terrain), different-aged drain thaw lake basins (young, medium, old, or ancient), or a combination of the two. Samples taken in different drainage flow types at three different depths at each location in and around the Barrow Environmental Observatory. This dataset used in Throckmorton, et.al. 2015.

  5. ARM - Events Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    27, 2014 [Events, Facility News] International Collaborations Highlighted at EGU Assembly Bookmark and Share At the 2014 European Geophysical Union's (EGU) General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, researchers will hear how data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is contributing to advances in climate models. Through its fixed, mobile, and aerial observatories, ARM provides the global science community with free data about clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and

  6. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 31, 2008 [Facility News] Phase 2 of Orbiting Carbon Observatory Field Campaign Begins Bookmark and Share A camera, weather station, and sun tracker with a protective dome are located on the roof of the fully automated FTS mobile laboratory. Inside the shelter, the spectrometer receives the reflected solar beam from the sun tracker, while the main computer system operates all the instruments and acquires the data. A camera, weather station, and sun tracker with a protective dome are

  7. Experimental Highlights - 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    july Experimental Highlights - 2014 July International Team Conducts First Collisionless Shock Experiment on NIF The first NIF Discovery Science experiment designed to create and study fully formed collisionless shocks, such as those responsible for the properties of many astrophysical phenomena including supernova remnants, gamma-ray bursts, Tycho Supernova Chandra X-ray Observatory photo of the Tycho supernova remnant discovered by astronomer Tycho Brahe in 1572. The supersonic expansion of

  8. Development of Cryogenic Bolometer for 0{nu}{beta}{beta} in {sup 124}Sn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Vivek; Mathimalar, S.; Dokania, Neha [INO, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Yashwant, G.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G. [Dept. of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Datar, V. M. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-11-23

    Cryogenic bolometer detectors, with their high resolution spectroscopy capability, are ideal for neutrino mass experiments as well as for search of rare processes like neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) and dark matter. A feasibility study for investigation of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} in {sup 124}Sn at the upcoming underground facility of India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) has been initiated. This paper describes endeavors towards cryogenic tin bolometer development.

  9. FORGE Site FOA | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Site FOA FORGE Site FOA How to Get Involved Web Phase Graphic - seguoe.png Closed Funding Opportunities The full application material for Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) FOA DE-FOA-0000890 is available on EERE's Funding Opportunity Exchange. The FORGE FOA deadline of November 12, 2014, 8 PM EDT, has passed. Applications are no longer being accepted. Phase 1 Countdown DAYS HOURS MIN SEC Phase 1 concluded on May 23, 2016. Renewal applications are under review.

  10. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ability of MM5 to Simulate Ice Clouds: Systematic Comparison between Simulated and Measured Fluxes and Lidar/Radar Profiles at Site Instrumental de Recherche par Teled'etrection Armospherique Atmospheric Observatory M. Chiriaco, R. Vautard, H. Chepfer, M. Haeffelin, Y. Wanherdrick, Y. Morille Institut Pierre Simon Laplace Laboratiore de Météorologie Dynamique Palaiseu, France A. Protat Institut Pierre Simon Laplace Centre d'études des Environnements Terrestre et Planétaires Paris, France J.

  11. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gravitational waves found, black-hole models led the way February 11, 2016 Supercomputer models predicted, instruments detected, Einstein was right LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Feb. 11, 2016-Gravitational waves were predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity in 1916, and now, almost exactly 100 years later, the faint ripples across space-time have been found. The advanced Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) has achieved the first direct measurement. "We already have

  12. Discovery Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    universe Discovery Science Since the beginning of civilization, humans have marveled at the night sky and pondered the vast stretches of the universe. The invention of telescopes in the 17th century revealed the first details of the Moon and the planets in our solar system. Four hundred years later, space-based observatories such as NASA's Hubble and Kepler regularly capture amazing vistas of billions of galaxies millions of light years away. Despite these advances, astronomers have only been

  13. Boundary Layer The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is sponsoring a 20-month field study on Graciosa Island in the Azores. Scientists involved in the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer field campaign are using the ARM Mobile Facility-a portable climate observatory-to study low-level clouds and aerosol in a marine environment. Collaborators from the Regional

  14. SSRL HEADLINES Mar 2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 March, 2007 __________________________________________________________________________ Contents of this Issue: Science Highlight - Taming a Potent Toxin Science Highlight - Ancient Warriors and the Origin of Chinese Purple Stanford-Caltech Collaboration Creates New X-ray "Molecular Observatory" Rapid Access Beam Time for SMB XAS BL7-3 SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering: Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences 2007 Ultrafast Summer School - June 18-22 SMB XAS Short Course

  15. OSCILLATORY BEHAVIOR IN THE QUIET SUN OBSERVED WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andic, A.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Abramenko, V.; Chae, J.; Ahn, K.

    2010-07-10

    Surface photometry of the quiet Sun has achieved an angular resolution of 0.''1 with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, revealing that a disproportionate fraction of the oscillatory events appear above observed bright point-like structures. During the tracking of these structures, we noted that the more powerful oscillatory events are cospatial with them, indicating that observed flux tubes may be the source of many observed oscillatory events.

  16. FY 2007 Congressional Budget Request

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    FORGE: The Next Frontier of Renewable Energy FORGE: The Next Frontier of Renewable Energy May 20, 2015 - 11:56am Addthis FORGE: The Next Frontier of Renewable Energy David Danielson Former Assistant Secretary for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Douglas Hollett Douglas Hollett Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy The Energy Department recently announced the teams selected for negotiation for Phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal

  17. "Coordinated Solar Energetic Events", Professor Alan M. Title, Lockheed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Martin Advance Technology Center/Stanford University | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab September 19, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia "Coordinated Solar Energetic Events", Professor Alan M. Title, Lockheed Martin Advance Technology Center/Stanford University The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamic Observatory with obtains full disk images that span the temperature range from 6000 to 20,000,000K with arcsecond resolution and a 12 second cadence. Because of the enhanced

  18. INSTITUTE COLLOQUIA AND SEMINARS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-March 31, 2007 2006 April 6 Dr. Jamal Jalilian-Marian, Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington An Introduction to Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions April 7 Professor Taka Kajino, National Astronomical Observatory, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan A Frontier of Nuclear Astrophysics: Big-Bang Cosmology and Supernova Nucleosynthesis April 19 Dr. Anna Stasto, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York High Energy Limit and Parton

  19. kadygrov(2)-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characteristics of the Low-Level Temperature Inversion at the North Slope of Alaska on the Base of Microwave Remote Sensing Data E. N. Kadygrov and A. S. Viazankin Central Aerological Observatory Russia E. R. Westwater University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado K. B. Widener Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The structure of the Polar atmosphere has been of interest to scientists since 1906. The presence of the stable planetary boundary layer (PBL) is related

  20. kadygrov-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Method and Research System for Remote Measurements of Turbulence Characteristics for the Purposes of Improving PBL Modeling E. N. Kadygrov, A. V. Toitsky, and A. S. Viazankin Central Aerological Observatory Russia Introduction The thermal microwave emission of the atmosphere in the molecular oxygen absorption band centre at 60 GHz (5 mm) is forming in the skin depth about 300 m and its intensity depends on only the temperature of this layer (Gajkovich et al. 1993; Khaikin et al. 1996; Kadygrov

  1. koldaev-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Remote Sensing of Average Liquid Water Content Layer Height in Winter Clouds A. V. Koldaev, E. N. Kadygrov, and A. V. Troitsky Central Aerological Observatory Moscow, Russia J. W. Strapp Atmospheric Environment Service of Canada Ottawa, Canada Introduction The importance of cloud liquid water in the radiation balance does not need to be proven. The main parameters that influence the optical properties of clouds are: total amount of the liquid water in the vertical column-liquid water path

  2. liepert-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Solar Radiation in the United States from 1961 to 1990 B. G. Liepert and G. J. Kukla Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University Palisades, New York Introduction Natural and anthropogenic aerosol variations affect the total amount of solar radiation received at the ground. However, the variability of the aerosol impact on the radiation budget and therefore on global climate is still unknown. Because satellite observations cover only the last two decades, additional analysis of

  3. Performance of the EGRET astronomical gamma ray telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, P.L.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E.B.; Lin, Y.C.; Michelson, P.F. ); Bertsch, D.L.; Fichtel, C.E.; Hartman, R.C.; Hunter, S.D.; Mattox, J.R.; Sreekumar, P.; Thompson, D.J. . Goddard Space Flight Center)

    1992-08-01

    On April 5, 1991, the Space Shuttle Atlantis carried the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) into orbit, deploying the satellite on April 7. This paper reports on the EGRET instrument which was activated on April 15, and the first month of operations was devoted to verification of the instrument performance. Measurements made during that month and in the subsequent sky survey phase have verified that the instrument time resolution, angular resolution, and gamma ray detection efficiency are all within nominal limits.

  4. July

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July July We are your source for reliable, up-to-date news and information; our scientists and engineers can provide technical insights on our innovations for a secure nation. A historic photo of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, courtesy USGS Earth Observatory. Tide-triggered tremors give clues for earthquake prediction The study reports that the deepest part of California's 800-mile-long San Andreas Fault is weaker than expected and produces small earthquakes in response to tidal forces. -

  5. Kadygrov-EN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Thermodynamics on the Base of Microwave Remote Sensing E. N. Kadygrov, V. E. Kadygrov, A. D. Lykov, E. A. Miller, and A. V. Troitsky Central Aerological Observatory Russia Introduction Temperature profiles through the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are important in studying the energy balance near the ground surface and in validating satellite remote sensing retrievals. For continuous measurement of atmospheric temperature during the last several

  6. Anthropogenic NO2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anthropogenic NO 2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing A. N. Rublev Institution of Molecular Physics Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute Moscow, Russia N Chubarova Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University Moscow, Russia G. Gorchakov Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction The work summarizes the different methodical aspects, firstly, the use of atmosphere optical depths presented in

  7. Analysis of High Precision GPS Time Series and Strain Rates for the Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of Washington State Prospects Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-22

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time series from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earthscope’s Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Central Washington University’s Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA). GPS station velocities were used to infer strain rates using the ‘splines in tension’ method. Strain rates were derived separately for subduction zone locking at depth and block rotation near the surface within crustal block boundaries.

  8. Amped Up! Volume 1, No. 3 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Amped Up! Volume 1, No. 3 Amped Up! is a bimonthly newsletter that highlights the initiatives, events, and technologies in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy that influence change. Features in this issue include: Grid Modernization Initiative NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy Initiative 2014 Hydropower Market Report Wind Vision Report Revitalizing American Manufacturing Competitiveness Race to Zero Student Design

  9. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton physicists share in excitement of gravitational waves Einstein predicted Click on an image below to view the high resolution image. Then right click on the image and select "Save Image" or "Save Image As..." The collision of two black holes - an event detected for the first time ever by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO - is seen in this still from a computer simulation. (Image by SXS)

  10. Analysis of High Precision GPS Time Series and Strain Rates for the Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of Washington State Prospects Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-22

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time series from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earthscopes Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Central Washington Universitys Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA). GPS station velocities were used to infer strain rates using the splines in tension method. Strain rates were derived separately for subduction zone locking at depth and block rotation near the surface within crustal block boundaries.

  11. Princeton physicists share in excitement of gravitational waves Einstein

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predicted | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Princeton physicists share in excitement of gravitational waves Einstein predicted By Catherine andonella, Office of the Dean for Research February 12, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The collision of two black holes - an event detected for the first time ever by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO - is seen in this still from a computer simulation. (Image by SXS) The collision of two black holes - an

  12. Heat flow in the northwest Atlantic (abstract) (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Heat flow in the northwest Atlantic (abstract) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heat flow in the northwest Atlantic (abstract) Authors: Hobart, M.A. [1] ; Herman, B.M. ; Langseth, M.G. ; Sclater, J.G. ; Crowe, J. + Show Author Affiliations (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY) Publication Date: 1977-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 5202016 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Journal Name: EOS, Trans., Am. Geophys. Union; (United States); Journal Volume:

  13. COLLOQUIUM: The Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Merger | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 29, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium, PPPL (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: The Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger Dr. Duncan Brown Syracuse University On September 14, 2015 the the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) simultaneously observed gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger. The gravitational waves observed match the waveform predicted by general

  14. Paul J. Regan is Vice President of Finance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J. Regan is Vice President of Finance & Business Operations and Chief Financial Officer for Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. Space Systems is an $8 billion enterprise that employs approximately 15,000 people. The company provides advanced technology systems for national security, civil, and commercial customers. Chief products include major satellite systems; human space flight systems; strategic and missile defense systems; space observatories and interplanetary spacecraft; and a

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SIRTA, a French Atmospheric Observatory for Clouds, Aerosols and Water Vapor Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, France H. Chepfer Coordinator : M. Haeffelin (haeffelin@lmd.polytechnique.fr) Contributors : C. Boitel, D. Bouniol, M. Chiriaco, P. Drobinski, J-L. Dusfrene, C. Goukenleuque, M. Grall, A. Hodzic, F. Hourdin, F. Lapouge, A Mathieu, P. Minnis, Y. Morille, C. Naud, V. Noel, B. O'Hirok, J. Pelon, C. Pietras, A. Protat, B. Romand, R. Vautard SIRTA : Atmospheric Remote Sensing 25 km south of

  16. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Astronomy in the 1840s Astronomy in the 1920s ("modern astronomy") From Backyard to Mountaintop: The Adventures of History's Best Worst Telescope Andrew Ainslie Common (1841-1903) Sanitation engineer, amateur astronomer, London Eaton Rise, Ealing, West London, 1910 Common's 18-inch equatorial reflector at Ealing, West London, 1877 Common's "three-foot" (37-inch) f/5.8 equatorial reflector, 1879* * Looking east Andrew Common's observatory site: 63 Eaton Rise, Ealing, London UK

  17. Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs The RAPTOR system is a network of small robotic observatories that scan the skies for optical anomalies such as flashes emanating from a star in its death throes as it collapses and becomes a black hole. November 21, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory astrophysicist Tom Vestrand poses with a telescope array that is part of the RAPTOR (RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response) system. RAPTOR is an intelligent

  18. OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Speeding access to science information from DOE and Beyond Incredible Laser Interferometers by Kathy Chambers on Fri, August 12, 2016 ligo_300.jpg Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in Livingston, LA. Image credit: LIGO Laboratory Interferometers are investigative tools used in many fields in science and engineering. They work by merging two or more sources of light or other waves to create an interference pattern, which can be precisely measured and analyzed.

  19. DOE Science Showcase - Interferometry | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information Interferometry interferometers.png Image credit: Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory Interferometers are devices for measuring waves that interfere with each other. They work by merging two or more sources of light or other waves to create an interference pattern which can be precisely measured and analyzed. Interferometers are used to measure everything from microscopic organisms to gas, dust, and gravitational waves originating in the

  20. Mechanisms and observations of coronal dimming for the 201 August 7 event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, James Paul; Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Hock, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    Coronal dimming of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission has the potential to be a useful forecaster of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As emitting material leaves the corona, a temporary void is left behind which can be observed in spectral images and irradiance measurements. The velocity and mass of the CMEs should impact the character of those observations. However, other physical processes can confuse the observations. We describe these processes and the expected observational signature, with special emphasis placed on the differences. We then apply this understanding to a coronal dimming event with an associated CME that occurred on 2010 August 7. Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) are used for observations of the dimming, while the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory's COR1 and COR2 are used to obtain velocity and mass estimates for the associated CME. We develop a technique for mitigating temperature effects in coronal dimming from full-disk irradiance measurements taken by EVE. We find that for this event, nearly 100% of the dimming is due to mass loss in the corona.

