Sample records for observation experiment probe

  1. SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS PROBED BY ANNEALING EXPERIMENTS REFLECTING SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Gillot, Jessy; Leroux, Hugues [Laboratoire de Structure et Proprietes de l'Etat Solide, Universite de Lille1, CNRS, UMR 8008, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Capet, Frederic; Roussel, Pascal, E-mail: mathieu.roskosz@univ-lille1.f [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, Universite de Lille1, CNRS, UMR 8181, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

    2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyroxenes and olivines are the dominant crystalline silicates observed in protoplanetary disks. Recent spectral observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope indicate that the abundance of olivine, generally associated with silica polymorphs, relative to pyroxene is higher in the outer cold part of the disk than in the inner warmer part. The interpretation of these unexpected results requires a comprehensive knowledge of the thermal processing of Mg-rich silicate dust. In this respect, amorphous analogs were thermally annealed to identify microscopic crystallization mechanisms. We show that pyroxenes are not produced in significant proportions below the glass transition temperature of the amorphous precursor. The annealing of amorphous enstatite leads to a mineralogical assemblage dominated by forsterite, with only minute amounts of pyroxenes at temperatures as high as the glass transition temperature of enstatite (1050 K). The decoupling of cation mobility in amorphous silicates, favors the crystallization of the most Mg-enriched silicates. These results are consistent with Spitzer observations of silicate dust and also with the documented mineralogy of presolar silicates, making the low-temperature annealing a likely formation process for these objects. Based on these laboratory experiments and Spitzer observations, it appears that the reported zoned mineralogy may directly records and calibrates the thermal gradient at the scale of protoplanetary disks.

  2. Observational constraints of stellar collapse: Diagnostic probes of nature's extreme matter experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fryer, Chris L., E-mail: fryer@lanl.gov; Even, Wesley [CCS Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [CCS Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W. [Space Radiation Lab, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Space Radiation Lab, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wong, Tsing-Wai [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States) [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Supernovae are Nature's high-energy, high density laboratory experiments, reaching densities in excess of nuclear densities and temperatures above 10 MeV. Astronomers have built up a suite of diagnostics to study these supernovae. If we can utilize these diagnostics, and tie them together with a theoretical understanding of supernova physics, we can use these cosmic explosions to study the nature of matter at these extreme densities and temperatures. Capitalizing on these diagnostics will require understanding a wide range of additional physics. Here we review the diagnostics and the physics neeeded to use them to learn about the supernova engine, and ultimate nuclear physics.

  3. Can a Pump-probe Experiment be Simulated Efficiently?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosloff, Ronnie

    Can a Pump-probe Experiment be Simulated Efficiently? Thesis Submitted for the Degree Doctor things in the world. #12;i ABSTRACT Measuring a quantum system disturbs its evolution. A pump-probe exper measurements. Modeling the evolution of observables in the pump-probe experiment is an essential ingredient

  4. Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    current produced the "bays" (decreases in the ground-level geomagnetic field) measured in magnetogram current" around Earth and its association with geomagnetic storms began in the early days of the twentieth Storm Probes (RBSP) spacecraft is the magnetosphere ring current instrument that will provide data

  5. Shelving and Probe Efficiency in Trapped Ion Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schacht, M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized probe sequence typical of trapped ion experiments using shelving is studied. Detection efficiency is analyzed for finite shelved state lifetimes and using multi-modal count distributions. Multi-modal distributions are more appropriate for measurements that use a small number of ions than the simple Poisson counting statistics usually considered and have a larger variance that may be significant in determining uncertainties and in making weighted fits. Optimal probe times and the resulting state detection efficiency and sensitivity are determined for arbitrary cooling rates, initial states and shelved state lifetimes, in terms of a probe coherence time {\\tau}p. A universal optimal probe time of tp ~ 0.43{\\tau}p is shown to give an almost optimal probe sensitivity for most systems.

  6. New probe at EMSL observes interface kinetics | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    catalyze electrode surfaces and shuttle electrons externally, as in a microbial fuel cell. The E probe is available at EMSL. Read more from the PNNL Fundamental and...

  7. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments at the LCLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glownia, James; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Cryan, J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Andreasson, J.; /Uppsala U.; Belkacem, A.; /LBNL, Berkeley; Berrah, N.; /Western Michigan U.; Blaga, C.L.; /Ohio State U.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J.; /SLAC; DiMauro, L.F.; /Ohio State U.; Fang, L.; /Western Michigan U.; Frisch, J.; /SLAC; Gessner, O.; /LBNL; Guhr, M.; /SLAC; Hajdu, J.; /Uppsala U.; Hertlein, M.P.; /LBNL; Hoener, M.; /Western Michigan U. /LBNL; Huang, G.; Kornilov, O.; /LBNL; Marangos, J.P.; /Imperial Coll., London; March, A.M.; /Argonne; McFarland, B.K.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /IRAMIS, Saclay /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Georgia Tech /Argonne /Kansas State U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC /LBNL /Argonne /SLAC /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; ,

    2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The first time-resolved x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) used a combination of feedback methods and post-analysis binning techniques to synchronize an ultrafast optical laser to the linac-based x-ray laser. Transient molecular nitrogen alignment revival features were resolved in time-dependent x-ray-induced fragmentation spectra. These alignment features were used to find the temporal overlap of the pump and probe pulses. The strong-field dissociation of x-ray generated quasi-bound molecular dications was used to establish the residual timing jitter. This analysis shows that the relative arrival time of the Ti:Sapphire laser and the x-ray pulses had a distribution with a standard deviation of approximately 120 fs. The largest contribution to the jitter noise spectrum was the locking of the laser oscillator to the reference RF of the accelerator, which suggests that simple technical improvements could reduce the jitter to better than 50 fs.

  8. LOCAL PROBE IN A RAYLEIGH-BENARD EXPERIMENT IN LIQUID HELIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-369 LOCAL PROBE IN A RAYLEIGH-BENARD EXPERIMENT IN LIQUID HELIUM A. LIBCHABER and J. MAURER. Abstract. 2014 We have measured, in a Rayleigh-Benard experiment in liquid helium, the time dependent-Benard experiment in liquid helium, using for the first time a local probe. Time dependent effects above

  9. Three envelope approach for ultrafast pulse characterization in a pump-probe experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Three envelope approach for ultrafast pulse characterization in a pump-probe experiment Balakishore of temporally identical ultrashort pulses at the focal point in a pump-probe experiment for potential use, fundamental, and second harmonic spectra, combined with an error minimization pulse retrieval scheme

  10. Analysis of cylindrical Langmuir probe using experiment and different theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassouba, M. A., E-mail: hassouba@yahoo.com [Benha University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Egypt); Galaly, A. R. [Umm Al-Qura University, Engineering Science Department, Faculty of Community (Saudi Arabia)] [Umm Al-Qura University, Engineering Science Department, Faculty of Community (Saudi Arabia); Rashed, U. M. [Alazhar University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Egypt)] [Alazhar University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Egypt)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cylindrical probe data have been analyzed using different theories in order to determine some plasma parameters (electron temperature and electron and ion densities). Langmuir probe data are obtained in a cylindrical DC glow discharge in the positive column plasma at argon gas pressures varied from 0.5 to 6 Torr and at constant discharge current equal to 10 mA. The electron density has calculated from the electron current at the space potential and from Orbital Motion Limited (OML) collisionless theory. Ion density has obtained from the OML analysis of the ion saturation currents. In addition, the electron temperature has measured by three different methods using probe and electrons currents. The electron temperature T{sub e}, plasma density n{sub e}, and space potential V{sub s}, have been obtained from the measured single cylindrical probe I-V characteristic curves. The radial distribution of the electron temperature and plasma density along the glow discharge are measured and discussed. Using the collisionless theories by Langmuir cylindrical probe and up to several Torr argon gas pressures the differences between the values of electron temperature and electron and ion densities stay within reasonable error limits.

  11. FIVE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE OBSERVATIONS: SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, E. L.; Chen, X. [UCLA Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Weiland, J. L. [Adnet Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Hinshaw, G.; Wollack, E.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, 2511 Speedway, RLM 15.306, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W. 120th St., Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)], E-mail: wright@astro.ucla.edu (and others)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the list of point sources found in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) five-year maps. The technique used in the first-year and three-year analyses now finds 390 point sources, and the five-year source catalog is complete for regions of the sky away from the Galactic plane to a 2 Jy limit, with SNR >4.7 in all bands in the least covered parts of the sky. The noise at high frequencies is still mainly radiometer noise, but at low frequencies the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is the largest uncertainty. A separate search of CMB-free V-W maps finds 99 sources of which all but one can be identified with known radio sources. The sources seen by WMAP are not strongly polarized. Many of the WMAP sources show significant variability from year to year, with more than a 2:1 range between the minimum and maximum fluxes.

  12. Influence of Solar-ProbeInherent Atmosphereon In-Situ Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    the intense solar heat. For perihelion distances of radius R = 4-10 solar radii, R, (the values proposedInfluence of Solar-ProbeInherent Atmosphereon In-Situ Observations A. Hassanein Argonne National or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or use- fulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process

  13. Probing CP violation at LBNE with reactor experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debajyoti Dutta; Kalpana Bora

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we have explored the possibilities of improving CP violation discovery potential of newly planned Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE), U.S.A., by combining with data from reactors. The third mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ is now very precisely measured and this precise measurenent of $\\theta_{13}$ helps in measurement of CP violation. Here, CP violation is studied with and without data from reactors. Impact of placing a ND is also studied. It is found that CPV discovery potential of LBNE with ND increases when combined with data from reactors. With a far detector of 35 kt, it is possible to obtain 5$\\sigma$ sensitivity of CPV when run for 5 years in $\

  14. Bubbly Flow Experiment in Channel Using an Optical Probe and Tracking Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Abdul

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    was inserted through a porous media at three superficial gas velocities: 4.6 mm/s, 2.5 mm/s, and 1.4 mm/s. Two techniques were applied in the experiment to measure the bubbly flow: an optical probe and an in-house developed tracking algorithm. Measurements...

  15. Modified Gravitational Theory and the Gravity Probe-B Gyroscope Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Moffat

    2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A possible deviation from the precession of the Gravity Probe-B gyroscope predicted by general relativity is obtained in the nonsymmetric gravity theory. The time delay of radio signals emitted by spacecraft at planetary distances from the Sun, in nonsymmetric gravity theory is the same as in general relativity. A correction to the precession of the gyroscope would provide a possible experimental signature for the Gravity Probe-B gyroscope experiment. The Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect is predicted to be the same as in GR.

  16. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ?~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compressionmore »and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.« less

  17. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Li, C. K. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fox, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)] (ORCID:000000016289858X); Igumenshchev, I. [University of Rochester, NY (United States). Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Seguin, F. H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Town, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000168460378); Stoeckl, C. [University of Rochester, NY (United States). Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Glebov, V. [University of Rochester, NY (United States). Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000258834054)

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ?~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  18. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Li, C. K. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Fox, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543, USA] (ORCID:000000016289858X); Igumenshchev, I. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; S??guin, F. H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Town, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA] (ORCID:0000000168460378); Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Glebov, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA] (ORCID:0000000258834054)

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ß~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  19. Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilitiesa)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, H. -S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Drake, R. P.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C. C.; Lamb, D. Q.; et al

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrophysical collisionless shocks are common in the universe, occurring in supernova remnants, gamma ray bursts, and protostellar jets. They appear in colliding plasma flows when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions is much larger than the system size. It is believed that such shocks could be mediated via the electromagnetic Weibel instability in astrophysical environments without preexisting magnetic fields. Here, we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers and investigate the dynamics of high-Mach-number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Our recent proton-probe experiments on Omega show the characteristic filamentary structures of the Weibel instability that are electromagneticmore »in nature with an inferred magnetization level as high as ~1% These results imply that electromagnetic instabilities are significant in the interaction of astrophysical conditions.« less

  20. Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilitiesa)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, H. -S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Huntington, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000242079875); Fiuza, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Drake, R. P. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] (ORCID:0000000254509844); Froula, D. H. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Gregori, G. [Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Koenig, M. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Kugland, N. L. [Lam Research Corporation, Fremont, CA (United States); Kuranz, C. C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lamb, D. Q. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, CA (United States); Levy, M. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Meinecke, J. [Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Morita, T. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Petrasso, R. D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000258834054); Pollock, B. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rinderknecht, H. G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Rosenberg, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sakawa, Y. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)] (ORCID:0000000341651048); Spitkovsky, A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Takabe, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Turnbull, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tzeferacos, P. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, CA (United States); Weber, S. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrophysical collisionless shocks are common in the universe, occurring in supernova remnants, gamma ray bursts, and protostellar jets. They appear in colliding plasma flows when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions is much larger than the system size. It is believed that such shocks could be mediated via the electromagnetic Weibel instability in astrophysical environments without preexisting magnetic fields. Here, we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers and investigate the dynamics of high-Mach-number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Our recent proton-probe experiments on Omega show the characteristic filamentary structures of the Weibel instability that are electromagnetic in nature with an inferred magnetization level as high as ~1% These results imply that electromagnetic instabilities are significant in the interaction of astrophysical conditions.

  1. Probing braneworld hypothesis with a "neutron-shining-through-a-wall" experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarrazin, Michael; Lamblin, Jacob; Petit, Fabrice; Terwagne, Guy; Nesvizhevsky, Valery V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility for our visible world to be a 3-brane embedded in a multidimensional bulk is at the heart of many theoretical edifices in high energy physics. Probing the braneworld hypothesis is then a major experimental challenge. Following recent theoretical works showing that matter swapping can occur between braneworlds, we propose a "neutron-shining-through-a-wall" experiment. We first show that an intense neutron source such as a nuclear reactor core can induce a hidden neutron flux in an adjacent hidden braneworld. We then describe how a low background detector can detect neutrons arising from the hidden world and we quantify the expected sensitivity to the swapping probability. As a proof of concept, a constraint is derived from previous experiments.

  2. Probing the braneworld hypothesis with a neutron-shining-through-a-wall experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Sarrazin; Guillaume Pignol; Jacob Lamblin; Fabrice Petit; Guy Terwagne; Valery V. Nesvizhevsky

    2015-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility for our visible world to be a 3-brane embedded in a multidimensional bulk is at the heart of many theoretical edifices in high-energy physics. Probing the braneworld hypothesis is thus a major experimental challenge. Following recent theoretical works showing that matter swapping between braneworlds can occur, we propose a neutron-shining-through-a-wall experiment. We first show that an intense neutron source such as a nuclear reactor core can induce a hidden neutron flux in an adjacent hidden braneworld. We then describe how a low-background detector can detect neutrons arising from the hidden world and quantify the expected sensitivity to the swapping probability. As a proof of concept, a constraint is derived from previous experiments.

  3. Adjoint Monte Carlo Simulation of Fusion Product Activation Probe Experiment in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Äkäslompolo, Simppa; Tardini, Giovanni; Kurki-Suonio, Taina

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The activation probe is a robust tool to measure flux of fusion products from a magnetically confined plasma. A carefully chosen solid sample is exposed to the flux, and the impinging ions transmute the material makig it radioactive. Ultra-low level gamma-ray spectroscopy is used post mortem to measure the activity and, thus, the number of fusion products. This contribution presents the numerical analysis of the first measurement in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, which was also the first experiment to measure a single discharge. The ASCOT suite of codes was used to perform adjoint/reverse Monte-Carlo calculations of the fusion products. The analysis facilitated, for the first time, a comparison of numerical and experimental values for absolutely calibrated flux. The results agree to within 40%, which can be considered remarkable considering the fact that all features of the plasma cannot be accounted in the simulations. Also an alternative probe orientation was studied. The results suggest that a better optimized...

  4. Gravity Probe B: Final Results of a Space Experiment to Test General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. W. F. Everitt; D. B. DeBra; B. W. Parkinson; J. P. Turneaure; J. W. Conklin; M. I. Heifetz; G. M. Keiser; A. S. Silbergleit; T. Holmes; J. Kolodziejczak; M. Al-Meshari; J. C. Mester; B. Muhlfelder; V. Solomonik; K. Stahl; P. Worden; W. Bencze; S. Buchman; B. Clarke; A. Al-Jadaan; H. Al-Jibreen; J. Li; J. A. Lipa; J. M. Lockhart; B. Al-Suwaidan; M. Taber; S. Wang

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravity Probe B, launched 20 April 2004, is a space experiment testing two fundamental predictions of Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR), the geodetic and frame-dragging effects, by means of cryogenic gyroscopes in Earth orbit. Data collection started 28 August 2004 and ended 14 August 2005. Analysis of the data from all four gyroscopes results in a geodetic drift rate of -6,601.8+/- 18.3 mas/yr and a frame-dragging drift rate of -37.2 +/- 7.2 mas/yr, to be compared with the GR predictions of -6,606.1 mas/yr and -39.2 mas/yr, respectively (`mas' is milliarc-second; 1mas = 4.848 x 10-9 rad).

  5. Supernova/Acceleration Probe: A Satellite Experiment to Study the Nature of the Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldering, G.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bigelow, C.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Brown, M.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Craig, W.; Day, C.; DeJongh, F.; Deustua, S.; Diehl, T.; Dodelson, S.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmet, W.; Fouchez, D.; Frieman, J.; Fruchter, A.; Gerdes, D.; Gladney, L.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Hoff, M.; Holland, S.; Huffer, M.; Hui, L.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; Jelinsky, P.; Karcher, A.; Kent, S.; Kahn, S.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Kushner, G.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Lampton, M.; Le Fevre, O.; Levi, M.; Limon, P.; Lin, H.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Lorenzon, W.; Malina, R.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, P.; Massey, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Peoples, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Roe, N.; Rusin, D.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Samdja, G.; Smith, R.M.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Stebbine, A.; Stoughton, C.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Tucker, D.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.; Wester, W.

    2004-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a proposed space-based experiment designed to study the dark energy and alternative explanations of the acceleration of the Universes expansion by performing a series of complementary systematics-controlled astrophysical measurements. We here describe a self-consistent reference mission design that can accomplish this goal with the two leading measurement approaches being the Type Ia supernova Hubble diagram and a wide-area weak gravitational lensing survey. This design has been optimized to first order and is now under study for further modification and optimization. A 2-m three-mirror anastigmat wide-field telescope feeds a focal plane consisting of a 0.7 square-degree imager tiled with equal areas of optical CCDs and near infrared sensors, and a high efficiency low-resolution integral field spectrograph. The instrumentation suite provides simultaneous discovery and light-curve measurements of supernovae and then can target individual objects for detailed spectral characterization. The SNAP mission will discover thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to z = 3 and will obtain high-signal-to-noise calibrated light-curves and spectra for a subset of > 2000 supernovae at redshifts between z = 0.1 and 1.7 in a northern field and in a southern field. A wide-field survey covering one thousand square degrees in both northern and southern fields resolves {approx} 100 galaxies per square arcminute, or a total of more than 300 million galaxies. With the PSF stability afforded by a space observatory, SNAP will provide precise and accurate measurements of gravitational lensing. The high-quality data available in space, combined with the large sample of supernovae, will enable stringent control of systematic uncertainties. The resulting data set will be used to determine the energy density of dark energy and parameters that describe its dynamical behavior. The data also provide a direct test of theoretical models for the dark energy, including discrimination of vacuum energy due to the cosmological constant and various classes of dynamical scalar fields. If we assume we live in a cosmological-constant-dominated Universe, the matter density, dark energy density, and flatness of space can all be measured with SNAP supernova and weak-lensing measurements to a systematics-limited accuracy of 1 percent. For a flat universe, the density-to-pressure ratio of dark energy or equation of state w(z) can be similarly measured to 5 percent for the present value w0 and {approx} 0.1 for the time variation w' is defined as dw/d ln a bar z = 1. For a fiducial SUGRA-inspired universe, w0 and w' can be measured to an even tighter uncertainty of 0.03 and 0.06 respectively. Note that no external priors are needed. As more accurate theoretical predictions for the small-scale weak-lensing shear develop, the conservative estimates adopted here for space-based systematics should improve, allowing even tighter constraints. While the survey strategy is tailored for supernova and weak gravitational lensing observations, the large survey area, depth, spatial resolution, time-sampling, and nine-band optical to NIR photometry will support additional independent and/or complementary dark-energy measurement approaches as well as a broad range of auxiliary science programs.

  6. Observations of tropical cirrus properties in the pilot radiation observation experiment using lidar and the CSIRO ARM filter radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.J.; Patterson, G.R. [CSIRO, Victoria (Australia)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A narrow beam fast filter radiometer has been developed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The radiometer is intended to operate alongside a lidar at ARM sites in a lidar/radiometer (LIRAD) configuration. The radiometer detects in three narrow bands at 8.62-, 10.86-, and 12.04-m central wavelengths in the atmospheric window. In addition, it has a variable field aperture that varies the radiance incident on the detector and also allows the field of view to be tailored to that of a lidar used in the LIRAD technique. The radiometer was deployed in the ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) at Kavieng, Papua New Guinea in January-February 1993. The radiometer worked satisfactorily and appeared to be very stable. The radiometer was compared with a previous CSIRO radiometer and the improved performance of the ARM instrument was very evident. The ARM radiometer was also compared with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratories (ETL) interferometer and gave closely equivalent radiances. The LIRAD method was used at Kavieng to obtain the optical properties of cirrus clouds. Continuous observations of water vapor path obtained by the NOAA ETL microwave radiometer were employed to allow for the strong tropical water vapor absorption and emission. Cirrus cells that developed on one morning, independent of other clouds, had measured infrared emittances varying from <0.1 to 1.0.

  7. Report on Physics of Channelization: Theory, Experiment, and Observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudrolli, Arshad [Clark University] [Clark University

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The project involved a study of physical processes that create eroded channel and drainage networks. A particular focus was on how the shape of the channels and the network depended on the nature of the fluid flow. Our approach was to combine theoretical, experimental, and observational studies in close collaboration with Professor Daniel Rothman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laboratory -scaled experiments were developed and quantitative data on the shape of the pattern and erosion dynamics are obtained with a laser-aided topography technique and fluorescent optical imaging techniques.

  8. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mariska, John T. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  9. Probing the mechanism of rubredoxin thermal unfolding in the absence of salt bridges by temperature jump experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriques, Barbara J. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal); Saraiva, Ligia M. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal); Gomes, Claudio M. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal)]. E-mail: gomes@itqb.unl.pt

    2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubredoxins are the simplest type of iron-sulphur proteins and in recent years they have been used as model systems in protein folding and stability studies, especially the proteins from thermophilic sources. Here, we report our studies on the rubredoxin from the hyperthermophile Methanococcus jannaschii (T {sub opt} = 85 deg C), which was investigated in respect to its thermal unfolding kinetics by temperature jump experiments. Different spectroscopic probes were used to monitor distinct structural protein features during the thermal transition: the integrity of the iron-sulphur centre was monitored by visible absorption spectroscopy, whereas tertiary structure was followed by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and exposure of protein hydrophobic patches was sensed by 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate fluorescence. The studies were performed at acidic pH conditions in which any stabilising contributions from salt bridges are annulled due to protonation of protein side chain groups. In these conditions, M. jannaschii rubredoxin assumes a native-like, albeit more flexible and open conformation, as indicated by a red shift in the tryptophan emission maximum and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate binding. Temperature jumps were monitored by the three distinct techniques and showed that the protein undergoes thermal denaturation via a simple two step mechanism, as loss of tertiary structure, hydrophobic collapse, and disintegration of the iron-sulphur centre are concomitant processes. The proposed mechanism is framed with the multiphasic one proposed for Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin, showing that a common thermal unfolding mechanism is not observed between these two closely related thermophilic rubredoxins.

  10. Ortho-positronium observation in the Double Chooz Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Abe; J. C. dos Anjos; J. C. Barriere; E. Baussan; I. Bekman; M. Bergevin; T. J. C. Bezerra; L. Bezrukov; E. Blucher; C. Buck; J. Busenitz; A. Cabrera; E. Caden; L. Camilleri; R. Carr; M. Cerrada; P. -J. Chang; E. Chauveau; P. Chimenti; A. P. Collin; E. Conover; J. M. Conrad; J. I. Crespo-Anadon; K. Crum; A. S. Cucoanes; E. Damon; J. V. Dawson; J. Dhooghe; D. Dietrich; Z. Djurcic; M. Dracos; M. Elnimr; A. Etenko; M. Fallot; F. von Feilitzsch; J. Felde; S. M. Fernandes; V. Fischer; D. Franco; M. Franke; H. Furuta; I. Gil-Botella; L. Giot; M. Goger-Neff; L. F. G. Gonzalez; L. Goodenough; M. C. Goodman; C. Grant; N. Haag; T. Hara; J. Haser; M. Hofmann; G. A. Horton-Smith; A. Hourlier; M. Ishitsuka; J. Jochum; C. Jollet; F. Kaether; L. N. Kalousis; Y. Kamyshkov; D. M. Kaplan; T. Kawasaki; E. Kemp; H. de Kerret; D. Kryn; M. Kuze; T. Lachenmaier; C. E. Lane; T. Lasserre; A. Letourneau; D. Lhuillier; H. P. Lima Jr; M. Lindner; J. M. Lopez-Castano; J. M. LoSecco; B. Lubsandorzhiev; S. Lucht; J. Maeda; C. Mariani; J. Maricic; J. Martino; T. Matsubara; G. Mention; A. Meregaglia; T. Miletic; R. Milincic; A. Minotti; Y. Nagasaka; Y. Nikitenko; P. Novella; L. Oberauer; M. Obolensky; A. Onillon; A. Osborn; C. Palomares; I. M. Pepe; S. Perasso; P. Pfahler; A. Porta; G. Pronost; J. Reichenbacher; B. Reinhold; M. Rohling; R. Roncin; S. Roth; B. Rybolt; Y. Sakamoto; R. Santorelli; A. C. Schilithz; S. Schonert; S. Schoppmann; M. H. Shaevitz; R. Sharankova; S. Shimojima; D. Shrestha; V. Sibille; V. Sinev; M. Skorokhvatov; E. Smith; J. Spitz; A. Stahl; I. Stancu; L. F. F. Stokes; M. Strait; A. Stuken; F. Suekane; S. Sukhotin; T. Sumiyoshi; Y. Sun; R. Svoboda; K. Terao; A. Tonazzo; H. H. Trinh Thi; G. Valdiviesso; N. Vassilopoulos; C. Veyssiere; M. Vivier; S. Wagner; N. Walsh; H. Watanabe; C. Wiebusch; L. Winslow; M. Wurm; G. Yang; F. Yermia; V. Zimmer

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Double Chooz experiment measures the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by detecting reactor $\\bar{\

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - The ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa- PolarizationgovCampaignsSummer Single Column Model IOP ARM(PROBE) govCampaignsThe

  12. A 4 K cryogenic probe for use in magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Doran D.; Alexson, Dimitri A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)] [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Garbini, Joseph L. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The detailed design of a mechanically detected nuclear magnetic resonance probe using the SPAM (Springiness Preservation by Aligning Magnetization) geometry, operating at 4 K, in vacuum, and a several-Tesla magnetic field is described. The probe head is vibration-isolated well enough from the environment by a three-spring suspension system that the cantilever achieves thermal equilibrium with the environment without the aid of eddy current damping. The probe uses an ultra-soft Si cantilever with a Ni sphere attached to its tip, and magnetic resonance is registered as a change in the resonant frequency of the driven cantilever. The RF system uses frequency sweeps for adiabatic rapid passage using a 500 ?m diameter RF coil wound around a sapphire rod. The RF coil and optical fiber of the interferometer used to sense the cantilever's position are both located with respect to the cantilever using a Garbini micropositioner, and the sample stage is mounted on an Attocube nanopositioner.

  13. Experimental observation of ion beams in the Madison Helicon eXperiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiebold, Matt; Sung, Yung-Ta; Scharer, John E. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Argon ion beams up to E{sub b} = 165 eV at P{sub rf} = 500 W are observed in the Madison Helicon eXperiment (MadHeX) helicon source with a magnetic nozzle. A two-grid retarding potential analyzer (RPA) is used to measure the ion energy distribution, and emissive and rf-filtered Langmuir probes measure the plasma potential, electron density, and temperature. The supersonic ion beam (M = v{sub i}/c{sub s} up to 5) forms over tens of Debye lengths and extends spatially for a few ion-neutral charge-exchange mean free paths. The parametric variation of the ion beam energy is explored, including flow rate, rf power, and magnetic field dependence. The beam energy is equal to the difference in plasma potentials in the Pyrex chamber and the grounded expansion chamber. The plasma potential in the expansion chamber remains near the predicted eV{sub p} {approx} 5kT{sub e} for argon, but the upstream potential is much higher, likely due to wall charging, resulting in accelerated ion beam energies E{sub b} = e[V{sub beam} - V{sub plasma}] > 10kT{sub e}.

  14. Investigating two-photon double ionization of D{sub 2} by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Y. H.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Toppin, M.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rudenko, A.; Foucar, L. [Max-Planck Advanced Study Group at CFEL, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Perez-Torres, J. F.; Plesiat, E.; Morales, F.; Martin, F. [Departamento de Quimica C-9, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jahnke, T.; Doerner, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Frankfurt, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany); Sanz-Vicario, J. L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Tilborg, J. van; Belkacem, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We used a split-mirror setup attached to a reaction microscope at the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) to perform an XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiment by tracing the ultrafast nuclear wave-packet motion in the D{sub 2}{sup +}(1s{sigma}{sub g}) with <10 fs time resolution. Comparison with time-dependent calculations shows excellent agreement with the measured vibrational period of 22{+-}4 fs in D{sub 2}{sup +}, points to the importance of accurately knowing the internuclear distance-dependent ionization probability, and paves the way to control sequential and nonsequential two-photon double-ionization contributions.

  15. Probing the Impact of Stellar Duplicity on Planet Occurrence with Spectroscopic and Imaging Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggenberger, A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although it is commonly agreed that the presence of a close stellar companion is likely to affect planet formation and evolution, the precise effects and their actual impact on planet occurrence and properties are still debated. In particular, observational constraints are sparse, a consequence of the discrimination against close binaries in Doppler planet searches. To bring observational constraints on the occurrence and properties of planets in binaries and multiple stars, we have been conducting two dedi. observing programs using both adaptive optics imaging and radial-velocity monitoring. In this chapter we explain our approach and present preliminary results from these two programs. A simplified statistical analysis of the data from our VLT/NACO imaging survey brings the first observational evidence that the occurrence of planets is reduced in binaries closer than ~120 AU. On the radial-velocity side, current results confirm that the use of two-dimensional correlation allows to search for circumprimary g...

  16. Coaxial probe for nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion and relaxation correlation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Yiqiao; Hürlimann, Martin; Mandal, Soumyajit; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Song, Yi-Qiao, E-mail: ysong@slb.com [Schlumberger-Doll Research, 1 Hampshire Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A coaxial nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe is built to measure diffusion and relaxation properties of liquid samples. In particular, we demonstrate the acquisition of two-dimensional (2D) distribution functions (T{sub 1}-T{sub 2} and diffusion–T{sub 2}), essential for fluids characterization. The compact design holds promise for miniaturization, thus enabling the measurement of molecular diffusion that is inaccessible to conventional micro-NMR setups. Potential applications range from crude oil characterization to biomolecular screening and detections.

  17. Probing the Impact of Stellar Duplicity on Planet Occurrence with Spectroscopic and Imaging Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Eggenberger; S. Udry

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Although it is commonly agreed that the presence of a close stellar companion is likely to affect planet formation and evolution, the precise effects and their actual impact on planet occurrence and properties are still debated. In particular, observational constraints are sparse, a consequence of the discrimination against close binaries in Doppler planet searches. To bring observational constraints on the occurrence and properties of planets in binaries and multiple stars, we have been conducting two dedicated observing programs using both adaptive optics imaging and radial-velocity monitoring. In this chapter we explain our approach and present preliminary results from these two programs. A simplified statistical analysis of the data from our VLT/NACO imaging survey brings the first observational evidence that the occurrence of planets is reduced in binaries closer than ~120 AU. On the radial-velocity side, current results confirm that the use of two-dimensional correlation allows to search for circumprimary giant planets in many types of spectroscopic binaries. Definitive results from our ongoing planet search in spectroscopic binaries should yield important constraints on the closest binaries susceptible of hosting circumprimary giant planets.