  1. Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating primordial black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; H. A. Ayala Solares; Barber, A. S.; Baughman, B. M.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Belmont, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Bonilla Rosales, M.; Braun, J.; Caballero-Lopez, R. A.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carraminana, A.; Castillo, M.; Christopher, G. E.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; de la Fuente, E.; De León, C.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Diaz-Cruz, L.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; Galindo, A.; Garfias, F.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Grabski, V.; Gussert, M.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hays, E.; Hoffman, C. M.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Imran, A.; Iriarte, A.; Karn, P.; Kieda, D.; Kolterman, B. E.; Kunde, G. J.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; Vargas, H. Leon; Linares, E. C.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longo, M.; Luna-GarcIa, R.; MacGibbon, J. H.; Marinelli, A.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, O.; Martínez-Castro, J.; J. A.J. Matthews; McEnery, J.; Mendoza Torres, E.; Mincer, A. I.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Morgan, T.; Mostafa, M.; Nellen, L.; Nemethy, P.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Oceguera-Becerra, T.; Patricelli, B.; Pelayo, R.; Perez-Perez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Riviere, C.; Rosa-Gonzalez, D.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Ryan, J.; Salazar, H.; Salesa, F.; Sandoval, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Schneider, M.; Silich, S.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Stump, D.; Sparks Woodle, K.; Springer, R. W.; Taboada, I.; Toale, P. A.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Vasileiou, V.; Villasenor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Williams, D. A.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yodh, G. B.; Younk, P. W.; Zaborov, D.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.

    2015-04-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ~ 5.0 × 10¹⁴ g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV – TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.

  2. Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating primordial black holes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; H. A. Ayala Solares; et al

    2015-04-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ~ 5.0 × 10¹⁴ g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV – TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 tomore » 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.« less

  3. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Tom McGee; Carol Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2006-06-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort was made to locate and retain the services of a suitable vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) following the storms and the loss of the contracted vessel

  4. THE 2011 JUNE 23 STELLAR OCCULTATION BY PLUTO: AIRBORNE AND GROUND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S. E.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Sallum, S.; Dunham, E. W.; Collins, P.; Bida, T.; Bright, L.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Pandey, S.; Amrhein, D.; Tholen, D. J.; Taylor, B.; Wolf, J.; Pfueller, E.; Meyer, A.; and others

    2013-10-01

    On 2011 June 23, stellar occultations by both Pluto (this work) and Charon (future analysis) were observed from numerous ground stations as well as the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This first airborne occultation observation since 1995 with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory resulted in the best occultation chords recorded for the event, in three visible wavelength bands. The data obtained from SOFIA are combined with chords obtained from the ground at the IRTF, the U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, and Leeward Community College to give the detailed state of the Pluto-Charon system at the time of the event with a focus on Pluto's atmosphere. The data show a return to the distinct upper and lower atmospheric regions with a knee or kink in the light curve separating them as was observed in 1988, rather than the smoothly transitioning bowl-shaped light curves of recent years. The upper atmosphere is analyzed by fitting a model to all of the light curves, resulting in a half-light radius of 1288 {+-} 1 km. The lower atmosphere is analyzed using two different methods to provide results under the differing assumptions of particulate haze and a strong thermal gradient as causes for the lower atmospheric diminution of flux. These results are compared with those from past occultations to provide a picture of Pluto's evolving atmosphere. Regardless of which lower atmospheric structure is assumed, results indicate that this part of the atmosphere evolves on short timescales with results changing the light curve structures between 1988 and 2006, and then reverting these changes in 2011 though at significantly higher pressures. Throughout these changes, the upper atmosphere remains remarkably stable in structure, again except for the overall pressure changes. No evidence of onset of atmospheric collapse predicted by frost migration models is seen, and the atmosphere appears to be remaining at a stable pressure level, suggesting it should

  5. MULTI-POINT SHOCK AND FLUX ROPE ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AROUND 2010 AUGUST 1 IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moestl, C.; Liu, Y.; Luhmann, J. G.; Farrugia, C. J.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Jian, L. K.; Eastwood, J. P.; Forsyth, R.; Harrison, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Webb, D. F.; Temmer, M.; Rollett, T.; Veronig, A. M.; Odstrcil, D.; Nitta, N.; Mulligan, T.; Jensen, E. A.; Lavraud, B.; De Koning, C. A. [NOAA and others

    2012-10-10

    We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions, Solar Dynamics Observatory/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory (SDO/SOHO/STEREO), monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from the solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120 Degree-Sign in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38 AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72 AU) to Wind, ACE, and ARTEMIS near Earth and STEREO-B close to 1 AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), in contrast to structures at Wind. The geomagnetic storm was intense, reaching two minima in the Dst index ( Almost-Equal-To - 100 nT), and was caused by the sheath region behind the shock and one of two observed MFRs. MESSENGER received a glancing blow of the ICMEs, and the events missed STEREO-A entirely. The observations demonstrate how sympathetic solar eruptions may immerse at least 1/3 of the heliosphere in the ecliptic with their distinct plasma and magnetic field signatures. We also emphasize the difficulties in linking the local views derived from single-spacecraft observations to a consistent global picture, pointing to possible alterations from the classical picture of ICMEs.

  6. A search for stars of very low metal abundance. VI. Detailed abundances of 313 metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers.

  7. Clues to the nature of SN 2009ip from photometric and spectroscopic evolution to late times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, M. L. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sand, D. J. [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; Parrent, J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Halford, M.; Zaritsky, D. [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bianco, F. [Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dilday, B., E-mail: melissagraham@berkeley.edu [North Idaho College, 1000 W. Garden Avenue, Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present time series photometric and spectroscopic data for the transient SN 2009ip from the start of its outburst in 2012 September until 2013 November. These data were collected primarily with the new robotic capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, a specialized facility for time domain astrophysics, and includes supporting high-resolution spectroscopy from the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Gemini Observatory. Based on our nightly photometric monitoring, we interpret the strength and timing of fluctuations in the light curve as interactions between fast-moving ejecta and an inhomogeneous circumstellar material (CSM) produced by past eruptions of this massive luminous blue variable (LBV) star. Our time series of spectroscopy in 2012 reveals that, as the continuum and narrow H? flux from CSM interactions declines, the broad component of H? persists with supernova (SN)-like velocities that are not typically seen in LBVs or SN impostor events. At late times, we find that SN 2009ip continues to decline slowly, at ? 0.01 mag day{sup 1}, with small fluctuations in slope similar to Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) or SN impostors but no further LBV-like activity. The late-time spectrum features broad calcium lines similar to both late-time SNe and SN impostors. In general, we find that the photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2009ip is more similar to SNe IIn than either continued eruptions of an LBV star or SN impostors but we cannot rule out a nonterminal explosion. In this context, we discuss the implications for episodic mass loss during the late stages of massive star evolution.

  8. Neutron stars' X-ray superbursts mystify, inspire Los Alamos scientists

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron stars' X-ray superbursts mystify, inspire Neutron stars' X-ray superbursts mystify, inspire Los Alamos scientists Massive X-ray superbursts near the surface of neutron stars are providing a unique window into the operation of fundamental forces of nature under extreme conditions. December 6, 2013 A small, dense object only 12 miles in diameter is responsible for this beautiful X-ray nebula that spans 150 light years. At the center of this image made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is

  9. NASA and DOE Collaborate on Dark Energy Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NASA and DOE Collaborate on Dark Energy Research NASA and DOE Collaborate on Dark Energy Research November 19, 2008 - 4:58pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -- NASA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have signed a memorandum of understanding for the implementation of the Joint Dark Energy Mission, or JDEM. The mission will feature the first space-based observatory designed specifically to understand the nature of dark energy. Dark energy is a form of energy that pervades and dominates the universe.

  10. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF THE TYPE Ia SN 2007sr TWO MONTHS AFTER MAXIMUM LIGHT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelaya, P.; Quinn, J. R.; Clocchiatti, A.; Baade, D.; Patat, F.; Hoeflich, P.; Maund, J.; Wang, L.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2013-02-01

    We present late-time spectropolarimetric observations of SN 2007sr, obtained with the Very Large Telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory when the object was 63 days after maximum light. The late-time spectrum displays strong line polarization in the Ca II absorption features. SN 2007sr adds to the case of some normal Type Ia supernovae that show high line polarization or repolarization at late times, a fact that might be connected with the presence of high-velocity features at early times.

  11. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The group is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently received increased attention and the group of researchers working on the station has expanded to include several microbial biologists. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments are planned for fall 2005 and center about the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles. The subs will be used to effect bottom surveys, emplace sensors and sea floor experiments and make connections between sensor data loggers and the integrated data power unit (IDP). Station/observatory completion is anticipated for 2007 following the

  12. Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moggi, N.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decays. Observation of the process would unambiguously establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles and provide information on their absolute mass scale hierarchy. CUORE is now under construction and will consist of an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK, but the first tower (CUORE-0) is already taking data. The experimental techniques used will be presented as well as the preliminary CUORE-0 results. The current status of the full-mass experiment and its expected sensitivity will then be discussed.

  13. Inorganic Carbon Isotopes and Chemical Characterization of Watershed Drainages, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Heikoop, Jeffrey H.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.

    2015-09-25

    Data include results from geochemical and isotopic analyses for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska during July and September 2013. Samples were soil pore waters from 17 drainages that could be interlake (basins with polygonal terrain), different-aged drain thaw lake basins (young, medium, old, or ancient), or a combination of different aged basins. Samples taken in different drainage flow types at three different depths at each location in and around the Barrow Environmental Observatory. This dataset used in Throckmorton, et.al. 2015.

  14. A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaev, S. N.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Krysanov, V. A.; Oreshkin, S. I.; Motylev, A. M.; Popov, S. M.; Samoilenko, A. A.; Yudin, I. S.; Rudenko, V. N.

    2014-06-15

    A new setup OGRANthe large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare eventsgravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS.

  15. Effect of soil property uncertainties on permafrost thaw projections: a calibration-constrained analysis: Modeling Archive

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    E.T. Coon; C.J. Wilson; S.L. Painter; V.E. Romanovsky; D.R. Harp; A.L. Atchley; J.C. Rowland

    2016-02-02

    This dataset contains an ensemble of thermal-hydro soil parameters including porosity, thermal conductivity, thermal conductivity shape parameters, and residual saturation of peat and mineral soil. The ensemble was generated using a Null-Space Monte Carlo analysis of parameter uncertainty based on a calibration to soil temperatures collected at the Barrow Environmental Observatory site by the NGEE team. The micro-topography of ice wedge polygons present at the site is included in the analysis using three 1D column models to represent polygon center, rim and trough features. The Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) was used in the calibration to model multiphase thermal and hydrological processes in the subsurface.

  16. Neutrino signals from dark matter decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covi, Laura; Grefe, Michael; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David E-mail: michael.grefe@desy.de E-mail: david.tran@ph.tum.de

    2010-04-01

    We investigate different neutrino signals from the decay of dark matter particles to determine the prospects for their detection, and more specifically if any spectral signature can be disentangled from the background in present and future neutrino observatories. If detected, such a signal could bring an independent confirmation of the dark matter interpretation of the dramatic rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV recently observed by the PAMELA satellite experiment and offer the possibility of distinguishing between astrophysical sources and dark matter decay or annihilation. In combination with other signals, it may also be possible to distinguish among different dark matter decay channels.

  17. Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, E.

    1994-11-15

    I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.

  18. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 10, 2012 [Facility News] Collaborations in Atmospheric Science and Observations Discussed in Germany Bookmark and Share Susanne Crewell (center) is flanked by Jimmy Voyles (left) and Shaocheng Xie (right) during a tour of the Research Center Juelich and the university's <a href='http://www.geomet.uni-koeln.de/en/general/research/joyce/'>Jülich ObservatorY for Cloud Evolution (JOYCE) </a>site. Crewell explained that JOYCE, like ARM facilities, was designed for long-term

  19. Light propagation in the South Pole ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dawn; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is located in the ice near the geographic South Pole. Particle showers from neutrino interactions in the ice produce light which is detected by IceCube modules, and the amount and pattern of deposited light are used to reconstruct the properties of the incident neutrino. Since light is scattered and absorbed by ice between the neutrino interaction vertex and the sensor, IceCube event reconstruction depends on understanding the propagation of light through the ice. This paper presents the current status of modeling light propagation in South Pole ice, including the recent observation of an azimuthal anisotropy in the scattering.

  20. Frequencies of solar oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libbrecht, K.G.; Woodard, M.F.; Kaufman, J.M. )

    1990-12-01

    Solar oscillations have been observed at three different spatial scales at Big Bear Solar Observatory during 1986-1987 and, using three data sets, a new and more accurate table of solar oscillation frequencies has been compiled. The oscillations, which are presented as functions of radial order n and spherical harmonic degree l, are averages over azimuthal order and therefore approximate the normal mode frequencies of a nonrotating, spherically symmetric sun, near solar minimum. The table contains frequencies for most of the solar p and f modes with l between 0 and 1860, n between 0 and 26, and oscillation mode frequencies between 1.0 and 5.3. 30 refs.

  1. Promoting India's development: energy security and climate security are convergent goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, Gupta; Shankar, Harihar; Joshi, Sunjoy

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates three aspects of the energy-climate challenges faced by India. First, we examine energy security in light of anticipated growth in power generation in response to the national goal of maintaining close to 10% growth in GDP. Second, we examine possible options for mitigation and adaptation to climate change for India that it can take to the coming Copenhagen meeting on climate change. Lastly, we introduce an open web based tool for analyzing and planning global energy systems called the Global Energy Observatory (GEO).

  2. Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moggi, N.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Delloro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; ODonnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.; Fabbri, F.; Giacomelli, P.

    2015-03-24

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decays. Observation of the process would unambiguously establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles and provide information on their absolute mass scale hierarchy. CUORE is now under construction and will consist of an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK, but the first tower (CUORE-0) is already taking data. The experimental techniques used will be presented as well as the preliminary CUORE-0 results. The current status of the full-mass experiment and its expected sensitivity will then be discussed.

  3. untitled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LBL-30591 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Physics Division Presented at the Super Nova Watch Workshop Los Angeles, CA, November 26-27, 1990, and to be published in the Proceedings Progress Report on the Berkeley/Anglo-Australian Observatory High-Redshift Supernova Search G. Goldhaber, S. Perlmutter, C. Pennypacker, H. Marvin, R.A. Muller, W. Couch, and B. Boyle November 1990 II \ I J\ Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract Number DE-AC03-76SF00098

  4. LANL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ripples in Space and Time W H E N T H E D I S C O V E R Y O F G R A V I TAT I O N A L W A V E S from a cosmic black-hole collision was announced earlier this year, the scientific community was absolutely abuzz. Not only was it a tremendous achievement for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational- wave Observatory (LIGO)-first approved 26 years ago and under construction or operating with no confirmed detections until now- but it was also the first-ever direct measurement of gravitational waves,

  5. CT Scans of Cores Metadata, Barrow, Alaska 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich

    2015-03-11

    Individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, throughout 2013 and 2014. Cores were drilled along different transects to sample polygonal features (i.e. the trough, center and rim of high, transitional and low center polygons). Most cores were drilled around 1 meter in depth and a few deep cores were drilled around 3 meters in depth. Three-dimensional images of the frozen cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. TIFF files can be uploaded to ImageJ (an open-source imaging software) to examine soil structure and densities within each core.

  6. Search for optical pulsations in PSR J0337+1715

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Strader, M. J.; Archibald, A. M.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Walter, A. B.; van Eyken, J. C.; Ulbricht, G.; Stoughton, C.; Bumble, B.; Kaplan, D. L.; et al

    2016-03-20

    In this study, we report on a search for optical pulsations from PSR J0337+1715 at its observed radio pulse period. PSR J0337+1715 is a millisecond pulsar (2.7 ms spin period) in a triple hierarchical system with two white dwarfs, and has a known optical counterpart with g-band magnitude 18. The observations were done with the Array Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry (ARCONS) at the 200" Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. No significant pulsations were found in the range 4000-11000 angstroms, and we can limit pulsed emission in g-band to be fainter than 25 mag.

  7. Inverse Compton Origin of the Hard X-ray and Soft gamma-ray Emission from the Galactic Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, Troy A.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Orlando, Elena; Bouchet, Laurent

    2008-09-30

    A recent re-determination of the non-thermal component of the hard X-ray to soft {gamma}-ray emission from the Galactic ridge, using the SPI instrument on the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) Observatory, is shown to be well reproduced as inverse-Compton emission from the interstellar medium. Both cosmic-ray primary electrons and secondary electrons and positrons contribute to the emission. The prediction uses the GALPROP model and includes a new calculation of the interstellar radiation field. This may solve a long-standing mystery of the origin of this emission, and potentially opens a new window on Galactic cosmic rays.

  8. Dark matter search with CUORE-0 and CUORE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguirre, C. P.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; De Biasi, A.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; ODonnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale experiment made of TeO? bolometers that will probe the neutrinoless double beta decay of ?Te. Excellent energy resolution, low threshold and low background make CUORE sensitive to nuclear recoils, allowing a search for dark matter interactions. With a total mass of 741 kg of TeO?, CUORE can search for an annual modulation of the counting rate at low energies. We present data obtained with CUORE-like detectors and the prospects for a dark matter search in CUORE-0, a 40-kg prototype, and CUORE.

  9. NERSC Supports Top Breakthroughs of 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supports 2013's Top Breakthroughs NERSC Supports Top Breakthroughs of 2013 December 20, 2013 Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov Research supported by NERSC is being honored by end-of-year reviews in two leading magazines: Physics World and WIRED. The IceCube South Pole Neutrino Observatory was notably named to both lists, being honored as the most important discovery by Physics World. Three of Physics World's top 10 breakthroughs of 2013 went to discoveries that used NERSC resources. In

  10. Final Technical Report DOE Award DE-FG02-07ER41515 QUEST Camera Short Term Maintenance

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Award DE-FG02-07ER41515 QUEST Camera Short Term Maintenance PI: Charles Baltay, Yale University The QUEST large area astronomical camera was installed at the prime focus of the Oschin Schmidt Telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California. The camera was used to carry out a survey of low redshift Type 1a supernovae which are the distance indicators used in the measurement of the expansion history of the universe and thus provided a method to study the nature of the recently discovered

  11. Celeste: A New Model for Cataloging the Universe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Celeste: A New Model for Cataloging the Universe Celeste: A New Model for Cataloging the Universe MANTISSA Collaboration Uses Statistical Inference to Revolutionize Sky Surveys September 9, 2015 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov blancoscope4 The Víctor M. Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, where the Dark Energy Camera is being used to collect image data for the DECam Legacy Survey. The glint off the dome is moonlight; the small and

  12. Dark matter search with CUORE-0 and CUORE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguirre, C. P.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale experiment made of TeO₂ bolometers that will probe the neutrinoless double beta decay of ¹³⁰Te. Excellent energy resolution, low threshold and low background make CUORE sensitive to nuclear recoils, allowing a search for dark matter interactions. With a total mass of 741 kg of TeO₂, CUORE can search for an annual modulation of the counting rate at low energies. We present data obtained with CUORE-like detectors and the prospects for a dark matter search in CUORE-0, a 40-kg prototype, and CUORE.

  13. Dark matter annihilation and the PAMELA, FERMI, and ATIC anomalies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Zant, A. A.; Okada, H.; Khalil, S.

    2010-06-15

    If dark matter annihilation accounts for the tantalizing excess of cosmic ray electron/positrons, as reported by the PAMELA, ATIC, HESS, and FERMI observatories, then the implied annihilation cross section must be relatively large. This results, in the context of standard cosmological models, in very small relic dark matter abundances that are incompatible with astrophysical observations. We explore possible resolutions to this apparent conflict in terms of nonstandard cosmological scenarios; plausibly allowing for large cross sections, while maintaining relic abundances in accord with current observations.

  14. The Fermilab Particle Astrophysics Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-11-01

    The Particle Astrophysics Center was established in fall of 2004. Fermilab director Michael S. Witherell has named Fermilab cosmologist Edward ''Rocky'' Kolb as its first director. The Center will function as an intellectual focus for particle astrophysics at Fermilab, bringing together the Theoretical and Experimental Astrophysics Groups. It also encompasses existing astrophysics projects, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, and the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory, as well as proposed projects, including the SuperNova Acceleration Probe to study dark energy as part of the Joint Dark Energy Mission, and the ground-based Dark Energy Survey aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state.

  15. Primordial Black Holes: Observational characteristics of the final evaporation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Stump, D. R.; Linnemann, J. T.; MacGibbon, J. H.; Marinelli, S. S.; Yapici, T.; Tollefson, K.

    2016-07-01

    For many early universe theories predict the creation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs could have masses ranging from the Planck mass to 105 solar masses or higher depending on the size of the universe at formation. A Black Hole (BH) has a Hawking temperature which is inversely proportional to its mass. Hence a sufficiently small BH will quasi-thermally radiate particles at an ever-increasing rate as emission lowers its mass and raises its temperature. Moreover, the final moments of this evaporation phase should be explosive and its description is dependent on the particle physics model. In this work we investigatemore » the final few seconds of BH evaporation, using the Standard Model and incorporating the most recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) results, and provide a new parameterization for the instantaneous emission spectrum. We calculate for the first time energy-dependent PBH burst light curves in the GeV/TeV energy range. Moreover, we explore PBH burst search methods and potential observational PBH burst signatures. We have found a unique signature in the PBH burst light curves that may be detectable by GeV/TeV gamma-ray observatories such as the High Altitude Water Cerenkov (HAWC) observatory. Finally, the implications of beyond the Standard Model theories on the PBH burst observational characteristics are also discussed, including potential sensitivity of the instantaneous photon detection rate to a squark threshold in the 5–10 TeV range.« less

  16. LARGE-SCALE CORONAL PROPAGATING FRONTS IN SOLAR ERUPTIONS AS OBSERVED BY THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY—AN ENSEMBLE STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitta, Nariaki V.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Liu, Wei

    2013-10-10

    This paper presents a study of a large sample of global disturbances in the solar corona with characteristic propagating fronts as intensity enhancement, similar to the phenomena that have often been referred to as Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) waves or extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves. Now EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide a significantly improved view of these large-scale coronal propagating fronts (LCPFs). Between 2010 April and 2013 January, a total of 171 LCPFs have been identified through visual inspection of AIA images in the 193 Å channel. Here we focus on the 138 LCPFs that are seen to propagate across the solar disk, first studying how they are associated with flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and type II radio bursts. We measure the speed of the LCPF in various directions until it is clearly altered by active regions or coronal holes. The highest speed is extracted for each LCPF. It is often considerably higher than EIT waves. We do not find a pattern where faster LCPFs decelerate and slow LCPFs accelerate. Furthermore, the speeds are not strongly correlated with the flare intensity or CME magnitude, nor do they show an association with type II bursts. We do not find a good correlation either between the speeds of LCPFs and CMEs in a subset of 86 LCPFs observed by one or both of the Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft as limb events.

  17. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  18. The First Chandra Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Cameron, Robert A.; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cedric; Elsner, Ronald F.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Wu, Kinwah; O'Dell, Stephen L.; /NASA, Marshall

    2005-09-09

    Before the official first-light images, the Chandra X-ray Observatory obtained an X-ray image of the field to which its focal plane was first exposed. We describe this historic observation and report our study of the first Chandra field. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detected 15 X-ray sources, the brightest being dubbed ''Leon X-1'' to honor the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. Based upon our analysis of the X-ray data and spectroscopy at the European Southern Observatory (ESO; La Silla, Chile), we find that Leon X-1 is a Type-1 (unobscured) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at a redshift z = 0.3207. Leon X-1 exhibits strong Fe II emission and a broad-line Balmer decrement that is unusually flat for an AGN. Within the context of the Eigenvector-1 correlation space, these properties suggest that Leon X-1 may be a massive ({ge} 10{sup 9} M{sub {circle_dot}}) black hole, accreting at a rate approaching its Eddington limit.

  19. A TARGETED SEARCH FOR POINT SOURCES OF EeV NEUTRONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Arqueros, F.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration101; and others

    2014-07-10

    A flux of neutrons from an astrophysical source in the Galaxy can be detected in the Pierre Auger Observatory as an excess of cosmic-ray air showers arriving from the direction of the source. To avoid the statistical penalty for making many trials, classes of objects are tested in combinations as nine ''target sets'', in addition to the search for a neutron flux from the Galactic center or from the Galactic plane. Within a target set, each candidate source is weighted in proportion to its electromagnetic flux, its exposure to the Auger Observatory, and its flux attenuation factor due to neutron decay. These searches do not find evidence for a neutron flux from any class of candidate sources. Tabulated results give the combined p-value for each class, with and without the weights, and also the flux upper limit for the most significant candidate source within each class. These limits on fluxes of neutrons significantly constrain models of EeV proton emission from non-transient discrete sources in the Galaxy.

  20. The Astro-E2 XRS/EBIT Microcalorimeter XC-ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, F S; Brown, G V; Boyce, K R; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Terracol, S; Kahn, S M; Szymkowiak, A E

    2004-04-16

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare XRS microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolving power. The XRS microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully engineering the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration 'library' for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  1. The detection of upwardly propagating waves channeling energy from the chromosphere to the low corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freij, N.; Nelson, C. J.; Mumford, S.; Erdlyi, R.; Scullion, E. M.; Wedemeyer, S.

    2014-08-10

    There have been ubiquitous observations of wave-like motions in the solar atmosphere for decades. Recent improvements to space- and ground-based observatories have allowed the focus to shift to smaller magnetic structures on the solar surface. In this paper, high-resolution ground-based data taken using the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope is combined with co-spatial and co-temporal data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite to analyze running penumbral waves (RPWs). RPWs have always been thought to be radial wave propagation that occurs within sunspots. Recent research has suggested that they are in fact upwardly propagating field-aligned waves (UPWs). Here, RPWs within a solar pore are observed for the first time and are interpreted as UPWs due to the lack of a penumbra that is required to support RPWs. These UPWs are also observed co-spatially and co-temporally within several SDO/AIA elemental lines that sample the transition region and low corona. The observed UPWs are traveling at a horizontal velocity of around 17 0.5 km s{sup 1} and a minimum vertical velocity of 42 21 km s{sup 1}. The estimated energy of the waves is around 150 W m{sup 2}, which is on the lower bound required to heat the quiet-Sun corona. This is a new, yet unconsidered source of wave energy within the solar chromosphere and low corona.

  2. United States National Seismographic Network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN`s) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105{degree}W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN).

  3. FIRST SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATION OF AN H{alpha} MORETON WAVE, EUV WAVE, AND FILAMENT/PROMINENCE OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asai, Ayumi; Isobe, Hiroaki; Ishii, Takako T.; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; UeNo, Satoru; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Morita, Satoshi; Nishida, Keisuke; Shibata, Kazunari; Shiota, Daikou; Oi, Akihito; Akioka, Maki

    2012-02-15

    We report on the first simultaneous observation of an H{alpha} Moreton wave, the corresponding EUV fast coronal waves, and a slow and bright EUV wave (typical EIT wave). We observed a Moreton wave, associated with an X6.9 flare that occurred on 2011 August 9 at the active region NOAA 11263, in the H{alpha} images taken by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope at Hida Observatory of Kyoto University. In the EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory we found not only the corresponding EUV fast 'bright' coronal wave, but also the EUV fast 'faint' wave that is not associated with the H{alpha} Moreton wave. We also found a slow EUV wave, which corresponds to a typical EIT wave. Furthermore, we observed, for the first time, the oscillations of a prominence and a filament, simultaneously, both in the H{alpha} and EUV images. To trigger the oscillations by the flare-associated coronal disturbance, we expect a coronal wave as fast as the fast-mode MHD wave with the velocity of about 570-800 km s{sup -1}. These velocities are consistent with those of the observed Moreton wave and the EUV fast coronal wave.

  4. Astronomical Images from the Very Large Array (VLA) FIRST Survey Images from the STScI Archive (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    FIRST, Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters was a project designed to produce the radio equivalent of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey over 10,000 square degrees of the North Galactic Cap. Using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) in its B-configuration, the Survey acquired 3-minute snapshots covering a hexagonal grid. The binary data are available in detailed source catalogs, but the full images themselves, developed through special techniques, are also available for public access. Note that the images are fairly large, typically 1150x1550 pixels. Access to the images is simple through the search interface; the images are also available via anonymous ftp at ftp://archive.stsci.edu/pub/vla_first/data. Another convenient way to obtain images is through the FIRST Cutout Server, which allows an image section to be extracted from the coadded image database at a user-specified position. The cutout server is also linked to the FIRST Search Engine, so that the catalog can be searched for sources of interest and then images can be obtained for those objects. All images taken through 2011 are available through the cutout server at http://third.ucllnl.org/cgi-bin/firstcutout.

  5. Surveying the TeV Sky with Milagro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lansdell, C. P.

    2006-07-11

    A wide field of view, high duty factor, TeV gamma-ray observatory is essential for studying TeV astrophysical sources, because most of these sources are either highly variable or are extended. Milagro is such a TeV detector and has performed the deepest survey of the Northern Hemisphere sky. In addition to detecting the known TeV sources of the Crab Nebula and Markarian 421, Milagro has made the first detection of diffuse TeV emission from the Galactic plane. The Milagro data has been searched for unknown point sources and extended sources. Evidence for a new extended TeV source is seen and is coincident with an EGRET unidentified source. The Milagro data has also been searched for the predicted TeV emitters of gamma-ray bursts, galaxy clusters, and EGRET unidentified sources. Based on the success of Milagro, a second generation water Cherenkov gamma-ray observatory is planned which will give an increase in sensitivity of more than an order of magnitude.

  6. Implementing Strategic Environmental Assessment of spatial planning tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Montis, Andrea

    2013-07-15

    After more than a decade from the publication of the European Directive 2001/42/CE (Directive) on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), the design and construction of the interested spatial planning instruments has gone through a variety of changes and integrations in European and in world states. This inhomogeneous panorama can be explained with a pattern of institutional structures that have so far affected the implementation of the Directive. The aim of this paper is to investigate the level of implementation of the Directive in Italy by developing a comparative analysis of the quality of integration of SEA within the design of the spatial coordination plan of a set of Italian provinces. Italian practice is analyzed in the framework of a comparative study of worldwide SEA implementation within spatial and land use planning. The results reveal strengths and weaknesses in SEA implementation at the provincial level and, in particular, the emergence of critical areas of research concerning institutional context, public participation, monitoring, and observatory of the spatial transformations. -- Highlights: This is a comparative analysis of SEA in strategic spatial planning in Italy. The adhesion of Provinces to the study is remarkable. SEA implementation and integration into spatial planning is still moderate. Participation via consultations should be more widespread. Monitoring and institution of observatories are still in an infancy stage.

  7. Nonlinear force-free field modeling of the solar magnetic carpet and comparison with SDO/HMI and Sunrise/IMAX observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitta, L. P.; Kariyappa, R.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Solanki, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    In the quiet solar photosphere, the mixed polarity fields form a magnetic carpet that continuously evolves due to dynamical interaction between the convective motions and magnetic field. This interplay is a viable source to heat the solar atmosphere. In this work, we used the line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory, as time-dependent lower boundary conditions, to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field. We use a magneto-frictional relaxation method, including hyperdiffusion, to produce a time series of three-dimensional nonlinear force-free fields from a sequence of photospheric LOS magnetograms. Vertical flows are added up to a height of 0.7 Mm in the modeling to simulate the non-force-freeness at the photosphere-chromosphere layers. Among the derived quantities, we study the spatial and temporal variations of the energy dissipation rate and energy flux. Our results show that the energy deposited in the solar atmosphere is concentrated within 2 Mm of the photosphere and there is not sufficient energy flux at the base of the corona to cover radiative and conductive losses. Possible reasons and implications are discussed. Better observational constraints of the magnetic field in the chromosphere are crucial to understand the role of the magnetic carpet in coronal heating.

  8. Multiwavelength study of the northeastern outskirts of the extended TeV source HESS J1809193

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangelov, Blagoy; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Hare, Jeremy; Volkov, Igor; Posselt, Bettina; Pavlov, George G.