  18. Constraints on the symmetry energy from observational probes of the neutron star crust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newton, William G; Gearheart, Michael; Murphy, Kyleah; Wen, De-Hua; Fattoyev, Farrukh; Li, Bao-An

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of observed phenomena associated with individual neutron star systems or neutron star populations find explanations in models in which the neutron star crust plays an important role. We review recent work examining the sensitivity to the slope of the symmetry energy $L$ of such models, and constraints extracted on $L$ from confronting them with observations. We focus on six sets of observations and proposed explanations: (i) The cooling rate of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A, confronting cooling models which include enhanced cooling in the nuclear pasta regions of the inner crust, (ii) the upper limit of the observed periods of young X-ray pulsars, confronting models of magnetic field decay in the crust caused by the high resistivity of the nuclear pasta layer, (iii) glitches from the Vela pulsar, confronting the paradigm that they arise due to a sudden re-coupling of the crustal neutron superfluid to the crustal lattice after a period during which they were decoupled due to vortex pinning, (iv) Th...

  19. Constraints on the symmetry energy from observational probes of the neutron star crust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William G. Newton; Joshua Hooker; Michael Gearheart; Kyleah Murphy; De-Hua Wen; Farrukh Fattoyev; Bao-An Li

    2015-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of observed phenomena associated with individual neutron star systems or neutron star populations find explanations in models in which the neutron star crust plays an important role. We review recent work examining the sensitivity to the slope of the symmetry energy $L$ of such models, and constraints extracted on $L$ from confronting them with observations. We focus on six sets of observations and proposed explanations: (i) The cooling rate of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A, confronting cooling models which include enhanced cooling in the nuclear pasta regions of the inner crust, (ii) the upper limit of the observed periods of young X-ray pulsars, confronting models of magnetic field decay in the crust caused by the high resistivity of the nuclear pasta layer, (iii) glitches from the Vela pulsar, confronting the paradigm that they arise due to a sudden re-coupling of the crustal neutron superfluid to the crustal lattice after a period during which they were decoupled due to vortex pinning, (iv) The frequencies of quasi-periodic oscillations in the X-ray tail of light curves from giant flares from soft gamma-ray repeaters, confronting models of torsional crust oscillations, (v) the upper limit on the frequency to which millisecond pulsars can be spun-up due to accretion from a binary companion, confronting models of the r-mode instability arising above a threshold frequency determined in part by the viscous dissipation timescale at the crust-core boundary, and (vi) the observations of precursor electromagnetic flares a few seconds before short gamma-ray bursts, confronting a model of crust shattering caused by resonant excitation of a crustal oscillation mode by the tidal gravitational field of a companion neutron star just before merger.

  20. Contributions of the electronic spin and orbital current to the CoCl{sub 4}{sup 2-} magnetic field probed in polarised neutron diffraction experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassam-Chenaie, Patrick [Laboratoire J. A. Dieudonne, UMR 6621 du CNRS, Faculte des Sciences, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France); Jayatilaka, Dylan [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Polarised neutron diffraction experiments conducted at 4.2 K on Cs{sub 3}CoCl{sub 5} crystals have been analysed by using a four-dimensional model Hilbert space made of ab initio n-electron wave functions of the CoCl{sub 4}{sup 2-} molecular ion. Two spin-orbit mixing coefficients and several configuration interaction coefficients have been optimized by fitting calculated magnetic structure factors to experimental ones, to obtain the best ensemble density operator that is representable in the model space. A goodness of fit, {chi}{sup 2}, less then 1 has been obtained for the first time for the two experimental data sets available. In the present article, the optimized density operators are used to calculate the magnetic field densities that are the genuine observables probed in neutron diffraction experiments. Density maps of such observables are presented for the first time and numerical details are provided. The respective contributions of spin density and orbital current to the magnetic field density are analyzed.

  1. Interaction of the 4-rotational gauge field with orbital momentum, gravidiamagnetic effect, and orbital experiment ''Gravity Probe B''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babourova, O. V.; Frolov, B. N. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, Department of Physics for Nature Sciences, Krasnoprudnaya 14, Moscow 107140 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct interaction of the 4-rotational (Lorentzian) gauge field with angular orbital momentum of an external field is considered. This interaction appears in a new Poincare gauge theory of gravitation, in which tetrads are not true gauge fields, but represent some functions of the translational and 4-rotational gauge fields. The given interaction leads to a new effect: the existence of an electronic orbit precession under the action of an intensive external gravitational field (gravidiamagnetic effect), and also substantiates the existence of the direct interaction of the proper angular momentum of a gyroscope with the torsion field, which theoretically can be generated by the rotational angular momentum of the planet Earth. The latter interaction can be detected by the experiment Gravity Probe B on the satellite orbit.

  2. Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-Pump -- XUV-Probe experiments at FLASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FLASH Collaboration; Jiang, Y.; Rudenko, A.; Perez-Torres, J.; Foucar, L.; Kurka, M.; Kuhnel, K.; Toppin, M.; Plesiat, E.; Morales, F.; Martin, F.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M.; Jahnke, T.; Dorner, R.; Sanz-Vicario, J.; van Tilborg, J.; Belkacem, A.; Schulz, M.; Ueda, K.; Zouros, T.; Dusterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Schroter, C.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.

    2010-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a novel split-mirror set-up attached to a Reaction Microscope at the Free electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) we demonstrate an XUV-pump -- XUV-probe ((hbar omega = 38 eV) experiment by tracing the ultra-fast nuclear wave-packet motion in the D2+ (1s sigma g-state) with<10 fs time resolution. Comparison with time-dependent calculations yields excellent agreement with the measured vibrational period of 22+-4 fs in D2+, points to the importance of the inter-nuclear distance dependent ionization probability and paves the way to control sequential and non-sequential two-photon double ionization contributions.

  3. Recent Results on Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma with the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosek, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jets provide a powerful tool for probing the dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma created in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. The modification of high-pT parton showers as they propagate in the quark-gluon plasma, often referred to as "jet quenching", provides insight on the short-distance dynamics of the plasma. Jet quenching has been observed in a variety of single jet, dijet, and photon-jet measurements at the LHC as well as in measurements of modified production of charged-particle These results will be presented along with a survey of results of control measurements in Pb+Pb and p+Pb collisions including electroweak final states.

  4. Observation of Magnetocoriolis Waves in a Liquid Metal Taylor-Couette Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nornberg, M. D.; Ji, H.; Schartman, E.; Roach, A.; Goodman, J. [Center for Magnetic Self Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451 Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The first observation of fast and slow magnetocoriolis (MC) waves in a laboratory experiment is reported. Rotating nonaxisymmetric modes arising from a magnetized turbulent Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal are identified as the fast and slow MC waves by the dependence of the rotation frequency on the applied field strength. The observed slow MC wave is damped but the observation provides a means for predicting the onset of the magnetorotational instability.

  5. Observation of Magnetocoriolis Waves in a Liquid Metal Taylor-Couette Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.D. Nornberg, H. Ji, E. Schartman, A. Roach, and J. Goodman

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The first observation of fast and slow magnetocoriolis (MC) waves in a laboratory experiment is reported. Rotating nonaxisymmetric modes arising from a magnetized turbulent Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal are identified as the fast and slow MC waves by the dependence of the rotation frequency on the applied field strength. The observed slow MC wave is marginally damped but will become destabilized by the magnetorotational instability with a modest increase in rotation rate.

  6. Discovery potential of xenon-based neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in light of small angular scale CMB observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Peña-Garay, C., E-mail: gomez@mail.cern.ch, E-mail: jmalbos@ific.uv.es, E-mail: jmunoz@ific.uv.es, E-mail: penya@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valencia Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46090 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has probed an expanded angular range of the CMB temperature power spectrum. Their recent analysis of the latest cosmological data prefers nonzero neutrino masses, with ?m{sub ?} = (0.32±0.11) eV. This result, if confirmed by the upcoming Planck data, has deep implications on the discovery of the nature of neutrinos. In particular, the values of the effective neutrino mass m{sub ??} involved in neutrinoless double beta decay (??0?) are severely constrained for both the direct and inverse hierarchy, making a discovery much more likely. In this paper, we focus in xenon-based ??0? experiments, on the double grounds of their good performance and the suitability of the technology to large-mass scaling. We show that the current generation, with effective masses in the range of 100 kg and conceivable exposures in the range of 500 kg·year, could already have a sizeable opportunity to observe ??0? events, and their combined discovery potential is quite large. The next generation, with an exposure in the range of 10 ton·year, would have a much more enhanced sensitivity, in particular due to the very low specific background that all the xenon technologies (liquid xenon, high-pressure xenon and xenon dissolved in liquid scintillator) can achieve. In addition, a high-pressure xenon gas TPC also features superb energy resolution. We show that such detector can fully explore the range of allowed effective Majorana masses, thus making a discovery very likely.

  7. In-situ observation of a soap film catenoid - a simple educational physics experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masato Ito; Taku Sato

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional.To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as a minimal surface.Using soap film, we create catenoids between two rings and characterize the catenoid in-situ while varying distance between rings. The shape of the soap film is very interesting and can be explained using dynamic mechanics. By observing catenoid, physics students can observe local extrema phenomena. We stress that in-situ observation of soap film catenoids is an appropriate physics experiment that combines theory and experimentation.

  8. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) for the Mid-Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Waight, K; Manobianco, J; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region, which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area (Figure 1) that includes the Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. There are two tasks in the current project effort designed to validate the Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) observational system deployment approach in order to move closer to the overall goal: (1) Perform an Observing System Experiment (OSE) using a data denial approach. The results of this task are presented in a separate report. (2) Conduct a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for the Mid-Colombia basin region. This report presents the results of the OSSE task. The specific objective is to test strategies for future deployment of observing systems in order to suggest the best and most efficient ways to improve wind forecasting at BPA wind farm locations. OSSEs have been used for many years in meteorology to evaluate the potential impact of proposed observing systems, determine tradeoffs in instrument design, and study the most effective data assimilation methodologies to incorporate the new observations into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (Atlas 1997; Lord 1997). For this project, a series of OSSEs will allow consideration of the impact of new observing systems of various types and in various locations.

  9. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (El Cerrito, CA); Chemla, Daniel S. (Kensington, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, David (San Francisco, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  10. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  11. Low-energy quantum gravity: new challenges for an experiment and observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael A. Ivanov

    2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Some new challenges for an experiment and observation, which are consequences of the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author, are considered here. In particular, the property of asymptotic freedom of this model leads to the unexpected consequence: if a black hole arises due to a collapse of a matter with some characteristic mass of particles, its full mass should be restricted from the bottom. For usual baryonic matter, this limit of mass is of the order $10^{7}M_{\\odot}$.

  12. Can quantum fractal fluctuations be observed in an atom-optics kicked rotor experiment?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Tomadin; Riccardo Mannella; Sandro Wimberger

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the parametric fluctuations in the quantum survival probability of an open version of the delta-kicked rotor model in the deep quantum regime. Spectral arguments [Guarneri I and Terraneo M 2001 Phys. Rev. E vol. 65 015203(R)] predict the existence of parametric fractal fluctuations owing to the strong dynamical localisation of the eigenstates of the kicked rotor. We discuss the possibility of observing such dynamically-induced fractality in the quantum survival probability as a function of the kicking period for the atom-optics realisation of the kicked rotor. The influence of the atoms' initial momentum distribution is studied as well as the dependence of the expected fractal dimension on finite-size effects of the experiment, such as finite detection windows and short measurement times. Our results show that clear signatures of fractality could be observed in experiments with cold atoms subjected to periodically flashed optical lattices, which offer an excellent control on interaction times and the initial atomic ensemble.

  13. Small ASM probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, J.N.; Olinger, B.; Vorthman, J.E.; Wilder, L.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A part of the ongoing effort to miniaturize the adjoint sensitivity method (ASM) probe, six small probes in different configurations were tested on a single experiment. The results of the different configurations are presented. The ASM probe is quite accurate and its performance is well understood in those situations where we have a relatively large area that has 1-D flow. Area is expensive and it is desirable to make measurements using a minimum of this resource. When we confine ourselves to a small area we get electromagnetic effects and perturbations in the hydrodynamic flows that were absent in experiments whose lateral extent was large enough to effectively eliminate these problems. We are forced toward magnet and coil configurations that are not ideal for best accuracy. In the experiment described in this report, we describe and report the results of six ASM probes that approach the goal of using less area. 2 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Probing the outer edge of an accretion disk: A Her X-1 turn-on observed with RXTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Kuster; J. Wilms; R. Staubert; W. A. Heindl; R. E. Rothschild; N. I. Shakura; K. A. Postnov

    2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the analysis of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the turn-on phase of a 35 day cycle of the X-ray binary Her X-1. During the early phases of the turn-on, the energy spectrum is composed of X-rays scattered into the line of sight plus heavily absorbed X-rays. The energy spectra in the 3-17 keV range can be described by a partial covering model, where one of the components is influenced by photoelectric absorption and Thomson scattering in cold material plus an iron emission line at 6.5 keV. In this paper we show the evolution of spectral parameters as well as the evolution of the pulse profile during the turn-on. We describe this evolution using Monte Carlo simulations which self-consistently describe the evolution of the X-ray pulse profile and of the energy spectrum.

  15. Sangamon field experiments: observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer over land

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, B.B.; Hess, G.D.; Wesely, M.L.; Yamada, T.; Frenzen, P.; Hart, R.L.; Sisterson, D.L.; Hess, P.E.; Kulhanek, F.C.; Lipschutz, R.C.; Zerbe, G.A.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two complementary experimental studies of the evolving structure of the lower 2 km of the atmosphere, conducted over farmlands in central Illinois during essentially the same mid-summer weeks of two successive years, are described. The first experiment (21 July - 13 August 1975) investigated the early morning break up of the nocturnal stable layer and the rapid growth of the mixed layer before noon; the second (16 to 30 July 1976) examined the decline of the mixed layer through the late afternoon and evening, and the formation and intensification of the ground-based inversion before midnight. Methods of observation and data reduction are summarized in some detail, and the data obtained in the form of hourly wind and temperature profiles, plus sufficient surface flux information to characterize the lower boundary conditions, are tabulated in a series of appendices. These results constitute complete data sets which may be used to test models of the diurnal evolution of the lower atmosphere.

  16. New Revelation of Lightning Ball Observation and Proposal for a Nuclear Reactor Fusion Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domokos Tar

    2009-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the author brings further details regarding his Lightning Ball observation that were not mentioned in the first one (Ref.1-2). Additionally, he goes more into detail as the three forces that are necessary to allow the residual crescent form the hydrodynamic vortex ring to shrink into a sphere.Further topics are the similarities and analogies between the Lightning Ball formation's theory and the presently undertaken Tokamak-Stellarator-Spheromak fusion reactor experiments. A new theory and its experimental realisation are proposed as to make the shrinking of the hot plasma of reactors into a ball possible by means of the so called long range electromagnetic forces. In this way,the fusion ignition temperature could possibly atteined.

  17. New Revelation of Lightning Ball Observation and Proposal for a Nuclear Reactor Fusion Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tar, Domokos

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the author brings further details regarding his Lightning Ball observation that were not mentioned in the first one (Ref.1-2). Additionally, he goes more into detail as the three forces that are necessary to allow the residual crescent form the hydrodynamic vortex ring to shrink into a sphere.Further topics are the similarities and analogies between the Lightning Ball formation's theory and the presently undertaken Tokamak-Stellarator-Spheromak fusion reactor experiments. A new theory and its experimental realisation are proposed as to make the shrinking of the hot plasma of reactors into a ball possible by means of the so called long range electromagnetic forces. In this way,the fusion ignition temperature could possibly atteined.

  18. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  19. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

  20. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 053801 (2013) Effect of two-beam coupling in strong-field optical pump-probe experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchberg, Howard

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 053801 (2013) Effect of two-beam coupling in strong-field optical pump shifts induced in a weak probe pulse by a strong pump pulse must account for coherent effects that only occur when the pump and probe pulses are temporally overlapped. It is well known that a weak probe beam

  1. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  2. Potential Soil Moisture Products from the Aquarius Radiometer and Scatterometer Using an Observing System Simulation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yan [I.M. Systems Group at NOAA/NCEP/EMC; Feng, Xia [George Mason University; Houser, Paul [George Mason University; Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Fan, Xingang [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green; De Lannoy, Gabrielle [Ghent University, Belgium; Zhan, Xiwu [NOAA/NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and Research; Dabbiru, Lalitha [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE), we investigate the potential soil moisture retrieval capability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aquarius radiometer (L-band 1.413 GHz) and scatterometer (L-band, 1.260 GHz). We estimate potential errors in soil moisture retrievals and identify the sources that could cause those errors. The OSSE system includes (i) a land surface model in the NASA Land Information System, (ii) a radiative transfer and backscatter model, (iii) a realistic orbital sampling model, and (iv) an inverse soil moisture retrieval model. We execute the OSSE over a 1000 2200 km2 region in the central United States, including the Red and Arkansas river basins. Spatial distributions of soil moisture retrieved from the radiometer and scatterometer are close to the synthetic truth. High root mean square errors (RMSEs) of radiometer retrievals are found over the heavily vegetated regions, while large RMSEs of scatterometer retrievals are scattered over the entire domain. The temporal variations of soil moisture are realistically captured over a sparely vegetated region with correlations 0.98 and 0.63, and RMSEs 1.28% and 8.23% vol/vol for radiometer and scatterometer, respectively. Over the densely vegetated region, soil moisture exhibits larger temporal variation than the truth, leading to correlation 0.70 and 0.67, respectively, and RMSEs 9.49% and 6.09% vol/vol respectively. The domain-averaged correlations and RMSEs suggest that radiometer is more accurate than scatterometer in retrieving soil moisture. The analysis also demonstrates that the accuracy of the retrieved soil moisture is affected by vegetation coverage and spatial aggregation.

  3. Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeeding access(SC)Gas and OilPhaseObservation of aof

  4. Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger. Part 2: Radiative fluxes and divergences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slingo, A.; White, H. E.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.

    2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadband shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes observed both at the surface and from space during the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger in 2006 are presented. The surface fluxes were measured by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Mobile Facility (AMF) at Niamey airport, while the fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on the Meteosat-8 satellite. The data are analyzed as daily averages, in order to minimise sampling differences between the surface and top of atmosphere instruments, while retaining the synoptic and seasonal changes that are the main focus of this study. A cloud mask is used to identify days with cloud from those with predominantly clear skies. The influence of temperature, water vapor, aerosols and clouds is investigated. Aerosols are ubiquitous throughout the year and have a significant impact on both the shortwave and longwave fluxes. The large and systematic seasonal changes in temperature and column integrated water vapor (CWV) through the dry and wet seasons are found to exert strong influences on the longwave fluxes. These influences are often in opposition to each other, because the highest temperatures occur at the end of the dry season when the CWV is lowest, while in the wet season the lowest temperatures are associated with the highest values of CWV. Apart from aerosols, the shortwave fluxes are also affected by clouds and by the seasonal changes in CWV. The fluxes are combined to provide estimates of the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere throughout 2006. The longwave divergence is remarkably constant through the year, because of a compensation between the seasonal variations in the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and surface net longwave radiation. A simple model of the greenhouse effect is used to interpret this result in terms of the dependence of the normalized greenhouse effect at the TOA and of the effective emissivity of the atmosphere at the surface on the CWV. It is shown that, as the CWV increases, the atmosphere loses longwave energy to the surface with about the same increasing efficiency with which it traps the OLR, thus keeping the atmospheric longwave divergence roughly constant. The shortwave divergence is mainly determined by the CWV and aerosol loadings and the effect of clouds is much smaller than on the component fluxes.

  5. Objective comparison of design of experiments strategies in design and observations in practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Ion Chalmers, 1968-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design of Experiments (DoE) strategies in robust engineering determine which prototypes and how many of each are created and tested. A better strategy is one that delivers a closer-to-optimal performance at a lower ...

  6. Title: Cirrus clouds observation in Santa Maria, Rio Grade do Sul during the experiment Chuva Sul. Authors: Boris Barja(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Henrique

    in the research of the atmosphere due their behavior and the effect on the earth radiation budget. They can affect radiation. Also, this cloud type is involved in the dehydration of the upper troposphere and lowerTitle: Cirrus clouds observation in Santa Maria, Rio Grade do Sul during the experiment Chuva ­ Sul

  7. Nanoscale Phase Separation In Epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V Alloy Thin Films Studied Using Atom Probe Tomography: Comparison Of Experiments And Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Ramanan, Sathvik; Walvekar, Sarita K.; Bowden, Mark E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Tailored metal alloy thin film-oxide interfaces generated using molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) deposition of alloy thin films on a single crystalline oxide substrate can be used for detailed studies of irradiation damage response on the interface structure. However presence of nanoscale phase separation in the MBE grown alloy thin films can impact the metal-oxide interface structure. Due to nanoscale domain size of such phase separation it is very challenging to characterize by conventional techniques. Therefor laser assisted atom probe tomography (APT) was utilized to study the phase separation in epitaxial Cr0.61Mo0.39, Cr0.77Mo0.23, and Cr0.32V0.68 alloy thin films grown by MBE on MgO(001) single crystal substrates. Statistical analysis, namely frequency distribution analysis and Pearson coefficient analysis of experimental data was compared with similar analyses conducted on simulated APT datasets with known extent of phase separation. Thus the presence of phase separation in Cr-Mo films, even when phase separation was not clearly observed by x-ray diffraction, and the absence of phase separation in the Cr-V film were thus confirmed.

  8. Two-dimensional simulations of katabatic layers observed during the GIMEX experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    which is in good agreement with tundra site observations. Over the ice cap, the katabatic layer the simulation and observations taken at ice cap sites is reasonably valid. The ablation computed along the ice been developed. Another objective is to compute the ice melting based on a parametrization

  9. OBSERVING SYSTEM SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS ON THE OAH'U REGIONAL OCEAN MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luther, Douglas S.

    Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) site off the south coast of Oah'u as well as the circulation of Mamala analyses of the observing systems were conducted at the outflow plume depth of a potential pilot Ocean

  10. Observing faint targets with MIDI at the VLTI -- The MIDI AGN Large Programme experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burtscher, Leonard; Jaffe, Walter J; Meisenheimer, Klaus

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to put MIDI/VLTI observations of AGNs on a significant statistical basis, the number of objects had to be increased dramatically from the few prominent bright cases to over 20. For this, correlated fluxes as faint as ~ 150 mJy need to be observed, calibrated and their errors be estimated reliably. We have developed new data reduction methods for the coherent estimation of correlated fluxes with the Expert Work Station (EWS). They increase the signal/noise of the reduced correlated fluxes by decreasing the jitter in the group delay estimation. While correlation losses cannot be fully avoided for the weakest objects even with the improved routines, we have developed a method to simulate observations of weak targets and can now detect --- and correct for --- such losses. We have analyzed all sources of error that are relevant for the observations of weak targets. Apart from the photon-noise error, that is usually quoted, there is an additional error from the uncertainty in the calibration (i.e. the conv...

  11. Observation of Cosmic Ray Positrons with the CAPRICE98 Balloon-borne Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morselli, Aldo

    at energies above 5 GeV. The RICH was complemented with a silicon-tungsten imaging calorimeter. Together primary production sites. Hence, the positron fraction / ( + ) is a sensitive quantity for studying production and propagation of electrons and positrons. Previous observations (see, e.g., Golden et al. 1987

  12. A way forward in the study of the symmetry energy: experiment, theory, and observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, Charles; Brown, E F.; Kim, Y.; Lynch, W G.; Michaels, Robert; Ono, A.; Piekarewicz, Jorge; Tsang, M B.; Wolter, H H.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The symmetry energy describes how the energy of nuclear matter rises as one goes away from equal numbers of neutrons and protons. This is very important to describe neutron rich matter in astrophysics. This article reviews our knowledge of the symmetry energy from theoretical calculations, nuclear structure measurements, heavy ion collisions, and astronomical observations. We then present a roadmap to make progress in areas of relevance to the symmetry energy that promotes collaboration between astrophysics and the nuclear physics communities.

  13. Observation of time dependent dispersion in laboratory scale experiments with intact tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Triay, I.R.; Ott, M.A.; Mitchell, A.J.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The migration of radionuclides through intact tuff was studied using tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The tuff samples were both highly zeolitized ash-fall tuff from the Calico Hills and densely welded devitrified tuff from the Topopah Springs member of the Paintbrush tuff. Tritiated water and pertechnetate were used as conservative tracers. The sorbing tracers {sup 85}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 133}Ba were used with the devitrified tuff only. Greater tailing in the elution curves of the densely welded tuff samples was observed that could be fit by adjusting the dispersion coefficient in the conventional Advection Dispersion Equation, ADE. The curves could be fit using time dependent dispersion as was previously observed for sediments and alluvium by Dieulin, Matheron, and de Marsily. The peak of strontium concentration was expected to arrive after 1.5 years based on the conventional ADE and assuming a linear K{sub d} of 26 ml/g. The observed elution had significant strontium in the first sample taken at 2 weeks after injection. The peak in the strontium elution occurred at 5 weeks. The correct arrival time for the strontium peak was achieved using a one dimensional analytic solution with time dependent dispersion. The dispersion coefficient as a function of time used to fit the conservative tracers was found to predict the peak arrival of the sorbing tracers. The K{sub d} used was the K{sub d} determined by the batch method on crushed tuff. 23 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration; S. Oser; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; D. A. Williams; J. A. Zweerink

    2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a new ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype experiment which uses 32 heliostat mirrors with a total mirror area of ~ 1200\\unit{m^2} has been constructed. This prototype, called STACEE-32, was used to search for high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and Pulsar. Observations taken between November 1998 and February 1999 yield a strong statistical excess of gamma-like events from the Crab, with a significance of $+6.75\\sigma$ in 43 hours of on-source observing time. No evidence for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar was found, and the upper limit on the pulsed fraction of the observed excess was energy threshold of E_{th} = 190 \\pm 60\\unit{GeV}, and a measured integral flux of I (E > E_{th}) = (2.2 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{-10}\\unit{photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}}. The observed flux is in agreement with a continuation to lower energies of the power law spectrum seen at TeV energies.

  15. High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oser, S; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schuette, D R; Theoret, C G; Tumer, T O; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a new ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype experiment which uses 32 heliostat mirrors with a total mirror area of ~ 1200\\unit{m^2} has been constructed. This prototype, called STACEE-32, was used to search for high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and Pulsar. Observations taken between November 1998 and February 1999 yield a strong statistical excess of gamma-like events from the Crab, with a significance of $+6.75\\sigma$ in 43 hours of on-source observing time. No evidence for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar was found, and the upper limit on the pulsed fraction of the observed excess was E_{th}) = (2.2 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{-10}\\unit{photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}}. The observed flux is in agreement with a continuation to lower energies of the power law spectrum seen at TeV energies...

  16. Corrosion monitoring with hydrogen probes in the oilfield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomason, W.H.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of the application of hydrogen probes for corrosion monitoring in the oilfield is presented. The three basic types of hydrogen probes are described and their relative merits discussed. The construction and installation of a simple and inexpensive electrochemical hydrogen probe is described. Experiences with hydrogen probes in oilfield operations are discussed, and it is concluded from these experiences that production systems where hydrogen probes can provide useful corrosion data are limited.

  17. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus in the pilot radiation observation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.; Patterson, G.R. [CSIRO, Victoria (Australia)] [and others

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a sensitive filter radiometer for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been reported. The aim was to develop a reliable and fast instrument that could be used alongside a lidar to obtain near realtime optical properties of clouds, particularly high ice clouds, as they drifted over an ARM Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site allowing calculation of the radiation divergence in the atmosphere over the site. Obtaining cloud optical properties by the lidar/radiometer, or LIRAD, method was described by Platt et al.; the latter paper also describes a year`s data on mid-latitude cirrus. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus (i.e., cirrus within a few degrees of the equator) have hardly been studied at all. The same is true of tropical cirrus, although a few observations have been reported by Davis and Platt et al.This paper describes obersvations performed on cirrus clouds, analysis methods used, and results.

  18. Further Evidence of Narrow Baryonic Structures with Hadronic as Well as Leptonic Probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Tatischeff; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Although extracted from several experiments using hadronic probes \\cite{bor1}, narrow baryonic structures have been sometimes met with disbelief. New signatures are presented, which appear from already published data, obtained with hadronic probes as well as with leptonic probes. The authors of these results did not take into account the possibility to associate the discontinuities of their spectra with the topic of narrow baryonic low mass structures. The stability of the observed narrow structure masses, represents a confirmation of their genuine existence.

  19. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  20. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brombin, M., E-mail: matteo.brombin@igi.cnr.it; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Schiesko, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors’ holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  1. Constraining torsion with Gravity Probe B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao Yi; Guth, Alan H.; Cabi, Serkan [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Tegmark, Max [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well-entrenched folklore that all torsion gravity theories predict observationally negligible torsion in the solar system, since torsion (if it exists) couples only to the intrinsic spin of elementary particles, not to rotational angular momentum. We argue that this assumption has a logical loophole which can and should be tested experimentally, and consider nonstandard torsion theories in which torsion can be generated by macroscopic rotating objects. In the spirit of action=reaction, if a rotating mass like a planet can generate torsion, then a gyroscope would be expected to feel torsion. An experiment with a gyroscope (without nuclear spin) such as Gravity Probe B (GPB) can test theories where this is the case. Using symmetry arguments, we show that to lowest order, any torsion field around a uniformly rotating spherical mass is determined by seven dimensionless parameters. These parameters effectively generalize the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism and provide a concrete framework for further testing Einstein's general theory of relativity (GR). We construct a parametrized Lagrangian that includes both standard torsion-free GR and Hayashi-Shirafuji maximal torsion gravity as special cases. We demonstrate that classic solar system tests rule out the latter and constrain two observable parameters. We show that Gravity Probe B is an ideal experiment for further constraining nonstandard torsion theories, and work out the most general torsion-induced precession of its gyroscope in terms of our torsion parameters.

  2. Ultrafast pump-probe force microscopy with nanoscale resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cerullo, “Confocal ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy: A newand H. J. Maris, “Time-resolved pump-probe experiments withand U. Keller, “Femtosecond pump-porbe near-field optical

  3. Observed physical processes in mechanical tests of PBX9501 and recomendations for experiments to explore a possible plasticity/damage threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buechler, Miles A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This memo discusses observations that have been made in regards to a series of monotonic and cyclic uniaxial experiments performed on PBX9501 by Darla Thompson under Enhanced Surveilance Campaign support. These observations discussed in Section Cyclic compression observations strongly suggest the presence of viscoelastic, plastic, and damage phenomena in the mechanical response of the material. In Secton Uniaxial data analysis and observations methods are discussed for separating out the viscoelastic effects. A crude application of those methods suggests the possibility of a critical stress below which plasticity and damage may be negligible. The threshold should be explored because if it exists it will be an important feature of any constitutive model. Additionally, if the threshold exists then modifications of experimental methods may be feasible which could potentially simplify future experiments or provide higher quality data from those experiments. A set of experiments to explore the threshold stress are proposed in Section Exploratory tests program for identifying threshold stress.

  4. AMIE (ARM MJO Investigation Experiment): Observations of the Madden-Julian Oscillation for Modeling Studies Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C; Del Genio, A; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Klein, S; Leung, L Ruby; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Wu, X; Xie, S

    2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep convection in the tropics plays an important role in driving global circulations and the transport of energy from the tropics to the mid-latitudes. Understanding the mechanisms that control tropical convection is a key to improving climate modeling simulations of the global energy balance. One of the dominant sources of tropical convective variability is the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which has a period of approximately 30–60 days. There is no agreed-upon explanation for the underlying physics that maintain the MJO. Many climate models do not show well-defined MJO signals, and those that do have problems accurately simulating the amplitude, propagation speed, and/or seasonality of the MJO signal. Therefore, the MJO is a very important modeling target for the ARM modeling community geared specifically toward improving climate models. The ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) period coincides with a large international MJO initiation field campaign called CINDY2011 (Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011) that will take place in and around the Indian Ocean from October 2011 to January 2012. AMIE, in conjunction with CINDY2011 efforts, will provide an unprecedented data set that will allow investigation of the evolution of convection within the framework of the MJO. AMIE observations will also complement the long-term MJO statistics produced using ARM Manus data and will allow testing of several of the current hypotheses related to the MJO phenomenon. Taking advantage of the expected deployment of a C-POL scanning precipitation radar and an ECOR surface flux tower at the ARM Manus site, we propose to increase the number of sonde launches to eight per day starting in about mid-October of the field experiment year, which is climatologically a period of generally suppressed conditions at Manus and just prior to the climatologically strongest MJO period. The field experiment will last until the end of the MJO season (typically March), affording the documentation of conditions before, during, and after the peak MJO season. The increased frequency of sonde launches throughout the experimental period will provide better diurnal understanding of the thermodynamic profiles, and thus a better representation within the variational analysis data set. Finally, a small surface radiation and ceilometer system will be deployed at the PNG Lombrum Naval Base about 6 km away from the ARM Manus site in order to provide some documentation of scale variability with respect to the representativeness of the ARM measurements.