    2014-11-20

    HESS J1809193 is an extended TeV ?-ray source in the Galactic plane. Multiwavelength observations of the HESS J1809193 field reveal a complex picture. We present results from three Chandra X-Ray Observatory and two Suzaku observations of a region in the northeastern outskirts of HESS J1809-193, where enhanced TeV emission has been reported. Our analysis also includes GeV ?-ray and radio data. One of the X-ray sources in the field is the X-ray binary XTE J1810-189, for which we present the outburst history from multiple observatories and confirm that XTE J1810-189 is a strongly variable type I X-ray burster, which can hardly produce TeV emission. We investigate whether there is any connection between the possible TeV extension of HESS J1809193 and the sources seen at lower energies. We find that another X-ray binary candidate, Suzaku J1811-1900, and a radio supernova remnant, SNR G11.40.1, can hardly be responsible for the putative TeV emission. Our multiwavelength classification of fainter X-ray point sources also does not produce a plausible candidate. We conclude that the northeast extension of HESS J1809193, if confirmed by deeper observations, can be considered a dark acceleratora TeV source without a visible counterpart at lower energies.

  9. THE HARPS-TERRA PROJECT. I. DESCRIPTION OF THE ALGORITHMS, PERFORMANCE, AND NEW MEASUREMENTS ON A FEW REMARKABLE STARS OBSERVED BY HARPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul

    2012-06-01

    Doppler spectroscopy has uncovered or confirmed all the known planets orbiting nearby stars. Two main techniques are used to obtain precision Doppler measurements at optical wavelengths. The first approach is the gas cell method, which consists of least-squares matching of the spectrum of iodine imprinted on the spectrum of the star. The second method relies on the construction of a stabilized spectrograph externally calibrated in wavelength. The most precise stabilized spectrometer in operation is the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS), operated by the European Southern Observatory in La Silla Observatory, Chile. The Doppler measurements obtained with HARPS are typically obtained using the cross-correlation function (CCF) technique. This technique consists of multiplying the stellar spectrum by a weighted binary mask and finding the minimum of the product as a function of the Doppler shift. It is known that CCF is suboptimal in exploiting the Doppler information in the stellar spectrum. Here we describe an algorithm to obtain precision radial velocity measurements using least-squares matching of each observed spectrum to a high signal-to-noise ratio template derived from the same observations. This algorithm is implemented in our software HARPS-TERRA (Template-Enhanced Radial velocity Re-analysis Application). New radial velocity measurements on a representative sample of stars observed by HARPS are used to illustrate the benefits of the proposed method. We show that, compared with CCF, template matching provides a significant improvement in accuracy, especially when applied to M dwarfs.

  10. A BROKEN SOLAR TYPE II RADIO BURST INDUCED BY A CORONAL SHOCK PROPAGATING ACROSS THE STREAMER BOUNDARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, X. L.; Chen, Y.; Li, G.; Feng, S. W.; Song, H. Q.; Jiao, F. R.; Guo, F.

    2012-05-10

    We discuss an intriguing type II radio burst that occurred on 2011 March 27. The dynamic spectrum was featured by a sudden break at about 43 MHz on the well-observed harmonic branch. Before the break, the spectrum drifted gradually with a mean rate of about -0.05 MHz s{sup -1}. Following the break, the spectrum jumped to lower frequencies. The post-break emission lasted for about 3 minutes. It consisted of an overall slow drift which appeared to have a few fast-drift sub-bands. Simultaneous observations from the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and the Solar Dynamics Observatory were also available and are examined for this event. We suggest that the slow-drift period before the break was generated inside a streamer by a coronal eruption driven shock, and the spectral break as well as the relatively wide spectrum after the break is a consequence of the shock crossing the streamer boundary where density drops abruptly. It is suggested that this type of radio bursts can be taken as a unique diagnostic tool for inferring the coronal density structure, as well as the radio-emitting source region.

  11. Neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the first stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that metal-poor stars enhanced in carbon but containing low levels of neutron-capture elements may have been among the first to incorporate the nucleosynthesis products of the first generation of stars. We have observed 16 stars with enhanced carbon or nitrogen using the MIKE Spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory and the Tull Spectrograph on the Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundance patterns for these stars. Strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, europium, ytterbium, and other heavy elements are detected. In four stars, these heavy elements appear to have originated in some form of r-process nucleosynthesis. In one star, a partial s-process origin is possible. The origin of the heavy elements in the rest of the sample cannot be determined unambiguously. The presence of elements heavier than the iron group offers further evidence that zero-metallicity rapidly rotating massive stars and pair instability supernovae did not contribute substantial amounts of neutron-capture elements to the regions where the stars in our sample formed. If the carbon- or nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars with low levels of neutron-capture elements were enriched by products of zero-metallicity supernovae only, then the presence of these heavy elements indicates that at least one form of neutron-capture reaction operated in some of the first stars.

  12. OBSERVATION OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION DRIVEN BY GRANULAR SCALE ADVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng Zhicheng; Cao Wenda; Ji Haisheng

    2013-06-01

    We report the first evidence of magnetic reconnection driven by advection in a rapidly developing large granule using high spatial resolution observations of a small surge event (base size {approx} 4'' Multiplication-Sign 4'') with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The observations were carried out in narrowband (0.5 A) He I 10830 A and broadband (10 A) TiO 7057 A. Since He I 10830 A triplet has a very high excitation level and is optically thin, its filtergrams enable us to investigate the surge from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the lower corona. Simultaneous space data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory were used in the analysis. It is shown that the surge is spatio-temporally associated with magnetic flux emergence in the rapidly developing large granule. During the development of the granule, its advecting flow ({approx}2 km s{sup -1}) squeezed the magnetic flux into an intergranular lane area, where a magnetic flux concentration was formed and the neighboring flux with opposite magnetic polarity was canceled. During the cancellation, the surge was produced as absorption in He I 10830 A filtergrams while simultaneous EUV brightening occurred at its base. The observations clearly indicate evidence of a finest-scale reconnection process driven by the granule's motion.

  13. SECONDARY WAVES AND/OR THE 'REFLECTION' FROM AND 'TRANSMISSION' THROUGH A CORONAL HOLE OF AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVE ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2011 FEBRUARY 15 X2.2 FLARE OBSERVED WITH SDO/AIA AND STEREO/EUVI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmedo, Oscar; Vourlidas, Angelos; Zhang Jie; Cheng Xin

    2012-09-10

    For the first time, the kinematic evolution of a coronal wave over the entire solar surface is studied. Full Sun maps can be made by combining images from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory satellites, Ahead and Behind, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, thanks to the wide angular separation between them. We study the propagation of a coronal wave, also known as the 'Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope' wave, and its interaction with a coronal hole (CH) resulting in secondary waves and/or reflection and transmission. We explore the possibility of the wave obeying the law of reflection. In a detailed example, we find that a loop arcade at the CH boundary cascades and oscillates as a result of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave passage and triggers a wave directed eastward that appears to have reflected. We find that the speed of this wave decelerates to an asymptotic value, which is less than half of the primary EUV wave speed. Thanks to the full Sun coverage we are able to determine that part of the primary wave is transmitted through the CH. This is the first observation of its kind. The kinematic measurements of the reflected and transmitted wave tracks are consistent with a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave interpretation. Eventually, all wave tracks decelerate and disappear at a distance. A possible scenario of the whole process is that the wave is initially driven by the expanding coronal mass ejection and subsequently decouples from the driver and then propagates at the local fast-mode speed.

  14. AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND TRACKING OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. MULTISCALE FILTERING OF CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Jason P.; Morgan, Huw; Habbal, Shadia R.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2012-06-20

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and future coronagraph missions also makes manual cataloging of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloging packages such as CACTus, SEEDS, and ARTEMIS. Here, we present the development of a new CORIMP (coronal image processing) CME detection and tracking technique that overcomes many of the drawbacks of current catalogs. It works by first employing the dynamic CME separation technique outlined in a companion paper, and then characterizing CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane of sky. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its application to a selection of SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI images, as well as to synthetic coronagraph images created from a model corona with a variety of CMEs. The algorithms described in this article are being applied to the whole LASCO and SECCHI data sets, and a catalog of results will soon be available to the public.

  15. NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF A FLUX ROPE TRACKED BY A FILAMENT ACTIVATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Xiang, Yongyuan E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-01

    One main goal of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) which is located at the Fuxian Solar Observatory is to image the Sun at high resolution. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST H? data and combined with the simultaneous observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for the first time, we investigate a flux rope tracked by filament activation. The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope; the filament is then activated by magnetic field cancellation. The activated filament rises and flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The length of the flux rope is about 75Mm, the average width of its individual threads is 1.11Mm, and the estimated twist is 1?. The flux rope appears as a dark structure in H? images, a partial dark and partial bright structure in 304 , and as a bright structure in 171 and 131 images. During this process, the overlying coronal loops are quite steady since the filament is confined within the flux rope and does not erupt successfully. It seems that, for the event in this study, the filament is located and confined within the flux rope threads, instead of being suspended in the dips of twisted magnetic flux.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE SIMULTANEOUS ROTATION AND NON-RADIAL PROPAGATION OF AN ERUPTIVE FILAMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi Yi; Jiang Yunchun; Yang Jiayan; Zheng Ruisheng; Hong Junchao; Li Haidong; Yang Dan; Yang Bo

    2013-08-20

    The rotation of eruptive filaments is not only related to the kink instability occurring in the solar corona but also may result from the interaction between the large-scale magnetic field and the eruptions themselves. This interaction could likewise make the filament deflect in the radial direction. By means of data obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, we study an eruptive filament showing both rotation and non-radial motion. The consequence of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the filament axis indicates that a significant rotation was simultaneous with the severe deflection in the latitude during the eruption. In combination with the results of a derived coronal magnetic configuration, our observations suggested that the non-radial motion resulted from the interaction between the eruption and an overlying pseudostreamer. Moreover, we find that the deflection of the eruption is asymmetric, with its eastern segment being dragged more significantly than its western one. Therefore, we suggested that the action of the asymmetric deflection is possibly an alternative mechanism for the rotation of the eruptive filament.

  17. ERUPTION OF A SOLAR FILAMENT CONSISTING OF TWO THREADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi Yi; Jiang Yunchun; Li Haidong; Hong Junchao; Zheng Ruisheng E-mail: jyc@ynao.ac.cn

    2012-10-10

    The trigger and driving mechanism for the eruption of a filament consisting of two dark threads was studied with unprecedented high cadence and resolution of He II 304 A observations made by the Atmospheric Imagining Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the observations made by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) telescope on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A). The filament was located at the periphery of the active region NOAA 11228 and erupted on 2011 June 6. At the onset of the eruption, a turbulent filament thread was found to be heated and to elongate in stride over a second one. After it rose slowly, most interestingly, the elongating thread was driven to contact and interact with the second one, and it then erupted with its southern leg being wrapped by a newly formed thread produced by the magnetic reconnection between fields carried by the two threads. Combining the observations from STEREO-A/EUVI and SDO/AIA 304 A images, the three-dimensional shape of the axis of the filament was obtained and it was found that only the southern leg of the eruptive filament underwent rotation. We suggest that the eruption was triggered by the reconnection of the turbulent filament thread and the surrounding magnetic field, and that it was mainly driven by the kink instability of the southern leg of the eruptive filament that possessed a more twisted field introduced by the reconnection-produced thread.

  18. FIRST: Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (Data Catalogs from the Very Large Array (VLA) First Survey)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Becker, Robert H.; Helfand, David J.; White, Richard L.; Gregg, Michael D.; Laurent-Muehleisen, Sally A.

    FIRST, Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm, is a project designed to produce the radio equivalent of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey over 10,000 square degrees of the North Galactic Cap. Using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) in its B-configuration, the Survey acquired 3-minute snapshots covering a hexagonal grid using 27 3-MHz frequency channels centered at 1365 and 1435 MHz. The data were edited, self-calibrated, mapped, and cleaned using an automated pipeline based largely on routines in the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS). Data were collected from 1993 through 2002, with enhanced images produced up through 2011. The Data Catalogs have been cleaned and reissued over time, with the latest version coming out in March, 2014. They contain maps, images, and binary data. The FIRST survey area was chosen to coincide with that of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS); at the m(v)~24 limit of SDSS, ~50% of the optical counterparts to FIRST sources will be detected.

  19. PHOTOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF GRANULAR-SCALE FLUX EMERGENCE AND CANCELLATION AT THE PENUMBRAL BOUNDARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Abramenko, Valentyna; Ahn, Kwangsu; Cao Wenda; Goode, Philip

    2011-10-20

    We studied flux emergence events of sub-granular scale in a solar active region. The New Solar Telescope (NST) of the Big Bear Solar Observatory made it possible to clearly observe the photospheric signature of flux emergence with very high spatial (0.''11 at 7057 A) and temporal (15 s) resolution. From TiO observations with the pixel scale of 0.''0375, we found several elongated granule-like features (GLFs) stretching from the penumbral filaments of a sunspot at a relatively high speed of over 4 km s{sup -1}. After a slender arched darkening appeared at the tip of a penumbral filament, a bright point (BP) developed and quickly moved away from the filament, forming and stretching a GLF. The size of a GLF was approximately 0.''5 wide and 3'' long. The moving BP encountered nearby structures after several minutes of stretching, and the well-defined elongated shape of the GLF faded away. Magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and NST/InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph revealed that those GLFs are photospheric indicators of small-scale flux emergence, and their disappearance is related to magnetic cancellation. From two well-observed events, we describe detailed development of the sub-structures of GLFs and different cancellation processes that each of the two GLFs underwent.

  20. FINE STRUCTURE OF FLARE RIBBONS AND EVOLUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharykin, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2014-06-10

    Emission of solar flares across the electromagnetic spectrum is often observed in the form of two expanding ribbons. The standard flare model explains flare ribbons as footpoints of magnetic arcades, emitting due to interaction of energetic particles with the chromospheric plasma. However, the physics of this interaction and properties of the accelerated particles are still unknown. We present results of multiwavelength observations of the C2.1 flare of 2013 August 15, observed with the New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, GOES, and Fermi spacecraft. The observations reveal previously unresolved sub-arcsecond structure of flare ribbons in regions of strong magnetic field consisting from numerous small-scale bright knots. We observe a red-blue asymmetry of H{sub α} flare ribbons with a width as small as ∼100 km. We discuss the relationship between the ribbons and vertical electric currents estimated from vector magnetograms, and show that Joule heating can be responsible for energization of H{sub α} knots in the ribbons.

  1. Ellerman bombs—evidence for magnetic reconnection in the lower solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C. J.; Doyle, J. G.; Madjarska, M. S.; Shelyag, S.; Mathioudakis, M.; Uitenbroek, H.; Erdélyi, R.

    2013-12-20

    The presence of photospheric magnetic reconnection has long been thought to give rise to short and impulsive events, such as Ellerman bombs (EBs) and Type II spicules. In this article, we combine high-resolution, high-cadence observations from the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer and Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instruments at the Dunn Solar Telescope, National Solar Observatory, New Mexico, with co-aligned Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) data to observe small-scale events situated within an active region. These data are then compared with state-of-the-art numerical simulations of the lower atmosphere made using the MURaM code. It is found that brightenings, in both the observations and the simulations, of the wings of the Hα line profile, interpreted as EBs, are often spatially correlated with increases in the intensity of the Fe I λ6302.5 line core. Bipolar regions inferred from Hinode/SOT magnetic field data show evidence of flux cancellation associated, co-spatially, with these EBs, suggesting that magnetic reconnection could be a driver of these high-energy events. Through the analysis of similar events in the simulated lower atmosphere, we are able to infer that line profiles analogous to the observations occur co-spatially with regions of strong opposite-polarity magnetic flux. These observed events and their simulated counterparts are interpreted as evidence of photospheric magnetic reconnection at scales observable using current observational instrumentation.

  2. PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN PLASMOID EJECTIONS DERIVED FROM RADIO DRIFTING PULSATING STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishizuka, N.; Karlický, M.; Bárta, M.; Janvier, M.

    2015-02-01

    We report observations of slowly drifting pulsating structures (DPSs) in the 0.8-4.5 GHz frequency range of the RT4 and RT5 radio spectrographs at Ondřejov Observatory, between 2002 and 2012. We found 106 events of DPSs, which we classified into four cases: (I) single events with a constant frequency drift (12 events), (II) multiple events occurring in the same flare with constant frequency drifts (11 events), (III) single or multiple events with increasing or decreasing frequency drift rates (52 events), and (IV) complex events containing multiple events occurring at the same time in a different frequency range (31 events). Many DPSs are associated with hard X-ray (HXR) bursts (15-25 keV) and soft X-ray (SXR) gradient peaks, as they typically occurred at the beginning of HXR peaks. This indicates that DPS events are related to the processes of fast energy release and particle acceleration. Furthermore, interpreting DPSs as signatures of plasmoids, we measured their ejection velocity, their width, and their height from the DPS spectra, from which we also estimated the reconnection rate and the plasma beta. In this interpretation, constant frequency drift indicates a constant velocity of a plasmoid, and an increasing/decreasing frequency drift indicates a deceleration/acceleration of a plasmoid ejection. The reconnection rate shows a good positive correlation with the plasmoid velocity. Finally we confirmed that some DPS events show plasmoid counterparts in Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images.

  3. A deep proper motion catalog within the Sloan digital sky survey footprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy M.; Hippel, Ted von; Kilic, Mukremin; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGenarro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu E-mail: jamesliebert@gmail.com E-mail: studiofortytwo@yahoo.com

    2014-12-01

    A new proper motion catalog is presented, combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with second epoch observations in the r band within a portion of the SDSS imaging footprint. The new observations were obtained with the 90prime camera on the Steward Observatory Bok 90 inch telescope, and the Array Camera on the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 1.3 m telescope. The catalog covers 1098 square degrees to r = 22.0, an additional 1521 square degrees to r = 20.9, plus a further 488 square degrees of lesser quality data. Statistical errors in the proper motions range from 5 mas year{sup ?1} at the bright end to 15 mas year{sup ?1} at the faint end, for a typical epoch difference of six years. Systematic errors are estimated to be roughly 1 mas year{sup ?1} for the Array Camera data, and as much as 24 mas year{sup ?1} for the 90prime data (though typically less). The catalog also includes a second epoch of r band photometry.

  4. The Pierre Auger Project and Enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etchegoyen, A.; Froehlich, U.; Lucero, A.; Sidelnik, I.; Wundheiler, B.

    2010-08-04

    The current status of the scientific results of the Auger Observatory will be discussed which include spectrum, anisotropy in arrival directions, chemical composition analyses, and limits on neutrino and photon fluxes. A review of the Observatory detection systems will be presented. Auger has started the construction of its second phase which encompasses antennae for radio detection of cosmic rays, high-elevation telescopes, and surface plus muon detectors. Details will be presented on the latter, AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array), an Auger project consisting of 85 detector pairs each one composed of a surface water-Cherenkov detector and a buried muon counter. The detector pairs are arranged in an array with spacings of 433 and 750 m in order to perform a detailed study of the 10{sup 17} eV to 10{sup 19} eV spectrum region. Preliminary results on the performance of the 750 m array of surface detectors and the first muon counter prototype will be presented.

  5. The IceCube Collaboration:contributions to the 30 th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2007),

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Ackermann, M.

    2007-11-02

    This paper bundles 40 contributions by the IceCube collaboration that were submitted to the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference ICRC 2007. The articles cover studies on cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrinos, searches for non-localized, extraterrestrial {nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} signals, scans for steady and intermittent neutrino point sources, searches for dark matter candidates, magnetic monopoles and other exotic particles, improvements in analysis techniques, as well as future detector extensions. The IceCube observatory will be finalized in 2011 to form a cubic-kilometer ice-Cherenkov detector at the location of the geographic South Pole. At the present state of construction, IceCube consists of 52 paired IceTop surface tanks and 22 IceCube strings with a total of 1426 Digital Optical Modules deployed at depths up to 2350 m. The observatory also integrates the 19 string AMANDA subdetector, that was completed in 2000 and extends IceCube's reach to lower energies. Before the deployment of IceTop, cosmic air showers were registered with the 30 station SPASE-2 surface array. IceCube's low noise Digital Optical Modules are very reliable, show a uniform response and record waveforms of arriving photons that are resolvable with nanosecond precision over a large dynamic range. Data acquisition, reconstruction and simulation software are running in production mode and the analyses, profiting from the improved data quality and increased overall sensitivity, are well under way.

  6. The NASA-UC-UH Eta-Earth program. IV. A low-mass planet orbiting an M dwarf 3.6 PC from Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra A.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Becker, Juliette C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Wright, Jason T.; Johnson, John Asher

    2014-10-10

    We report the discovery of a low-mass planet orbiting Gl 15 A based on radial velocities from the Eta-Earth Survey using HIRES at Keck Observatory. Gl 15 Ab is a planet with minimum mass Msin i = 5.35 0.75 M {sub ?}, orbital period P = 11.4433 0.0016 days, and an orbit that is consistent with circular. We characterize the host star using a variety of techniques. Photometric observations at Fairborn Observatory show no evidence for rotational modulation of spots at the orbital period to a limit of ?0.1 mmag, thus supporting the existence of the planet. We detect a second RV signal with a period of 44 days that we attribute to rotational modulation of stellar surface features, as confirmed by optical photometry and the Ca II H and K activity indicator. Using infrared spectroscopy from Palomar-TripleSpec, we measure an M2 V spectral type and a sub-solar metallicity ([M/H] = 0.22, [Fe/H] = 0.32). We measure a stellar radius of 0.3863 0.0021 R {sub ?} based on interferometry from CHARA.

  7. CORONAL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheeley, N. R. Jr.; Warren, H. P. E-mail: harry.warren@nrl.navy.mil

    2012-04-10

    We have recently noticed cellular features in Fe XII 193 A images of the 1.2 MK corona. They occur in regions bounded by a coronal hole and a filament channel, and are centered on flux elements of the photospheric magnetic network. Like their neighboring coronal holes, these regions have minority-polarity flux that is {approx}0.1-0.3 times their flux of majority polarity. Consequently, the minority-polarity flux is 'grabbed' by the majority-polarity flux to form low-lying loops, and the remainder of the network flux escapes to connect with its opposite-polarity counterpart in distant active regions of the Sun. As these regions are carried toward the limb by solar rotation, the cells disappear and are replaced by linear plumes projecting toward the limb. In simultaneous views from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, these plumes project in opposite directions, extending away from the coronal hole in one view and toward the hole in the other view, suggesting that they are sky-plane projections of the same radial structures. We conclude that these regions are composed of closely spaced radial plumes, extending upward like candles on a birthday cake and visible as cells when seen from above. We suppose that a coronal hole has this same discrete, cellular magnetic structure, but that it is not seen until the encroachment of opposite-polarity flux closes part or all of the hole.

  8. THE EFFECT OF LIMITED SPATIAL RESOLUTION OF STELLAR SURFACE MAGNETIC FIELD MAPS ON MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WIND AND CORONAL X-RAY EMISSION MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garraffo, C.; Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Downs, C.

    2013-02-10

    We study the influence of the spatial resolution on scales of 5 Degree-Sign and smaller of solar surface magnetic field maps on global magnetohydrodynamic solar wind models, and on a model of coronal heating and X-ray emission. We compare the solutions driven by a low-resolution Wilcox Solar Observatory magnetic map, the same map with spatial resolution artificially increased by a refinement algorithm, and a high-resolution Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager map. We find that both the wind structure and the X-ray morphology are affected by the fine-scale surface magnetic structure. Moreover, the X-ray morphology is dominated by the closed loop structure between mixed polarities on smaller scales and shows significant changes between high- and low-resolution maps. We conclude that three-dimensional modeling of coronal X-ray emission has greater surface magnetic field spatial resolution requirements than wind modeling, and can be unreliable unless the dominant mixed polarity magnetic flux is properly resolved.

  9. Source Catalog Data from FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Becker, Robert H.; Helfand, David J.; White, Richard L.; Gregg, Michael D.; Laurent-Muehleisen, Sally A.

    FIRST, Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters, is a project designed to produce the radio equivalent of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey over 10,000 square degrees of the North Galactic Cap. Using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) in its B-configuration, the Survey acquired 3-minute snapshots covering a hexagonal grid using 2?7 3-MHz frequency channels centered at 1365 and 1435 MHz. The data were edited, self-calibrated, mapped, and CLEANed using an automated pipeline based largely on routines in the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS). A final atlas of maps is produced by coadding the twelve images adjacent to each pointing center. Source catalogs with flux densities and size information are generated from the coadded images also. The 2011 catalog is the latest version and has been tested to ensure reliability and completness. The catalog, generated from the 1993 through 2004 images, contains 816,000 sources and covers more than 9000 square degrees. A specialized search interface for the catalog resides at this website, and the catalog is also available as a compressed ASCII file. The user may also view earlier versions of the source catalog. The FIRST survey area was chosen to coincide with that of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS); at the m(v)~24 limit of SDSS, ~50% of the optical counterparts to FIRST sources will be detected.

  10. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-05-18

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The primary objective of the group has been to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently achieved reality via the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology's (NIUST) solicitation for proposals for research to be conducted at the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, have had to be postponed and the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles sacrificed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort is being

  11. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carol Lutken

    2006-09-30

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The CMRET has conducted several research cruises during this reporting period

  12. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Carol Blanton Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2007-03-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. These delays caused scheduling and deployments difficulties but many

  13. SEISMOLOGY OF A MASSIVE PULSATING HYDROGEN ATMOSPHERE WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Pecanha, Viviane; Costa, J. E. S.; Fraga, Luciano; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Castanheira, Barbara; Corsico, A. H.; Romero, A. D.; Althaus, Leandro; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Koester, D.; Kuelebi, Baybars; Kanaan, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    We report our observations of the new pulsating hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J132350.28+010304.22. We discovered periodic photometric variations in frequency and amplitude that are commensurate with nonradial g-mode pulsations in ZZ Ceti stars. This, along with estimates for the star's temperature and gravity, establishes it as a massive ZZ Ceti star. We used time-series photometric observations with the 4.1 m SOAR Telescope, complemented by contemporary McDonald Observatory 2.1 m data, to discover the photometric variability. The light curve of SDSS J132350.28+010304.22 shows at least nine detectable frequencies. We used these frequencies to make an asteroseismic determination of the total mass and effective temperature of the star: M{sub *} = 0.88 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Sun} and T{sub eff} = 12, 100 {+-} 140 K. These values are consistent with those derived from the optical spectra and photometric colors.

  14. Clouds at CTIO and the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilsen, Jr., Eric

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the weather patters at Cerro-Tololo Inter-American (CTIO) Observatory, the observing site for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is important for assessing the efciency of DES operations in using observing time and for planning future operations. CTIO has maintained records of cloud-cover by quarters of nights since 1975. A comparison between these cloud records in the 2013-2014 DES observing season (DES year 1) and achieved observing efciency and exposure quality allows the DES collaboration to make better use of the historical records in survey planning. Plots and tables here relate human recorded cloud-cover to collection of good DES data, show the variation of typical cloud-cover by month, and evaluate the relationship between the El Niño weather pattern and cloud-cover at CTIO.

  15. WAVELENGTH CALIBRATION OF THE HAMILTON ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakhomov, Yu. V.; Zhao, G.

    2013-10-01

    We present the wavelength calibration of the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. The main problem with the calibration of this spectrograph arises from the fact that thorium lines are absent in the spectrum of the presumed ThAr hollow-cathode lamp now under operation; numerous unknown strong lines, which have been identified as titanium lines, are present in the spectrum. We estimate the temperature of the lamp's gas which permits us to calculate the intensities of the lines and to select a large number of relevant Ti I and Ti II lines. The resulting titanium line list for the Lick hollow-cathode lamp is presented. The wavelength calibration using this line list was made with an accuracy of about 0.006 Å.

  16. Analysis of a new MoO transition in the near-IR: A combined theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harms, Jack C.; Womack, Kaitlin A.; O’Brien, Leah C.; Zou, Wenli

    2014-10-07

    The near-infrared electronic spectrum of MoO has been recorded in emission using the Fourier transform spectrometer associated with the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak, AZ. The gas phase MoO molecules were produced in a neon-based electric discharge using a molybdenum hollow cathode and a trace amount of oxygen. One MoO molecular band was observed in the spectrum with a red-degraded bandhead at 6735 cm{sup −1} and is assigned as the (0,0) band of the c {sup 3}Π{sub 1} − a {sup 3}Σ{sup −}{sub 0+} transition. The assignment is based upon isotopologue shifts and ab initio calculations. Results from the ab initio calculations and analysis are presented. The new calculations support the assignment of the observed transition and have led to reassignment of several electronic states from previous work.

  17. Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fryer, Christopher L; New, Kimberly C

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  18. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  19. Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; /Balseiro Inst., San Carlos de Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /CNEA, Buenos Aires /Pierre Auger Observ. /La Plata U. /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo U.

    2007-11-01

    Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrate that there is a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within {approx} 75 Mpc. We reject the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays at over 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observe is compatible with the hypothesis that the highest energy particles originate from nearby extragalactic sources whose flux has not been significantly reduced by interaction with the cosmic background radiation. AGN or objects having a similar spatial distribution are possible sources.

  20. OBSERVATION OF A NON-RADIAL PENUMBRA IN A FLUX EMERGING REGION UNDER CHROMOSPHERIC CANOPY FIELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2013-05-20

    The presence of a penumbra is one of the main properties of a mature sunspot, but its formation mechanism has been elusive due to a lack of observations that fully cover the formation process. Utilizing the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory, we observed the formation of a partial penumbra for about 7 hr simultaneously at the photospheric (TiO; 7057 A) and the chromospheric (H{alpha} - 1 A) spectral lines with high spatial and temporal resolution. From this uninterrupted, long observing sequence, we found that the formation of the observed penumbra was closely associated with flux emergence under the pre-existing chromospheric canopy fields. Based on this finding, we suggest a possible scenario for penumbra formation in which a penumbra forms when the emerging flux is constrained from continuing to emerge, but rather is trapped at the photospheric level by the overlying chromospheric canopy fields.

  1. SUNRISE: INSTRUMENT, MISSION, DATA, AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Danilovic, S.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Bonet, J. A.; Pillet, V. MartInez; Domingo, V.; Palacios, J.; Knoelker, M.; Gonzalez, N. Bello; Berkefeld, T.; Franz, M.; Schmidt, W.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    The SUNRISE balloon-borne solar observatory consists of a 1 m aperture Gregory telescope, a UV filter imager, an imaging vector polarimeter, an image stabilization system, and further infrastructure. The first science flight of SUNRISE yielded high-quality data that revealed the structure, dynamics, and evolution of solar convection, oscillations, and magnetic fields at a resolution of around 100 km in the quiet Sun. After a brief description of instruments and data, the first qualitative results are presented. In contrast to earlier observations, we clearly see granulation at 214 nm. Images in Ca II H display narrow, short-lived dark intergranular lanes between the bright edges of granules. The very small-scale, mixed-polarity internetwork fields are found to be highly dynamic. A significant increase in detectable magnetic flux is found after phase-diversity-related reconstruction of polarization maps, indicating that the polarities are mixed right down to the spatial resolution limit and probably beyond.

  2. Effect of soil property uncertainties on permafrost thaw projections: a calibration-constrained analysis: Modeling Archive

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    J.C. Rowland; D.R. Harp; C.J. Wilson; A.L. Atchley; V.E. Romanovsky; E.T. Coon; S.L. Painter

    2016-02-02

    This Modeling Archive is in support of an NGEE Arctic publication available at doi:10.5194/tc-10-341-2016. This dataset contains an ensemble of thermal-hydro soil parameters including porosity, thermal conductivity, thermal conductivity shape parameters, and residual saturation of peat and mineral soil. The ensemble was generated using a Null-Space Monte Carlo analysis of parameter uncertainty based on a calibration to soil temperatures collected at the Barrow Environmental Observatory site by the NGEE team. The micro-topography of ice wedge polygons present at the site is included in the analysis using three 1D column models to represent polygon center, rim and trough features. The Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) was used in the calibration to model multiphase thermal and hydrological processes in the subsurface.