  5. Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae from a new NOAO survey probing the nearby smooth Hubble flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weyant, Anja; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael [Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Allen, Lori; Joyce, Richard; Matheson, Thomas [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Garnavich, Peter M. [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W., E-mail: anw19@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present 13 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the rest-frame near-infrared (NIR) from 0.02 < z < 0.09 with the WIYN High-resolution Infrared Camera on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. With only one to three points per light curve and a prior on the time of maximum from the spectrum used to type the object, we measure an H-band dispersion of spectroscopically normal SNe Ia of 0.164 mag. These observations continue to demonstrate the improved standard brightness of SNe Ia in an H band, even with limited data. Our sample includes two SNe Ia at z ? 0.09, which represent the most distant rest-frame NIR H-band observations published to date. This modest sample of 13 NIR SNe Ia represent the pilot sample for {sup S}weetSpot{sup —}a 3 yr NOAO Survey program that will observe 144 SNe Ia in the smooth Hubble flow. By the end of the survey we will have measured the relative distance to a redshift of z ? 0.05%-1%. Nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) observations such as these will test the standard nature of SNe Ia in the rest-frame NIR, allow insight into the nature of dust, and provide a critical anchor for future cosmological SN Ia surveys at higher redshift.

  6. INNOVATIVE EDDY CURRENT PROBE FOR MICRO DEFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, Telmo G.; Vilaca, Pedro; Quintino, Luisa [IDMEC, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos, Jorge dos [GKSS, Max-Planck-Street 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Rosado, Luis [IST, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the development of an innovative eddy current (EC) probe, and its application to micro-defects on the root of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The new EC probe presents innovative concept issues, allowing 3D induced current in the material, and a lift-off independence. Validation experiments were performed on aluminium alloys processed by FSW. The results clearly show that the new EC probe is able to detect and sizing surface defects about 60 microns depth.

  7. Probing First Galaxies and Their Impact on the Intergalactic Medium through the 21-cm Observation of the Cosmic Dawn with the SKA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Kyungjin; Alvarez, Marcelo A; Chen, Xuelei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the theory of high-redshift star and X-ray source formation, and how they affect the 21-cm background. Primary focus is given to Lyman alpha pumping and X-ray heating mechanisms at cosmic dawn, opening a new observational window for high-redshift astrophysics by generating sizable fluctuations in the 21-cm background. We describe observational prospects for power spectrum analysis and 3D tomography (imaging) of the signature of these early astrophysical sources by SKA1-LOW and SKA2.

  8. Herschel observations of Extra-Ordinary Sources: H2S as a Probe of Dense Gas and Possibly Hidden Luminosity Toward the Orion KL Hot Core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crockett, N R; Neill, J L; Black, J H; Blake, G A; Kleshcheva, M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the light hydride H$_{2}$S obtained from the full spectral scan of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) taken as part of the HEXOS GT key program. In total, we observe 52, 24, and 8 unblended or slightly blended features from H$_{2}$$^{32}$S, H$_{2}$$^{34}$S, and H$_{2}$$^{33}$S, respectively. We only analyze emission from the so called hot core, but emission from the plateau, extended ridge, and/or compact ridge are also detected. Rotation diagrams for ortho and para H$_{2}$S follow straight lines given the uncertainties and yield T$_{\\rm rot}$=141$\\pm$12 K. This indicates H$_{2}$S is in LTE and is well characterized by a single kinetic temperature or an intense far-IR radiation field is redistributing the population to produce the observed trend. We argue the latter scenario is more probable and find that the most highly excited states (E$_{\\rm up}$>1000 K) are likely populated primarily by radiation pumping. We derive an H$_{2}$$^{32}$S column density, N$_{\\rm ...

  9. Integrated Optical Probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Frogget, Douglas DeVore, Vincent Romero, David Esquibel, and David Holtkamp

    2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical probes used in velocimetry measurements have typically been individual probes that collect data for a single diagnostic at a single point. These probes have been used in diagnostics such as VISAR, PDV, and radiometry, which measure surface velocity, temperature, and other characteristics. When separate probes are used for these measurements, the different diagnostic points measured must be significantly separated. We have developed integrated probes that collect data for multiple optical diagnostics; these probes measure points in close proximity.

  10. Observation of a new boson at a mass of 125 GeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Majerotto, Walter; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Szoncsó, Fritz; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Emeliantchik, Igor; Litomin, Aliaksandr; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Solin, Alexander; Stefanovitch, Roman; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Fedorov, Andrey; Korzhik, Mikhail; Missevitch, Oleg; Zuyeuski, Raman; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Beaumont, Willem; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Druzhkin, Dmitry; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Goorens, Robert; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Rugovac, Shkelzen; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Iope, Rogerio Luiz; Lagana, Caio; Lietti, Sergio M; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Vutova, Mariana; Roumenin, Chavdar; Uzunova, Daniela; Zahariev, Roman; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; He, Kang-Lin; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Wei-Guo; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Sun, Gongxing; Sun, Han-Sheng; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhenxia; Zhao, Wei-Ren; Zhu, Zian; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Cai, Jianxin; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Ye, Yan-Lin; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from searches for the standard model Higgs boson in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 and 8 TeV in the CMS experiment at the LHC, using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 5.1 inverse femtobarns at 7 TeV and 5.3 inverse femtobarns at 8 TeV. The search is performed in five decay modes: $\\gamma\\gamma$, ZZ, WW, $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, and $b\\bar{b}$. An excess of events is observed above the expected background, a local significance of 5.0 standard deviations, at a mass near 125 GeV, signalling the production of a new particle. The expected significance for a standard model Higgs boson of that mass is 5.8 standard deviations. The excess is most significant in the two decay modes with the best mass resolution, $\\gamma\\gamma$ and ZZ; a fit to these signals gives a mass of 125.3 $\\pm$ 0.4 (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.5 (syst.) GeV. The decay to two photons indicates that the new particle is a boson with spin different from one.

  11. Radio observations of the Galactic Centre and the Coma cluster as a probe of light dark matter self-annihilations and decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celine Boehm; Joseph Silk; Torsten Ensslin

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We update our earlier calculations of gamma ray and radio observational constraints on annihilations of dark matter particles lighter than 10 GeV. We predict the synchrotron spectrum as well as the morphology of the radio emission associated with light decaying and annihilating dark matter candidates in both the Coma cluster and the Galactic Centre. Our new results basically confirm our previous findings: synchrotron emission in the very inner part of the Milky Way constrains or even excludes dark matter candidates if the magnetic field is larger than 50 micro Gauss. In fact, our results suggest that light annihilating candidates must have a S-wave suppressed pair annihilation cross section into electrons (or the branching ratio into electron positron must be small). If dark matter is decaying, it must have a life time that is larger than t = 3. 10^{25} s. Therefore, radio emission should always be considered when one proposes a "light" dark matter candidate.

  12. Probing few-excitation eigenstates of interacting atoms on a lattice by observing their collective light emission in the far field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longo, P

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collective emission from a one-dimensional chain of interacting two-level atoms coupled to a common electromagnetic reservoir is investigated. We derive the system's dissipative few-excitation eigenstates, and analyze their static properties, including the collective dipole moments and branching ratios between different eigenstates. Next, we study the dynamics, and characterize the light emitted or scattered by such a system via different far-field observables. Throughout the analysis, we consider spontaneous emission from an excited state as well as two different pump field setups, and contrast the two extreme cases of non-interacting and strongly interacting atoms. For the latter case, the two-excitation submanifold contains a two-body bound state, and we find that the two cases lead to different dynamics and far-field signatures. Finally we exploit these signatures to characterize the wavefunctions of the collective eigenstates. For this, we identify a direct relation between the collective branching r...

  13. Probing few-excitation eigenstates of interacting atoms on a lattice by observing their collective light emission in the far field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Longo; J. Evers

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The collective emission from a one-dimensional chain of interacting two-level atoms coupled to a common electromagnetic reservoir is investigated. We derive the system's dissipative few-excitation eigenstates, and analyze their static properties, including the collective dipole moments and branching ratios between different eigenstates. Next, we study the dynamics, and characterize the light emitted or scattered by such a system via different far-field observables. Throughout the analysis, we consider spontaneous emission from an excited state as well as two different pump field setups, and contrast the two extreme cases of non-interacting and strongly interacting atoms. For the latter case, the two-excitation submanifold contains a two-body bound state, and we find that the two cases lead to different dynamics and far-field signatures. Finally we exploit these signatures to characterize the wavefunctions of the collective eigenstates. For this, we identify a direct relation between the collective branching ratio and the momentum distribution of the collective eigenstates' wavefunction. This provides a method to proof the existence of certain collective eigenstates and to access their wave function without the need to individually address and/or manipulate single atoms.

  14. Probing Hypergiant Mass Loss with Adaptive Optics Imaging & Polarimetry in the Infrared: MMT-Pol and LMIRCam observations of IRC +10420 & VY Canis Majoris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Dinesh P; Packham, Chris; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present 2 - 5 micron adaptive optics (AO) imaging and polarimetry of the famous hypergiant stars IRC +10420 and VY Canis Majoris. The imaging polarimetry of IRC +10420 with MMT-Pol at 2.2 micron resolves nebular emission with intrinsic polarization of 30%, with a high surface brightness indicating optically thick scattering. The relatively uniform distribution of this polarized emission both radially and azimuthally around the star confirms previous studies that place the scattering dust largely in the plane of the sky. Using constraints on scattered light consistent with the polarimetry at 2.2 micron, extrapolation to wavelengths in the 3 - 5 micron band predicts a scattered light component significantly below the nebular flux that is observed in our LBT/LMIRCam 3 - 5 micron AO imaging. Under the assumption this excess emission is thermal, we find a color temperature of ~ 500 K is required, well in excess of the emissivity-modified equilibrium temperature for typical astrophysical dust. The nebular featur...

  15. Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Conti, Armond E. (San Jose, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

  16. Explaining the observed long coherence effects by 2D photon echo experiments in photosynthetic EET : Two-Component Phonon Spectrum model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Navinder; Amritkar, R E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple stochastic model which successfully explains the long coherence effects observed in photosynthetic Excitation Energy Transport (EET) by 2D photon echo experiments of G. S. Engel et. al. (Nature, {\\bf 446} 782, (2007)). Our Two-Component Phonon Spectrum (TCPS) model is based upon the division of phonon degrees of freedom into a systematic component which is treated through polaron transformation and a stochastic component which is treated through dynamical disorder. This model successfully explains the observed long coherence upto $ \\sim 600 fsec$ in EET experiments.

  17. Explaining the observed long coherence effects by 2D photon echo experiments in photosynthetic EET : Two-Component Phonon Spectrum model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navinder Singh; V. M. Kenkre; R. E. Amritkar

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple stochastic model which successfully explains the long coherence effects observed in photosynthetic Excitation Energy Transport (EET) by 2D photon echo experiments of G. S. Engel et. al. (Nature, {\\bf 446} 782, (2007)). Our Two-Component Phonon Spectrum (TCPS) model is based upon the division of phonon degrees of freedom into a systematic component which is treated through polaron transformation and a stochastic component which is treated through dynamical disorder. This model successfully explains the observed long coherence upto $ \\sim 600 fsec$ in EET experiments.

  18. STANDING WAVE PROBES FOR DIMENSIONAL METROLOGY OF LOW DENSITY FOAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seugling, R M; Woody, S C; Bauza, M B

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Typically, parts and geometries of interest to LLNL are made from a combination of complex geometries and a wide array of different materials ranging from metals and ceramics to low density foams and plastic foils. These parts are combined to develop physics experiments for studying material properties, equation of state (EOS) and radiation transport. Understanding the dimensional uncertainty of the parts contained within an experiment is critical to the physical understanding of the phenomena being observed and represents the motivation for developing probe metrology capability that can address LLNL's unique problems. Standing wave probes were developed for measuring high aspect ratio, micrometer scaled features with nanometer resolution. Originally conceived of for the use in the automotive industry for characterizing fuel injector bores and similar geometries, this concept was investigated and improved for use on geometries and materials important to LLNL needs within target fabrication. As part of the original project, detailed understanding of the probe dynamics and interactions with the surface of the sample was investigated. In addition, the upgraded system was utilized for measuring fuel injector bores and micro-lenses as a means of demonstrating capability. This report discusses the use of the standing wave probe for measuring features in low density foams, 55 mg/cc SiO{sub 2} and 982 mg/cc (%6 relative density) copper foam respectively. These two foam materials represent a difficult metrology challenge because of their material properties and surface topography. Traditional non-contact metrology systems such as normal incident interferometry and/or confocal microscopy have difficulty obtaining a signal from the relatively absorptive characteristics of these materials. In addition to the foam samples, a solid copper and plastic (Rexolite{trademark}) sample of similar geometry was measured with the standing wave probe as a reference for both conductive and dielectric materials.

  19. Observation of a new boson at a mass of 125 GeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apyan, Aram

    Results are presented from searches for the standard model Higgs boson in proton–proton collisions at ?s = 7 and 8 TeV in the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the LHC, using data samples corresponding to integrated ...

  20. Convective Transport of Trace Species Observed During the Stratosphere–Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport 2008 Experiment (START08)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siu, Leong Wai

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport 2008 Experiment (START08) the NCAR/NSF Gulfstream V aircraft encountered high concentrations of NO and NOy in the upper troposphere downwind of a squall line in north Texas...

  1. Simple Doppler Wind Lidar adaptive observation experiments with 3D-Var and an ensemble Kalman filter in a global primitive equations model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    the next few years, the first Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL) will be deployed in space by the European Space1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Simple Doppler Wind Lidar adaptive Experiments, we compare several adaptive observation strategies designed to subsample Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL

  2. Probing Dark Energy with Theory and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Putter, Roland

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques and Prospects . 1.5.1 Supernovae . . . . .curve gives the constraints from supernovae alone. . . . .using data from supernovae (Union2), CMB (WMAP5), galaxy

  3. Effects of momentum conservation and flow on angular correlations observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Scott; Schlichting, Soeren; Gavin, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlations of azimuthal angles observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have gained great attention due to the prospect of identifying fluctuations of parity-odd regions in the field sector of QCD. Whereas the observable of interest related to parity fluctuations involves subtracting opposite-sign from same-sign correlations, the STAR collaboration reported the same-sign and opposite-sign correlations separately. It is shown here how momentum conservation combined with collective elliptic flow contributes significantly to this class of correlations, although not to the difference between the opposite- and same-sign observables. The effects are modeled with a crude simulation of a pion gas. Although the simulation reproduces the scale of the correlation, the centrality dependence is found to be sufficiently different in character to suggest additional considerations beyond those present in the pion gas simulation presented here.

  4. Probing SZ Source Detection with Gasdynamical Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Richard Bond; Marcelo I. Ruetalo; James W. Wadsley; Michael D. Gladders

    2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The huge worldwide investment in CMB experiments should make the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect a key probe of the cosmic web in the near future. For the promise to be realized, substantial development of simulation and analysis tools to relate observation to theory is needed. The high nonlinearity and dissipative/feedback gas physics lead to highly non-Gaussian patterns that are much more difficult to analyze than Gaussian primary anisotropies for which the procedures are reasonably well developed. Historical forecasts for what CMB experiments might see used semi-analytic tools, including large scale map constructions, with localized and simplified pressure structures distributed on a point process of (clustered) sources. Hydro studies beyond individual cluster/supercluster systems were inadequate, but now large-volume simulations with high resolution are beginning to shift the balance. We illustrate this by applying ``Gasoline'' (parallelized Tree+SPH) computations to construct SZ maps and derive statistical measures. We believe rapid Monte Carlo simulations using parameterized templates centered on point processes informed by optical and other means on the observational side, and by hydro simulations on the theory side, should play an important role in pipelines to analyze the new SZ field data. We show that localized sources should dominate upcoming SZ experiments, identify sources in the maps under filtering and noise levels expected for these experiments, use the RCS photometric optical survey as an example of redshift localization, and discuss whether cosmic web patterns such as superclusters can be enhanced when such extra source information is supplied.

  5. New Atomic probes for Dark Matter detection: Axions, Axion-like particles and Topological Defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yevgeny V. Stadnik; Victor V. Flambaum

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a brief overview of recently proposed detection schemes for axion, axion-like pseudoscalar particle and topological defect dark matter. We focus mainly on the possibility of using atomic and molecular systems for dark matter detection. For axions and axion-like particles, these methods are complementary probes to ongoing photon-axion interconversion experiments and astrophysical observations. For topological defects, these methods are complementary to conventional astrophysical search schemes based on gravitational signatures.

  6. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, S A; McCoy, R B; Morrison, H; Ackerman, A; Avramov, A; deBoer, G; Chen, M; Cole, J; DelGenio, A; Golaz, J; Hashino, T; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; Luo, Y; McFarquhar, G; Menon, S; Neggers, R; Park, S; Poellot, M; von Salzen, K; Schmidt, J; Sednev, I; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Spangenberg, D; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Falk, M; Foster, M; Fridlind, A; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xie, S; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics indicate that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is some evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics. This case study, which has been well observed from both aircraft and ground-based remote sensors, could be a benchmark for model simulations of mixed-phase clouds.

  7. Directional intraoperative probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Popov, Vladimir; Loutts, Georgii

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An introperative surgical probe incorporating both a fiber optic imaging system and multi-element beta/gamma radiation directional indicating system is described.

  8. ATLAS APPROVED EXPERIMENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Title Days 433-9 Miller Ion Irradiations of Anisotropic High-Tc Superconductors: Probing Dynamics of Magnetic Vortices 2 651-2 Paul Accelerator-Mass-Spectrometry...

  9. Energetic deposition of metal ions: Observation of self-sputtering and limited sticking for off-normal angles of incidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Hongchen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step, the experiment was repeated but with the deposition probes slightly heated using the radiative heater.

  10. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Stephen A.; McCoy, Renata B.; Morrison, Hugh; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; de Boer, Gijs; Chen, Mingxuan; Cole, Jason N.S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Falk, Michael; Foster, Michael J.; Fridlind, Ann; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Hashino, Tempei; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Khairoutdinov, Marat F.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Yali; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Menon, Surabi; Neggers, Roel A. J.; Park, Sungsu; Poellot, Michael R.; Schmidt, Jerome M.; Sednev, Igor; Shipway, Ben J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Sud, Yogesh C.; Turner, David D.; Veron, Dana E.; von Salzen, Knut; Walker, Gregory K.; Wang, Zhien; Wolf, Audrey B.; Xie, Shaocheng; Xu, Kuan-Man; Yang, Fanglin; Zhang, Gong

    2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed average liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the average mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics suggest that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics.

  11. Constraining Torsion with Gravity Probe B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi Mao; Max Tegmark; Alan Guth; Serkan Cabi

    2007-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well-entrenched folklore that torsion gravity theories predict observationally negligible torsion in the solar system, since torsion (if it exists) couples only to the intrinsic spin of elementary particles, not to rotational angular momentum. We argue that this assumption has a logical loophole which can and should be tested experimentally. In the spirit of action=reaction, if a rotating mass like a planet can generate torsion, then a gyroscope should also feel torsion. Using symmetry arguments, we show that to lowest order, the torsion field around a uniformly rotating spherical mass is determined by seven dimensionless parameters. These parameters effectively generalize the PPN formalism and provide a concrete framework for further testing GR. We construct a parametrized Lagrangian that includes both standard torsion-free GR and Hayashi- Shirafuji maximal torsion gravity as special cases. We demonstrate that classic solar system tests rule out the latter and constrain two observable parameters. We show that Gravity Probe B (GPB) is an ideal experiment for further constraining torsion theories, and work out the most general torsion-induced precession of its gyroscope in terms of our torsion parameters

  12. Observations of the Icy Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boogert, Adwin; Whittet, Douglas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Freeze-out of the gas phase elements onto cold grains in dense interstellar and circumstellar media builds up ice mantles consisting of molecules that are mostly formed in situ (H2O, NH3, CO2, CO, CH3OH, and more). This review summarizes the detected infrared spectroscopic ice features and compares the abundances across Galactic, extragalactic, and solar system environments. A tremendous amount of information is contained in the ice band profiles. Laboratory experiments play a critical role in the analysis of the observations. Strong evidence is found for distinct ice formation stages, separated by CO freeze out at high densities. The ice bands have proven to be excellent probes of the thermal history of their environment. The evidence for the long-held idea that processing of ices by energetic photons and cosmic rays produces complex molecules is weak. Recent state of the art observations show promise for much progress in this area with planned infrared facilities.

  13. Carbon nanotube based electromechanical probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaglioglu, Onnik, 1976-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromechanical probing applications continuously require smaller pitches, faster manufacturing and lower electrical resistance. Conventional techniques, such as MEMS based cantilever probes have their shortcomings in ...

  14. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laguna, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

  15. Focus: DNA probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

  16. CHANGESINPERMEABILITYCAUSEDBYTRANSIENT STRESSES: FIELD OBSERVATIONS, EXPERIMENTS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elkhoury, Jean

    of California, Irvine, California, USA. 5 Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Center for Geomechanics, and enhance production from petroleum reservoirs. Enhanced permeability typically recovers to prestimulated of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA. 4 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University

  17. Probing Valance and Core Excitons in Molecules by Coherent Multidimens...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are simulated. Time-domain experiments that employ sequences of attosecond x-ray pulses in order to probe electronic and nuclear dynamics in molecules are made possible by...

  18. Title of Document: NANOSCALE MANIPULATION, PROBING, AND ASSEMBLY USING MICROFLUIDIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Document: NANOSCALE MANIPULATION, PROBING, AND ASSEMBLY USING MICROFLUIDIC FLOW along the wire. Together, these experiments illustrate the versatility of microfluidics MICROFLUIDIC FLOW CONTROL By Chad Ropp Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School

  19. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, H; McCoy, R B; Klein, S A; Xie, S; Luo, Y; Avramov, A; Chen, M; Cole, J; Falk, M; Foster, M; Genio, A D; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; McFarquhar, G; Poellot, M; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a deep, multi-layered, mixed-phase cloud system observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. This cloud system was associated with strong surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as cold air flowed over the open Arctic Ocean, combined with a low pressure system that supplied moisture at mid-level. The simulations, performed by 13 single-column and 4 cloud-resolving models, generally overestimate the liquid water path and strongly underestimate the ice water path, although there is a large spread among the models. This finding is in contrast with results for the single-layer, low-level mixed-phase stratocumulus case in Part I of this study, as well as previous studies of shallow mixed-phase Arctic clouds, that showed an underprediction of liquid water path. The overestimate of liquid water path and underestimate of ice water path occur primarily when deeper mixed-phase clouds extending into the mid-troposphere were observed. These results suggest important differences in the ability of models to simulate Arctic mixed-phase clouds that are deep and multi-layered versus shallow and single-layered. In general, models with a more sophisticated, two-moment treatment of the cloud microphysics produce a somewhat smaller liquid water path that is closer to observations. The cloud-resolving models tend to produce a larger cloud fraction than the single-column models. The liquid water path and especially the cloud fraction have a large impact on the cloud radiative forcing at the surface, which is dominated by the longwave flux for this case.

  20. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  1. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  2. Probing Mercury's Partnering Preferences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnical News, informationPriority Firm Exchange . .ProbingProbing

  3. Probing the Electronic Structures of Low Oxidation-State Uranium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fluoride Molecules UFx- (x2-4). Probing the Electronic Structures of Low Oxidation-State Uranium Fluoride Molecules UFx- (x2-4). Abstract: We report the experimental observation...

  4. Probing the electronic structures of low oxidation-state uranium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    molecules UFx- (x2-4) . Probing the electronic structures of low oxidation-state uranium fluoride molecules UFx- (x2-4) . Abstract: We report the experimental observation...

  5. Probing sub-eV particles with polarized Helium 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu Guigue

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proceeding of the "Journ\\'{e}es de Rencontre Jeunes Chercheurs" 2013. Measuring the depolarization rate of a $^3$He hyperpolarized gas is a sensitive method to probe hypothetical short-range spin-dependent forces. A dedicated experiment is being set up at the Institute Laue Langevin in Grenoble to improve the sensitivity. The status of the experiment is detailed in this paper.

  6. Biasing, Acquisition and Interpretation of a Dense Langmuir Probe Array in NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Kallman, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Marsala, R.; Ruzic, D.

    2010-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A dense array of 99 Langmuir probes has been installed in the lower divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiments (NSTX). This array is instrumented with a system of elec- tronics that allows flexibility in the choice of probes to bias as well as the type of measurement (including standard swept, single probe, triple probe and operation as passive floating potential and scrape-off-layer (SOL) current monitors). The use of flush-mounted probes requires careful inter- pretation. The time dependent nature of the SOL makes swept-probe traces difficult to interpret. To overcome these challenges, the single- and triple-Langmuir probe signals are used in comple- mentary fashion to determine the temperature and density at the probe location. A comparison to mid-plane measurements is made. Work is supported by DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CHI1466 and DE-PS02-07ER07-29.

  7. Development progress of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, M., E-mail: mlucia@pppl.gov; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Boyle, D. P.; Schmitt, J. C.; Onge, D. A. St. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Bedoya, F.; Allain, J. P. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, designed to provide in situ surface characterization of plasma facing components in a tokamak environment. MAPP has been implemented for operation on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), where all control and analysis systems are currently under development for full remote operation. Control systems include vacuum management, instrument power, and translational/rotational probe drive. Analysis systems include onboard Langmuir probes and all components required for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy surface analysis techniques.

  8. Probing the formation of intermediate- to high-mass stars in protoclusters II. Comparison between millimeter interferometric observations of NGC 2264-C and SPH simulations of a collapsing clump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Peretto; P. Hennebelle; P. Andre

    2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The earliest phases of massive star formation in clusters are still poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis for high-mass star formation proposed in our earlier paper (Peretto et al. 2006). In order to confirm the physical validity of this hypothesis, we carried out IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer observations of NGC 2264-C and performed SPH numerical simulations of the collapse of a Jeans-unstable, prolate dense clump. Our Plateau de Bure observations reveal the presence of a new compact source (C-MM13) located only \\~ 10000 AU away, but separated by ~ 1.1 km/s in (projected) velocity, from the most massive Class 0 object (C-MM3) lying at the very center of NGC 2264-C. Detailed comparison with our numerical SPH simulations supports the view that NGC 2264-C is an elongated cluster-forming clump in the process of collapsing and fragmenting along its long axis, leading to a strong dynamical interaction and possible protostar merger in the central region of the clump. The present study also sets several quantitative constraints on the initial conditions of large-scale collapse in NGC 2264-C. Our hydrodynamic simulations indicate that the observed velocity pattern characterizes an early phase of protocluster collapse which survives for an only short period of time (i.e., < 10^5 yr). To provide a good match to the observations the simulations require an initial ratio of turbulent to gravitational energy of only ~ 5 %, which strongly suggests that the NGC 2264-C clump is structured primarily by gravity rather than turbulence. The required "cold'' initial conditions may result from rapid compression by an external trigger.

  9. Experimental probes of axions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Aaron S.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental searches for axions or axion-like particles rely on semiclassical phenomena resulting from the postulated coupling of the axion to two photons. Sensitive probes of the extremely small coupling constant can be made by exploiting familiar, coherent electromagnetic laboratory techniques, including resonant enhancement of transitions using microwave and optical cavities, Bragg scattering, and coherent photon-axion oscillations. The axion beam may either be astrophysical in origin as in the case of dark matter axion searches and solar axion searches, or created in the laboratory from laser interactions with magnetic fields. This note is meant to be a sampling of recent experimental results.

  10. Probing metal solidification nondestructively

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnical News, informationPriority Firm ExchangeSynchrotronProbing

  11. Hydrologic data assimilation with a hillslope-scale-resolving model and L band radar observations: Synthetic experiments with the ensemble Kalman filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Alejandro N.

    [1] Soil moisture information is critical for applications like landslide susceptibility analysis and military trafficability assessment. Existing technologies cannot observe soil moisture at spatial scales of hillslopes ...

  12. Remote sensing observations of ocean physical and biological properties in the region of the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, J. Keith; Doney, Scott C

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zone as observed from a mesoscale array of bio-opticalP. W. , et al. (2000), A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom infrontal dynamics and mesoscale variability in oligotrophic

  13. Experimental observation of ion beams in the Madison Helicon eXperiment Matt Wiebold, Yung-Ta Sung, and John E. Scharer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharer, John E.

    observed in an expanding magnetic field in several heli- con sources.1­12 These double layers form without a net cur- rent through the DL.16­18 Ions traverse the potential structure of the double layer and gain2­5 was one of the first to observe a current-free double layer in an expanding helicon source

  14. Probing Multiparton Correlations at CEBAF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianwei Qiu

    1998-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk, I explore the possibilities of probing the multiparton correlation functions at CEBAF at its current energy and the energies with its future upgrades.

  15. Probing the time dependence of dark energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barboza Edésio Jr, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Professor Antônio Campos s/n, Mossoró (Brazil); Alcaniz, J.S., E-mail: edesiobarboza@uern.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method to investigate a possible time-dependence of the dark energy equation of state w is proposed. We apply this methodology to a combination of data involving one of the most recent type Ia supernova sample (SNLS3) along with the current baryon acoustic oscillation and H(z) measurements. We show that current observations cannot rule out a non-evolving dark energy component (dw/dz = 0). The approach developed here reduces considerably the so-called smearing effect on w determinations and may be useful to probe a possible evolving dark energy component when applied to upcoming observational data.

  16. Probing lepton number violation on three frontiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deppisch, Frank F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrinoless double beta decay constitutes the main probe for lepton number violation at low energies, motivated by the expected Majorana nature of the light but massive neutrinos. On the other hand, the theoretical interpretation of the (non-)observation of this process is not straightforward as the Majorana neutrinos can destructively interfere in their contribution and many other New Physics mechanisms can additionally mediate the process. We here highlight the potential of combining neutrinoless double beta decay with searches for Tritium decay, cosmological observations and LHC physics to improve the quantitative insight into the neutrino properties and to unravel potential sources of lepton number violation.

  17. Heat transfer probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  18. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khlopov, Maxim

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs) are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY) models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  19. Real-time crystallization in fluorinated parylene probed by conductivity spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khazaka, R., E-mail: rabih.khazaka@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Diaham, S. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, Laboratoire LAPLACE, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Locatelli, M. L. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, Laboratoire LAPLACE, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Tenailleau, C. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire CIRIMAT/LCMIE, 118 route de Narbonne - Bât. 2R1, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Kumar, R. [Speciality Coating Systems, Inc. (SCS), Cookson Electronics, 7645 Woodland Drive, Indianapolis, Indiana 46278 (United States)

    2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy experiments were performed at high temperature on fluorinated parylene films during the occurrence of the isothermal crystalline phase transition. For this polymer, since the difference between the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and the phase transition temperature (T{sub c}) is very strong (T{sub c}???4T{sub g}), segmental and dipolar relaxation usually used to probe the crystallization are not shown in the experiment frequency window (10{sup ?1} to 10{sup 6}?Hz) during the crystallization. The charge diffusion becomes the only electrical marker that allows probing the phase transition. During the transition phase, a continuous decrease of about two orders of magnitude is observed in the conductivity values below an offset frequency (f{sub c}) with a tendency to stabilization after 600?min. Below the offset frequency, the decrease of the normalized conductivity to the initial value as function of time is frequency independent. The same behavior is also observed for the f{sub c} values that decrease from 160?Hz to about 20?Hz. Above the offset frequency, the electronic hopping mechanism is also affected by the phase transition and the power law exponent (n) of the AC conductivity shows a variation from 0.7 to 0.95 during the first 600?min that tend to stabilize thereafter. Accordingly, three parameters (n, f{sub c}, and AC conductivity values for frequencies below f{sub c}) extracted from the AC conductivity spectra in different frequency windows seem suitable to probe the crystalline phase transition.