  3. IDCS J1426.5+3508: DISCOVERY OF A MASSIVE, INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.75

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford, S. A.; Zeimann, Greg; Brodwin, M.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, C.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Dey, Arjun; Snyder, Gregory F.

    2012-07-10

    We report the discovery of an IR-selected massive galaxy cluster in the IRAC Deep Cluster Survey (IDCS). We present new data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the W. M. Keck Observatory that spectroscopically confirm IDCS J1426.5+3508 at z = 1.75. Moreover, the cluster is detected in archival Chandra data as an extended X-ray source, comprising 53 counts after the removal of point sources. We calculate an X-ray luminosity of L{sub 0.5-2keV} = (5.4 {+-} 1.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} within r = 60 arcsec ({approx}1 Mpc diameter), which implies M{sub 200,L{sub x}}= (5.3{+-}1.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. IDCS J1426.5+3508 appears to be an exceptionally massive cluster for its redshift.

  4. Recent Results from the Low Temperature Spare Astro-E Microcalorimeter Used at the LLNL EBIT-I and EBIT-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G V; Behar, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Chen, H; Gendreau, K C; Gygax, J; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Porter, F S; Stahle, C K; Szymkowiak, A E

    2001-07-25

    In the past year a spare NASA/GSFC Astro-E microcalorimeter has been installed, tested, and run successfully on the electron beam ions traps EBIT-I and EBIT-II at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The microcalorimeter complements crystal and grating spectrometers already part of the LLNL ebit program making it possible to measure a broad bandwidth ({approx}0.3-10 keV) with moderate resolution while simultaneously measuring a narrow bandwidth ({approx}0.7-1.3 keV) with high resolution. An overview of recent work, including measurements by the microcalorimeter of absolute excitation cross is presented. These results continue our effort to provide atomic data of high quality to be used as benchmarks of theoretical calculations and to be included in atomic data bases employed by spectral fitting packages used to interpret spectra obtained by XMM-Newton and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.

  5. DIFFERENTIAL SPECTRUM OF NEUTRONS AT CHACALTAYA-BOLIVIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayta, R.; Zanini, A.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A.

    2009-04-30

    We describe the Neutron Spectrometer Experiment installed at Chacaltaya Cosmic Rays Observatory (68 deg. O, 16.2 deg. S), located in Bolivia, at 5230 m.a.s.l. This experimental system is constituted by passive detectors which register the flux of neutrons, in an energy range of 10 KeV-20 MeV. Using the unfolding code BUNTO a peak around 1 MeV of the characteristic spectrum of neutrons was obtained. Experimental values, observed during April of 2008, are compared with similar ones carried out in 1997 at the same place, in order to look for eventual changes due to local atmosphere. A similar experiment was also carried up at the Laboratory of Testa Grigia-Italy (45.56 deg. N, 7.42 deg. E,. 3480 m.a.l.s). Data of both stations allow us to compare the spectra in order to explain the difference of neutron flux of these two stations.

  6. THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM SUN-GRAZING COMETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryans, P.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2012-11-20

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed two Sun-grazing comets as they passed through the solar atmosphere. Both passages resulted in a measurable enhancement of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiance in several of the AIA bandpasses. We explain this EUV emission by considering the evolution of the cometary atmosphere as it interacts with the ambient solar atmosphere. Molecules in the comet rapidly sublimate as it approaches the Sun. They are then photodissociated by the solar radiation field to create atomic species. Subsequent ionization of these atoms produces a higher abundance of ions than normally present in the corona and results in EUV emission in the wavelength ranges of the AIA telescope passbands.

  7. HOMOLOGOUS CYCLONES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xinting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Zhang, Yuzong; Yang, Shuhong E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn

    2014-02-20

    Through observations with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we tracked one rotating network magnetic field (RNF) near the solar equator. It lasted for more than 100 hr, from 2013 February 23 to 28. During its evolution, three cyclones were found to be rooted in this structure. Each cyclone event lasted for about 8 to 10 hr. While near the polar region, another RNF was investigated. It lasted for a shorter time (?70 hr), from 2013 July 7 to 9. There were two cyclones rooted in the RNF and each lasted for 8 and 11 hr, respectively. For the two given examples, the cyclones have a similar dynamic evolution, and thus we put forward a new term: homologous cyclones. The detected brightening in AIA 171 maps indicates the release of energy, which is potentially available to heat the corona.

  8. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titov, O.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnston, H. M.; Hunstead, R. W.; Christensen, L.

    2011-11-15

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of the optical counterparts of 47 southern radio sources from the candidate International Celestial Reference Catalogue as part of a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame, especially in the south. We made the observations with the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope. We obtained redshifts for 30 quasars and one radio galaxy, with a further seven objects being probable BL Lac objects with featureless spectra. Of the remainder, four were clear misidentifications with Galactic stars and five had low signal-to-noise spectra and could not be classified. These results, in combination with new VLBI data of the radio sources with redshifts more than 2, add significantly to the existing data needed to refine the distribution of source proper motions over the celestial sphere.

  9. THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850 nm to 4000 nm: WAVENUMBERS AND LINE IDENTIFICATIONS FROM FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nave, Gillian [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    We provide new measurements of wavenumbers and line identifications of 10, 100 U I and U II near-infrared (NIR) emission lines between 2500 cm{sup -1} and 12, 000 cm{sup -1} (4000-850 nm) using archival Fourier transform spectrometer spectra from the National Solar Observatory. This line list includes isolated uranium lines in the Y, J, H, K, and L bands (0.9-1.1 {mu}m, 1.2-1.35 {mu}m, 1.5-1.65 {mu}m, 2.0-2.4 {mu}m, and 3.0-4.0 {mu}m, respectively), and provides six times as many calibration lines as thorium in the NIR spectral range. The line lists we provide enable inexpensive, commercially available uranium hollow cathode lamps to be used for high-precision wavelength calibration of existing and future high-resolution NIR spectrographs.

  10. Science and Technology Review January/February 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blobaum, K J

    2010-11-22

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) World's Most Intense X-Ray Laser Focuses on Livermore Science - Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Groundbreaking Science with the World's Brightest X Rays - Experiments with x rays of unparalleled brightness and extremely short duration aim to reveal new information about atoms and molecules in motion; (3) From Data to Discovery - Ongoing control system enhancements at the National Ignition Facility bolster the understanding of experimental data and keep the system performing at its peak; (4) The Sun in All Its Splendor - Onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Livermore-developed multilayer mirrors are enabling unprecedented full-disk, high-resolution images of the Sun; and (5) Drilling Deep into Plant Veins - A novel combination of imaging techniques is being used to understand the three-dimensional architecture of plant cell walls.

  11. Initiation of coronal mass ejection event observed on 2010 November 3: multi-wavelength perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulay, Sargam; Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Isobe, Hiroaki; Glesener, Lindsay

    2014-10-10

    One of the major unsolved problems in solar physics is that of coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation. In this paper, we have studied the initiation of a flare-associated CME that occurred on 2010 November 3 using multi-wavelength observations recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. We report an observation of an inflow structure initially in the 304 Å and the 1600 Å images a few seconds later. This inflow structure was detected as one of the legs of the CME. We also observed a non-thermal compact source concurrent and near co-spatial with the brightening and movement of the inflow structure. The appearance of this compact non-thermal source, brightening, and movement of the inflow structure and the subsequent outward movement of the CME structure in the corona led us to conclude that the CME initiation was caused by magnetic reconnection.

  12. INDECENT EXPOSURE IN SEYFERT 2 GALAXIES: A CLOSE LOOK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Hien D.; Lyke, J. E.; Mader, Jeff A.

    2011-01-10

    NGC 3147, NGC 4698, and 1ES 1927+654 are active galaxies that are classified as Seyfert 2s, based on the line ratios of strong narrow emission lines in their optical spectra. However, they exhibit rapid X-ray spectral variability and/or little indication of obscuration in X-ray spectral fitting, contrary to expectation from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) unification model. Using optical spectropolarimetry with LRIS and near-infrared spectroscopy with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we conducted a deep search for hidden polarized broad H{alpha} and direct broad Pa{beta} or Br{gamma} emission lines in these objects. We found no evidence for any broad emission lines from the active nuclei of these galaxies, suggesting that they are unobscured, completely 'naked' AGNs that intrinsically lack broad-line regions.

  13. SECRETLY ECCENTRIC: THE GIANT PLANET AND ACTIVITY CYCLE OF GJ 328

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Boss, Alan P.

    2013-09-10

    We announce the discovery of a {approx}2 Jupiter-mass planet in an eccentric 11 yr orbit around the K7/M0 dwarf GJ 328. Our result is based on 10 years of radial velocity (RV) data from the Hobby-Eberly and Harlan J. Smith telescopes at McDonald Observatory, and from the Keck Telescope at Mauna Kea. Our analysis of GJ 328's magnetic activity via the Na I D features reveals a long-period stellar activity cycle, which creates an additional signal in the star's RV curve with amplitude 6-10 m s{sup -1}. After correcting for this stellar RV contribution, we see that the orbit of the planet is more eccentric than suggested by the raw RV data. GJ 328b is currently the most massive, longest-period planet discovered around a low-mass dwarf.

  14. THE MEMBERSHIP AND DISTANCE OF THE OPEN CLUSTER COLLINDER 419

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Gies, Douglas R.; Parks, J. Robert; Grundstrom, Erika D.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Berger, David H.; Mason, Brian D.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Turner, Nils H. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.ed E-mail: erika.grundstrom@vanderbilt.ed E-mail: dberger@sysplan.co E-mail: theo@chara-array.or

    2010-09-15

    The young open cluster Collinder 419 surrounds the massive O star, HD 193322, that is itself a remarkable multiple star system containing at least four components. Here we present a discussion of the cluster distance based upon new spectral classifications of the brighter members, UBV photometry, and an analysis of astrometric and photometric data from the third U. S. Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog and Two Micron All Sky Survey Catalog. We determine an average cluster reddening of E(B - V) = 0.37 {+-} 0.05 mag and a cluster distance of 741 {+-} 36 pc. The cluster probably contains some very young stars that may include a reddened M3 III star, IRAS 20161+4035.

  15. A solar type II radio burst from coronal mass ejection-coronal ray interaction: Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing; Feng, Li; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-05-20

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nanay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  16. The NUSTAR view of a QPO evolution of GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Liang; Chen, Li; Bu, Qing-cui; Qu, Jin-lu E-mail: chenli@bnu.edu.cn E-mail: qujl@ihep.ac.cn

    2015-02-01

    We report a timing analysis of the black hole binary GRS 1915+105 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array Observatory. A strong type-C quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) below 2 Hz appears in the power density spectrum during the whole observation, whose frequency is correlated with the 3–25 keV count rate. The QPO shows a sudden increase in frequency along with an increase in flux and a softening of the spectrum. We discuss the possible origin of the QPO and the reasons that lead to the QPO frequency variation. It is suggested that the reflection component has little influence on QPO frequency and the increase in QPO frequency could be associated with the inward motion of the outer part of the disk.

  17. Uncertainty Estimates for SIRS, SKYRAD, & GNDRAD Data and Reprocessing the Pyrgeometer Data (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Habte, A.

    2014-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility work together in providing data from strategically located in situ measurement observatories around the world. Both work together in improving and developing new technologies that assist in acquiring high quality radiometric data. In this presentation we summarize the uncertainty estimates of the ARM data collected at the ARM Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS), Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD), and Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation (GNDRAD), which ultimately improve the existing radiometric data. Three studies are also included to show the difference between calibrating pyrgeometers (e.g., Eppley PIR) using the manufacturer blackbody versus the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), a pyrgeometer aging study, and the sampling rate effect of correcting historical data.

  18. Pierre Auger Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Aaron

    2008-01-14

    Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrate that there is a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 6 [1] 1019 eV and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within 75 Mpc. We reject the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays at over 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observe is compatible with the hypothesis that the highest energy particles originate from relatively nearby extragalactic sources whose fluxes have therefore not been significantly reduced by interaction with the cosmic background radiation. AGN or objects having a similar spatial distribution are possible sources.

  19. THE BATSE 5B GAMMA-RAY BURST SPECTRAL CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Adam; Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.; Burgess, J. Michael [University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Mallozzi, Robert S.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Paciesas, William S. [Universities Space Research Association, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present systematic spectral analyses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory during its entire nine years of operation. This catalog contains two types of spectra extracted from 2145 GRBs, and fitted with five different spectral models resulting in a compendium of over 19,000 spectra. The models were selected based on their empirical importance to the spectral shape of many GRBs, and the analysis performed was devised to be as thorough and objective as possible. We describe in detail our procedures and criteria for the analyses, and present the bulk results in the form of parameter distributions. This catalog should be considered an official product from the BATSE Science Team, and the data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC)

  20. Cataclysmic variables in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Thorstensen, John R.; Lépine, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    We have discovered a new high proper motion cataclysmic variable (CV) in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey, which is sensitive to stars with proper motions greater than 40 mas yr{sup −1}. This CV was selected for follow-up observations as part of a larger search for CVs selected based on proper motions and their near-UV−V and V−K{sub s} colors. We present spectroscopic observations from the 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope at MDM Observatory. The new CV's orbital period is near 96 minutes, its spectrum shows the double-peaked Balmer emission lines characteristic of quiescent dwarf novae, and its V magnitude is near 18.2. Additionally, we present a full list of known CVs in the SUPERBLINK catalog.

  1. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  2. THE KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY AT CORONAL MASS EJECTION BOUNDARIES IN THE SOLAR CORONA: OBSERVATIONS AND 2.5D MHD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moestl, U. V.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.

    2013-03-20

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory observed a coronal mass ejection with an embedded filament on 2011 February 24, revealing quasi-periodic vortex-like structures at the northern side of the filament boundary with a wavelength of approximately 14.4 Mm and a propagation speed of about 310 {+-} 20 km s{sup -1}. These structures could result from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability occurring on the boundary. We perform 2.5D numerical simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and compare the simulated characteristic properties of the instability with the observations, where we obtain qualitative as well as quantitative accordance. We study the absence of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex-like structures on the southern side of the filament boundary and find that a magnetic field component parallel to the boundary with a strength of about 20% of the total magnetic field has stabilizing effects resulting in an asymmetric development of the instability.

  3. Observation of Two New L4 Neptune Trojans in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerdes, D. W.

    2015-07-18

    We report the discovery of the eighth and ninth known Trojans in stable orbits around Neptune's leading Lagrange point, L4. The objects 2014 QO441 and 2014 QP441 were detected in data obtained during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 observing seasons by the Dark Energy Survey, using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4-meter Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory. Both are in high-inclination orbits (18.8 and 19.4 respectively). Furthermore, with an eccentricity of 0.104, 2014 QO441 has the most eccentric orbit of the eleven known stable Neptune Trojans. We describe the search procedure and investigate the objects' long-term dynamical stability and physical properties.

  4. WASP-36b: A NEW TRANSITING PLANET AROUND A METAL-POOR G-DWARF, AND AN INVESTIGATION INTO ANALYSES BASED ON A SINGLE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Collier Cameron, A.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Barros, S. C. C.; Pollacco, D.; Street, R. A.

    2012-04-15

    We report the discovery, from WASP and CORALIE, of a transiting exoplanet in a 1.54 day orbit. The host star, WASP-36, is a magnitude V = 12.7, metal-poor G2 dwarf (T{sub eff} = 5959 {+-} 134 K), with [Fe/H] =-0.26 {+-} 0.10. We determine the planet to have mass and radius, respectively, 2.30 {+-} 0.07 and 1.28 {+-} 0.03 times that of Jupiter. We have eight partial or complete transit light curves, from four different observatories, which allow us to investigate the potential effects on the fitted system parameters of using only a single light curve. We find that the solutions obtained by analyzing each of these light curves independently are consistent with our global fit to all the data, despite the apparent presence of correlated noise in at least two of the light curves.

  5. THREE NEW GALACTIC CENTER X-RAY SOURCES IDENTIFIED WITH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWitt, Curtis; Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sarajedini, Ata; Sellgren, Kris; Blum, Robert; Olsen, Knut; Bauer, Franz E.