  20. Rotating concave eddy current probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis P. (Albuquerque, NM); Walkington, Phil (Albuquerque, NM); Rackow, Kirk A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hohman, Ed (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotating concave eddy current probe for detecting fatigue cracks hidden from view underneath the head of a raised head fastener, such as a buttonhead-type rivet, used to join together structural skins, such as aluminum aircraft skins. The probe has a recessed concave dimple in its bottom surface that closely conforms to the shape of the raised head. The concave dimple holds the probe in good alignment on top of the rivet while the probe is rotated around the rivet's centerline. One or more magnetic coils are rigidly embedded within the probe's cylindrical body, which is made of a non-conducting material. This design overcomes the inspection impediment associated with widely varying conductivity in fastened joints.

  1. Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-. cap alpha. line profile observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argo, H.V.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-..cap alpha.. (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya.

  2. Water at the Surfaces of Aligned Phospholipid Multibilayer Model Membranes Probed with Ultrafast Vibrational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water at the Surfaces of Aligned Phospholipid Multibilayer Model Membranes Probed with Ultrafast@stanford.edu Abstract: The dynamics of water at the surface of artificial membranes composed of aligned multibilayers pump-probe spectroscopy. The experiments are performed at various hydration levels, x ) 2 - 16 water

  3. Dynamics of Nanoscopic Water: Vibrational Echo and Infrared Pump-Probe Studies of Reverse Micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Dynamics of Nanoscopic Water: Vibrational Echo and Infrared Pump-Probe Studies of Reverse MicellesVersity, Stanford, California 94305 ReceiVed: April 8, 2005; In Final Form: May 12, 2005 The dynamics of water of the hydrogen-bond network dynamics. Pump-probe experiments show that the vibrational lifetime of the OD stretch

  4. Using phylogenetic probes for quantification of stable isotope labeling and microbial community analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brodie, Eoin L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Karaoz, Ulas; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Herein is described methods for a high-sensitivity means to measure the incorporation of stable isotope labeled substrates into RNA following stable isotope probing experiments (SIP). RNA is hybridized to a set of probes such as phylogenetic microarrays and isotope incorporation is quantified such as by secondary ion mass spectrometer imaging (NanoSIMS).

  5. Fiberoptic probe and system for spectral measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, S.; Young, J.P.

    1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fused fiberoptic probe, a system, method and embodiments thereof for conducting spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiberoptic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferably silica. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0{degree}, an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head. 12 figs.

  6. Spermidine Modulated Ribonuclease Activity Probed by RNA Plasmon Rulers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spermidine Modulated Ribonuclease Activity Probed by RNA Plasmon Rulers Lynell R. Skewis and Bjo1rn distance measurements based on coupled pairs of gold nanoparticles, or plasmon rulers, to individual RNA by ribonuclease A. Time- resolved cleavage experiments of individual RNA plasmon rulers reveal transiently

  7. Observation of low magnetic field density peaks in helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barada, Kshitish K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Saxena, Y. C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single density peak has been commonly observed in low magnetic field (<100 G) helicon discharges. In this paper, we report the observations of multiple density peaks in low magnetic field (<100 G) helicon discharges produced in the linear helicon plasma device [Barada et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 063501 (2012)]. Experiments are carried out using argon gas with m = +1 right helical antenna operating at 13.56 MHz by varying the magnetic field from 0 G to 100 G. The plasma density varies with varying the magnetic field at constant input power and gas pressure and reaches to its peak value at a magnetic field value of {approx}25 G. Another peak of smaller magnitude in density has been observed near 50 G. Measurement of amplitude and phase of the axial component of the wave using magnetic probes for two magnetic field values corresponding to the observed density peaks indicated the existence of radial modes. Measured parallel wave number together with the estimated perpendicular wave number suggests oblique mode propagation of helicon waves along the resonance cone boundary for these magnetic field values. Further, the observations of larger floating potential fluctuations measured with Langmuir probes at those magnetic field values indicate that near resonance cone boundary; these electrostatic fluctuations take energy from helicon wave and dump power to the plasma causing density peaks.

  8. Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probe AFM Compound Microscope Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope The atomic force microscope (AFM) compound microscope is designed primarily for fluorescence imaging in the...

  9. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  10. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  11. Optic probe for semiconductor characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Hambarian, Artak (Yerevan, AM)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein is an optical probe (120) for use in characterizing surface defects in wafers, such as semiconductor wafers. The optical probe (120) detects laser light reflected from the surface (124) of the wafer (106) within various ranges of angles. Characteristics of defects in the surface (124) of the wafer (106) are determined based on the amount of reflected laser light detected in each of the ranges of angles. Additionally, a wafer characterization system (100) is described that includes the described optical probe (120).

  12. Probing the Majorana nature of the neutrino with neutrinoless double beta decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Morisi

    2009-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (NDBD) is the only experiment that could probe the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Here we study the theoretical implications of NDBD for models yielding tri-bimaximal lepton mixing like A4 and S4.

  13. anisotropy probe observations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10-12 (95% CL). L. Page; G. Hinshaw; E. Komatsu; M. R. Nolta; D. N. Spergel; C. L. Bennett; C. Barnes; R. Bean; O. Dor; J. Dunkley; M. Halpern; R. S. Hill; N. Jarosik; A....

  14. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Foreground Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Bennett; R. S. Hill; G. Hinshaw; M. R. Nolta; N. Odegard; L. Page; D. N. Spergel; J. L. Weiland; E. L. Wright; M. Halpern; N. Jarosik; A. Kogut; M. Limon; S. S. Meyer; G. S. Tucker; E. Wollack

    2003-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Full sky maps are made in five microwave frequency bands to separate the temperature anisotropy of the CMB from foreground emission. We define masks that excise regions of high foreground emission. The effectiveness of template fits to remove foreground emission from the WMAP data is examined. These efforts result in a CMB map with minimal contamination and a demonstration that the WMAP CMB power spectrum is insensitive to residual foreground emission. We construct a model of the Galactic emission components. We find that the Milky Way resembles other normal spiral galaxies between 408 MHz and 23 GHz, with a synchrotron spectral index that is flattest (beta ~ -2.5) near star-forming regions, especially in the plane, and steepest (beta ~ -3) in the halo. The significant synchrotron index steepening out of the plane suggests a diffusion process in which the halo electrons are trapped in the Galactic potential long enough to suffer synchrotron and inverse Compton energy losses and hence a spectral steepening. The synchrotron index is steeper in the WMAP bands than in lower frequency radio surveys, with a spectral break near 20 GHz to beta < -3. The modeled thermal dust spectral index is also steep in the WMAP bands, with beta ~ 2.2. Microwave and H alpha measurements of the ionized gas agree. Spinning dust emission is limited to < ~5% of the Ka-band foreground emission. A catalog of 208 point sources is presented. Derived source counts suggest a contribution to the anisotropy power from unresolved sources of (15.0 +- 1.4) 10^{-3} microK^2 sr at Q-band and negligible levels at V-band and W-band.

  15. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  16. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Ballard, Sanford (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow.

  17. Experimental investigation into operational characteristics of a shrouded probe for aerosol sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandra, Sumit

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stream velocities of 15. 6 and 8. 9 m/s. All such velocity measurements provide information required for understanding aerodynamic operational behavior of the shrouded probe. Subsequently, aerosol experiments to determine aspiration ratio.... The following is a categorized review. Particle Deposition Sehmel was one of the earlier workers to present (2) results on aerosol deposition while sampling with sharp edged probes. In his experiments, wall losses increased with Reynolds Number (Re...

  18. Programming Infinite Objects by Observations Andreas Abel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    (experiment), and observe its result (behavior). Application is the defining principle of functions [Granstr¨om

  19. Laser fluorescence EEM probe for cone penetrometer pollution analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, J.; Hart, S.J.; Taylor, T.A.; Kenny, J.E. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) excitation-emission matrix (EEM) probe has been developed in the laboratory, and installed and tested in a cone penetrometer. The laser excitation system uses the fourth harmonic of a flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser (at 266 nm) to pump a Raman shifter. Up to ten laser beams (in the wavelength region of 257 to 400 nm) from the Raman shifter are launched into optical fibers that are connected to the optical fibers of the cone penetrometer probe through standard connectors. In the probe head, the laser radiation is focused onto the outer surface of sapphire windows that are in contact with the soils. The fluorescence emission is collected by ten collection fibers that take the fluorescence to a detection system consisting of a spectrograph and a CCD detector. This probe allows real-time collection of LIF-EEMs of pollutants adsorbed on solids or dissolved in groundwater. LIF-EEMs provide a substantial amount of spectral information that can be used to determine the composition and quantity of pollutants in soils. This probe can be used to measure POL (petroleum, oil, lubricants), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and other fluorescent pollutants. The LIF-EEM instrument has been developed in the laboratory, and installed in a cone penetrometer truck for a field test at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. The experience of the test will be discussed.

  20. Hand-held survey probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Hungate, Kevin E. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include an optical sensor to generate data corresponding to a position of the detection probe with respect to a surface; a microprocessor to receive the data; a software medium having code to process the data with the microprocessor and pre-programmed parameters, and making a comparison of the data to the parameters; and an indicator device to indicate results of the comparison. A method of providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include generating output data with an optical sensor corresponding to the relative position with respect to a surface; processing the output data, including comparing the output data to pre-programmed parameters; and indicating results of the comparison.

  1. A split-beam probe-pump-probe scheme for femtosecond time resolved protein X-ray crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Thor, Jasper J.; Madsen, Anders

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL) operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/?I) must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or “probe-pump-probe”) which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ?F,more »in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.« less

  2. A FRAMEWORK FOR INTERPRETING FAST RADIO TRANSIENTS SEARCH EXPERIMENTS: APPLICATION TO THE V-FASTR EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wayth, Randall B.; Macquart, Jean-Pierre R.; Palaniswamy, Divya [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6845 (Australia)] [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6845 (Australia); Thompson, David R.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Majid, Walid A.; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)] [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Deller, Adam T. [ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands)] [ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Brisken, Walter F., E-mail: cathryn.trott@curtin.edu.au [NRAO, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We define a framework for determining constraints on the detection rate of fast transient events from a population of underlying sources, with a view to incorporate beam shape, frequency effects, scattering effects, and detection efficiency into the metric. We then demonstrate a method for combining independent data sets into a single event rate constraint diagram, using a probabilistic approach to the limits on parameter space. We apply this new framework to present the latest results from the V-FASTR experiment, a commensal fast transients search using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). In the 20 cm band, V-FASTR now has the ability to probe the regions of parameter space of importance for the observed Lorimer and Keane fast radio transient candidates by combining the information from observations with differing bandwidths, and properly accounting for the source dispersion measure, VLBA antenna beam shape, experiment time sampling, and stochastic nature of events. We then apply the framework to combine the results of the V-FASTR and Allen Telescope Array Fly's Eye experiments, demonstrating their complementarity. Expectations for fast transients experiments for the SKA Phase I dish array are then computed, and the impact of large differential bandwidths is discussed.

  3. Probing Two-Field Open Inflation by Resonant Signals in Correlation Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsten Battefeld; Jens C. Niemeyer; Dimitar Vlaykov

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive oscillatory signals in correlation functions in two-field open inflation by means of the in-in formalism; such signatures are caused by resonances between oscillations in the tunnelling field and fluctuations in the inflaton during the curvature dominated, intermediate and subsequent inflationary regime. While amplitudes are model-dependent, we find distinct oscillations in the power and bi-spectrum that can act as a direct probe of the curvature dominated phase and thus, indirectly, strengthen the claim of the string landscape if they were observed. We comment on the prospects of detecting these tell-tale signs in current experiments, which is challenging, but not impossible. At the technical level, we pay special attention to the applicability conditions for truncation fluctuations to the light (inflaton) field and derive upper limits on the oscillation amplitude of the heavy field. A violation of these bounds requires a multi-field analysis at the perturbed level.

  4. Probing the black box : experiments in design and design education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulvey, Christopher P. (Christopher Paul), 1975-

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional analysis and design methods based on preexisting methods and assumptions preconditions and limits the designer's level of engagement with the specific context that is under investigation. A structural analysis ...

  5. Revisiting plasma hysteresis with an electronically compensated Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of electron temperature in plasma by Langmuir probes, using ramped bias voltage, is seriously affected by the capacitive current of capacitance of the cable between the probe tip and data acquisition system. In earlier works a dummy cable was used to balance the capacitive currents. Under these conditions, the measured capacitive current was kept less than a few mA. Such probes are suitable for measurements in plasma where measured ion saturation current is of the order of hundreds of mA. This paper reports that controlled balancing of capacitive current can be minimized to less than 20 {mu}A, allowing plasma measurements to be done with ion saturation current of the order of hundreds of {mu}A. The electron temperature measurement made by using probe compensation technique becomes independent of sweep frequency. A correction of {<=}45% is observed in measured electron temperature values when compared with uncompensated probe. This also enhances accuracy in the measurement of fluctuation in electron temperature as {delta}T{sub pk-pk} changes by {approx}30%. The developed technique with swept rate {<=}100 kHz is found accurate enough to measure both the electron temperature and its fluctuating counterpart. This shows its usefulness in measuring accurately the temperature fluctuations because of electron temperature gradient in large volume plasma device plasma with frequency ordering {<=}50 kHz.

  6. Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omar Benhar

    2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the italian theoretical Nuclear Physics community has played a leading role in the development of a unified approach, allowing for a consistent and fully quantitative description of the nuclear response to electromagnetic and weak probes. In this paper I review the main achievements in both fields, point out some of the open problems, and outline the most promising prospects.

  7. Experiments and Observation of Peat Smouldering Fires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashton, Clare; Rein, Guillermo; Dios, JD; Torero, Jose L; Legg, C; Davies, M; Gray, A

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    If a subsurface layer of peat is ignited, it smoulders (flameless combustion) slowly but steadily. These fires propagate for long periods of time (days, weeks, even years), are particularly difficult to extinguish and can spread over very extensive...

  8. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  9. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  10. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Jesse D. (Reno, NV); Sulchek, Todd A. (Oakland, CA); Feigin, Stuart C. (Reno, NV)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  11. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Jesse D.; Sulchek, Todd A.; Feigin, Stuart C.

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  12. Handheld force-controlled ultrasound probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbertson, Matthew Wright

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An hand-held force controlled ultrasound probe has been developed. The controller maintains a prescribed contact force between the probe and a patient's body. The device will enhance the diagnostic capability of free-hand ...

  13. Electron probe microanalysis in geoscience: a tutorial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gooley, R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tutorial on the history, theory and use of electron probe microanalysis in the geosciences is presented. (ACR)

  14. Probing Nanoscale Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Fluctuation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Fluctuation Dynamics using Correalted AFM and Confocal Ultramicroscopy. Probing Nanoscale Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Fluctuation...

  15. Alfven eigenmodes observed during sawteeth show the presence...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the longstanding problem of the sawtooth crash Recent experiments on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak employ one plasma instability, the Alfven eigenmode, as a diagnostic probing into a...

  16. Means to remove electrode contamination effect of Langmuir probe measurement in space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Lee, C. H.; Fang, H. K.; Cheng, C. Z. [Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, No.1 Ta-Hsueh Rd., Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Precaution to remove the serious effect of electrode contamination in Langmuir probe experiments has not been taken in many space measurements because the effect is either not understood or ignored. We stress here that one should pay extra attention to the electrode contamination effect to get accurate and reliable plasma measurements so that the long time effort for sounding rocket/satellite missions does not end in vain or becomes less fruitful. In this paper, we describe two main features of voltage-current characteristic curves associated with the contaminated Langmuir probe, which are predicted from the equivalent circuit model, which we proposed in 1970's. We then show that fast sweeping dc Langmuir probes can give reliable results in the steady state regime. The fast sweeping probe can also give reliable results in transient situations such as satellite moves through plasma bubble in the ionosphere where the electron density drastically changes. This fact was first confirmed in our laboratory experiment.

  17. Investigating the momentum balance of a plasma pinch: An air-side stereoscopic imaging system for locating probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, Jason, E-mail: jason.sears@alum.mit.edu; Intrator, T. P.; Feng, Y.; Swan, H. O.; Klarenbeek, J.; Gao, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The momentum balance of a plasma pinch in the Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) is examined in three dimensions using several repositionable, insertable probes. A new camera-based system described here triangulates the locations of the probe tips so that their measurements are spatially registered. The optical system locates probes to within ±1.5 mm of their absolute 3D position in the vessel and to within ±0.7 mm relative to other probes, on the order of the electron inertial length (1?2 mm)

  18. Few-cycle optical probe-pulse for investigation of relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwab, M. B.; Sävert, A.; Polz, J.; Schnell, M.; Rinck, T.; Möller, M.; Hansinger, P. [Insitut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)] [Insitut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Jäckel, O.; Paulus, G. G.; Kaluza, M. C. [Insitut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany) [Insitut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Veisz, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a few-cycle optical probe-pulse for the investigation of laser-plasma interactions driven by a Ti:sapphire, 30 Terawatt (TW) laser system is described. The probe is seeded by a fraction of the driving laser's energy and is spectrally broadened via self-phase modulation in a hollow core fiber filled with a rare gas, then temporally compressed to a few optical cycles via chirped mirrors. Shadowgrams of the laser-driven plasma wave created in relativistic electron acceleration experiments are presented with few-fs temporal resolution, which is shown to be independent of post-interaction spectral filtering of the probe-beam.

  19. Optical probe with reference fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Chase, Charles L. (Dublin, CA)

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for characterizing tissue includes the steps of generating an emission signal, generating a reference signal, directing the emission signal to and from the tissue, directing the reference signal in a predetermined manner relative to the emission signal, and using the reference signal to compensate the emission signal. In one embodiment compensation is provided for fluctuations in light delivery to the tip of the probe due to cable motion.

  20. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  1. Transient Enhancement (?Spike-on-Tail?) Observed on Neutral-Beam-Injected Energetic Ion Spectra Using the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. S. Medley, N. N. Gorelenkov, R. E. Bell, E. D. Fredrickson, S. P. Gerhardt, B. P. LeBlanc, M. Podestà, A. L. Roquemore, and the NSTX Team

    2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An increase of up to four-fold in the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) charge exchange neutral flux localized at the Neutral Beam (NB) injection full energy is observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Termed the High-Energy Feature (HEF), it appears on the NB-injected energetic ion spectrum only in discharges where tearing or kink-type modes (f < 10 kHz) are absent, TAE activity (f ~ 10-150 kHz) is weak (?Brms < 75 mGauss) and CAE/GAE activity (f ~ 400 – 1200 kHz) is robust. The feature exhibits a growth time of ~ 20 - 80 ms and occasionally develops a slowing down distribution that continues to evolve over periods of 100?s of milliseconds, a time scale long compared with the typical ~ 10?s ms equilibration time of the NB injected particles. The HEF is observed only in H-mode (not L-mode) discharges with injected NB power of 4 MW or greater and in the field pitch range v||/v ~ 0.7 – 0.9; i.e. only for passing (never trapped) energetic ions. The HEF is suppressed by vessel conditioning using lithium deposition at rates ~ 100 mg/shot, a level sufficient to suppress ELM activity. Increases of ~ 10 - 30 % in the measured neutron yield and total stored energy are observed to coincide with the feature along with broadening of measured Te(r), Ti(r) and ne(r) profiles. However, TRANSP analysis shows that such increases are driven by plasma profile changes and not the HEF phenomenon itself. Though a definitive mechanism has yet to be developed, the HEF appears to be caused by a form of TAE/CAE wave-particle interaction that distorts of the NB fast ion distribution in phase space.

  2. Black Holes are neither Particle Accelerators nor Dark Matter Probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean T. McWilliams

    2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that maximally spinning black holes can serve as particle accelerators, reaching arbitrarily high center-of-mass energies. Despite several objections regarding the practical achievability of such high energies, and demonstrations past and present that such large energies could never reach a distant observer, interest in this problem has remained substantial. We show that, unfortunately, a maximally spinning black hole can never serve as a probe of high energy collisions, even in principle and despite the correctness of the original diverging energy calculation. Black holes can indeed facilitate dark matter annihilation, but the most energetic photons can carry little more than the rest energy of the dark matter particles to a distant observer, and those photons are actually generated relatively far from the black hole where relativistic effects are negligible. Therefore, any strong gravitational potential could probe dark matter equally well, and an appeal to black holes for facilitating such collisions is unnecessary.

  3. Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.

  4. Probes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br Bromine 43 cPoints ofJanoschek

  5. Fundamental experiments in velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, Matthew Ellsworth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hull, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shinas, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One can understand what velocimetry does and does not measure by understanding a few fundamental experiments. Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is an interferometer that will produce fringe shifts when the length of one of the legs changes, so we might expect the fringes to change whenever the distance from the probe to the target changes. However, by making PDV measurements of tilted moving surfaces, we have shown that fringe shifts from diffuse surfaces are actually measured only from the changes caused by the component of velocity along the beam. This is an important simplification in the interpretation of PDV results, arising because surface roughness randomizes the scattered phases.

  6. An efficient probe of the cosmological CPT violation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Xia, Jun-Qing; Li, Mingzhe; Zhang, Xinmin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop an efficient method based on the linear regression algorithm to probe the cosmological CPT violation using the CMB polarisation data. We validate this method using simulated CMB data and apply it to recent CMB observations. We find that a combined data sample of BICEP1 and BOOMERanG 2003 favours a nonzero isotropic rotation angle at $2.3\\sigma$ confidence level, ie, $\\Delta\\alpha=-3.3 \\pm1.4$ deg (68% CL) with systematics included.

  7. Probing the Temperature Profile of Energy Production in the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Grieb; R. S. Raghavan

    2006-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The particle kinetic energies of pp fusion in the sun (Gamow Energy) produce small changes in the energies of pp solar neutrinos relative to those due only to exothermal energetics. Observation of this effect may be possible via the unique tools of the upcoming LENS solar neutrino detector. The temperature profile of energy production in the sun may thus be directly probed for the first time.

  8. “Hard probes” of strongly-interacting atomic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Yusuke [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

  9. Entangled quantum probes for dynamical environmental noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteo A. C. Rossi; Matteo G. A. Paris

    2015-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the use of entangled qubits as quantum probes to characterize the dynamical noise induced by complex environments. In particular, we show that entangled probes improve estimation of the correlation time for a broad class of environmental noises compared to any sequential strategy involving single qubit preparation. The effect is present when the noise is faster than a threshold value, a regime which may always be achieved by tuning the coupling between the quantum probe and the environment inducing the noise. Our scheme exploits time-dependent sensitivity of quantum systems to decoherence and does not require dynamical control on the probes. We derive the optimal interaction time and the optimal probe preparation, showing that it corresponds to multiqubit GHZ states when entanglement is useful. We also show robustness of the scheme against depolarization or dephasing of the probe, and discuss simple measurements approaching optimal precision.

  10. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmar, E.S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet injection experiments on TFTR have produced a number of new and significant results. (1) We observe reproducible improvements of TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection ( lithiumization'). (2) We have made accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using two novel techniques. The first measures the internal field pitch from the polarization angles of Li[sup +] line emission from the pellet ablation cloud, while the second measures the pitch angle profiles by observing the tilt of the cigar-shaped Li[sup +] emission region of the ablation cloud. (3) Extensive measurements of impurity pellet penetration into plasmas with central temperatures ranging from [approximately]0.3 to [approximately]7 keV have been made and compared with available theoretical models. Other aspects of pellet cloud physics have been investigated. (4) Using pellets as a well defined perturbation has allowed study of transport phenomena. In the case of small pellet perturbations, the characteristics of the background plasmas are probed, while with large pellets, pellet induced effects are clearly observed. These main results are discussed in more detail in this paper.

  11. PROBING DENSE NUCLEAR MATTER VIA NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, H.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University of California. LBL-12095 Probing Dense NuclearMatter Nuclear Collisions* v~a H. Stocker, M.Gyulassy and J. Boguta Nuclear Science Division Lawrence

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: scanning probe microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    focus on stainless steels. Dr. An is an internationally recognized expert on scanning probe microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning ... Last Updated:...

  13. Strong laser fields as a probe for fundamental physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holger Gies

    2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Upcoming high-intensity laser systems will be able to probe the quantum-induced nonlinear regime of electrodynamics. So far unobserved QED phenomena such as the discovery of a nonlinear response of the quantum vacuum to macroscopic electromagnetic fields can become accessible. In addition, such laser systems provide for a flexible tool for investigating fundamental physics. Primary goals consist in verifying so far unobserved QED phenomena. Moreover, strong-field experiments can search for new light but weakly interacting degrees of freedom and are thus complementary to accelerator-driven experiments. I review recent developments in this field, focusing on photon experiments in strong electromagnetic fields. The interaction of particle-physics candidates with photons and external fields can be parameterized by low-energy effective actions and typically predict characteristic optical signatures. I perform first estimates of the accessible new-physics parameter space of high-intensity laser facilities such as POLARIS and ELI.

  14. The T2K Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abgrall, N; Ajima, Y; Albert, J B; Allan, D; Amaudruz, P -A; Andreopoulos, C; Andrieu, B; Anerella, M D; Angelsen, C; Aoki, S; Araoka, O; Argyriades, J; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; de André, J P A M; Autiero, D; Badertscher, A; Ballester, O; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Baron, P; Barr, G; Bartoszek, L; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berns, H; Bertram, I; Besnier, M; Beucher, J; Beznosko, D; Bhadra, S; Birney, P; Bishop, D; Blackmore, E; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Bodek, A; Bojechko, C; Bouchez, J; Boussuge, T; Boyd, S B; Boyer, M; Braam, N; Bradford, R; Bravar, A; Briggs, K; Brinson, J D; Bronner, C; Brook-Roberge, D G; Bryant, M; Buchanan, N; Budd, H; Cadabeschi, M; Calland, R G; Calvet, D; Rodríguez, J Caravaca; Carroll, J; Cartwright, S L; Carver, A; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cavata, C; Cazes, A; Cervera, A; Charrier, J P; Chavez, C; Choi, S; Chollet, S; Christodoulou, G; Colas, P; Coleman, J; Coleman, W; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cooke, P; Curioni, A; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davies, G S; Davis, S; Day, M; De La Broise, X; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Debraine, A; Delagnes, E; Delbart, A; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Tran, P Dinh; Dobson, J; Doornbos, J; Dore, U; Drapier, O; Druillole, F; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Durkin, T; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Dziomba, M; Ellison, B; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escallier, J E; Escudero, L; Esposito, L S; Faszer, W; Fechner, M; Ferrero, A; Finch, A; Fisher, C; Fitton, M; Flight, R; Forbush, D; Frank, E; Fransham, K; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Gallop, M; Galymov, V; Ganetis, G L; Gannaway, F C; Gaudin, A; Gaweda, J; Gendotti, A; George, M; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Giomataris, I; Giraud, J; Ghosh, A K; Golan, T; Goldhaber, M; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gomi, S; Gonin, M; Goyette, M; Grant, A; Grant, N; Grañena, F; Greenwood, S; Gumplinger, P; Guzowski, P; Haigh, M D; Hamano, K; Hansen, C; Hara, T; Harrison, P F; Hartfiel, B; Hartz, M; Haruyama, T; Hasanen, R; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hastings, S; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hayashi, K; Hayato, Y; Haycock, T D J; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Henderson, R; Herlant, S; Higashi, N; Hignight, J; Hiraide, K; Hirose, E; Holeczek, J; Honkanen, N; Horikawa, S; Hyndman, A; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Iida, M; Ikeda, M; Ilic, J; Imber, J; Ishida, T; Ishihara, C; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iwasaki, M; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Joo, K K; Jover-Manas, G; Jung, C K; Kaji, H; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Karlen, D; Kasami, K; Kasey, V; Kato, I; Kawamuko, H; Kearns, E; Kellet, L; Khabibullin, M; Khaleeq, M; Khan, N; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kim, J Y; Kim, S -B; Kimura, N; Kirby, B; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Kogan, G; Koike, S; Komorowski, T; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kouzuma, Y; Kowalik, K; Kravtsov, V; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kubota, J; Kudenko, Y; Kulkarni, N; Kurchaninov, L; Kurimoto, Y; Kurjata, R; Kurosawa, Y; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Langstaf, R; Laveder, M; Lawson, T B; Le, P T; Coguie, A Le; Ross, M Le; Lee, K P; Lenckowski, M; Licciardi, C; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Lopez, G D; Lu, P; Ludovici, L; Lux, T; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Makida, Y; Malafis, C J; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marchionni, A; Mark, C; Marino, A D; Marone, A J; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Maryon, T; Marzec, J; Masliah, P; Mathie, E L; Matsumura, C; Matsuoka, K; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; McLachlan, T; Mercer, I; Messina, M; Metcalf, W; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Minvielle, R E; Mituka, G; Miura, M; Mizouchi, K; Mols, J -P; Monfregola, L; Monmarthe, E; Moreau, F; Morgan, B; Moriyama, S; Morris, D; Muir, A; Murakami, A; Muratore, J F; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagashima, G; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamoto, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Naples, D; Nelson, B; Nicholls, T C; Nishikawa, K; Nishino, H; Nitta, K; Nizery, F; Nowak, J A; Noy, M; Obayashi, Y; Ogitsu, T; Ohhata, H; Okamura, T; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Ohlmann, C; Olchanski, K; Openshaw, R; Oser, S M; Otani, M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Ozaki, T; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Paul, P; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Pearson, C; Perkin, J D; Pfleger, M; Pierre, F; Pierrepont, D; Plonski, P; Poffenberger, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Preece, R; Przewlocki, P; Qian, W; Raaf, J L; Radicioni, E; Ramos, K; Ratoff, P; Raufer, T M; Ravonel, M; Raymond, M; Retiere, F; Richards, D; Ritou, J -L; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roney, M; Rooney, M; Ross, D; Rossi, B; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sadler, S; Sakashita, K; Sanchez, F; Sarrat, A; Sasaki, K; Schaack, P; Schmidt, J; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The T2K experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Its main goal is to measure the last unknown lepton sector mixing angle {\\theta}_{13} by observing {\

  15. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr?IrO? using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Liu, J.; Chiuzbaian, S. G.; Jaouen, N.; Nicolaou, A.; Yin, W. G.; Rayan Serrao, C.; Ramesh, R.; Ding, H.; et al

    2015-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr?IrO?, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edgemore »RIXS energy resolutions in the hard X-ray region is usually poor.« less

  16. Probing protein orientation near charged surfaces with an implicit-solvent model and the PyGBe code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Christopher D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein-surface interactions are ubiquitous in biological processes and bioengineering, yet are not fully understood. In the field of biosensors, a key factor in biosensor performance is the orientation of biomolecules near charged surfaces. The aim of this work is developing and assessing a computational model to study proteins interacting with charged surfaces and obtain orientation data. After extending the implicit-solvent model used in the open-source code PyGBe and deriving an analytical solution for simple geometry, our careful grid-convergence analysis builds confidence on the correctness and value of our approach for probing protein orientation. Further computational experiments support it: they study preferred orientations for protein GB1 D4' and immunoglobulin G. Sampling the free energy for protein GB1 at a range of tilt and rotation angles with respect to the charged surface, we calculated the probability of the protein orientation and observed a dipolar behavior. This result is consistent with p...

  17. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr?IrO? using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Dean, M. P. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liu, J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chiuzbaian, S. G. [Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France); Jaouen, N. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France); Nicolaou, A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France); Yin, W. G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rayan Serrao, C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ramesh, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ding, H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Hill, J. P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr?IrO?, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edge RIXS energy resolutions in the hard X-ray region is usually poor.

  18. Results of performance testing the Russian RPV temperature measurement probe used for annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Selsky, S. [CNIITMASH, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides information on three (3) topics related to temperature measurements in an annealing procedure: (1) results of a series of experiments performed by CNIITMASH of the Russian consortium MOHT on their reactor pressure vessel (RPV) temperature measurement probe, (2) a discussion regarding uncertainties and errors in RPV temperature measurements, and (3) predictions from a thermal model of a spherical RPV temperature measurement probe. MOHT teamed with MPR Associates and was to perform the Annealing Demonstration Project (ADP) on behalf of the US Department of Energy, ESEERCo, EPRI, CRIEPI, Framatome, and Consumers Power Co. at the Midland plant. Experimental results show that the CNIITMASH probe errors are a maximum of about 27 C (49 F) during a 15 C/hr (27 F/hr) heat-up but only about 3 C (5.4 F) (0.6%) during the hold portion at 470 C (878 F). These errors are much smaller than those obtained from a similar series of experiments performed by Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). The discussion about uncertainties and errors shows that results presented as a temperature difference provides a measure of the probe error. Qualitative agreement is shown between the model predictions, the experimental results of the CNIITMASH probe and the experimental results of a series of similar experiments performed by Sandia.

  19. MERIT Pump/Probe Data OutlineOutline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    MERIT Pump/Probe Data Analysis OutlineOutline The pump/probe program Particle detector response correction Pump/probe analysis results NFMCC Collaboration Meeting , LBNL, January 26, 2009 Ilias Efthymiopoulos - CERN #12;The pump/probe program #12;The pump/probe program Use of the CERN PS flexibility

  20. In-situ spectrophotometric probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prather, W.S.

    1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A spectrophotometric probe is described for in situ absorption spectra measurements comprising a first optical fiber carrying light from a remote light source, a second optical fiber carrying light to a remote spectrophotometer, the proximal ends of the first and second optical fibers parallel and co-terminal, a planoconvex lens to collimate light from the first optical fiber, a reflecting grid positioned a short distance from the lens to reflect the collimated light back to the lens for focusing on the second optical fiber. The lens is positioned with the convex side toward the optical fibers. A substrate for absorbing analyte or an analyte and reagent mixture may be positioned between the lens and the reflecting grid. 5 figs.

  1. Millimeter-wave active probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majidi-Ahy, Gholamreza (Sunnyvale, CA); Bloom, David M. (Portola Valley, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A millimeter-wave active probe for use in injecting signals with frequencies above 50GHz to millimeter-wave and ultrafast devices and integrated circuits including a substrate upon which a frequency multiplier consisting of filter sections and impedance matching sections are fabricated in uniplanar transmission line format. A coaxial input and uniplanar 50 ohm transmission line couple an approximately 20 GHz input signal to a low pass filter which rolls off at approximately 25 GHz. An input impedance matching section couples the energy from the low pass filter to a pair of matched, antiparallel beam lead diodes. These diodes generate odd-numberd harmonics which are coupled out of the diodes by an output impedance matching network and bandpass filter which suppresses the fundamental and third harmonics and selects the fifth harmonic for presentation at an output.

  2. Positive muon and the positron as probes of defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, K G

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The positive muon and the positron are each being used nowadays to investigate defects in condensed matter. A brief summary of the experimental methods employed with each particle is given in this paper. Similarities and differences between the behavior of the two leptons when implanted in consensed matter are pointed out, and by means of a comparison between muon and positron data in Al it is shown that the combination of muon and positron experiments can serve as a useful new probe of defects in solids.

  3. Thermodynamics of D-brane Probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Kiritsis; T. R. Taylor

    1999-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the dynamics and thermodynamics of particle and D-brane probes moving in non-extremal black hole/brane backgrounds. When a probe falls from asymptotic infinity to the horizon, it transforms its potential energy into heat, $TdS$, which is absorbed by the black hole in a way consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. We show that the same remains true in the near-horizon limit, for BPS probes only, with the BPS probe moving from AdS infinity to the horizon. This is a quantitative indication that the brane-probe reaching the horizon corresponds to thermalization in gauge theory. It is shown that this relation provides a way to reliably compute the entropy away from the extremal limit (towards the Schwarzschild limit).

  4. Rugged fiber optic probe for raman measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Toole, Jr., William R. (Aiken, SC); Nave, Stanley E. (Evans, GA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical probe for conducting light scattering analysis is disclosed. The probe comprises a hollow housing and a probe tip. A fiber assembly made up of a transmitting fiber and a receiving bundle is inserted in the tip. A filter assembly is inserted in the housing and connected to the fiber assembly. A signal line from the light source and to the spectrometer also is connected to the filter assembly and communicates with the fiber assembly. By using a spring-loaded assembly to hold the fiber connectors together with the in-line filters, complex and sensitive alignment procedures are avoided. The close proximity of the filter assembly to the probe tip eliminates or minimizes self-scattering generated by the optical fiber. Also, because the probe can contact the sample directly, sensitive optics can be eliminated.

  5. Protective shield for an instrument probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnsen, Howard A.; Ross, James R.; Birtola, Sal R.

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A shield is disclosed that is particularly useful for protecting exposed optical elements at the end of optical probes used in the analysis of hazardous emissions in and around an industrial environment from the contaminating effects of those emissions. The instant invention provides a hood or cowl in the shape of a right circular cylinder that can be fitted over the end of such optical probes. The hood provides a clear aperture through which the probe can perform unobstructed analysis. The probe optical elements are protected from the external environment by passing a dry gas through the interior of the hood and out through the hood aperture in sufficient quantity and velocity to prevent any significant mixing between the internal and external environments. Additionally, the hood is provided with a cooling jacket to lessen the potential for damaging the probe due to temperature excursions.

  6. Partial Observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Marlow

    2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We attempt to dissolve the measurement problem using an anthropic principle which allows us to invoke rational observers. We argue that the key feature of such observers is that they are rational (we need not care whether they are `classical' or `macroscopic' for example) and thus, since quantum theory can be expressed as a rational theory of probabilistic inference, the measurement problem is not a problem.

  7. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belianinov, Alex [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer is severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.

  8. Optimizing New Dark Energy Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, J. Anthony [University of California, Davis

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Next generation “Stage IV” dark energy experiments under design during this grant, and now under construction, will enable the determination of the properties of dark energy and dark matter to unprecedented precision using multiple complementary probes. The most pressing challenge in these experiments is the characterization and understanding of the systematic errors present within any given experimental configuration and the resulting impact on the accuracy of our constraints on dark energy physics. The DETF and the P5 panel in their reports recommended “Expanded support for ancillary measurements required for the long-term program and for projects that will improve our understanding and reduction of the dominant systematic measurement errors.” Looking forward to the next generation Stage IV experiments we have developed a program to address the most important potential systematic errors within these experiments. Using data from current facilities it has been feasible and timely to undertake a detailed investigation of the systematic errors. In this DOE grant we studied of the source and impact of the dominant systematic effects in dark energy measurements, and developed new analysis tools and techniques to minimize their impact. Progress under this grant is briefly reviewed in this technical report. This work was a necessary precursor to the coming generations of wide-deep probes of the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The research has already had an impact on improving the efficiencies of all Stage III and IV dark energy experiments.

  9. Ultrafast Material Science Probed Using Coherent X-ray Pulses from High-Harmonic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschlimann, Martin

    Chapter 7 Ultrafast Material Science Probed Using Coherent X-ray Pulses from High science have made it possible to generate x-ray pulses at the femto- and attosecond frontiers using either-ray pulses paves the way for a completely new generation of experiments that can capture the coupled dynamics

  10. Hanbury BrownTwiss Correlations to Probe the Population Statistics of GHz Photons Emitted by Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaçais, Bernard

    Hanbury Brown­Twiss Correlations to Probe the Population Statistics of GHz Photons Emitted of GHz photons in quantum circuits, using Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlations. The super The seminal experiment of Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) [1], consisted in two detectors correlating the power

  11. Controlled Manipulation of Nanoparticles : Scanning Probe Measurements and Modelling of Trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Valentin

    Controlled Manipulation of Nanoparticles : Scanning Probe Measurements and Modelling on the manipulation of Au nanoparticles. A new technique for controlled manipulation of nanospheres and asymmetric, is a common experience in atomic force microscopy (AFM). Understanding how to control and turn this effect

  12. Non-Gaussianity as a Probe of the Physics of the Primordial Universe and the Astrophysics of the Low Redshift Universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komatsu, E.; /Texas U. /Tokyo U.; Afshordi, N.; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Bartolo, N.; /Padua U.; Baumann, D.; /Harvard U.; Bond, J.R.; /Toronto U.; Buchbinder, E.I.; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Byrnes, C.T.; /Heidelberg U.; Chen, Xingang; /MIT; Chung, D.J.H.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Cooray, A.; /UC, Irvine; Creminelli, P.; /ICTP, Trieste; Dalal, N.; /Toronto U.; Dore, O.; /Toronto U.; Easther, R.; /Yale U.; Frolov, A.V.; /Simon Fraser U.; Gorski, K.M.; /Warsaw U.; Khoury, J.; /Pennsylvania U.; Kinney, W.H.; /SUNY, Buffalo; Kofman, L.; /Toronto U.; Koyama, K.; /Portsmouth U.; Leblond, L.; /Texas A-M /Princeton U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Columbia U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Lancaster U. /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Toronto U. /Tokyo U. /Pennsylvania U. /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /Cambridge U. /INFN, Padua /CERN /Antonio Narino U. /Santander Industrial U. /Kyoto U. /New York U. /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Saclay, SPhT /LBL, Berkeley /Zurich U. /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /Queen Mary, U. of London /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /UC, Berkeley /Cambridge U. /Landau Inst. /Princeton U. /Tokyo U. /MIT /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys. /Barcelona, IEEC /Illinois U., Urbana /Portsmouth U. /Texas U. /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys. /Harvard U. /Harvard U.

    2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new and powerful probe of the origin and evolution of structures in the Universe has emerged and been actively developed over the last decade. In the coming decade, non-Gaussianity, i.e., the study of non-Gaussian contributions to the correlations of cosmological fluctuations, will become an important probe of both the early and the late Universe. Specifically, it will play a leading role in furthering our understanding of two fundamental aspects of cosmology and astrophysics: (1) The physics of the very early universe that created the primordial seeds for large-scale structures, and (2) The subsequent growth of structures via gravitational instability and gas physics at later times. To date, observations of fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe (LSS) have focused largely on the Gaussian contribution as measured by the two-point correlations (or the power spectrum) of density fluctuations. However, an even greater amount of information is contained in non-Gaussianity and a large discovery space therefore still remains to be explored. Many observational probes can be used to measure non-Gaussianity, including CMB, LSS, gravitational lensing, Lyman-{alpha} forest, 21-cm fluctuations, and the abundance of rare objects such as clusters of galaxies and high-redshift galaxies. Not only does the study of non-Gaussianity maximize the science return from a plethora of present and future cosmological experiments and observations, but it also carries great potential for important discoveries in the coming decade.

  13. Probing Signal Design for Power System Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierre, John W.; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Hauer, John F.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mittelstadt, William

    2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the design of effective input signals for low-level probing of power systems. In 2005, 2006, and 2008 the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) conducted four large-scale system wide tests of the western interconnected power system where probing signals were injected by modulating the control signal at the Celilo end of the Pacific DC intertie. A major objective of these tests is the accurate estimation of the inter-area electromechanical modes. A key aspect of any such test is the design of an effective probing signal that leads to measured outputs rich in information about the modes. This paper specifically studies low-level probing signal design for power-system identification. The paper describes the design methodology and the advantages of this new probing signal which was successfully applied during these tests. This probing input is a multi-sine signal with its frequency content focused in the range of the inter-area modes. The period of the signal is over two minutes providing high-frequency resolution. Up to 15 cycles of the signal are injected resulting in a processing gain of 15. The resulting system response is studied in the time and frequency domains. Because of the new probing signal characteristics, these results show significant improvement in the output SNR compared to previous tests.

  14. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial...

  15. Quantitatively Probing the Al Distribution in Zeolites. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantitatively Probing the Al Distribution in Zeolites. Quantitatively Probing the Al Distribution in Zeolites. Abstract: The degree of substitution of Si4+ by Al3+ in the...

  16. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne Particle Analysis. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne...

  17. Scanning Probe Direct-Write of Germanium Nanostructures. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probe Direct-Write of Germanium Nanostructures. Scanning Probe Direct-Write of Germanium Nanostructures. Abstract: Bottom-up nanostructure synthesis has played a pivotal role in...

  18. Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.W.Swallow

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

  19. IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS & FACILITIES AT BNL: BLIP & NSLS II Peter Wanderer Superconducting Magnet). Current user: LBNE ­ materials for Project X. · Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment ­ Abandoned gold mine

  20. Topographically induced internal solitary waves in a pycnocline: Ultrasonic probes and stereo-correlation measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dossmann, Yvan, E-mail: yvan.dossmann@anu.edu.au [Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia) [Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); CNRM-GAME, UMR3589 METEO-FRANCE and CNRS, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Laboratoire d’Aérologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Paci, Alexandre [CNRM-GAME, UMR3589 METEO-FRANCE and CNRS, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France)] [CNRM-GAME, UMR3589 METEO-FRANCE and CNRS, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Auclair, Francis [Laboratoire d’Aérologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)] [Laboratoire d’Aérologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Lepilliez, Mathieu [CNRM-GAME, UMR3589 METEO-FRANCE and CNRS, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France) [CNRM-GAME, UMR3589 METEO-FRANCE and CNRS, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Laboratoire d’Aérologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 2 Allée Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Cid, Emmanuel [Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR5503 INPT, UPS, CNRS, 4, Allée Emile Monso, F-31030 Toulouse (France)] [Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR5503 INPT, UPS, CNRS, 4, Allée Emile Monso, F-31030 Toulouse (France)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) are large amplitude stable waves propagating in regions of high density gradients such as the ocean pycnocline. Their dynamics has often been investigated in two-dimensional approaches, however, their three-dimensional evolution is still poorly known. Experiments have been conducted in the large stratified water tank of CNRM-GAME to study the generation of ISWs in two academic configurations inspired by oceanic regimes. First, ultrasonic probes are used to measure the interfacial displacement in the two configurations. In the primary generation case for which the two layers are of constant density, the generation of ISWs is investigated in two series of experiments with varying amplitude and forcing frequency. In the secondary generation case for which the lower layer is stratified, the generation of ISWs from the impact of an internal wave beam on the pycnocline and their subsequent dynamics is studied. The dynamics of ISWs in these two regimes accords well with analytical approaches and numerical simulations performed in analogous configurations. Then, recent developments of a stereo correlation technique are used to describe the three-dimensional structure of propagating ISWs. In the primary generation configuration, small transverse effects are observed in the course of the ISW propagation. In the secondary generation configuration, larger transverse structures are observed in the interfacial waves dynamics. The interaction between interfacial troughs and internal waves propagating in the lower stratified layer are a possible cause for the generation of these structures. The magnitude of these transverse structures is quantified with a nondimensional parameter in the two configurations. They are twice as large in the secondary generation case as in the primary generation case.

  1. Non-Oscillation Probes of Neutrino Masses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinheimer, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster Institut fuer Kernphysik, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The absolute scale of neutrino masses is very important for understanding the evolution and the structure formation of the universe as well as for nuclear and particle physics beyond the present Standard Model. Complementary to deducing statements on the neutrino mass from cosmological observations, two different methods to determine the neutrino mass scale in the laboratory are pursued: the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and the direct neutrino mass search. For both methods currently experiments with a sensitivity of O(100) meV are being set up or commissioned.

  2. Probing Dark Energy with Atom Interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clare Burrage; Edmund J. Copeland; E. A. Hinds

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry.

  3. Results from the T2K experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudenko, Yu. G., E-mail: kudenko@inr.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) experiment is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to probe the {theta}{sub 13} neutrino mixing parameter by looking for the appearance of {nu}{sub e} in an almost pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. The concurrent measurement of the {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance allows refined measurements of the atmospheric {Delta}m{sup 2} and {theta}{sub 23} mixing parameters.

  4. Gamma Ray Bursts as Probes of the First Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James E. Rhoads

    2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The redshift where the first stars formed is an important and unknown milestone in cosmological structure formation. The evidence linking gamma ray bursts (GRBs) with star formation activity implies that the first GRBs occurred shortly after the first stars formed. Gamma ray bursts and their afterglows may thus offer a unique probe of this epoch, because they are bright from gamma ray to radio wavelengths and should be observable to very high redshift. Indeed, our ongoing near-IR followup programs already have the potential to detect bursts at redshift z ~ 10. In these proceedings, we discuss two distinct ways of using GRBs to probe the earliest star formation. First, direct GRB counts may be used as a proxy for star formation rate measurements. Second, high energy cutoffs in the GeV spectra of gamma ray bursts due to pair production with high redshift optical and ultraviolet background photons contain information on early star formation history. The second method is observationally more demanding, but also more rewarding, because each observed pair creation cutoff in a high redshift GRB spectrum will tell us about the integrated star formation history prior to the GRB redshift.

  5. Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

  6. Self-referencing remote optical probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

    1991-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A probe is described for remote spectrometric measurements of fluid samples having a hollow probe body with a sliding reflective plug therein and a lens at one end, ports for admitting and expelling the fluid sample and a means for moving the reflector so that reference measurement can be made with the reflector in a first position near the lens and a sample measurement can be made with the reflector away from the lens and the fluid sample between the reflector and the lens. Comparison of the two measurements will yield the composition of the fluid sample. The probe is preferably used for remote measurements and light is carried to and from the probe via fiber optic cables. 3 figures.

  7. Surface sampling concentration and reaction probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Elnaggar, Mariam S

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen is described. The method can include providing a probe comprising an outer capillary tube and an inner capillary tube disposed co-axially within the outer capillary tube, where the inner and outer capillary tubes define a solvent capillary and a sampling capillary in fluid communication with one another at a distal end of the probe; contacting a target site on a surface of a specimen with a solvent in fluid communication with the probe; maintaining a plug volume proximate a solvent-specimen interface, wherein the plug volume is in fluid communication with the probe; draining plug sampling fluid from the plug volume through the sampling capillary; and analyzing a chemical composition of the plug sampling fluid with an analytical instrument. A system for performing the method is also described.

  8. Catheter based magnetic resonance compatible perfusion probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toretta, Cara Lynne

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neurosurgeons are using a thermal based technique to quantify brain perfusion. The thermal diffusion probe (TDP) technology measures perfusion in a relatively small volume of brain tissue. The neurosurgeon chooses the ...

  9. Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a dye-sensitization system,... Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Raman Spectroscopy Probing Single Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Nanoparticles. The correlated metallic tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy...

  10. Single Molecule Probes of Lipid Membrane Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livanec, Philip W.

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological membranes are highly heterogeneous structures that are thought to use this heterogeneity to organize and modify the function of membrane constituents. Probing membrane organization, structure, and changes therein ...

  11. Probing axions with radiation from magnetic stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai Dong; Heyl, Jeremy [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments suggest that polarized photons may couple significantly to pseudoscalar particles such as axions. We study the possible observational signatures of axion-photon coupling for radiation from magnetic stars, with particular focus on neutron stars. We present general methods for calculating the axion-photon conversion probability during propagation through a varying magnetized vacuum as well as across an inhomogeneous atmosphere. Partial axion-photon conversion may take place in the vacuum region outside the neutron star. Strong axion-photon mixing occurs due to a resonance in the atmosphere and, depending on the axion coupling strength and other parameters, significant axion-photon conversion can take place at the resonance. Such conversions may produce observable effects on the radiation spectra and polarization signals from the star. We also apply our results to axion-photon propagation in the Sun and in magnetic white dwarfs. We find that there is no appreciable conversion of solar axions to photons during the propagation.

  12. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, Stanley E. (Evans, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman-scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  13. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, S.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is comprised of a fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman- scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  14. Nuclear Probing of Dense Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Petrasso

    2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to compress a fuel capsule to a state with high enough density and temperature to ignite, starting a self-sustaining fusion burn that consumes much of the fuel and releases a large amount of energy. The national ICF research program is trying to reach this goal, especially through experiments at the OMEGA laser facility of the University of Rochester Laboratory of Laser Energetics (LLE), planned experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and experimental and theoretical work at other national laboratories. The work by MIT reported here has played several important roles in this national program. First, the development of new and improved charged-particle-based plasma diagnostics has allowed the gathering of new and unique diagnostic information about the implosions of fuel capsules in ICF experiments, providing new means for evaluating experiments and for studying capsule implosion dynamics. Proton spectrometers have become the standard for evaluating the mass assembly in compressed capsules in experiments at OMEGA; the measured energy downshift of either primary or secondary D3He fusion protons to determines the areal density, or ?R, of imploded capsules. The Proton Temporal Diagnostic measures the time history of fusion burn, and multiple proton emission imaging cameras reveal the 3-D spatial distribution of fusion burn. A new compact neutron spectrometer, for measuring fusion yield, is described here for the first time. And of especially high importance to future work is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), which is a neutron spectrometer that will be used to study a range of important performance parameters in future experiments at the NIF. A prototype is currently being prepared for testing at OMEGA, using a magnet funded by this grant. Second, MIT has used these diagnostic instruments to perform its own physics experiments and analysis with implosions at OMEGA, to provide essential data to other experimenters at LLE, and to work collaboratively with researchers from all the national laboratories (including LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory). Some of the implosion dynamics physics studies reported here involve the relationships between drive asymmetries and implosion asymmetries (in terms of both mass assembly and fusion burn); the time evolution of mass assembly and mass asymmetries; the behavior of shock coalescence; and the nature of fuel-shell mix. Third, the MIT program has provided unique educational and research opportunities for both graduate and undergraduate students. The graduate students are deeply engaged in every aspect of our research program, and spend considerable time at OMEGA working on experiments and working with our collaborators from OMEGA and from the National Labs. Many undergraduates have gotten a taste of ICF research, sometimes making significant contributions. We believe that the introduction of energetic and gifted students to the challenging problems of this field and the excitement of the national lab environment leads naturally to the infusion of bright, talented young scientists into our field, and several PhD recipients from this group have become important forces in the field. Finally, this work has provided the foundation for continuing advances during upcoming research, with other experimental and theoretical studies of implosion dynamics. In addition to the continuing application of diagnostic instrumentation used during this grant, important contributions will be made with new diagnostics such as the MRS and with new techniques based on the knowledge obtained here, such as proton radiography.

  15. Evaluation of probes used to detect alpha radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sackett, Gregory Duane

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such probes were evaluated in this study, the 350A Alpha Probe of Dosimeter Corporation and the AB100 Scintillator Probe produced by Harshaw Bicron. As an additional comparison, a Ludlum Model 44-9 (Pancake) GM Probe was also evaluated, since it has served...

  16. Evaluation of probes used to detect alpha radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sackett, Gregory Duane

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such probes were evaluated in this study, the 350A Alpha Probe of Dosimeter Corporation and the AB100 Scintillator Probe produced by Harshaw Bicron. As an additional comparison, a Ludlum Model 44-9 (Pancake) GM Probe was also evaluated, since it has served...

  17. Holographic backgrounds from D-brane probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micha Moskovic

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the derivation of holographic backgrounds from the field theory side, without using any supergravity equations of motion. Instead, we rely on the addition of probe D-branes to the stack of D-branes generating the background. From the field theory description of the probe branes, one can compute an effective action for the probes (in a suitable low-energy/near-horizon limit) by integrating out the background branes. Comparing this action with the generic probe D-brane action then allows to determine the holographic background dual to the considered field theory vacuum. In the first part, the required pre-requisites of field and string theory are recalled and this strategy to derive holographic backgrounds is explained in more detail on the basic case of D3-branes in flat space probed by a small number of D-instantons. The second part contains our original results, which have already appeared in arXiv:1301.3738, arXiv:1301.7062 and arXiv:1312.0621. We first derive the duals to three continuous deformations (Coulomb branch, $\\beta$ and non-commutative deformations) of N=4 super-Yang-Mills. We then derive the enhan\\c{c}on mechanism in a simple N=2 quiver gauge theory setup by using a fractional D-instanton as a probe and exploiting recent exact results on the Coulomb branch of N=2 quivers. Finally, we obtain the near-horizon D4-brane geometry by probing the D4-branes with a small number of D0-branes.

  18. Quantum probes for fractional Gaussian processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteo G. A. Paris

    2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the characterization of classical fractional random noise via quantum probes. In particular, we focus on estimation and discrimination problems involving the fractal dimension of the trajectories of a system subject to fractional Brownian noise. We assume that the classical degree of freedom exposed to the environmental noise is coupled to a quantum degree of freedom of the same system, e.g. its spin, and exploit quantum limited measurements on the spin part to characterize the classical fractional noise. More generally, our approach may be applied to any two-level system subject to dephasing perturbations described by fractional Brownian noise, in order to assess the precision of quantum limited measurements in the characterization of the external noise. In order to assess the performances of quantum probes we evaluate the Bures metric, as well as the Helstrom and the Chernoff bound, and optimize their values over the interaction time. We find that quantum probes may be successfully employed to obtain a reliable characterization of fractional Gaussian process when the coupling with the environment is weak or strong. In the first case decoherence is not much detrimental and for long interaction times the probe acquires information about the environmental parameters without being too much mixed. Conversely, for strong coupling, information is quickly impinged on the quantum probe and can effectively retrieved by measurements performed in the early stage of the evolution. In the intermediate situation, none of the two above effects take place: information is flowing from the environment to the probe too slowly compared to decoherence, and no measurements can be effectively employed to extract it from the quantum probe. The two regimes of weak- and strong-coupling are defined in terms of a threshold value of the coupling, which itself increases with the fractional dimension.

  19. Very high energy emission as a probe of relativistic magnetic reconnection in pulsar winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mochol, Iwona

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The population of gamma-ray pulsars, including Crab observed in the TeV range, and Vela detected above 50 GeV, challenges existing models of pulsed high-energy emission. Such models should be universally applicable, yet they should account for spectral differences among the pulsars. We show that the gamma-ray emission of Crab and Vela can be explained by synchrotron radiation from the current sheet of a striped wind, expanding with a modest Lorentz factor $\\Gamma\\lesssim100$ in the Crab case, and $\\Gamma\\lesssim50$ in the Vela case. In the Crab spectrum a new synchrotron self-Compton component is expected to be detected by the upcoming experiment CTA. We suggest that the gamma-ray spectrum directly probes the physics of relativistic magnetic reconnection in the striped wind. In the most energetic pulsars, like Crab, with $\\dot{E}_{38}^{3/2}/P_{-2}\\gtrsim0.002$ (where $\\dot{E}$ is the spin down power, $P$ is the pulsar period, and $X=X_i\\times10^i$ in CGS units), reconnection proceeds in the radiative cooling ...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Marginal Ice Zone Observations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment mission Sierra Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Begin Flights Over Arctic Sea Ice On July 25, 2013, in Climate, Customers &...

  1. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene Print An international team of scientists performing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments at ALS Beamline 7.0.1...

  2. Probing reheating with primordial spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinn-Ouk Gong; Shi Pi; Godfrey Leung

    2015-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the impacts of reheating temperature on the inflationary predictions of the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio. Assuming sinusoidal oscillations and that reheating process is very fast, the reheating temperature can be constrained for sinusoidal oscillation within a factor of 10 - 100 or even better with the prospect of future observations. Beyond this, we find that the predictions can also be insensitive to the reheating temperature in certain models, including Higgs inflation.

  3. Probing reheating with primordial spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Leung, Godfrey

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the impacts of reheating temperature on the inflationary predictions of the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio. Assuming that reheating process is very fast, the reheating temperature can be constrained for sinusoidal oscillation within a factor of 10 - 100 or even better with the prospect of future observations. Beyond this, we find that the predictions can also be insensitive to the reheating temperature in certain models, including the Higgs inflation.

  4. Probes for measuring fluctuation-induced Maxwell and Reynolds stresses in the edge of the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuritsyn, A.; Fiksel, G.; Miller, M. C.; Almagri, A. F.; Reyfman, M.; Sarff, J. S. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several probes have been constructed to measure fluctuation-induced Maxwell and Reynolds stresses in the edge of the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch (RFP). The magnetic probe is composed of six magnetic pickup coil triplets. The triplets are separated spatially, which allows for local measurements of the Maxwell stress. To measure the plasma flow components for evaluation of the Reynolds stress, we employ a combination of an optical probe [Kuritsyn et al., Rev. Sci. Indrum. 77, 10F112 (2006)] and a Mach probe. The optical probe measures the radial ion flow locally using Doppler spectroscopy. The Mach probe consists of four current collectors biased negatively with respect to a reference tip and allows for measurements of the poloidal and toroidal components of the bulk plasma flow. The stresses are observed to play an important role in the momentum balance in the RFP edge during internal reconnection events.

  5. Scanning probe microscopy: Sulfate minerals in scales and cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C. [Schlumberger Cambridge Research (United Kingdom)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principles of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) are illustrated with examples from oilfield mineralogy, particularly emphasizing sulfate minerals involved in scale formation and cement hydration chemistry. The topography of the (010) cleavage surface of gypsum observed by atomic force microscopy shows atomically flat terraces separated by shallow steps often only one unit cell high. SPM allows direct observation of processes on mineral surfaces while they are in contact with solutions. The dissolution etching and crystal growth of gypsum and barite are discussed and rates of step migration estimated. The orientation of steps is related to the crystallographic axes. The action of phosphonate crystal growth inhibitor on gypsum and of a chelating scale solvent on barite are also shown. The multiphase microstructure of an oilwell cement clinker is described in relation to its hydration chemistry in contact with water and its reaction with sulfate ions.

  6. Search for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with the CUORE experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorla, P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso-INFN, S.S. 17 bis, km 18-910 67010 Assergi (Italy)

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    CUORE is a next generation experiment aimed at the detection of neutrinoless Double Beta Decay of the nuclide {sup 130}Te. The experiment, which will take place in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (Italy), will look for this rare decay using the macrobolometric technique with a prospected array of 988 detectors. Each bolometer will be constituted by a 5x5x5 cm{sup 3} TeO{sub 2} crystal, for a total mass of about 200 kg of {sup 130}Te, and will be maintained at a temperature of 10 mK. CUORE will probe the effective mass of the neutrino with a sensitivity of a few tens of meV. If an excess of counts are observed above background at the 2.5 MeV corresponding to the Q-value of the decay, CUORE will answer several questions that are still open in the field of neutrino physics, such as the determination of the particle's Majorana nature and of the absolute mass scale. A prototype for CUORE in Gran Sasso, named CUORICINO, has just closed after five years proving its importance as a stand-alone experiment.

  7. COMBINED FLUORESCENT AND GOLD PROBES FOR MICROSCOPIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    POWELL,R.D.HAINFELD,J.F.

    2002-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanogold{reg_sign}, a gold cluster with a core of gold atoms 1.4 nm in diameter, has proven to be a superior probe label for electron microscopy (EM), giving both higher labeling density and improved access to previously hindered or restricted antigens. It may be visualized by autometallography (AMG) for use in light microscopy (LM): silver-and gold-amplified Nanogold detection has proven to be one of the most sensitive methods available for the detection of low copy number targets such as viral DNA in cells and tissue specimens. AMG enhancement has also made Nanogold an effective detection label in blots and gels. The following protocols will be described: Labeling of nuclear components in cells. Protocol for in situ hybridization and detection with fluorescein-Nanogold--or Cy3{trademark}-Nanogold-labeled streptavidin. Nanogold is an inert molecule, and generally does not interact with biological molecules unless a specific chemical reactivity is introduced into the molecule. Conjugates are prepared using site-specific chemical conjugation through reactive chemical functionalities introduced during Nanogold preparation, which allows the gold label to be attached to a specific site on the conjugate biomolecule. For example, a maleimido-Nanogold derivative, which is specific for thiol binding, is frequently attached to the hinge region of an antibody at a unique thiol site generated by selective reduction of a hinge disulfide. This site is remote from the antigen combining region, and the Nanogold, therefore, does not compromise target binding. Nanogold may also be prepared with specific reactivity towards amines or other unique chemical groups. This mode of attachment enables the preparation of probes labeled with both Nanogold and fluorescent labels. Different chemical reactivities are used to attach the Nanogold and the fluorescent groups to different sites in the conjugate biomolecule, as shown in Figure 7.1. In this manner, the two labels are spaced sufficiently far apart that fluorescent resonance energy transfer does not quench the fluorescent signal, and the probes may be used to label specimens for fluorescent and EM observation in a single staining procedure. This reduces the complexity of the staining procedure, allowing less specimen perturbation, and also enables a higher degree of correlation between the fluorescence and EM localization of the target, thus increasing the usefulness of the complementary data sets. Since gold and fluorescent-labeled probes are often used at different concentrations under different conditions, optimum procedures for the use of fluorescent and gold probes may entail some degree of compromise between the most appropriate conditions for the two types of probes. However, the chemical stability of the Nanogold label means that it is generally stable to a wide range of use conditions, and the following protocols have been found to be effective for labeling specimens with combined fluorescein and Nanogold-labeled antibody Fab' probes and with combined Cy3 and Nanogold-labeled streptavidin.