    2013-11-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 47 candidate counterparts to X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory near the Galactic center (GC). Though a significant number of these astrometric matches are likely to be spurious, we sought out spectral characteristics of active stars and interacting binaries, such as hot, massive spectral types or emission lines, in order to corroborate the X-ray activity and certify the authenticity of the match. We present three new spectroscopic identifications, including a Be high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) or a ? Cassiopeiae (Cas) system, a symbiotic X-ray binary, and an O-type star of unknown luminosity class. The Be HMXB/? Cas system and the symbiotic X-ray binary are the first of their classes to be spectroscopically identified in the GC region.

  6. Soil Water Characteristics of Cores from Low- and High-Centered Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Graham, David; Moon, Ji-Won

    2016-08-22

    This dataset includes soil water characteristic curves for soil and permafrost in two representative frozen cores collected from a high-center polygon (HCP) and a low-center polygon (LCP) from the Barrow Environmental Observatory. Data include soil water content and soil water potential measured using the simple evaporation method for hydrological and biogeochemical simulations and experimental data analysis. Data can be used to generate a soil moisture characteristic curve, which can be fit to a variety of hydrological functions to infer critical parameters for soil physics. Considering the measured the soil water properties, the van Genuchten model predicted well the HCP, in contrast, the Kosugi model well fitted LCP which had more saturated condition.

  7. Observation of two new L4 Neptune Trojans in the Dark Energy Survey supernova fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gerdes, D. W.

    2016-01-28

    We report the discovery of the eighth and ninth known Trojans in stable orbits around Neptune's leading Lagrange point, L4. The objects 2014 QO441 and 2014 QP441 were detected in data obtained during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 observing seasons by the Dark Energy Survey, using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4-meter Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory. Both are in high-inclination orbits (18.8° and 19.4° respectively). Furthermore, with an eccentricity of 0.104, 2014 QO441 has the most eccentric orbit of the eleven known stable Neptune Trojans. We describe the search procedure and investigate the objects' long-termmore » dynamical stability and physical properties.« less

  8. Design and initial characterization of a compact, ultra high vacuum compatible, low frequency, tilt accelerometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OToole, A. E-mail: riccardo.desalvo@gmail.com; Pea Arellano, F. E.; Rodionov, A. V.; Kim, C.; Shaner, M.; Asadoor, M.; Sobacchi, E.; Dergachev, V.; DeSalvo, R. E-mail: riccardo.desalvo@gmail.com; Bhawal, A.; Gong, P.; Lottarini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Murphy, C.

    2014-07-15

    A compact tilt accelerometer with high sensitivity at low frequency was designed to provide low frequency corrections for the feedback signal of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory active seismic attenuation system. It has been developed using a Tungsten Carbide ceramic knife-edge hinge designed to avoid the mechanical 1/f noise believed to be intrinsic in polycrystalline metallic flexures. Design and construction details are presented; prototype data acquisition and control limitations are discussed. The instrument's characterization reported here shows that the hinge is compatible with being metal-hysteresis-free, and therefore also free of the 1/f noise generated by the dislocation Self-Organized Criticality in the metal. A tiltmeter of this kind will be effective to separate the ground tilt component from the signal of horizontal low frequency seismometers, and to correct the ill effects of microseismic tilt in advanced seismic attenuation systems.

  9. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10^19eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Northeastern U. /Lisbon, IST /Lisbon, LIFEP

    2008-06-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10{sup 18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index {gamma} of the particle flux, J {proportional_to} E{sup {gamma}}, at energies between 4 x 10{sup 18} eV and 4 x 10{sup 19} eV is 2.69 {+-} 0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2 {+-} 0.4(stat){+-}0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuzmin.

  10. Massive Stars in Colliding Wind Systems: the GLAST Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-29

    Colliding winds of massive stars in binary systems are considered as candidate sites of high-energy non-thermal photon emission. They are already among the suggested counterparts for a few individual unidentified EGRET sources, but may constitute a detectable source population for the GLAST observatory. The present work investigates such population study of massive colliding wind systems at high-energy gamma-rays. Based on the recent detailed model (Reimer et al. 2006) for non-thermal photon production in prime candidate systems, we unveil the expected characteristics of this source class in the observables accessible at LAT energies. Combining the broadband emission model with the presently cataloged distribution of such systems and their individual parameters allows us to conclude on the expected maximum number of LAT-detections among massive stars in colliding wind binary systems.

  11. THE ACOUSTIC CUTOFF FREQUENCY OF THE SUN AND THE SOLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez, A.; Palle, P. L.; Garcia, R. A.

    2011-12-20

    The acoustic cutoff frequency-the highest frequency for acoustic solar eigenmodes-is an important parameter of the solar atmosphere as it determines the upper boundary of the p-mode resonant cavities. At frequencies beyond this value, acoustic disturbances are no longer trapped but are traveling waves. Interference among them gives rise to higher-frequency peaks-the pseudomodes-in the solar acoustic spectrum. The pseudomodes are shifted slightly in frequency with respect to p-modes, making possible the use of pseudomodes to determine the acoustic cutoff frequency. Using data from the GOLF and VIRGO instruments on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft, we calculate the acoustic cutoff frequency using the coherence function between both the velocity and intensity sets of data. By using data gathered by these instruments during the entire lifetime of the mission (1996 until the present), a variation in the acoustic cutoff frequency with the solar magnetic activity cycle is found.

  12. Statistical study of free magnetic energy and flare productivity of solar active regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, J. T.; Jing, J.; Wang, S.; Wang, H. M.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2014-06-20

    Photospheric vector magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory are utilized as the boundary conditions to extrapolate both nonlinear force-free and potential magnetic fields in solar corona. Based on the extrapolations, we are able to determine the free magnetic energy (FME) stored in active regions (ARs). Over 3000 vector magnetograms in 61 ARs were analyzed. We compare FME with the ARs' flare index (FI) and find that there is a weak correlation (<60%) between FME and FI. FME shows slightly improved flare predictability relative to the total unsigned magnetic flux of ARs in the following two aspects: (1) the flare productivity predicted by FME is higher than that predicted by magnetic flux and (2) the correlation between FI and FME is higher than that between FI and magnetic flux. However, this improvement is not significant enough to make a substantial difference in time-accumulated FI, rather than individual flare, predictions.

  13. NEW BV(RI){sub C} PHOTOMETRY FOR PRAESEPE: FURTHER TESTS OF BROADBAND PHOTOMETRIC CONSISTENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joner, Michael D.; Taylor, Benjamin J.; Laney, C. David; Van Wyk, Francois

    2011-11-15

    New BV(RI){sub C} measurements of Praesepe made at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) are presented. When those measurements are combined with those reported in previous papers in this series, it is found that they support previously determined V zero points for Praesepe, M67, and the Hyades. Support is also found for joint (V - R){sub C} and (R - I){sub C} zero points established previously for Praesepe and NGC 752. For the SAAO system of standard stars, a B - V correction to the Johnson system of about -9 mmag appears to be reasonably well established. The preferred (though not definitive) V correction is about +7 mmag. For the Landolt V system, zero-point identity with the Johnson system at a 2{sigma} level of 4.8 mmag is found, and no color term as large as 4 mmag (mag){sup -1} is detected. Updated CDS data files for Praesepe are briefly described.

  14. Atomic hydrogen in planetary nebulae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, S.E.; Silverglate, P.R.; Altschuler, D.R.; Giovanardi, C.

    1987-03-01

    The authors searched for neutral atomic hydrogen associated with 22 planetary nebulae and three evolved stars in the 21 cm line at the Arecibo Observatory. Objects whose radial velocities permitted discrimination from Galactic H I were chosen for observation. Hydrogen was detected in absorption from IC 4997. From the measurements new low limits are derived to the mass of atomic hydrogen associated with the undetected nebulae. Radio continuum observations were also made of several of the nebulae at 12.6 cm. The authors reexamine previous measurements of H I in planetary nebulae, and present the data on a consistent footing. The question of planetary nebula distances is considered at length. Finally, implications of the H I measurements for nebular evolution are discussed and it is suggested that atomic hydrogen seen in absorption was expelled from the progenitor star during the final 1000 yr prior to the onset of ionization. 68 references.

  15. W28 and 3C 400. 2 - Two shell-like radio supernova remnants with centrally peaked X-ray morphologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, K.S.; Blair, W.P.; Matsui, Yutaka; White, R.L. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD )

    1991-06-01

    The paper describes X-ray and optical observations with the Einstein Observatory of two SNRs which are examples of a group of SNRs that have centrally peaked X-ray surface brightness distributions and limb-brightened radio morphologies. X-ray and optical spectra confirm that they are located along lines of sight with substantial intervening absorption, as is the case of other objects that have these morphological characteristics. The hydrogen column density along the line of sight to both remnants is established at (7-11) x 10 to the 21st/sq cm. A thermal origin is proposed as the most likely explanation for the X-ray morphology. It is demonstrated that these SNRs do not have a density and temperature distribution which resembles that of a point explosion in a uniform-density medium, even when the overburden of absorption is considered. 46 refs.

  16. Mass flows in a prominence spine as observed in EUV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gilbert, H. R.

    2014-07-20

    We analyze a quiescent prominence observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) with a focus on mass and energy flux in the spine, measured using Lyman continuum absorption. This is the first time this type of analysis has been applied with an emphasis on individual features and fluxes in a quiescent prominence. The prominence, observed on 2010 September 28, is detectable in most AIA wavebands in absorption and/or emission. Flows along the spine exhibit horizontal bands 5''-10'' wide and kinetic energy fluxes on the order of a few times 10{sup 5} erg s{sup 1}cm{sup 2}, consistent with quiet sun coronal heating estimates. For a discrete moving feature we estimate a mass of a few times 10{sup 11} g. We discuss the implications of our derived properties for a model of prominence dynamics, the thermal non-equilibrium model.

  17. SUBARCSECOND LOCATION OF IGR J17480-2446 WITH ROSSI XTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggio, A.; Burderi, L.; Egron, E.; Di Salvo, T.; D'Ai, A.; Iaria, R.; Robba, N. R.; Papitto, A.; Belloni, T.; Motta, S.; Floris, M.; Testa, V.; Menna, M. T.

    2012-07-20

    On 2010 October 13, the X-ray astronomical satellite Rossi XTE, during the observation of the newly discovered accretion powered X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446, detected a lunar occultation of the source. From knowledge of the lunar topography and Earth, Moon, and spacecraft ephemerides at the epoch of the event, we determined the source position with an accuracy of 40 mas (1{sigma} c.l.), which is interesting, given the very poor imaging capabilities of RXTE ({approx}1 Degree-Sign ). For the first time, using a non-imaging X-ray observatory, the position of an X-ray source with a subarcsecond accuracy is derived, demonstrating the neat capabilities of a technique that can be fruitfully applied to current and future X-ray missions.

  18. THE ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION OF THE EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Landi, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

  19. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for WO-2

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Robert Podgorney

    1991-07-29

    Well data for the WO-2 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, and rock strength parameters for the WO-2 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  20. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for INEL-1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Robert Podgorney

    1979-03-01

    Well data for the INEL-1 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes caliper logs, lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, full color logs, fracture analysis, photos, and rock strength parameters for the INEL-1 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  1. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray bounds on nonbirefringent modified Maxwell theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinkhamer, F. R.; Risse, M.

    2008-01-01

    A particularly simple Lorentz-violating modification of the Maxwell theory of photons maintains gauge invariance, CPT, and renormalization. This modified Maxwell theory, coupled to standard Dirac particles, involves 19 dimensionless 'deformation parameters'. Ten of these parameters lead to birefringence and are already tightly constrained by astrophysics. New bounds on the remaining nine nonbirefringent parameters can be obtained from the absence of vacuum Cherenkov radiation for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). Using selected UHECR events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory and assigning pseudorandom directions (i.e., assuming large-scale isotropy), Cherenkov bounds are found at the 10{sup -18} level, which improve considerably upon current laboratory bounds. Future UHECR observations may reduce these Cherenkov bounds to the 10{sup -23} level.

  2. SDO OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AT CORONAL HOLE BOUNDARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Shuhong; Zhang Jun; Li Ting; Liu Yang E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn E-mail: yliu@quake.stanford.edu

    2011-05-01

    With the observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate the coronal hole boundaries (CHBs) of an equatorial extension of the polar coronal hole. At the CHBs, many extreme-ultraviolet jets, which appear to be the signatures of magnetic reconnection, are observed in the 193 A images, and some jets occur repetitively at the same sites. The evolution of the jets is associated with the emergence and cancellation of magnetic fields. We note that both the east and west CHBs shift westward, and the shift velocities are close to the velocities of rigid rotation compared with those of the photospheric differential rotation. This indicates that magnetic reconnection at CHBs results in the evolution of CHBs and maintains the rigid rotation of coronal holes.

  3. Clock synchronization and isotropy of the one-way speed of light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Will, C.M. )

    1992-01-15

    Experimental tests of the isotropy of the speed of light using one-way propagation are analyzed using a test theory of special relativity. It is shown that, when properly expressed in terms of measurable quantities, the results of such experiments are independent of the method of global synchronization of clocks. Experiments analyzed include a Jet Propulsion Laboratory time-of-flight measurement, a resonant two-photon absorption experiment, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory--NASA 1976 rocket gravitational redshift experiment, and Moessbauer rotor experiments. If the characteristic anisotropy is proportional to {alpha}{ital w}, where {ital w} is the velocity of the Earth relative to the cosmic background radiation, the best bound on {alpha} from these experiments is {vert bar}{alpha}{vert bar}{lt}9{times}10{sup {minus}8}.

  4. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics. These activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current programs include in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in solar neutrino physics at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada and at SAGE in Russia, and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerators and reactor facilities around the world. Summaries of the individual research projects are included. Areas of research covered are: fundamental symmetries, weak interactions and nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; ultra-relativistic heavy ions; and atomic and molecular clusters.

  5. A SEARCH FOR POINT SOURCES OF EeV NEUTRONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    A thorough search of the sky exposed at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory reveals no statistically significant excess of events in any small solid angle that would be indicative of a flux of neutral particles from a discrete source. The search covers from -90 Degree-Sign to +15 Degree-Sign in declination using four different energy ranges above 1 EeV (10{sup 18} eV). The method used in this search is more sensitive to neutrons than to photons. The upper limit on a neutron flux is derived for a dense grid of directions for each of the four energy ranges. These results constrain scenarios for the production of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in the Galaxy.

  6. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; /Lisbon, IST /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb

    2010-02-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{sub max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10{sup 18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{sub -21}{sup +35}) g/cm{sup 2}/decade below 10{sup 18.24 {+-} 0.05}eV, and (24 {+-} 3) g/cm{sup 2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{sup 2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  7. Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca; Mouser, Paula J.; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Biddle , Jennifer F.; Denis, Elizabeth; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, T. C.; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2014-09-12

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on “Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface” was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  8. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, S. E.; De Toma, G.; Rachmeler, L.; Rastawicki, D.; Dove, J.; Hao, J.; Zhang, M.; Hill, S.; Marque, C.; Seaton, D. B.; McIntosh, P. S.; Reeves, K. K.; Schmieder, B.; Schmit, D. J.; Sterling, A. C.; Williams, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional density model of coronal prominence cavities, and a morphological fit that has been tightly constrained by a uniquely well-observed cavity. Observations were obtained as part of an International Heliophysical Year campaign by instruments from a variety of space- and ground-based observatories, spanning wavelengths from radio to soft X-ray to integrated white light. From these data it is clear that the prominence cavity is the limb manifestation of a longitudinally extended polar-crown filament channel, and that the cavity is a region of low density relative to the surrounding corona. As a first step toward quantifying density and temperature from campaign spectroscopic data, we establish the three-dimensional morphology of the cavity. This is critical for taking line-of-sight projection effects into account, since cavities are not localized in the plane of the sky and the corona is optically thin. We have augmented a global coronal streamer model to include a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. We have developed a semi-automated routine that fits ellipses to cross-sections of the cavity as it rotates past the solar limb, and have applied it to Extreme Ultraviolet Imager observations from the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft. This defines the morphological parameters of our model, from which we reproduce forward-modeled cavity observables. We find that cavity morphology and orientation, in combination with the viewpoints of the observing spacecraft, explain the observed variation in cavity visibility for the east versus west limbs.