  8. Gamma-ray blind beta particle probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weisenberger, Andrew G. (Grafton, VA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An intra-operative beta particle probe is provided by placing a suitable photomultiplier tube (PMT), micro channel plate (MCP) or other electron multiplier device within a vacuum housing equipped with: 1) an appropriate beta particle permeable window; and 2) electron detection circuitry. Beta particles emitted in the immediate vicinity of the probe window will be received by the electron multiplier device and amplified to produce a detectable signal. Such a device is useful as a gamma insensitive, intra-operative, beta particle probe in surgeries where the patient has been injected with a beta emitting radiopharmaceutical. The method of use of such a device is also described, as is a position sensitive such device.

  9. Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmucker, John E. (Hurt, VA); Blasi, Raymond J. (Harrison City, PA); Archer, William B. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  10. Hard probes of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Arrington; D. W. Higinbotham; G. Rosner; M. Sargsian

    2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the primary goals of nuclear physics is providing a complete description of the structure of atomic nuclei. While mean-field calculations provide detailed information on the nuclear shell structure for a wide range of nuclei, they do not capture the complete structure of nuclei, in particular the impact of small, dense structures in nuclei. The strong, short-range component of the nucleon-nucleon potential yields hard interactions between nucleons which are close together, generating a high-momentum tail to the nucleon momentum distribution, with momenta well in excess of the Fermi momentum. This high-momentum component of the nuclear wave-function is one of the most poorly understood parts of nuclear structure. Utilizing high-energy probes, we can isolate scattering from high-momentum nucleons, and use these measurements to examine the structure and impact of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations. Over the last decade we have moved from looking for evidence of such short-range structures to mapping out their strength in nuclei and examining their isospin structure. This has been made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures. We review the general issues related to short-range correlations, survey recent experiments aimed at probing these short-range structures, and lay out future possibilities to further these studies.

  11. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Zuber

    2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is of outmost importance for neutrino physics. It is considered to be the gold plated channel to probe the fundamental character of neutrinos and to determine the neutrino mass. From the experimental point about nine different isotopes are explored for the search. After a general introduction follows a short discussion on nuclear matrix element calculations and supportive measurements. The current experimental status of double beta searches is presented followed by a short discussion of the ideas and proposals for large scale experiments.

  12. The majorana experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rielage, Keith R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boswell, Melissa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gehman, Victor M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kidd, Mary F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Roque, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ronquest, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Harry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steele, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, MAJORANA aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype DEMONSTRATOR module are presented. Our proposed method uses the well-established technique of searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay in high purity Ge-diode radiation detectors that play both roles of source and detector. The use of P-PC Ge detectors present advances in background rejection and a Significantly lower energy threshold than conventional Ge detector technologies. The lower energy threshold opens up a broader and exciting physics program including searches for dark matter and axions concurrent with the double-beta decay search. The DEMONSTRATOR should establish that the backgrounds are low enough to justify scaling to tonne-scale experiment, probe the neutrino effective mass region above 100 meV, and search the low energy region with a sensitivity to dark matter. The DEMONSTRATOR will be sited at the 4850-ft level (4200 m.w.e) of the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake and preparations for construction are currently underway.

  13. Scintillation probe with photomultiplier tube saturation indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruch, Jeffrey F. (Bethel Park, PA); Urban, David J. (Glassport, PA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photomultiplier tube saturation indicator is formed by supplying a supplemental light source, typically an light emitting diode (LED), adjacent to the photomultiplier tube. A switch allows the light source to be activated. The light is forwarded to the photomultiplier tube by an optical fiber. If the probe is properly light tight, then a meter attached to the indicator will register the light from the LED. If the probe is no longer light tight, and the saturation indicator is saturated, no signal will be registered when the LED is activated.

  14. Probing Exotic Physics With Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelso, Chris; Hooper, Dan

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future galactic supernovae will provide an extremely long baseline for studying the properties and interactions of neutrinos. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of using such an event to constrain (or discover) the effects of exotic physics in scenarios that are not currently constrained and are not accessible with reactor or solar neutrino experiments. In particular, we focus on the cases of neutrino decay and quantum decoherence. We calculate the expected signal from a core-collapse supernova in both current and future water Cerenkov, scintillating, and liquid argon detectors, and find that such observations will be capable of distinguishing between many of these scenarios. Additionally, future detectors will be capable of making strong, model-independent conclusions by examining events associated with a galactic supernova's neutronization burst.

  15. Semiconductor Probes of Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter W. Graham; David E. Kaplan; Surjeet Rajendran; Matthew T. Walters

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark matter with mass below about a GeV is essentially unobservable in conventional direct detection experiments. However, newly proposed technology will allow the detection of single electron events in semiconductor materials with significantly lowered thresholds. This would allow detection of dark matter as light as an MeV in mass. Compared to other detection technologies, semiconductors allow enhanced sensitivity because of their low ionization energy around an eV. Such detectors would be particularly sensitive to dark matter with electric and magnetic dipole moments, with a reach many orders of magnitude beyond current bounds. Observable dipole moment interactions can be generated by new particles with masses as great as 1000 TeV, providing a window to scales beyond the reach of current colliders.

  16. Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in $p^\\uparrow+p$ at $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STAR Collaboration; L. Adamczyk; J. K. Adkins; G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; A. Aparin; D. Arkhipkin; E. C. Aschenauer; G. S. Averichev; A. Banerjee; R. Bellwied; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; P. Bhattarai; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; J. Bouchet; A. V. Brandin; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; J. Butterworth; H. Caines; M. Calder'on de la Barca S'anchez; J. M. Campbell; D. Cebra; M. C. Cervantes; I. Chakaberia; P. Chaloupka; Z. Chang; S. Chattopadhyay; J. H. Chen; X. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; W. Christie; G. Contin; H. J. Crawford; S. Das; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; A. A. Derevschikov; B. di Ruzza; L. Didenko; C. Dilks; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; L. E. Dunkelberger; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; J. Engelage; G. Eppley; R. Esha; O. Evdokimov; O. Eyser; R. Fatemi; S. Fazio; P. Federic; J. Fedorisin; Z. Feng; P. Filip; Y. Fisyak; C. E. Flores; L. Fulek; C. A. Gagliardi; D. Garand; F. Geurts; A. Gibson; M. Girard; L. Greiner; D. Grosnick; D. S. Gunarathne; Y. Guo; S. Gupta; A. Gupta; W. Guryn; A. Hamad; A. Hamed; R. Haque; J. W. Harris; L. He; S. Heppelmann; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; S. Horvat; B. Huang; X. Huang; H. Z. Huang; P. Huck; T. J. Humanic; G. Igo; W. W. Jacobs; H. Jang; K. Jiang; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; D. Kalinkin; K. Kang; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; Z. H. Khan; D. P. Kikola; I. Kisel; A. Kisiel; L. Kochenda; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; L. K. Kosarzewski; A. F. Kraishan; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; I. Kulakov; L. Kumar; R. A. Kycia; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; K. D. Landry; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; X. Li; C. Li; W. Li; Z. M. Li; Y. Li; X. Li; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; M. Lomnitz; R. S. Longacre; X. Luo; Y. G. Ma; G. L. Ma; L. Ma; R. Ma; N. Magdy; R. Majka; A. Manion; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; K. Meehan; N. G. Minaev; S. Mioduszewski; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; D. Morozov; M. K. Mustafa; B. K. Nandi; Md. Nasim; T. K. Nayak; G. Nigmatkulov; L. V. Nogach; S. Y. Noh; J. Novak; S. B. Nurushev; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; V. Okorokov; D. Olvitt Jr.; B. S. Page; R. Pak; Y. X. Pan; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; B. Pawlik; H. Pei; C. Perkins; A. Peterson; P. Pile; M. Planinic; J. Pluta; N. Poljak; K. Poniatowska; J. Porter; M. Posik; A. M. Poskanzer; N. K. Pruthi; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; A. Quintero; S. Ramachandran; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; A. Roy; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; O. Rusnakova; N. R. Sahoo; P. K. Sahu; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; J. Sandweiss; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; W. B. Schmidke; N. Schmitz; J. Seger; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; P. V. Shanmuganathan; M. Shao; M. K. Sharma; B. Sharma; W. Q. Shen; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; R. Sikora; M. Simko; M. J. Skoby; D. Smirnov; N. Smirnov; L. Song; P. Sorensen; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; M. Stepanov; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; M. Sumbera; B. Summa; X. Sun; Z. Sun; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; B. Surrow; N. Svirida; M. A. Szelezniak; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; T. Tarnowsky; A. N. Tawfik; J. H. Thomas; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; S. K. Tripathy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; I. Upsal; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; M. Vandenbroucke; R. Varma; A. N. Vasiliev; R. Vertesi; F. Videbæk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; S. A. Voloshin; A. Vossen; G. Wang; Y. Wang; F. Wang; Y. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; J. C. Webb; G. Webb; L. Wen; G. D. Westfall; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; Y. F. Wu; Z. G. Xiao; W. Xie; K. Xin; Q. H. Xu; Z. Xu; H. Xu; N. Xu; Y. F. Xu; Q. Yang; Y. Yang; S. Yang; Y. Yang; C. Yang; Z. Ye; P. Yepes; L. Yi; K. Yip; I. -K. Yoo; N. Yu; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zha; X. P. Zhang; J. Zhang; Y. Zhang; J. Zhang; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; Z. Zhang; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; L. Zhou; X. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva; M. Zyzak

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in $p^\\uparrow+p$ collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of five standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities eta>0.5, and for pair masses around the mass of the rho-meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p+p collisions. Comparing the results to data from lepton-nucleon scattering will test the universality of these spin-dependent quantities.

  17. Probing the nucleon structure with SIDIS at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, Sergio Anafalos [INFN-Frascati

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, measurements of azimuthal moments of polarized hadronic cross sections in hard processes have emerged as a powerful tool to probe nucleon structure. Many experiments worldwide are currently trying to pin down various effects related to nucleon structure through Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). Azimuthal distributions of final-state particles in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, in particular, are sensitive to the orbital motion of quarks and play an important role in the study of Transverse Momentum Dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) of quarks in the nucleon. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected semi-inclusive data using the CEBAF 6 GeV polarized electron beam on polarized solid NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} targets. An overview of these measurements is presented.

  18. Nuclear structure studies with medium energy probes. [Northwestern Univ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth, Kamal K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in the continuing program of experimental research in nuclear structure with medium-energy probes during the year 1979-1980 is reviewed, and the research activities planned for the year 1980-1981 are discussed. In the study of pion-induced reactions emphasis is placed on investigation of isovector characteristics of nuclear excitations and on double charge exchange reactions. Pion production studies form the major part of the program of experiments with proton beams of 400 to 800 MeV at LAMPF. Current emphasis is on the bearing of these investigations on di-baryon existence. The study of high-spin states and magnetic scattering constitute the main goals of the electron scattering program at Bates. Representative results are presented; completed work is reported in the usual publications. (RWR)

  19. In situ magnetic compensation for potassium spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer considering probe beam pumping effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao, E-mail: wangtaowt@aspe.buaa.edu.cn; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Li, Yang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng [School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method to compensate the residual magnetic field for an atomic magnetometer consisting of two perpendicular beams of polarizations was demonstrated in this paper. The method can realize magnetic compensation in the case where the pumping rate of the probe beam cannot be ignored. In the experiment, the probe beam is always linearly polarized, whereas, the probe beam contains a residual circular component due to the imperfection of the polarizer, which leads to the pumping effect of the probe beam. A simulation of the probe beam's optical rotation and pumping rate was demonstrated. At the optimized points, the wavelength of the probe beam was optimized to achieve the largest optical rotation. Although, there is a small circular component in the linearly polarized probe beam, the pumping rate of the probe beam was non-negligible at the optimized wavelength which if ignored would lead to inaccuracies in the magnetic field compensation. Therefore, the dynamic equation of spin evolution was solved by considering the pumping effect of the probe beam. Based on the quasi-static solution, a novel magnetic compensation method was proposed, which contains two main steps: (1) the non-pumping compensation and (2) the sequence compensation with a very specific sequence. After these two main steps, a three-axis in situ magnetic compensation was achieved. The compensation method was suitable to design closed-loop spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer. By a combination of the magnetic compensation and the optimization, the magnetic field sensitivity was approximately 4 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}, which was mainly dominated by the noise of the magnetic shield.

  20. Measurement of Angular Correlations in Drell–Yan Lepton Pairs to Probe Z/?[superscript ?] Boson Transverse Momentum at ?s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Frank E.

    A measurement of angular correlations in Drell–Yan lepton pairs via the ?[* over ?] observable is presented. This variable probes the same physics as the Z/?[superscript ?] boson transverse momentum with a better experimental ...

  1. Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

  2. Probing nuclear matter with jet conversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Fries, Rainer J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the flavor of leading jet partons as a valuable probe of nuclear matter. We point out that the coupling of jets to nuclear matter naturally leads to an alteration of jet chemistry even at high transverse momentum PT. In particular...

  3. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  4. Probe and method for DNA detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Werner, James Henry; Sharma, Jaswinder Kumar; Martinez, Jennifer Suzanne

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybridization probe containing two linear strands of DNA lights up upon hybridization to a target DNA using silver nanoclusters that have been templated onto one of the DNA strands. Hybridization induces proximity between the nanoclusters on one strand and an overhang on the other strand, which results in enhanced fluorescence emission from the nanoclusters.

  5. Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam Probes of Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam Probes of Dark Energy using Cosmological Simulations Nonlinear component, called dark energy. This unknown energy causes the expansion of the universe to accelerate theoretical model of dark energy has been developed. Instead a number of models have been proposed that range

  6. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmar, E.S.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet injection experiments on TFTR have produced a number of new and significant results. (1) We observe reproducible improvements of TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection (`lithiumization`). (2) We have made accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using two novel techniques. The first measures the internal field pitch from the polarization angles of Li{sup +} line emission from the pellet ablation cloud, while the second measures the pitch angle profiles by observing the tilt of the cigar-shaped Li{sup +} emission region of the ablation cloud. (3) Extensive measurements of impurity pellet penetration into plasmas with central temperatures ranging from {approximately}0.3 to {approximately}7 keV have been made and compared with available theoretical models. Other aspects of pellet cloud physics have been investigated. (4) Using pellets as a well defined perturbation has allowed study of transport phenomena. In the case of small pellet perturbations, the characteristics of the background plasmas are probed, while with large pellets, pellet induced effects are clearly observed. These main results are discussed in more detail in this paper.

  7. Electromagnetic probes of the QGP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Bratkovskaya; O. Linnyk; W. Cassing

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of the QCD matter across the deconfinement phase transition in the scope of the parton-hadron string dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. We present here in particular the results on the electromagnetic radiation, i.e. photon and dilepton production, in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. By comparing our calculations for the heavy-ion collisions to the available data, we determine the relative importance of the various production sources and address the possible origin of the observed strong elliptic flow $v_2$ of direct photons. We argue that the different centrality dependence of the hadronic and partonic sources for direct photon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be employed to shed some more light on the origin of the photon $v_2$ "puzzle". While the dilepton spectra at low invariant mass show in-medium effects like an enhancement from multiple baryonic resonance formation or a collisional broadening of the vector meson spectral functions, the dilepton yield at high invariant masses (above 1.1 GeV) is dominated by QGP contributions for central heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. This allows to have an independent view on the parton dynamics via their electromagnetic massive radiation.

  8. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in he probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  9. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  10. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  11. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  12. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  13. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2005-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  14. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  15. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  16. Modeling and design for a new ionospheric modification experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sales, G.S.; Platt, I.G.; Haines, D.M.; Huang, Y.; Heckscher, J.L.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plans are now underway to carry out new HF oblique ionospheric modification experiments with increased radiated power using a new high gain antenna system and a 1 MW transmitter. The output of this large transmitting system will approach 90 dBW. An important part of this program is to determine the existence of a threshold for non-linear effects by varying the transmitter output. For these experiments we are introducing a new ET probe system, a low power oblique sounder, to be used along the same propagation path as the high power disturbing transmitter. This concept was first used by soviet researchers to insure that this diagnostic signal always passes through the modified region of the ionosphere. The HF probe system will use a low power (150 W) CW signal shifted by approximately 40 kHz from the frequency used by the high power system. The transmitter for the probe system will be at the same location as the high power transmitter while the probe receiver will be 2400 km down range. The probe receiving system uses multiple antennas to measure the the vertical and azimuthal angle of arrival as well the Doppler frequency shift of the arriving probe signal. The three antenna array will be in an L configuration to measure the phase differences between the antennas. At the midpath point a vertical sounder will provide the ionospheric information necessary for the frequency management of the experiment. Real-time signal processing will permit the site operators to evaluate the performance of the system and make adjustments during the experiment. A special ray tracing computer will be used to provide real-time frequencies and elevation beam steering during the experiment. A description of the system and the analysis used in the design of the experiment are presented.

  17. Probing New Physics Models of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with SuperNEMO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Arnold; C. Augier; J. Baker; A. S. Barabash; A. Basharina-Freshville; M. Bongrand; V. Brudanin; A. J. Caffrey; S. Cebrián; A. Chapon; E. Chauveau; Th. Dafni; F. F. Deppisch; J. Diaz; D. Durand; V. Egorov; J. J. Evans; R. Flack; K-I. Fushima; I. García Irastorza; X. Garrido; H. Gómez; B. Guillon; A. Holin; K. Holy; J. J. Horkley; Ph. Hubert; C. Hugon; F. J. Iguaz; N. Ishihara; C. M. Jackson; S. Jullian; M. Kauer; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; V. Kovalenko; T. Lamhamdi; K. Lang; G. Lutter; G. Luzón; F. Mamedov; Ch. Marquet; F. Mauger; F. Monrabal; A. Nachab; I. Nasteva; I. Nemchenok; C. H. Nguyen; M. Nomachi; F. Nova; H. Ohsumi; R. B. Pahlka; F. Perrot; F. Piquemal; P. P. Povinec; B. Richards; J. S. Ricol; C. L. Riddle; A. Rodríguez; R. Saakyan; X. Sarazin; J. K. Sedgbeer; L. Serra; Yu. Shitov; L. Simard; F. Šimkovic; S. Söldner-Rembold; I. Štekl; C. S. Sutton; Y. Tamagawa; J. Thomas; V. Timkin; V. Tretyak; Vl. I. Tretyak; V. I. Umatov; I. A. Vanyushin; R. Vasiliev; V. Vasiliev; V. Vorobel; D. Waters; N. Yahlali; A. Žukauskas

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility to probe new physics scenarios of light Majorana neutrino exchange and right-handed currents at the planned next generation neutrinoless double beta decay experiment SuperNEMO is discussed. Its ability to study different isotopes and track the outgoing electrons provides the means to discriminate different underlying mechanisms for the neutrinoless double beta decay by measuring the decay half-life and the electron angular and energy distributions.

  18. Probing New Physics Models of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with SuperNEMO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, R; Baker, J; Barabash, A S; Basharina-Freshville, A; Bongrand, M; Brudanin, V; Caffrey, A J; Cebrián, S; Chapon, A; Chauveau, E; Dafni, Th; Deppisch, F F; Diaz, J; Durand, D; Egorov, V; Evans, J J; Flack, R; Fushima, K-I; Irastorza, I García; Garrido, X; Gómez, H; Guillon, B; Holin, A; Holy, K; Horkey, J J; Hubert, Ph; Hugon, C; Iguaz, F J; Ishihara, N; Jackson, C M; Jullian, S; Kauer, M; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kovalenko, V; Lamhamdi, T; Lang, K; Lutter, G; Luzón, G; Mamedov, F; Marquet, Ch; Mauger, F; Monrabal, F; Nachab, A; Nasteva, I; Nemchenok, I; Nguyen, C H; Nomachi, M; Nova, F; Ohsumi, H; Pahlka, R B; Perrot, F; Piquemal, F; Povinec, P P; Richards, B; Ricol, J S; Riddle, C L; Rodríguez, A; Saakyan, R; Sarazin, X; Sedgbeer, J K; Serra, L; Shitov, Yu; Simard, L; Šimkovic, F; Söldner-Rembold, S; Štekl, I; Sutton, C S; Tamagawa, Y; Thomas, J; Timkin, V; Tretyak, V; Tretyak, Vl I; Umatov, V I; Vanyushin, I A; Vasiliev, R; Vasiliev, V; Vorobel, V; Waters, D; Yahlali, N; Žukauskas, A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility to probe new physics scenarios of light Majorana neutrino exchange and right-handed currents at the planned next generation neutrinoless double beta decay experiment SuperNEMO is discussed. Its ability to study different isotopes and track the outgoing electrons provides the means to discriminate different underlying mechanisms for the neutrinoless double beta decay by measuring the decay half-life and the electron angular and energy distributions.

  19. acceleration probe studying: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Supernova Acceleration Probe: Studying Dark Energy with Type Ia Supernovae Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The Supernova Acceleration Probe...

  20. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. N. Gavrin; B. T. Cleveland

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiochemical experiments have been crucial to solar neutrino research. Even today, they provide the only direct measurement of the rate of the proton-proton fusion reaction, p + p --> d + e^+ + nu_e, which generates most of the Sun's energy. We first give a little history of radiochemical solar neutrino experiments with emphasis on the gallium experiment SAGE -- the only currently operating detector of this type. The combined result of all data from the Ga experiments is a capture rate of 67.6 +/- 3.7 SNU. For comparison to theory, we use the calculated flux at the Sun from a standard solar model, take into account neutrino propagation from the Sun to the Earth and the results of neutrino source experiments with Ga, and obtain 67.3 ^{+3.9}_{-3.5} SNU. Using the data from all solar neutrino experiments we calculate an electron neutrino pp flux at the earth of (3.41 ^{+0.76}_{-0.77}) x 10^{10}/(cm^2-s), which agrees well with the prediction from a detailed solar model of (3.30 ^{+0.13} _{-0.14}) x 10^{10}/(cm^2-s). Four tests of the Ga experiments have been carried out with very intense reactor-produced neutrino sources and the ratio of observed to calculated rates is 0.88 +/- 0.05. One explanation for this unexpectedly low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71Ge has been overestimated. We end with consideration of possible time variation in the Ga experiments and an enumeration of other possible radiochemical experiments that might have been.

  1. Probing Single-Molecule Protein Conformational Dynamics. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single-Molecule Protein Conformational Dynamics. Probing Single-Molecule Protein Conformational Dynamics. Abstract: Protein conformational fluctuations and dynamics, often...

  2. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Kerry L. (Raytown, MO); Topolewski, John (Lenexa, KS)

    1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probed includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe.

  3. Degenerate four-photon probing of the kinetics of a nonlinear response of high-temperature superconductors in pump-probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobyrev, Yu V; Petnikova, V M; Rudenko, K V; Shuvalov, Vladimir V [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the spectral-temporal and temperature 'anomalies' of the kinetics of reflection and transmission coefficients of high-temperatures superconductors (HTSCs) at high 'impact' excitation levels have direct analogies also in the case when the instant state of samples is probed by using the self-diffraction of probe pulses made coincident in time and propagating at an angle to each other. The possibility of using the transient modification of the method of degenerate four-photon spectroscopy for the HTSC diagnostics substantially expands the scope of experiments that can confirm or refute the correctness of the model based on the consideration of the contribution of interband electronic transitions to the response of an excited HTSC film with the 'frozen' energy gap. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  4. The MINOS Experiment: Results and Prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Justin [University of Manchester] (ORCID:0000000346973337)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Minos experiment has used the world's most powerful neutrino beam to make precision neutrino oscillation experiments. By observing the disappearance of muon neutrinos, MINOS has made the world's most precise measurement of the larger neutrino mass splitting....

  5. Chem. Rev. 1994, 94, 107-125 107 Optical Second Harmonic Generation as a Probe of Surface Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chem. Rev. 1994, 94, 107-125 107 Optical Second Harmonic Generation as a Probe of Surface Chemistry 109 IV. SHG Measurements of Surface Chemistry 109 VI. Acknowledgments 122 V II.References 122 V. Other Surface SHG Experiments and Future 122 Directions I. Introduction Optical second harmonic generation (SHG

  6. Observation of recoil-induced resonances and electromagnetically induced absorption of diffuse light by cold atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Wenzhuo [Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Cheng Huadong; Wang Yuzhu [Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Liu Liang [Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report an experiment on the observation of the recoil-induced resonances (RIR) and electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) of cold {sup 87}Rb atoms in diffuse light. The pump light of the RIR and the EIA comes from the diffuse light in an integrating sphere, which also serves the cooling light. We measured the RIR and the EIA signal varying with the detuning of the diffuse laser light, and also measured the number and the temperature of the cold atoms at the different detunings. The mechanism of RIR and EIA in the configuration with diffuse-light pumping and laser probing are discussed, and the difference between the nonlinear spectra of cold atoms in a diffuse-light cooling system and in a magneto-optical trap is studied.

  7. WIRELESS EDDY CURRENT PROBE FOR ENGINE HEALTH , B. Graubard1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Julie A.

    WIRELESS EDDY CURRENT PROBE FOR ENGINE HEALTH MONITORING M. Reid1 , B. Graubard1 , R. J. Weber1 , J. The first prototype wireless eddy current (EC) probe for on-wing inspection was demonstrated in a F100 PW of safety significant propulsion system malfunctions. Data from 2 MHz Eddy Current probes was transmitted

  8. experiment, collaboration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Departamento Energias Renovables, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, E-04080 Almeria, Spain Departamento de Lenguajes y ca. factor 10 less complex then imaging solar Cerenkov exp.:smaller cost, fewer systematic errors #12; 5 Rainer Plaga The GRAAL experiment, ECRS Lodz July 2000 Location of GRAAL " Plataforma Solar de

  9. Influence of probe sampling on reacting species measurement in diluted combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupant, D.; Pesenti, B.; Lybaert, P. [UMONS - University of Mons, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Thermal Engineering and Combustion, Rue de l'epargne 56, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In-flame measurements of temperature and major species are realized with intrusive probes in a laboratory scale furnace working in diluted combustion. The shape and the position of the reaction zone are experimentally identified from the distribution of temperature and carbon monoxide in a particular symmetry plane. For this purpose, two probes were designed: the sampling probe, to measure species content of the gas sample and the suction pyrometer, for the temperature. The first is completely cooled to quench the reaction, but the second is just partly cooled for handling. However, as both probes take gas sample, the species content is available in either case. Consequently the suction pyrometer can be used to measure simultaneously temperature and species, reducing by half the length of the experimental campaign. Comparing species contents on a non-reactive mixture, it has been observed that the spatial averaging is the same with both probes. The perturbation of the flow is assessed thanks to a CFD modeling of the furnace including the probe. Even if it is significant - the differences between the computed values and the measurements are about 3-4 times the measurement error - the position and the value of the maximum is well captured as well as the opening of the jet. However, the species contents measured within a reactive mixture differ significantly. For a stable regime, the levels and the distribution of CO are similar with both probes, but the gradients at the border of the reaction zone are sharper with the suction pyrometer. For another regime, for which the reaction zone is lifted and less stable, the fields of species are completely different following the probe used. A chemical kinetic modeling has shown that the reaction inside the non-cooled part of the suction pyrometer is promoted when it is placed in particular region. The use of the suction pyrometer as sampling probe inside a reaction zone should therefore be avoided even in diluted combustion. The error made on the fields of species cannot be quantified to be taken into account a posteriori, because in certain conditions the results are completely unrealistic. (author)

  10. RESULTS FROM CAVITATION DAMAGE EXPERIMENTS WITH MERCURY SPALLATION TARGETS AT THE LANSCE WNR IN 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL] [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL] [ORNL; Sangrey, Robert L [ORNL] [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Damage assessment from proton beam induced cavitation experiments on mercury spallation targets done at the LANSCE WNR facility has been completed. The experiments investigated two key questions for the Spallation Neutron Source target, namely, how damage is affected by flow velocity in the SNS coolant channel geometry, and how damage scales with proton beam intensity at a given constant charge per pulse. With regard to the former question, prior in-beam experiments indicated that the coolant channel geometry with stagnant mercury was especially vulnerable to damage which might warrant a design change. Yet other results indicated a reduction in damage with the introduction of flow. Using more prototypic to the SNS, the 2008 experiment damage results show the channel is less vulnerable than the bulk mercury side of the vessel wall. They also show no benefit from increasing channel flow velocity beyond nominal SNS speeds. The second question probed a consensus belief that damage scales with beam intensity (protons per unit area) by a power law dependence with exponent of around 4. Results from a 2005 experiment did not support this power law dependence but some observations were inconsistent and unexplained. These latest results show weaker damage dependence.

  11. Modification Of The Electron Energy Distribution Function During Lithium Experiments On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaworski, M A; Gray, T K; Kaita, R; Kallman, J; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; McLean, A; Sabbagh, S A; Soukanovskii, V; Stotler, D P

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has recently studied the use of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD). Divertor Langmuir probes have also been installed for making measurements of the local plasma conditions. A non-local probe interpretation method is used to supplement the classical probe interpretation and obtain measurements of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) which show the occurrence of a hot-electron component. Analysis is made of two discharges within a sequence that exhibited changes in plasma fueling efficiency. It is found that the local electron temperature increases and that this increase is most strongly correlated with the energy contained within the hot-electron population. Preliminary interpretative modeling indicates that kinetic effects are likely in the NSTX.

  12. Growth of Cosmic Structure: Probing Dark Energy Beyond Expansion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huterer, Dragan; Kirkby, David; Bean, Rachel; Connolly, Andrew; Dawson, Kyle; Dodelson, Scott; Evrard, August; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Jarvis, Michael; Linder, Eric; et al

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantity and quality of cosmic structure observations have greatly accelerated in recent years, and further leaps forward will be facilitated by imminent projects. These will enable us to map the evolution of dark and baryonic matter density fluctuations over cosmic history. The way that these fluctuations vary over space and time is sensitive to several pieces of fundamental physics: the primordial perturbations generated by GUT-scale physics; neutrino masses and interactions; the nature of dark matter and dark energy. We focus on the last of these here: the ways that combining probes of growth with those of the cosmic expansionmore »such as distance-redshift relations will pin down the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe.« less

  13. Probing Bino-Wino Coannihilation at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagata, Natsumi; Shirai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study bino-wino coannihilation scenario in the so-called spread or mini-split supersymmetry. We show that, in this model, a neutral wino has a macroscopic decay length in a wide range of parameter space. This characteristic feature could be observed as a displaced vertex plus missing transverse energy event at the LHC. In this paper, we study the current constraints and future prospects on the scenario based on the displaced vertex search performed by the ATLAS collaboration. It is found that a sizable parameter region has already been probed at the 8~TeV LHC run. This search strategy will considerably extend its reach at the next stage of the LHC running, and thus play a crucial role to examine a possibility of bino dark matter in the mini-split type supersymmetric models.

  14. Growth of Cosmic Structure: Probing Dark Energy Beyond Expansion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huterer, Dragan [University of Michigan, Department of Physics Ann Harbor, MI (United States); Kirkby, David [UC Irvine, Department of Physics and Astronomy, CA (United States); Bean, Rachel [Cornell University, Department of Astronomy, Ithaca, NY (United States); Connolly, Andrew [University of Washington, Department of Astronomy, Seattle, WA (United States); Dawson, Kyle [University of Utah, Department of Physics & Astronomy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, Batavia, IL (United States); University of Chicago, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, Chicago, IL (United States); Evrard, August [University of Michigan, Department of Physics Ann Harbor, MI (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jarvis, Michael [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Linder, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mandelbaum, Rachel [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); May, Morgan [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raccanelli, Alvise [California Institute of Technology, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Reid, Beth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rozo, Eduardo [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Schmidt, Fabian [Princeton University, Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton, NJ (United States); Max-Planck-Insitute for Astrophysics, Garching (Germany); Sehgal, Neelima [Stony Brook University, NY (United States); Slosar, Anze [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Van Engelen, Alex [Stony Brook University, NY (United States); Wu, Hao-Yi [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Harbor, MI (United States); Zhao, Gongbo [Chinese Academy of Science, National Astronomy Observatories, Beijing (China)

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantity and quality of cosmic structure observations have greatly accelerated in recent years, and further leaps forward will be facilitated by imminent projects. These will enable us to map the evolution of dark and baryonic matter density fluctuations over cosmic history. The way that these fluctuations vary over space and time is sensitive to several pieces of fundamental physics: the primordial perturbations generated by GUT-scale physics; neutrino masses and interactions; the nature of dark matter and dark energy. We focus on the last of these here: the ways that combining probes of growth with those of the cosmic expansion such as distance-redshift relations will pin down the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe.

  15. BNL | Active ATF Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P. Muggli (2009) AE45 - Advanced imaging and ultra-fast material probing with inverse Compton scattering. Spokesperson: M. Carpinelli, INFN (2009) AE48 - Experimental study of...

  16. Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: Constraints and correlations from world neutrino data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Marrone; A. Melchiorri; A. Palazzo; P. Serra; J. Silk

    2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of three-flavor neutrino mixing, we present a thorough study of the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in Tritium beta decay (m_beta); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m_2beta); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology (Sigma). We discuss the correlations among these variables which arise from the combination of all the available neutrino oscillation data, in both normal and inverse neutrino mass hierarchy. We set upper limits on m_beta by combining updated results from the Mainz and Troitsk experiments. We also consider the latest results on m_2beta from the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment, both with and without the lower bound claimed by such experiment. We derive upper limits on Sigma from an updated combination of data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite and the 2 degrees Fields (2dF) Galaxy Redshifts Survey, with and without Lyman-alpha forest data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), in models with a non-zero running of the spectral index of primordial inflationary perturbations. The results are discussed in terms of two-dimensional projections of the globally allowed region in the (m_beta,m_2beta,Sigma) parameter space, which neatly show the relative impact of each data set. In particular, the (in)compatibility between Sigma and m_2beta constraints is highlighted for various combinations of data. We also briefly discuss how future neutrino data (both oscillatory and non-oscillatory) can further probe the currently allowed regions.

  17. Probing Nano-Mechanical QED Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. B. Gao; S. Yang; Yu-xi Liu; C. P. Sun; Franco Nori

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and study an "intrinsic probing" approach, without introducing any external detector, to mimic cavity QED effects in a qubit-nanomechanical resonator system. This metallic nanomechanical resonator can act as an intrinsic detector when a weak driving current passes through it. The nanomechanical resonator acts as both the cavity and the detector. A cavity QED-like effect is demonstrated by the correlation spectrum of the electromotive force between the two ends of the nanomechanical resonator. Using the quantum regression theorem and perturbation theory, we analytically calculate the correlation spectrum. In the weak driving limit, we study the effect on the vacuum Rabi splitting of both the strength of the driving as well as the frequency-detuning between the charge qubit and the nanomechanical resonator. Numerical calculations confirm the validity of our intrinsic probing approach.

  18. Non-Contact Gaging with Laser Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clinesmith, Mike

    2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A gage has been constructed using conventional (high end) components for the application of measuring fragile syntactic foam parts in a non-contact mode. Success with this approach has been achieved through a novel method of transferring (mapping) high accuracy local measurements of a coated aluminum master, taken on a Leitz Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM), to the gage software system. The mapped data is then associated with local voltage readings from two (inner and outer) laser triangulating probes. This couples discreet laser probe offset and linearity characteristics to the measured master geometry. The gage software compares real part measured data against the master data to provide non-contact part inspection that results in a high accuracy and low uncertainty performance. Uncertainty from the part surface becomes the prevailing contributor to the gaging process. The gaging process provides a high speed, hands off measurement with nearly zero impedance.

  19. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  20. Dielectric covered hairpin probe for its application in reactive plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogna, G. S.; Gaman, C.; Turner, M. M. [NCPST, School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Karkari, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research Center, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The hairpin probe is a well known technique for measuring local electron density in low temperature plasmas. In reactive plasmas, the probe characteristics are affected by surface sputtering, contamination, and secondary electron emission. At higher densities, the plasma absorbs the entire electromagnetic energy of hairpin and hence limits the density measurements. These issues can be resolved by covering the hairpin surface with a thin layer of dielectric. In this letter, the dielectric contribution to the probe characteristics is incorporated in a theory which is experimentally verified. The dielectric covering improves the performance of probe and also allows the hairpin tip to survive in reactive plasma where classical electrical probes are easily damaged.

  1. Probing nonlinear magnetization dynamics in Fe/MgO(001) film by all optical pump-probe technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Wei; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua, E-mail: zhcheng@iphy.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhan, Qing-Feng [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An all-optical pump-probe technique has been employed to investigate the nonlinear magnetization dynamics of a 10?nm Fe/MgO(001) thin film in time domain. The magnetization precession was excited by pump-laser pulses and modulated by laser fluence variations. With increasing the laser fluence up to 7.1 mJ/cm{sup 2}, in addition to the uniform precession mode, a second harmonic signal was detected. The time evolution of the second harmonic signal was obtained in time-frequency domain. Based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, the numerical simulation was performed to reproduce the observed the frequency doubling behaviors in Fe/MgO(001) film.

  2. Recent Results From The Daya Bay Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao Zhang; for the Daya Bay Collaboration

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment has observed the disappearance of electron antineutrinos from nuclear reactors at $\\sim$kilometer baselines. The relative measurement of the $\\bar\

  3. Recent Results From The Daya Bay Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment has observed the disappearance of electron antineutrinos from nuclear reactors at $\\sim$kilometer baselines. The relative measurement of the $\\bar\

  4. Design and analysis of mismatch probes for long oligonucleotide microarrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonspecific hybridization is currently a major concern with microarray technology. One of most effective approaches to estimating nonspecific hybridizations in oligonucleotide microarrays is the utilization of mismatch probes; however, this approach has not been used for longer oligonucleotide probes. Here, an oligonucleotide microarray was constructed to evaluate and optimize parameters for 50-mer mismatch probe design. A perfect match (PM) and 28 mismatch (MM) probes were designed for each of ten target genes selected from three microorganisms. The microarrays were hybridized with synthesized complementary oligonucleotide targets at different temperatures (e.g., 42, 45 and 50 C). In general, the probes with evenly distributed mismatches were more distinguishable than those with randomly distributed mismatches. MM probes with 3, 4 and 5 mismatched nucleotides were differentiated for 50-mer oligonucleotide probes hybridized at 50, 45 and 42 C, respectively. Based on the experimental data generated from this study, a modified positional dependent nearest neighbor (MPDNN) model was constructed to adjust the thermodynamic parameters of matched and mismatched dimer nucleotides in the microarray environment. The MM probes with four flexible positional mismatches were designed using the newly established MPDNN model and the experimental results demonstrated that the redesigned MM probes could yield more consistent hybridizations. Conclusions: This study provides guidance on the design of MM probes for long oligonucleotides (e.g., 50 mers). The novel MPDNN model has improved the consistency for long MM probes, and this modeling method can potentially be used for the prediction of oligonucleotide microarray hybridizations.

  5. Sampling probe for microarray read out using electrospray mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An automated electrospray based sampling system and method for analysis obtains samples from surface array spots having analytes. The system includes at least one probe, the probe including an inlet for flowing at least one eluting solvent to respective ones of a plurality of spots and an outlet for directing the analyte away from the spots. An automatic positioning system is provided for translating the probe relative to the spots to permit sampling of any spot. An electrospray ion source having an input fluidicly connected to the probe receives the analyte and generates ions from the analyte. The ion source provides the generated ions to a structure for analysis to identify the analyte, preferably being a mass spectrometer. The probe can be a surface contact probe, where the probe forms an enclosing seal along the periphery of the array spot surface.

  6. Cone penetrometer fiber optic raman spectroscopy probe assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kyle, Kevin R. (Brentwood, CA); Brown, Steven B. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemically and mechanically robust optical Raman spectroscopy probe assembly that can be incorporated in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for subsurface deployment. This assembly consists of an optical Raman probe and a penetrometer compatible optical probe housing. The probe is intended for in-situ chemical analysis of chemical constituents in the surrounding environment. The probe is optically linked via fiber optics to the light source and the detection system at the surface. A built-in broadband light source provides a strobe method for direct measurement of sample optical density. A mechanically stable sapphire window is sealed directly into the side-wall of the housing using a metallic, chemically resistant, hermetic seal design. This window permits transmission of the interrogation light beam and the resultant signal. The spectroscopy probe assembly is capable of accepting Raman, Laser induced Fluorescence, reflectance, and other optical probes with collimated output for CPT deployment.

  7. Gamma-ray probes of dark matter substructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Sheldon [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP), The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The substructure content of dark matter halos is interesting because it can be affected by complex galaxy physics and dark matter particle physics. However, observing the small scale structure of dark matter is a challenge. The subhalo abundance (mass function, minimum mass) and morphology (density profile, subhalo shape, subsubstructure) contain information about complex astrophysics (halo formation processes) and new exotic fundamental physics (dark matter interactions). Indirect detection of dark matter annihilation radiation (DMAR) in gamma rays may be the most direct method for observing small scale structure. I outline the ways in which gamma rays may probe halo substructure. If substructure is bountiful, it may be responsible for the eventual discovery of DMAR, for instance in galaxy clusters or the diffuse gamma-ray background. Otherwise, the observation of DMAR in places without much substructure, such as the Galactic center, would lead to strict limits on the properties of small scale structure. Properties of the gamma-ray angular power spectrum will also provide information or constraints on Milky Way halo substructure.

  8. Probing the absolute mass scale of neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Formaggio, Joseph A.

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is the next generation tritium beta decay experiment with sub-eV sensitivity to make a direct, model independent measurement of the neutrino mass. The principle of the ...

  9. Use of Ultrafast Dispersed Pump-Dump-Probe and Pump-Repump-Probe Spectroscopies to Explore the Light-Induced Dynamics of Peridinin in Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    Use of Ultrafast Dispersed Pump-Dump-Probe and Pump-Repump-Probe Spectroscopies to Explore Form: NoVember 14, 2005 Optical pump-induced dynamics of the highly asymmetric carotenoid peridinin in methanol was studied by dispersed pump-probe, pump-dump-probe, and pump-repump-probe transient absorption

  10. Holographic Superconductors in 3+1 dimensions away from the probe limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yves Brihaye; Betti Hartmann

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study holographic superconductors in 3+1 dimensions away from the probe limit, i.e. taking back-reaction of the space-time into account. We consider the case of pure Einstein- and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, respectively. Similar to the probe limit we observe that the critical temperature at which condensation sets in decreases with increasing Gauss-Bonnet coupling. The decrease is however stronger when taking back-reaction of the space-time into account. We observe that the critical temperature becomes very small, but stays positive for all values of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling no matter how strong the back-reaction of the space-time is.

  11. Probing low-x QCD with cosmic neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; /Northeastern U. /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda M.; /Oxford U.; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab; Sarkar, Subir; /Oxford U.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sources of the observed ultra-high energy cosmic rays must also generate ultra-high energy neutrinos. Deep inelastic scattering of these neutrinos with nucleons on Earth probe center-of-mass energies {radical}s {approx} 100 TeV, well beyond those attainable at terrestrial colliders. By comparing the rates for two classes of observable events, any departure from the benchmark (unscreened perturbative QCD) neutrino-nucleon cross-section can be constrained. Using the projected sensitivity of the Pierre Auger Observatory to quasi-horizontal showers and Earth-skimming tau neutrinos, we show that a ''Super-Auger'' detector can thus provide an unique probe of strong interaction dynamics.

  12. RESULTS OF THE EXAMINATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE PROBE SPECIMENS REMOVED FROM TANK 241-AN-107 JUNE 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOKE GA; WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An Integrated Multi-function Corrosion Probe (IMCP) was installed in Tank 241-AN-107 on September 20, 2006. A portion of the probe was retrieved on June 8, 2010 and the sections holding the detectors were delivered to the 222-S Laboratory for analysis. The examination and disassembly of the probe sections encountered a number of challenges. However, disassembly and relevant analyses were successfully completed. The following summarizes our observations. Brittle failure of the fiberglass probe in the middle of detector 2 resulted in the recovery of only three vapor space C-rings and six supernatant bullet specimens. The design of the bullets and how they were attached to the probe made the recovery of the components more difficult. The use of glue/epoxy on the bullets and the attachment of the flat bottom of the bullets to the curved surface of the fiberglass probe body meant that weight loss on cleaning and surface area of the specimens could not be determined with acceptable accuracy. Macrophotography of all specimens reveals that corrosion was slight in the vapor space and extremely slight in the supernatant. The one pre-cracked C-ring recovered from the vapor space still had the stress bulge visible on the polished surface, indicating that crack propagation had not occurred in the tank. No photographs were taken of the C-ring before deployment. No further analysis was conducted on this specimen. A detailed discussion and photographic documentation are provided in this report.

  13. Visual probes and methods for placing visual probes into subsurface areas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Don T.; Erickson, Eugene E.; Casper, William L.; Everett, David M.

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Visual probes and methods for placing visual probes into subsurface areas in either contaminated or non-contaminated sites are described. In one implementation, the method includes driving at least a portion of a visual probe into the ground using direct push, sonic drilling, or a combination of direct push and sonic drilling. Such is accomplished without providing an open pathway for contaminants or fugitive gases to reach the surface. According to one implementation, the invention includes an entry segment configured for insertion into the ground or through difficult materials (e.g., concrete, steel, asphalt, metals, or items associated with waste), at least one extension segment configured to selectively couple with the entry segment, at least one push rod, and a pressure cap. Additional implementations are contemplated.

  14. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) an affinity molecule linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal. The semiconductor nanocrystal is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Exposure of the semiconductor nanocrystal to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  15. Pump-probe model for the Kramers-Kronig relations in a laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honam Yum; Selim M. Shahriar

    2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study theoretically a pump-probe model for the Kramers-Kronig (KK) relations during laser operation. A laser gain medium at steady state becomes saturated and the lasing field experiences a flat gain equal to the cavity loss. A solution of the laser equations reveals that the lasing frequency experiences a dispersion that is linear over the allowed bandwidth. However, outside this band, the lasing stops, so that the dispersion is that of the unsaturated gain medium. The combined profile is therefore non-analytical, and cannot be explained in terms of the KK relations. In order to interpret this situation, it is important to consider carefully the physical basis of the KK relations and its connection to causality. We conclude that the KK relation is expected to apply only to an independent probe applied to the medium, which is under excitation by the pump producing the gain as well as the lasing mode. The absorption/gain and dispersion profiles are then analytical, and satisfy the KK-relations. Specifically, these are variants of the so-called Mollow-Ezekiel spectra of probe absorption/gain and dispersion in the presence of a pump, with the exception that in this case the medium is inverted.

  16. Eddy current probe with foil sensor mounted on flexible probe tip and method of use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viertl, John R. M. (Niskayuna, NY); Lee, Martin K. (Niskayuna, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pair of copper coils are embedded in the foil strip. A first coil of the pair generates an electromagnetic field that induces eddy currents on the surface, and the second coil carries a current influenced by the eddy currents on the surface. The currents in the second coil are analyzed to obtain information on the surface eddy currents. An eddy current probe has a metal housing having a tip that is covered by a flexible conductive foil strip. The foil strip is mounted on a deformable nose at the probe tip so that the strip and coils will conform to the surface to which they are applied.

  17. Probing New Physics with Astrophysical Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicole F. Bell

    2008-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the prospects for probing new physics with neutrino astrophysics. High energy neutrinos provide an important means of accessing physics beyond the electroweak scale. Neutrinos have a number of advantages over conventional astronomy and, in particular, carry information encoded in their flavor degree of freedom which could reveal a variety of exotic neutrino properties. We also outline ways in which neutrino astrophysics can be used to constrain dark matter properties, and explain how neutrino-based limits lead to a strong general bound on the dark matter total annihilation cross-section.

  18. Tao Probing the End of the World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung-Soo Kim; Masato Taki; Futoshi Yagi

    2015-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new IIB 5-brane description for the E-string theory which is the world-volume theory on M5-brane probing the end of the world M9-brane. The E- string in the new realization is depicted as spiral 5-branes web equipped with the cyclic structure which is a key to uplifting to 6 dimensions. Utilizing the topological vertex to the 5-brane web configuration enables us to write down a combinatorial formula for the generating function of the E-string elliptic genera, namely the full partition function of topological strings on local 1/2 K3 surface.

  19. Tao Probing the End of the World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung-Soo Kim; Masato Taki; Futoshi Yagi

    2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new IIB 5-brane description for the E-string theory which is the world-volume theory on M5-brane probing the end of the world M9-brane. The E- string in the new realization is depicted as spiral 5-branes web equipped with the cyclic structure which is a key to uplifting to 6 dimensions. Utilizing the topological vertex to the 5-brane web configuration enables us to write down a combinatorial formula for the generating function of the E-string elliptic genera, namely the full partition function of topological strings on local 1/2 K3 surface.

  20. Quantitative WDS analysis using electron probe microanalyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ul-Hamid, Anwar [Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: anwar@kfupm.edu.sa; Tawancy, Hani M. [Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Mohammed, Abdul-Rashid I. [Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jaroudi, Said S. [Saudi Aramco, P.O. Box 65, Tanajib 31311 (Saudi Arabia); Abbas, Nureddin M. [Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the procedure for conducting quantitative elemental analysis by ZAF correction method using wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) is elaborated. Analysis of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) system formed on a Ni-based single crystal superalloy is presented as an example to illustrate the analysis of samples consisting of a large number of major and minor elements. The analysis was performed by known standards and measured peak-to-background intensity ratios. The procedure for using separate set of acquisition conditions for major and minor element analysis is explained and its importance is stressed.

  1. Probes for anionic cell surface detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally directed to compositions comprising a class of molecular probes for detecting the presence of anionic cell surfaces. Embodiments include compositions that are enriched for these compositions and preparations, particularly preparations suitable for use as laboratory/clinical reagents and diagnostic indicators, either alone or as part of a kit. An embodiment of the invention provides for a highly selective agent useful in the discernment and identification of dead or dying cells, such as apoptotic cells, in a relatively calcium-free environment. An embodiment of the invention provides a selective agent for the identification of bacteria in a mixed population of bacterial cells and nonbacterial cells.

  2. Ionization probes of molecular structure and chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.M. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various photoionization processes provide very sensitive probes for the detection and understanding of the spectra of molecules relevant to combustion processes. The detection of ionization can be selective by using resonant multiphoton ionization or by exploiting the fact that different molecules have different sets of ionization potentials. Therefore, the structure and dynamics of individual molecules can be studied even in a mixed sample. The authors are continuing to develop methods for the selective spectroscopic detection of molecules by ionization, and to use these methods for the study of some molecules of combustion interest.

  3. 2-M Probe Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind ProjectsourceInformation 2-M ProbeCoso(Redirected

  4. MJC Probe Inc MPI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLu an Group Jump to: navigation,LushuiLyme,MDL JumpMJMJC Probe Inc

  5. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br Bromine 43Probing Organic Transistors

  6. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br Bromine 43Probing Organic

  7. Probing the Proton's Weak Side | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br BromineProbing the Proton's Weak Side

  8. Constraints on CPT violation from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe three year polarization data: A wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabella, Paolo; Silk, Joseph [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica e sezione INFN, Universita di Roma 'Tor Vergata', Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Rome (Italy)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform a wavelet analysis of the temperature and polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) delivered by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment in search for a parity-violating signal. Such a signal could be seeded by new physics beyond the standard model, for which the Lorentz and CPT symmetries may not hold. Under these circumstances, the linear polarization direction of a CMB photon may get rotated during its cosmological journey, a phenomenon also called cosmological birefringence. Recently, Feng et al. have analyzed a subset of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and BOOMERanG 2003 angular power spectra of the CMB, deriving a constraint that mildly favors a nonzero rotation. By using wavelet transforms we set a tighter limit on the CMB photon rotation angle {delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}3.0 ({delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}6.0) at the one (two) {sigma} level, consistent with a null detection.

  9. Gravitational Redshift Experiment with the Space Radio Telescope RadioAstron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Litvinov; N. Bartel; K. Belousov; M. Bietenholz; A. Biriukov; A. Fionov; A. Gusev; V. Kauts; A. Kovalenko; V. Kulagin; N. Poraiko; V. Rudenko

    2015-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique test of general relativity is possible with the space radio telescope RadioAstron. The ultra-stable on-board hydrogen maser frequency standard and the highly eccentric orbit make RadioAstron an ideal instrument for probing the gravitational redshift effect. Large gravitational potential variation, occurring on the time scale of $\\sim$24 hr, causes large variation of the on-board H-maser clock rate, which can be detected via comparison with frequency standards installed at various ground radio astronomical observatories. The experiment requires specific on-board hardware operating modes and support from ground radio telescopes capable of tracking the spacecraft continuously and equipped with 8.4 or 15 GHz receivers. Our preliminary estimates show that $\\sim$30 hr of the space radio telescope's observational time are required to reach $\\sim 2\\times10^{-5}$ accuracy in the test, which would constitute a factor of 10 improvement over the currently achieved best result.

  10. Gravitational Redshift Experiment with the Space Radio Telescope RadioAstron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litvinov, D; Belousov, K; Bietenholz, M; Biriukov, A; Fionov, A; Gusev, A; Kauts, V; Kovalenko, A; Kulagin, V; Poraiko, N; Rudenko, V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique test of general relativity is possible with the space radio telescope RadioAstron. The ultra-stable on-board hydrogen maser frequency standard and the highly eccentric orbit make RadioAstron an ideal instrument for probing the gravitational redshift effect. Large gravitational potential variation, occurring on the time scale of $\\sim$24 hr, causes large variation of the on-board H-maser clock rate, which can be detected via comparison with frequency standards installed at various ground radio astronomical observatories. The experiment requires specific on-board hardware operating modes and support from ground radio telescopes capable of tracking the spacecraft continuously and equipped with 8.4 or 15 GHz receivers. Our preliminary estimates show that $\\sim$30 hr of the space radio telescope's observational time are required to reach $\\sim 2\\times10^{-5}$ accuracy in the test, which would constitute a factor of 10 improvement over the currently achieved best result.

  11. The search for Majorana neutrinos with neutrinoless double beta decays: From CUORICINO to LUCIFER experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma I-00185 (Italy) and INFN - Sezione di Roma, Roma I-00185 (Italy)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of neutrino properties is one of the fundamental challenges in particle physics nowadays. Fifty years of investigations established that neutrinos are massive but the absolute mass scale has not yet been measured. Moreover its true nature is still unknown. Is the neutrino its own antiparticle (thus violating the lepton number) as proposed by Majorana in 1937? The only way to probe the neutrino nature is through the observation of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}), a very rare spontaneous nuclear transition which emits two electrons and no neutrinos. In this paper, after a brief introduction to the theoretical framework of Majorana's neutrino, a presentation of experimental challenges posed by 0{nu}{beta}{beta} search will be given as well as an overview of present status and future perpectives of experiments.

  12. Enhanced Adsorption of Arsenic onto Maghemites Nanoparticles: As(III) as a Probe of the Surface Structure and Heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Geen, Alexander

    Enhanced Adsorption of Arsenic onto Maghemites Nanoparticles: As(III) as a Probe of the Surface between 300 and 20 nm. However, nanoparticles smaller than 20 nm exhibit enhanced adsorption capacity. The origin of this observed size-dependence for adsorption or "nano effect" is unclear. Arsenic was chosen

  13. Multi-Focused Geospatial Analysis Using Probes Thomas Butkiewicz, Wenwen Dou, Zachary Wartell, William Ribarsky, and Remco Chang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wartell, Zachary

    Multi-Focused Geospatial Analysis Using Probes Thomas Butkiewicz, Wenwen Dou, Zachary Wartell, William Ribarsky, and Remco Chang Abstract--Traditional geospatial information visualizations often be incorporated into a variety of geospatial visualizations to empower users with the ability to observe

  14. Use of a fiber optic probe for organic species determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic probe is described for remotely detecting the presence and concentration organic species in aqueous solutions. The probe includes a cylindrical housing with an organic species indicator, preferably diaminonaphthyl sulfonic acid adsorbed in a silica gel (DANS-modified gel), contained in the probe`s distal end. The probe admits aqueous solutions to the probe interior for mixing within the DANS-modified gel. An optical fiber transmits light through the DANS-modified gel while the indicator reacts with organic species present in the solution, thereby shifting the location of the fluorescent peak. The altered light is reflected to a receiving fiber that carries the light to a spectrophotometer or other analysis device. 5 figs.

  15. Electrical probe diagnostics for the laminar flame quenching distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karrer, Maxime; Makarov, Maxime [Renault Technocentre, 78288 Guyancourt Cedex (France); Bellenoue, Marc; Labuda, Sergei; Sotton, Julien [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, CNRS, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified theory, previously developed for the general case of weakly ionized gas flow, is used to predict electrical probe response when the flame is quenched on the probe surface. This theory is based on the planar model of space charge sheaths around the measuring electrode. For the flame quenching case, by assuming that the sheath thickness is comparable with the thermal boundary layer thickness, probe current can be related to flame quenching distance. The theoretical assumptions made to obtain the analytical formulation of probe current were experimentally proved by using direct visualization and high-frequency PIV. The direct visualization method was also used to validate the results of flame quenching distance values obtained with electrical probe. The electrical probe diagnostics have been verified for both head-on and sidewall flame quenching regimes and for stoichiometric methane/air and propane/air mixtures in a pressure range of 0.05-0.6 MPa. (author)

  16. Magnetars: the physics behind observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turolla, Roberto; Watts, Anna

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetars are the strongest magnets in the present universe and the combination of extreme magnetic field, gravity and density makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the strong field limit. Magnetars are observed as peculiar, burst--active X-ray pulsars, the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and the Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs); the latter emitted also three "giant flares," extremely powerful events during which luminosities can reach up to 10^47 erg/s for about one second. The last five years have witnessed an explosion in magnetar research which has led, among other things, to the discovery of transient, or "outbursting," and "low-field" magnetars. Substantial progress has been made also on the theoretical side. Quite detailed models for explaining the magnetars' persistent X-ray emission, the properties of the bursts, the flux evolution in transient sources have been developed and confronted with observations. New insight on neu...

  17. Spitzer observations of hydrogen deuteride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, D A; Hollenbach, D J; Sonnentrucker, P; Melnick, G J; Bergin, E A; Snell, R L; Forrest, W J; Watson, D M; Kaufman, M J; Neufeld, David A.; Green, Joel D.; Hollenbach, David J.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Melnick, Gary J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Snell, Ronald L.; Forrest, William J.; Watson, Dan M.; Kaufman, and Michael J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the detection of interstellar hydrogen deuteride (HD) toward the supernova remnant IC443, and the tentative detection of HD toward the Herbig Haro objects HH54 and HH7 and the star forming region GGD37 (Cepheus A West). Our detections are based upon spectral line mapping observations of the R(3) and R(4) rotational lines of HD, at rest wavelengths of 28.502 and 23.034 micron respectively, obtained using the Infrared Spectrograph onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The HD R(4)/R(3) line intensity ratio promises to be a valuable probe of the gas pressure in regions where it can be observed. The derived HD/H2 abundance ratios are 1.19(+0.35/-0.24)E-5, 1.80(+0.54/-0.32)E-5, and 1.41(+0.46/-0.33)E-5 respectively (68.3% confidence limits, based upon statistical errors alone) for IC443 (clump C), HH54, and HH7. If HD is the only significant reservoir of gas-phase deuterium in these sources, the inferred HD/H2 ratios are all consistent with a gas-phase elemental abundance [n(D)/n(H)](gas) ~ 7.5E-6, a facto...

  18. Organo Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described which is capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation (luminescing) in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form an organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance in a material being analyzed, and capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing, scattering, or diffracting energy when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam. The probe is stable to repeated exposure to light in the presence of oxygen and/or other radicals. Further described is a process for making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound and for making the organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe comprising the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound linked to an affinity molecule capable of bonding to a detectable substance. A process is also described for using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dosimeter and probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dosimeter and probe for measuring exposure to chemical and biological compounds is disclosed. The dosimeter or probe includes a collector which may be analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The collector comprises a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active material having a coating applied thereto to improve the adsorption properties of the collector. The collector may also be used in automated sequential devises, in probe array devices.

  20. High-frequency Probing Diagnostic for Hall Current Plasma Thrusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.A. Litvak; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High-frequency oscillations (1-100 MHz) in Hall thrusters have apparently eluded significant experimental scrutiny. A diagnostic setup, consisting of a single Langmuir probe, a special shielded probe connector-positioner, and an electronic impedance-matching circuit, was successfully built and calibrated. Through simultaneous high-frequency probing of the Hall thruster plasma at multiple locations, high-frequency plasma waves have been identified and characterized for various thruster operating conditions.

  1. Three-axis particle impact probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Jr., Nelson S. (Morgantown, WV); Utt, Carroll E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-axis particle impact probes detect particle impact vectors along x-, y-, and z-axes by spherical probe head mounted on the outer end of a shaft that is flexibly mounted in silicone rubber at the top of a housing so as to enable motion imparted to the head upon impact to be transmitted to a grounded electrode secured to the shaft within the housing. Excitable electrodes are mounted in the housing in a fixed position, spaced apart from the ground electrode and forming, with the ground electrode, capacitor pairs. Movement of the ground electrode results in changes in capacitance, and these difference in capacitance are used for measurement or derivation of momentum vectors along each of the three axes. In one embodiment, the ground electrode is mounted at the base of the shaft and is secured to a silicone rubber layer at the top of the housing, providing for cantilevered movement. In another embodiment, the shaft is mounted at its mid point in a flexible bushing so that it undergoes pivotal movement around that point.

  2. New Atomic Force Microscope Spectroscopy Probes Local Elasticity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Characterization New Atomic Force Microscope Spectroscopy Probes Local Elasticity March 04, 2015 Shown is a contact resonance frequency image after nano-oxidation of a...

  3. Fiber delivered probe for efficient CARS imaging of tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balu, Mihaela; Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping; Tromberg, Bruce J; Potma, Eric O

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    probe based on microelectromechanical system mirror forbased on a microelectromechanical systems scanning mirror,”based on a microelectromechanical systems two-dimensional

  4. Probing the Dynamics of a Protein Hydrophobic Core by Deutron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics of a Protein Hydrophobic Core by Deutron Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy . Probing the Dynamics of a Protein Hydrophobic Core by Deutron Solid-State...

  5. Probing Ultrafast Solvation Dynamics with High Repetition-Rate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast X-Ray Spectroscopy as a Probe of Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Ruthenium Complexes The Electronic Origin of Photoinduced Strain Modifying Proteins to Combat Disease Higher...

  6. anisotropy probe wmap1: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mapped the distribution of temperature and polarization over the entire sky in five microwave frequency bands. These...

  7. anisotropy probe wmapobservations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mapped the distribution of temperature and polarization over the entire sky in five microwave frequency bands. These...

  8. anisotropy probe 5-yr: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mapped the distribution of temperature and polarization over the entire sky in five microwave frequency bands. These...

  9. Advanced Imaging and Ultra-fast Material Probing With Inverse...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging and Ultra-fast Material Probing With Inverse Compton Scattering A proposal to the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility Gerard Andonian, Alberto Bacci, Ubaldo...

  10. Probing Emissions of Military Cargo Aircraft: Description of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions of Military Cargo Aircraft: Description of a Joint Field Measurement Strategic Environmental Research and Probing Emissions of Military Cargo Aircraft: Description of a...

  11. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...

  12. Probing attosecond electron dynamics at solid surfaces | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing attosecond electron dynamics at solid surfaces Wednesday, May 13, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Jrg Osterwalder, Department of Physics,...