  9. OBSERVATIONS OF THE INTERACTION OF ACOUSTIC WAVES AND SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS IN A QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitta, Lakshmi Pradeep; Kariyappa, R.; Jain, Rekha; Jefferies, Stuart M. E-mail: rkari@iiap.res.in E-mail: stuartj@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2012-01-10

    The effect of the magnetic field on photospheric intensity and velocity oscillations at the sites of small-scale magnetic fields (SMFs) in a quiet Sun near the solar disk center is studied. We use observations made by the G-band filter in the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode for intensity oscillations; Doppler velocity, magnetic field, and continuum intensity are derived from an Ni I photospheric absorption line at 6767.8 A using the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Our analysis shows that both the high-resolution intensity observed in the G band and velocity oscillations are influenced by the presence of a magnetic field. While intensity oscillations are suppressed at all frequencies in strong magnetic field regions compared to weak magnetic field regions, velocity oscillations show an enhancement of power in the frequency band 5.5-7 mHz. We find that there is a drop of 20%-30% in the p-mode power of velocity oscillations within the SMFs when compared to the regions surrounding them. Our findings indicate that the nature of the interaction of acoustic waves with the quiet Sun SMFs is similar to that of large-scale magnetic fields in active regions. We also report the first results of the center-to-limb variation of such effects using the observations of the quiet Sun from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The independent verification of these interactions using SDO/HMI suggests that the velocity power drop of 20%-30% in p-modes is fairly constant across the solar disk.

  10. A COOL DUST FACTORY IN THE CRAB NEBULA: A HERSCHEL STUDY OF THE FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, H. L.; Clark, C. J. R.; Gomez, E. L.; Gear, W. K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Krause, O.; Besel, M.-A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Barlow, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Owen, P. J.; Matsuura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Rho, J. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ivison, R. J.; Sibthorpe, B. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Polehampton, E. T. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-20

    Whether supernovae are major sources of dust in galaxies is a long-standing debate. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Crab Nebula between 51 and 670 {mu}m as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program. We compare the emission detected with Herschel with multiwavelength data including millimeter, radio, mid-infrared, and archive optical images. We carefully remove the synchrotron component using the Herschel and Planck fluxes measured in the same epoch. The contribution from line emission is removed using Herschel spectroscopy combined with Infrared Space Observatory archive data. Several forbidden lines of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are detected where multiple velocity components are resolved, deduced to be from the nitrogen-depleted, carbon-rich ejecta. No spectral lines are detected in the SPIRE wavebands; in the PACS bands, the line contribution is 5% and 10% at 70 and 100 {mu}m and negligible at 160 {mu}m. After subtracting the synchrotron and line emission, the remaining far-infrared continuum can be fit with two dust components. Assuming standard interstellar silicates, the mass of the cooler component is 0.24{sup +0.32} {sub -0.08} M {sub Sun} for T = 28.1{sup +5.5} {sub -3.2} K. Amorphous carbon grains require 0.11 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} of dust with T = 33.8{sup +2.3} {sub -1.8} K. A single temperature modified blackbody with 0.14 M {sub Sun} and 0.08 M {sub Sun} for silicate and carbon dust, respectively, provides an adequate fit to the far-infrared region of the spectral energy distribution but is a poor fit at 24-500 {mu}m. The Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust, suggesting the formation of dust in core-collapse supernova ejecta is efficient.

  11. INVESTIGATING THE RELIABILITY OF CORONAL EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION DIAGNOSTICS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-10-10

    Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on board Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the 'true' distributions from the model, we assess the limitations of the diagnostics as a function of the plasma parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with significantly different density overlap along the line of sight. When using AIA synthetic data the derived EMDs reproduce the true EMDs much less accurately, especially for broad EMDs. The differences between the two instruments are due to the: (1) smaller number of constraints provided by AIA data and (2) broad temperature response function of the AIA channels which provide looser constraints to the temperature distribution. Our results suggest that EMDs derived from current observatories may often show significant discrepancies from the true EMDs, rendering their interpretation fraught with uncertainty. These inherent limitations to the method should be carefully considered when using these distributions to constrain coronal heating.

  12. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF A LARGE-SCALE WAVE EVENT IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE: FROM PHOTOSPHERE TO CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu

    2012-06-20

    For the first time, we report a large-scale wave that was observed simultaneously in the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and low corona layers of the solar atmosphere. Using the high temporal and high spatial resolution observations taken by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope at Hida Observatory and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board Solar Dynamic Observatory, we find that the wave evolved synchronously at different heights of the solar atmosphere, and it propagated at a speed of 605 km s{sup -1} and showed a significant deceleration (-424 m s{sup -2}) in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations. During the initial stage, the wave speed in the EUV observations was 1000 km s{sup -1}, similar to those measured from the AIA 1700 A (967 km s{sup -1}) and 1600 A (893 km s{sup -1}) observations. The wave was reflected by a remote region with open fields, and a slower wave-like feature at a speed of 220 km s{sup -1} was also identified following the primary fast wave. In addition, a type-II radio burst was observed to be associated with the wave. We conclude that this wave should be a fast magnetosonic shock wave, which was first driven by the associated coronal mass ejection and then propagated freely in the corona. As the shock wave propagated, its legs swept the solar surface and thereby resulted in the wave signatures observed in the lower layers of the solar atmosphere. The slower wave-like structure following the primary wave was probably caused by the reconfiguration of the low coronal magnetic fields, as predicted in the field-line stretching model.

  13. SOLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES, CORONAL POTENTIAL FIELD MODELS AND ERUPTION RATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie, G. J. D.

    2013-05-10

    We study the evolution of the observed photospheric magnetic field and the modeled global coronal magnetic field during the past 3 1/2 solar activity cycles observed since the mid-1970s. We use synoptic magnetograms and extrapolated potential-field models based on longitudinal full-disk photospheric magnetograms from the National Solar Observatory's three magnetographs at Kitt Peak, the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun vector spectro-magnetograph, the spectro-magnetograph and the 512-channel magnetograph instruments, and from Stanford University's Wilcox Solar Observatory. The associated multipole field components are used to study the dominant length scales and symmetries of the coronal field. Polar field changes are found to be well correlated with active fields over most of the period studied, except between 2003 and 2006 when the active fields did not produce significant polar field changes. Of the axisymmetric multipoles, only the dipole and octupole follow the poles whereas the higher orders follow the activity cycle. All non-axisymmetric multipole strengths are well correlated with the activity cycle. The tilt of the solar dipole is therefore almost entirely due to active-region fields. The axial dipole and octupole are the largest contributors to the global field except while the polar fields are reversing. This influence of the polar fields extends to modulating eruption rates. According to the Computer Aided CME Tracking, Solar Eruptive Event Detection System, and Nobeyama radioheliograph prominence eruption catalogs, the rate of solar eruptions is found to be systematically higher for active years between 2003 and 2012 than for those between 1997 and 2002. This behavior appears to be connected with the weakness of the late-cycle 23 polar fields as suggested by Luhmann. We see evidence that the process of cycle 24 field reversal is well advanced at both poles.

  14. THE LONGITUDINAL PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT INVESTIGATED USING MODERN SOLAR IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Sheeley, N. R.; Tylka, A.; Vourlidas, A.; Rakowski, C.; Ng, C. K.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mason, G. M.; Reames, D.; Savani, N. P.; StCyr, O. C.; Szabo, A.

    2012-06-10

    We use combined high-cadence, high-resolution, and multi-point imaging by the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory to investigate the hour-long eruption of a fast and wide coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2011 March 21 when the twin STEREO spacecraft were located beyond the solar limbs. We analyze the relation between the eruption of the CME, the evolution of an Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) wave, and the onset of a solar energetic particle (SEP) event measured in situ by the STEREO and near-Earth orbiting spacecraft. Combined ultraviolet and white-light images of the lower corona reveal that in an initial CME lateral 'expansion phase', the EUV disturbance tracks the laterally expanding flanks of the CME, both moving parallel to the solar surface with speeds of {approx}450 km s{sup -1}. When the lateral expansion of the ejecta ceases, the EUV disturbance carries on propagating parallel to the solar surface but devolves rapidly into a less coherent structure. Multi-point tracking of the CME leading edge and the effects of the launched compression waves (e.g., pushed streamers) give anti-sunward speeds that initially exceed 900 km s{sup -1} at all measured position angles. We combine our analysis of ultraviolet and white-light images with a comprehensive study of the velocity dispersion of energetic particles measured in situ by particle detectors located at STEREO-A (STA) and first Lagrange point (L1), to demonstrate that the delayed solar particle release times at STA and L1 are consistent with the time required (30-40 minutes) for the CME to perturb the corona over a wide range of longitudes. This study finds an association between the longitudinal extent of the perturbed corona (in EUV and white light) and the longitudinal extent of the SEP event in the heliosphere.

  15. Overlying extreme-ultraviolet arcades preventing eruption of a filament observed by AIA/SDO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Huadong; Ma, Suli; Zhang, Jun

    2013-11-20

    Using the multi-wavelength data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamic Observatory (AIA/SDO) and the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation/Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (SECCHI/STEREO), we report a failed filament eruption in NOAA AR 11339 on 2011 November 3. The eruption was associated with an X1.9 flare, but without any coronal mass ejection (CME), coronal dimming, or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves. Some magnetic arcades above the filament were observed distinctly in EUV channels, especially in the AIA 94 and 131 wavebands, before and during the filament eruption process. Our results show that the overlying arcades expanded along with the ascent of the filament at first until they reached a projected height of about 49 Mm above the Sun's surface, where they stopped. The following filament material was observed to be confined by the stopped EUV arcades and not to escape from the Sun. After the flare, a new filament formed at the low corona where part of the former filament remained before its eruption. These results support that the overlying arcades play an important role in preventing the filament from successfully erupting outward. We also discuss in this paper the EUV emission of the overlying arcades during the flare. It is rare for a failed filament eruption to be associated with an X1.9 class flare, but not with a CME or EUV waves. Therefore, this study also provides valuable insight into the triggering mechanism of the initiation of CMEs and EUV waves.

  16. Observational evidence of torus instability as trigger mechanism for coronal mass ejections: The 2011 August 4 filament eruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuccarello, F. P.; Poedts, S.; Seaton, D. B.; Mierla, M.; Rachmeler, L. A.; Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F. E-mail: Stefaan.Poedts@wis.kuleuven.be E-mail: marilena@oma.be E-mail: Paolo.Romano@oact.inaf.it

    2014-04-20

    Solar filaments are magnetic structures often observed in the solar atmosphere and consist of plasma that is cooler and denser than their surroundings. They are visible for dayseven weekswhich suggests that they are often in equilibrium with their environment before disappearing or erupting. Several eruption models have been proposed that aim to reveal what mechanism causes (or triggers) these solar eruptions. Validating these models through observations represents a fundamental step in our understanding of solar eruptions. We present an analysis of the observation of a filament eruption that agrees with the torus instability model. This model predicts that a magnetic flux rope embedded in an ambient field undergoes an eruption when the axis of the flux rope reaches a critical height that depends on the topology of the ambient field. We use the two vantage points of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory to reconstruct the three-dimensional shape of the filament, to follow its morphological evolution, and to determine its height just before eruption. The magnetograms acquired by SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager are used to infer the topology of the ambient field and to derive the critical height for the onset of the torus instability. Our analysis shows that the torus instability is the trigger of the eruption. We also find that some pre-eruptive processes, such as magnetic reconnection during the observed flares and flux cancellation at the neutral line, facilitated the eruption by bringing the filament to a region where the magnetic field was more vulnerable to the torus instability.

  17. Observation and modeling of geocoronal charge exchange X-ray emission during solar wind gusts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wargelin, B. J.; Kornbleuth, M.; Juda, M.; Martin, P. L.

    2014-11-20

    Solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions such as O{sup 7{sup +}} collide with neutral gas, including the Earth's tenuous outer atmosphere (exosphere or geocorona) and hydrogen and helium from the local interstellar medium drifting through the heliosphere. This geocoronal and heliospheric emission comprises a significant and varying fraction of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) and is seen in every X-ray observation, with the intensity dependent on solar wind conditions and observation geometry. Under the right conditions, geocoronal emission can increase the apparent SXRB by roughly an order of magnitude for an hour or more. In this work, we study a dozen occasions when the near-Earth solar wind flux was exceptionally high. These gusts of wind lead to abrupt changes in SWCX X-ray emission around Earth, which may or may not be seen by X-ray observatories depending on their line of sight. Using detailed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere, and element abundances and ionization states measured by ACE, we model the time-dependent brightness of major geocoronal SWCX emission lines during those gusts and compare with changes in the X-ray background measured by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We find reasonably good agreement between model and observation, with measured geocoronal line brightnesses averaged over 1 hr of up to 136 photons s{sup 1} cm{sup 2} sr{sup 1} in the O VII K? triplet around 564 eV.

  18. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidoni, S. E.; Plowman, J. E.

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  19. BROAD-LINE REVERBERATION IN THE KEPLER-FIELD SEYFERT GALAXY Zw 229-015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Nguyen, My L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Cenko, S. Bradley; Choi, Jieun; Duchene, Gaspard; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Gorjian, Varoujan; Joner, Michael D.; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Botyanszki, Janos; Childress, Michael; Cucciara, Antonino; Comerford, Julia M.; Da Silva, Robert; Gates, Elinor L.; Gerke, Brian F.

    2011-05-10

    The Seyfert 1 galaxy Zw 229-015 is among the brightest active galaxies being monitored by the Kepler mission. In order to determine the black hole mass in Zw 229-015 from H{beta} reverberation mapping, we have carried out nightly observations with the Kast Spectrograph at the Lick 3 m telescope during the dark runs from 2010 June through December, obtaining 54 spectroscopic observations in total. We have also obtained nightly V-band imaging with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory and with the 0.9 m telescope at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory over the same period. We detect strong variability in the source, which exhibited more than a factor of two change in broad H{beta} flux. From cross-correlation measurements, we find that the H{beta} light curve has a rest-frame lag of 3.86{sup +0.69}{sub -0.90} days with respect to the V-band continuum variations. We also measure reverberation lags for H{alpha} and H{gamma} and find an upper limit to the H{delta} lag. Combining the H{beta} lag measurement with a broad H{beta} width of {sigma}{sub line} = 1590 {+-} 47 km s{sup -1} measured from the rms variability spectrum, we obtain a virial estimate of M{sub BH} = 1.00{sup +0.19}{sub -0.24} x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun} for the black hole in Zw 229-015. As a Kepler target, Zw 229-015 will eventually have one of the highest-quality optical light curves ever measured for any active galaxy, and the black hole mass determined from reverberation mapping will serve as a benchmark for testing relationships between black hole mass and continuum variability characteristics in active galactic nuclei.

  20. A flare observed in coronal, transition region, and helium I 10830 Å emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Zhicheng; Cao, Wenda; Qiu, Jiong; Judge, Philip G.

    2014-10-01

    On 2012 June 17, we observed the evolution of a C-class flare associated with the eruption of a filament near a large sunspot in the active region NOAA 11504. We obtained high spatial resolution filtergrams using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory in broadband TiO at 706 nm (bandpass: 10 Å) and He I 10830 Å narrow band (bandpass: 0.5 Å, centered 0.25 Å to the blue). We analyze the spatio-temporal behavior of the He I 10830 Å data, which were obtained over a 90''×90'' field of view with a cadence of 10 s. We also analyze simultaneous data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, and data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and GOES spacecrafts. Non-thermal effects are ignored in this analysis. Several quantitative aspects of the data, as well as models derived using the '0D' enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops model code, indicate that the triplet states of the 10830 Å multiplet are populated by photoionization of chromospheric plasma followed by radiative recombination. Surprisingly, the He II 304 Å line is reasonably well matched by standard emission measure calculations, along with the C IV emission which dominates the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly 1600 Å channel during flares. This work lends support to some of our previous work combining X-ray, EUV, and UV data of flares to build models of energy transport from corona to chromosphere.