  13. Development Of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes And Results Of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperature Probes And Results Of Temperature Survey Conducted At Desert Peak, Nevada, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  14. atom probe study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using both APT and correlative microscopy techniques, a more complete understanding... Bennett, Samantha 2011-02-08 2 ATOM-PROBE TOMOGRAPHIC STUDY OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL...

  15. atom probe investigation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of both coherent and squeezed light. The stochastic master equations used in the analysis are expressed in terms of the Hamiltonian of the probed system and the interaction...

  16. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, K.L.; Topolewski, J.

    1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probe includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe. 1 fig.

  17. Probing Uranium's Mysteries | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br Bromine 43ProbingProbingProbingProbing

  18. Probing Modified Gravity with Atom-Interferometry: a Numerical Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlogel, Sandrine; Fuzfa, Andre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refined constraints on chameleon theories are calculated for atom-interferometry experiments, using a numerical approach consisting in solving for a four-region model the static and spherically symmetric Klein-Gordon equation for the chameleon field. By modeling not only the test mass and the vacuum chamber but also its walls and the exterior environment, the method allows to probe new effects on the scalar field profile and the induced acceleration of atoms. In the case of a weakly perturbing test mass, the effect of the wall is to enhance the field profile and to lower the acceleration inside the chamber by up to one order of magnitude. In the thin-shell regime, significant deviations from the analytical estimations are found, even when measurements are realized in the immediate vicinity of the test mass. Close to the vacuum chamber wall, the acceleration becomes negative and potentially measurable. This prediction could be used to discriminate between fifth-force effects and systematic experimental uncerta...

  19. The Square Kilometre Array: A new probe of cosmic magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan M. Gaensler

    2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic fields are a fundamental part of many astrophysical phenomena, but the evolution, structure and origin of magnetic fields are still unresolved problems in physics and astrophysics. When and how were the first fields generated? Are present-day magnetic fields the result of standard dynamo action, or do they represent rapid or recent field amplification through other processes? What role do magnetic fields play in turbulence, cosmic ray acceleration and structure formation? I explain how the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a next-generation radio telescope, can deliver stunning new data-sets that will address these currently unanswered issues. The foundation for these experiments will be an all-sky survey of rotation measures, in which Faraday rotation toward >10^7 background sources will provide a dense grid for probing magnetism in the Milky Way, nearby galaxies, and in distant galaxies, clusters and protogalaxies. Using these data, we can map out the evolution of magnetized structures from redshifts z > 3 to the present, can distinguish between different origins for seed magnetic fields in galaxies, and can develop a detailed model of the magnetic field geometry of the intergalactic medium and of the overall Universe. In addition, the SKA will certainly discover new magnetic phenomena beyond what we can currently predict or imagine.

  20. Spitzer observations of hydrogen deuteride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David A. Neufeld; Joel D. Green; David J. Hollenbach; Paule Sonnentrucker; Gary J. Melnick; Edwin A. Bergin; Ronald L. Snell; William J. Forrest; Dan M. Watson; Michael J. Kaufman

    2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the detection of interstellar hydrogen deuteride (HD) toward the supernova remnant IC443, and the tentative detection of HD toward the Herbig Haro objects HH54 and HH7 and the star forming region GGD37 (Cepheus A West). Our detections are based upon spectral line mapping observations of the R(3) and R(4) rotational lines of HD, at rest wavelengths of 28.502 and 23.034 micron respectively, obtained using the Infrared Spectrograph onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The HD R(4)/R(3) line intensity ratio promises to be a valuable probe of the gas pressure in regions where it can be observed. The derived HD/H2 abundance ratios are 1.19(+0.35/-0.24)E-5, 1.80(+0.54/-0.32)E-5, and 1.41(+0.46/-0.33)E-5 respectively (68.3% confidence limits, based upon statistical errors alone) for IC443 (clump C), HH54, and HH7. If HD is the only significant reservoir of gas-phase deuterium in these sources, the inferred HD/H2 ratios are all consistent with a gas-phase elemental abundance [n(D)/n(H)](gas) ~ 7.5E-6, a factor 2 - 3 below the values obtained previously from observations of atomic deuterium in the local bubble and the Galactic halo. However, similarly low gas-phase deuterium abundances have been inferred previously for molecular gas clouds in the Orion region, and in atomic clouds along sight-lines within the Galactic disk to stars more distant than 500 pc from the Sun.

  1. Delayed Ultrafast X-ray Auger Probing (DUXAP) of Nucleobase Ultraviolet Photoprotection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarland, B K; Miyabe, S; Tarantelli, F; Aguilar, A; Berrah, N; Bostedt, C; Bozek, J; Bucksbaum, P H; Castagna, J C; Coffee, R; Cryan, J; Fang, L; Feifel, R; Gaffney, K; Glownia, J; Martinez, T; Mucke, M; Murphy, B; Natan, A; Osipov, T; Petrovic, V; Schorb, S; Schultz, Th; Spector, L; Swiggers, M; Tenney, I; Wang, S; White, W; White, J; Gühr, M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new method for ultrafast spectroscopy of molecular photoexcited dynamics. The technique uses a pair of femtosecond pulses: a photoexcitation pulse initiating excited state dynamics followed by a soft x-ray (SXR) probe pulse that core ionizes certain atoms inside the molecule. We observe the Auger decay of the core hole as a function of delay between the photoexcitation and SXR pulses. The core hole decay is particularly sensitive to the local valence electrons near the core and shows new types of propensity rules, compared to dipole selection rules in SXR absorption or emission spectroscopy. We apply the delayed ultrafast x-ray Auger probing (DUXAP) method to the specific problem of nucleobase photoprotection to demonstrate its potential. The ultraviolet photoexcited \\pi\\pi* states of nucleobases are prone to chemical reactions with neighboring bases. To avoid this, the single molecules funnel the \\pi\\pi* population to lower lying electronic states on an ultrafast timescale under violation of the...

  2. Chemical sensor with oscillating cantilevered probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Jesse D

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method of detecting a chemical species with an oscillating cantilevered probe. A cantilevered beam is driven into oscillation with a drive mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A free end of the oscillating cantilevered beam is tapped against a mechanical stop coupled to a base end of the cantilevered beam. An amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured with a sense mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A treated portion of the cantilevered beam is exposed to the chemical species, wherein the cantilevered beam bends when exposed to the chemical species. A second amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured, and the chemical species is determined based on the measured amplitudes.

  3. Probing neutrinoless double beta decay with SNO+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evelina Arushanova; Ashley R. Back

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Probing neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the primary goals for SNO+, SNOLAB's multi-purpose neutrino detector. In order to achieve this goal the SNO detector has been adapted so that it can be filled with Te-loaded liquid scintillator. During the initial double beta phase the target loading is 0.3% natural Te, which equates to $\\sim790$ kg of double beta isotope. Estimating the sensitivity to neutrinoless double beta decay requires a well understood background model. For SNO+ this is provided by a comprehensive study considering all possible background contributions, whether they originate from within the liquid scintillator cocktail, the surrounding parts of the detector or other irreducible backgrounds. Given these considerations, for five years running in the initial phase, the expected sensitivity is $T_{1/2}^{0\

  4. Probing neutrinoless double beta decay with SNO+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arushanova, Evelina

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Probing neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the primary goals for SNO+, SNOLAB's multi-purpose neutrino detector. In order to achieve this goal the SNO detector has been adapted so that it can be filled with Te-loaded liquid scintillator. During the initial double beta phase the target loading is 0.3% natural Te, which equates to $\\sim790$ kg of double beta isotope. Estimating the sensitivity to neutrinoless double beta decay requires a well understood background model. For SNO+ this is provided by a comprehensive study considering all possible background contributions, whether they originate from within the liquid scintillator cocktail, the surrounding parts of the detector or other irreducible backgrounds. Given these considerations, for five years running in the initial phase, the expected sensitivity is $T_{1/2}^{0\

  5. Comparison of various interpretation methods of the electric probe measurements in inductively coupled Ar and O{sub 2} plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo Seo, Min; Keun Bae, Min; Chung, T. H., E-mail: thchung@dau.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In low-pressure inductively coupled argon and oxygen discharges, the plasma density and electron temperature and the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) were obtained by using a cylindrical electric probe. The plasma densities were determined by various methods to interpret the probe current-voltage characteristic curve: the EEDF integration, the electron saturation current, the ion current at the floating potential, and the orbital-motion-limited (OML) ion current. Quite a good agreement exists between the plasma densities determined by various classical methods. Although the probe technique has some limitation in electronegative plasmas, the plasma densities determined from OML theory compare well with those measured by the ion saturation current at the floating potential in the oxygen discharges. In addition, the EEDFs of inductively coupled Ar and oxygen plasmas are observed to be nearly Maxwellian at the pressure range of 1-40 mTorr.

  6. Novel rotating field probe for inspection of tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin, J.; Tarkleson, E.; Lei, N.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. S. [Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824 (United States)

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspection of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants is extremely critical for safe operation of the power plant. In the nuclear industry, steam generator tube inspection using eddy current techniques has evolved over the years from a single bobbin coil, to rotating probe coil (RPC) and array probe, in an attempt to improve the speed and reliability of inspection. The RPC probe offers the accurate spatial resolution but involves complex mechanical rotation. This paper presents a novel design of eddy current probes based on rotating fields produced by three identical coils excited by a balanced three-phase supply. The sensor thereby achieves rotating probe functionality by electronic means and eliminates the need for mechanical rotation. The field generated by the probe is largely radial that result in induced currents that flow circularly around the radial axis and rotating around the tube at a synchronous speed effectively producing induced eddy currents that are multidirectional. The probe will consequently be sensitive to cracks of all orientations in the tube wall. The finite element model (FEM) results of the rotating fields and induced currents are presented. A prototype probe is being built to validate simulation results.

  7. Parylene Coated Silicon Probes for Neural Prosthesis Ray Huang1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Richard

    Parylene Coated Silicon Probes for Neural Prosthesis Ray Huang1* , Changlin Pang1 , Yu-Chong Tai1 electrodes. Keywords - parylene cable; neural prosthesis; silicon probe I. INTRODUCTION An important component of silicon neural prosthesis is the electrode array capable of recording neural activity from

  8. A new acoustic three dimensional intensity and energy density probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A new acoustic three dimensional intensity and energy density probe F. Aymea , C. Carioub , M is a great advantage. In this frame, a new intensity acoustic probe has been developed to compute acoustic quantities which can be input data for energetic identification methods. 1 Introduction Noise matters

  9. Using relational databases to analyze Microarray probes and single nucleotide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouchka, Eric

    Using relational databases to analyze Microarray probes and single nucleotide Polymorphisms Abhijit probes and sin- gle nucleotide polymorphisms Abhijit W. Phatak1 , and Eric C. Rouchka1,* 1 Department valuable in the study of single nucleotide polymor- phisms (SNPs). Aside from the physical use

  10. Extreme conditions during multibubble cavitation: Sonoluminescence as a spectroscopic probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Extreme conditions during multibubble cavitation: Sonoluminescence as a spectroscopic probe Kenneth Cavitation MBSL Plasma a b s t r a c t We review recent work on the use of sonoluminescence (SL) to probe spectroscopically the conditions created during cavitation, both in clouds of collapsing bubbles (multibubble

  11. Structural Dynamics of a Catalytic Monolayer Probed by Ultrafast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    REPORTS Structural Dynamics of a Catalytic Monolayer Probed by Ultrafast 2D IR Vibrational Echoes in solutions. Here, we extend the technique to probing the interfacial dynamics and structure of a silica. The structural dynamics, as reported on by a carbonyl stretch vibration of the surface-bound complex, have

  12. Observation of transient gain without population inversion in a laser-cooled rubidium lambda system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. R. de Echaniz; Andrew D. Greentree; A. V. Durrant; D. M. Segal; J. P. Marangos; J. A. Vaccaro

    2001-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We have observed clear Rabi oscillations of a weak probe in a strongly driven three-level lambda system in laser-cooled rubidium for the first time. When the coupling field is non-adiabatically switched on using a Pockels cell, transient probe gain without population inversion is obtained in the presence of uncoupled absorptions. Our results are supported by three-state computations.

  13. APSIS - an Artificial Planetary System in Space to probe extra-dimensional gravity and MOND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varun Sahni; Yuri Shtanov

    2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposal is made to test Newton's inverse-square law using the perihelion shift of test masses (planets) in free fall within a spacecraft located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Such an Artificial Planetary System In Space (APSIS) will operate in a drag-free environment with controlled experimental conditions and minimal interference from terrestrial sources of contamination. We demonstrate that such a space experiment can probe the presence of a "hidden" fifth dimension on the scale of a micron, if the perihelion shift of a "planet" can be measured to sub-arc-second accuracy. Some suggestions for spacecraft design are made.

  14. Probing leptogenesis with GeV-scale sterile neutrinos at LHCb and BELLE II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Canetti; Marco Drewes; Björn Garbrecht

    2015-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that existing laboratory experiments have the potential to unveil the origin of matter by probing leptogenesis in the type-I seesaw model with three right-handed neutrinos and Majorana masses in the GeV range. The baryon asymmetry is generated by CP-violating flavour oscillations during the production of the right-handed neutrinos. In contrast to the case with only two right-handed neutrinos, no degeneracy in the Majorana masses is required. The right-handed neutrinos can be found in meson decays at BELLE II and LHCb.

  15. Probing spectral-temporal correlations with a versatile integrated source of parametric down-conversion states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahid Ansari; Benjamin Brecht; Georg Harder; Christine Silberhorn

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral-temporal correlation and the correlation time of a biphoton wavepacket generated in the process of parametric down-conversion (PDC), is of great importance for a broad range of quantum experiments. We utilise an integrated PDC source to generate biphotons with different types of spectral-temporal correlations and probe their respective correlation times. The outcomes confirms that the correlation time is independent of the coherence time of the pump light, and it is only determined by the waveguide length and its dispersion properties. Furthermore, we investigate the properties of the PDC biphoton wavepacket exhibiting different types of spectral-temporal correlations and their suitability for quantum-enhanced applications.

  16. Generating Entanglement between Atomic Spins with Low-Noise Probing of an Optical Cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin C. Cox; Joshua M. Weiner; Graham P. Greve; James K. Thompson

    2015-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic projection noise limits the ultimate precision of all atomic sensors, including clocks, inertial sensors, magnetometers, etc. The independent quantum collapse of $N$ atoms into a definite state (for example spin up or down) leads to an uncertainty $\\Delta \\theta_{SQL}=1/\\sqrt{N}$ in the estimate of the quantum phase accumulated during a Ramsey sequence or its many generalizations. This phase uncertainty is referred to as the standard quantum limit. Creating quantum entanglement between the $N$ atoms can allow the atoms to partially cancel each other's quantum noise, leading to reduced noise in the phase estimate below the standard quantum limit. Recent experiments have demonstrated up to $10$~dB of phase noise reduction relative to the SQL by making collective spin measurements. This is achieved by trapping laser-cooled Rb atoms in an optical cavity and precisely measuring the shift of the cavity resonance frequency by an amount that depends on the number of atoms in spin up. Detecting the probe light with high total efficiency reduces excess classical and quantum back-action of the probe. Here we discuss recent progress and a technique for reducing the relative frequency noise between the probe light and the optical cavity, a key requirement for further advances.

  17. A Novel Flexible Sinusoidal Probe for Chronic Extracellular Brain Recording

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohal, Harbaljit S; Jackson, Andrew; Baker, Stuart N; O'Neill, Anthony

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current microelectrodes designed to record chronic neural activity suffer from recording instabilities due to the modulus mismatch between the electrode materials and the brain. We sought to address this by microfabricating a novel flexible neural probe. Our probe was fabricated from parylene-C with a WTi metal, using contact photolithography and reactive ion etching, with three design features to address this modulus mismatch: a sinusoidal shaft, a rounded tip and a polyimide anchoring ball. The anchor restricts movement of the electrode recording sites and the shaft accommodates the brain motion. We successfully patterned thick metal and parylene-C layers, with a reliable device release process leading to high functional yield and were able to sample stable neural activity for over 2 years with this probe. We have successfully optimized the fabrication process to produce a reliable probe with high functional yield. This novel reliably microfabricated probe can record stable neural activity for up to two yea...

  18. INTEGRAL observations of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldoni, P; Laurent, P; Cassé, M; Paul, J; Sarazin, C L

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cluster of galaxies are the largest concentrations of visible mass in the Universe and therefore a fundamental topic of cosmology and astrophysics. Recent radio, EUV, and X-ray observations suggest that clusters contain large populations of diffuse nonthermal relativistic and/or superthermal particles. These particles may be produced by acceleration in cluster merger shocks, AGNs, and/or supernovae in cluster galaxies. Models for the nonthermal populations in clusters indicate that they should produce substantial hard X-ray and $\\gamma$ luminosities. The possible role of nonthermal particles in the dynamics of clusters is one of the greatest uncertainties in their use as cosmological probes. INTEGRAL offers, for the first time, the possibility of simultaneous medium resolution imaging (~ 12 arcmin) and high resolution spectroscopy (DeltaE/E ~ 2 keV @ 1.3 MeV) with exceptional sensitivity in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray band. The spatial resolution will allow discrete sources, such as AGNs, to be separated fr...

  19. Probing the nature of Dark Matter with the SKA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colafrancesco, Sergio; Marchegiani, Paolo; Beck, Geoff; Beck, Rainer; Zechlin, Hannes; Lobanov, Andrei; Horns, Dieter

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark Matter (DM) is a fundamental ingredient of our Universe and of structure formation, and yet its nature is elusive to astrophysical probes. Information on the nature and physical properties of the WIMP (neutralino) DM (the leading candidate for a cosmologically relevant DM) can be obtained by studying the astrophysical signals of their annihilation/decay. Among the various e.m. signals, secondary electrons produced by neutralino annihilation generate synchrotron emission in the magnetized atmosphere of galaxy clusters and galaxies which could be observed as a diffuse radio emission (halo or haze) centered on the DM halo. A deep search for DM radio emission with SKA in local dwarf galaxies, galaxy regions with low star formation and galaxy clusters (with offset DM-baryonic distribution, like e.g. the Bullet cluster) can be very effective in constraining the neutralino mass, composition and annihilation cross-section. For the case of a dwarf galaxy, like e.g. Draco, the constraints on the DM annihilation cr...

  20. Resolving the dynamics of photo-induced phase transition of eumelanin by femtosecond pump-probe techniques using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -probe experiment by Simon et al., the optical absorption spectrum of the monomer and tetramer composing of four] Efthimios Kaxiras time-dependent density functional theory [7]2006(tetramer) 1.3(porphyrin ring)26 1.3: (:C Kaxiras 2006 [7](tetramer) (monomer)( 10 ) 100 10 0.1M1010 75 40040 #12;34 3 3.8: (40 fs) 3

  1. 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta -Fragmentation to probe transversity 41 Two-pion fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 41 Two-pion fragmentation M -- -- ++ 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 42 Interference Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 43 Asymmetry for interference

  2. Data Mining Empowers the Generation of a Novel Class of Chromosome-specific DNA Probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Hui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    eds. ), Zeng et al. : Data mining for probes Excerpta330. Zeng et al. : Data mining for probes 31. Fung J, WeierZeng et al. : Data mining for probes Data Mining Empowers

  3. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfagnini, Alberto

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been performed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future.

  4. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberto Garfagnini

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been performed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future.

  5. The edge observed : island landscape for a marine biology facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stringer, Geraldine A

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the concept of edges through observation and design. The intent of the observation/design is to understand and to illustrate possibilities for design that will enrich the experience of the built ...

  6. Femtosecond Operation of the LCLS for User Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisch, Josef; /SLAC; Bostedt, Christoph; /SLAC; Bozek, John; /SLAC; Brachmann, Axel; /SLAC; Coffee, Ryan; /SLAC; Decker, Franz-Josef; /SLAC; Ding, Yuantao; /SLAC; Dowell, David; /SLAC; Emma, Paul; /SLAC; Gilevich, Sasha; /SLAC; Haller, Gunther; /SLAC; Hays, Gregory; /SLAC; Hering, Philippe; /SLAC; Hill, Bruce; /SLAC; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC; Iverson, Richard /SLAC; Kanter, Elliot; /SLAC; Kraessig, Bertold; /SLAC; Loos, Henrik; /SLAC; Miahnahri, Alan; /SLAC; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /LBL, Berkeley; ,

    2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to its normal operation at 250pC, the LCLS has operated with 20pC bunches delivering X-ray beams to users with energies between 800eV and 2 keV and with bunch lengths below 10 fs FWHM. A bunch arrival time monitor and timing transmission system provide users with sub 50 fs synchronization between a laser and the X-rays for pump/probe experiments. We describe the performance and operational experience of the LCLS for short bunch experiments.

  7. Development of a Scanning Probe Microscope and Studies of Graphene Grown on Copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasool, Haider Imad

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. BRIEF DISCUSSION OF SCANNING PROBEhighly stable electrochemical scanning probe microscope forincorporated it into a scanning probe microscope, performed

  8. Polarization experiments with hadronic and electromagnetic probes. [2. 1 and 4. 4 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punjabi, V.

    1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The following research activities were carried out during the past year Calibration of focal plane polarimeter POMME up to 2.4 GeV at Saturne National Laboratory (LNS) in Saclay. Measurement of tensor analyzing power T[sub 20] and polarization transfer [kappa][sub 0] at Saturne up to 2.1 GeV in elastic backward dp scattering [rvec d]p [yields] [rvec p]d. Measurement of tensor analyzing power T[sub 20] at synchrophasotron in Dubha up to 4.4 Gev in elastic backward dp scattering [rvec d]p [yields] pd. Resubmission of conditionally Approved G[sub EP] proposal 89-14 at CEBAF. Start construction of focal plane polarimeter (FPP) for CEBAF hall A hadron spectrometer. The planned work for the next year includes: Construction of FPP for CEBAF hall A hadron spectrometer; measurement of polarization transfer [kappa][sub 0] and tensor analyzing power T[sub 20] in elastic backward dp scattering at Saturne; measurements of tensor analyzing power in [sup 1]H([sup 6]Li,d)X, [sup 1]H([sup 6]Li,[alpha])X, [sup 1]H([sup 6]Li,t)X and [sup 1]H([sup 6]Li,[sup 3]He)X reactions at Saturne; and study of polarization transfer in [sup 2]H([rvec e],e[prime][rvec p])n reaction at Bates.

  9. Polarization experiments with hadronic and electromagnetic probes. [Annual] report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punjabi, V.

    1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The following research activities were carried out during the past year Calibration of focal plane polarimeter POMME up to 2.4 GeV at Saturne National Laboratory (LNS) in Saclay. Measurement of tensor analyzing power T{sub 20} and polarization transfer {kappa}{sub 0} at Saturne up to 2.1 GeV in elastic backward dp scattering {rvec d}p {yields} {rvec p}d. Measurement of tensor analyzing power T{sub 20} at synchrophasotron in Dubha up to 4.4 Gev in elastic backward dp scattering {rvec d}p {yields} pd. Resubmission of conditionally Approved G{sub EP} proposal 89-14 at CEBAF. Start construction of focal plane polarimeter (FPP) for CEBAF hall A hadron spectrometer. The planned work for the next year includes: Construction of FPP for CEBAF hall A hadron spectrometer; measurement of polarization transfer {kappa}{sub 0} and tensor analyzing power T{sub 20} in elastic backward dp scattering at Saturne; measurements of tensor analyzing power in {sup 1}H({sup 6}Li,d)X, {sup 1}H({sup 6}Li,{alpha})X, {sup 1}H({sup 6}Li,t)X and {sup 1}H({sup 6}Li,{sup 3}He)X reactions at Saturne; and study of polarization transfer in {sup 2}H({rvec e},e{prime}{rvec p})n reaction at Bates.

  10. Temperature-dependent vibrational relaxation in polyatomic liquids: Picosecond infrared pump-probe experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    , California 94305 (Received 24 November 1993; accepted 10 March 1994) Vibrational lifetimes of metal carbonyl those in CHCls. A decrease in the vibrational lifetime with temperature is seen for both metal carbonyls a detailed study of the temperature-dependent relax- ation of a vibrational mode of two molecules, tungsten

  11. LISA as a dark energy probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K G Arun; Chandra Kant Mishra; Chris Van Den Broeck; B R Iyer; B S Sathyaprakash; Siddhartha Sinha

    2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently it was shown that the inclusion of higher signal harmonics in the inspiral signals of binary supermassive black holes (SMBH) leads to dramatic improvements in parameter estimation with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). In particular, the angular resolution becomes good enough to identify the host galaxy or galaxy cluster, in which case the redshift can be determined by electromagnetic means. The gravitational wave signal also provides the luminosity distance with high accuracy, and the relationship between this and the redshift depends sensitively on the cosmological parameters, such as the equation-of-state parameter $w=p_{\\rm DE}/\\rho_{\\rm DE}$ of dark energy. With a single binary SMBH event at $z < 1$ having appropriate masses and orientation, one would be able to constrain $w$ to within a few percent. We show that, if the measured sky location is folded into the error analysis, the uncertainty on $w$ goes down by an additional factor of 2-3, leaving weak lensing as the only limiting factor in using LISA as a dark energy probe.

  12. Methods of and apparatus for levitating an eddy current probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, William J. (Kansas City, MO)

    1988-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An eddy current probe is supported against the force of gravity with an air earing while being urged horizontally toward the specimen being examined by a spring and displaced horizontally against the force of the spring pneumatically. The pneumatic displacement is accomplished by flowing air between a plenum chamber fixed with respect to the probe and the surface of the specimen. In this way, the surface of the specimen can be examined without making mechanical contact therewith while precisely controlling the distance at which the probe stands-off from the surface of the specimen.

  13. Broadband extreme ultraviolet probing of transient gratings in vanadium dioxide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sistrunk, Emily; Grilj, Jakob; Jeong, Jaewoo; Samant, Mahesh G.; Gray, Alexander X.; Dürr, Hermann A.; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Gühr, Markus

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray spectral range offers the opportunity for element selective probing of ultrafast dynamics using core-valence transitions (Mukamel et al., Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 553 (2009)). We demonstrate a step on this path showing core-valence sensitivity in transient grating spectroscopy with EUV probing. We study the optically induced insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) of a VO? film with EUV diffraction from the optically excited sample. The VO? exhibits a change in the 3p-3d resonance of V accompanied by an acoustic response. Due to the broadband probing we are able to separate the two features.

  14. On the design of heat-transfer probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brich, M.A.; Ganzha, V.L.; Saxena, S.C. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saxena and coworkers have reported heat-transfer coefficient values for magnetofluidized beds using electrically heated heat-transfer probes. Here, a two-dimensional heat-transfer model is employed to investigate the influence of significant design features on measured parameters. Numerical calculations reveal that the thermal conductivity of the probe material has an insignificant contribution but the material of end caps and relative sizes and locations of the probe and heater appreciably influence the heat-transfer rates through end-conduction.

  15. Probing Strain-Induced Changes in Electronic Structure with XMCD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br Bromine 43Probing OrganicProbingProbing

  16. Probing Strain-Induced Changes in Electronic Structure with XMCD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br Bromine 43ProbingProbingProbing

  17. Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience Phar 6226/Nurs 5011 Spring the opportunity to learn in-depth knowledge of diabetes mellitus through active, hands-on learning experience of living with diabetes, in which they will give "insulin" injections and check blood glucoses

  18. The massive transformation in Ti-Al alloys: mechanistic observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.D.; Godfrey, S.; Weaver, M.; Strangwood, M.; Kaufman, M.J.; Loretto, M.H. [Univ. of Birmingham, Edgbaston (United Kingdom). IRC in Materials for High Performance Applications] [Univ. of Birmingham, Edgbaston (United Kingdom). IRC in Materials for High Performance Applications; Threadgill, P. [Univ. of Birmingham, Edgbaston (United Kingdom). IRC in Materials for High Performance Applications] [Univ. of Birmingham, Edgbaston (United Kingdom). IRC in Materials for High Performance Applications; [TWI, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The massive {alpha}{yields}{gamma}{sub m} transformation, as observed using analytical transmission electron microscopy, in Ti-49Al, Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Mn, Ti-55Al-25Ta and Ti-50Al-20Ta alloys is described. Conventional solution heating and quenching experiments have been combined with the more rapid quenching possible using electron beam melting in order to provide further insight into the early stages of the transformation of these alloys. It is shown that the {gamma} develops first at grain boundaries as lamellae in one of the grains and that these lamellae intersect and spread into the adjacent grain in a massive manner. Consequently, there is no orientation relationship between the massive gamma ({gamma}{sub m}) and the grain being consumed whereas there is the expected relation between the {gamma}{sub m} and the first grain which is inherited from the lamellae. It is further shown that the {gamma}{sub m} grows as an f.c.c. phase after initially growing with the L1{sub 0} structure. Furthermore, it is shown that the massive f.c.c. phase then orders to the L1{sub 0} structure producing APDB-like defects which are actually thin 90{degree} domains separating adjacent domains that have the same orientation yet are out of phase. The advancing {gamma}{sub m} interface tends to facet parallel either to one of its four {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes or to the basal plane in the grain being consumed by impinging on existing {gamma} lamellae. Thin microtwins and {alpha}{sub 2} platelets then form in the {gamma}{sub m} presumably due, respectively, to transformation stresses and supersaturation of the {gamma}{sub m} with titanium for alloys containing {approximately}48% Al; indeed, there is a local depletion in aluminium across the {alpha}{sub 2} platelets as determined using fine probe microanalysis.

  19. Rigid spine reinforced polymer microelectrode array probe and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tabada, Phillipe; Pannu, Satinderpall S

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A rigid spine-reinforced microelectrode array probe and fabrication method. The probe includes a flexible elongated probe body with conductive lines enclosed within a polymeric material. The conductive lines connect microelectrodes found near an insertion end of the probe to respective leads at a connector end of the probe. The probe also includes a rigid spine, such as made from titanium, fixedly attached to the probe body to structurally reinforce the probe body and enable the typically flexible probe body to penetrate and be inserted into tissue, such as neural tissue. By attaching or otherwise fabricating the rigid spine to connect to only an insertion section of the probe body, an integrally connected cable section of the probe body may remain flexible.

  20. Probing the denatured state ensemble with fluorescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alston, Roy Willis

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    around the original tryptophan substitutions in RNase Sa. Regardless of the denaturant, ?max for the proteins and model compounds differed very little, 349.3 ± 1.2 nm. However, significant differences were observed in the fluorescence intensity at ?max...

  1. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown measurements of porous organosilicate glass using mercury and solid metal probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, Dongfei; Nichols, Michael T.; Shohet, J. Leon, E-mail: shohet@engr.wisc.edu [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, Sean W.; Clarke, James S. [Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Nishi, Yoshio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) is one of the major concerns for low-k dielectric materials. During plasma processing, low-k dielectrics are subjected to vacuum ultraviolet photon radiation and charged-particle bombardment. To examine the change of TDDB properties, time-to-breakdown measurements are made to porous SiCOH before and after plasma exposure. Significant discrepancies between mercury and solid-metal probes are observed and have been shown to be attributed to mercury diffusion into the dielectric porosities.

  2. Direct CP Violation in B+ to J/psi K+ Decay as Probe for New Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei-Shu Hou; Makiko Nagashima; Andrea Soddu

    2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently there are New Physics hints in mixing-induced CP violation S(phi K0), S(pi0 K0) K+ pi-) differs A(K+ pi0), and maybe even in measured S(J/psi K0) vs prediction from global fit to other data. However, these hints either suffer from experimental uncertainties, or uncertain hadronic corrections, and are not yet unequivocal. Motivated by these hints, however, we point out that a unique probe may be direct CP violation in B to J\\psi K mode. An asymmetry observed at 1% or higher would indicate New Physics.

  3. Pump-probe imaging of laser-induced periodic surface structures after ultrafast irradiation of Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Adams, David P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy has been used to investigate laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation on polished Si surfaces. A crater forms on the surface after irradiation by a 150 fs laser pulse, and a second, subsequent pulse forms LIPSS within the crater. Sequentially delayed images show that LIPSS with a periodicity slightly less than the fundamental laser wavelength of 780 nm appear on Si surfaces ?50 ps after arrival of the second pump laser pulse, well after the onset of melting. LIPSS are observed on the same timescale as material removal, suggesting that their formation involves material ejection.

  4. Coherent THz electromagnetic radiation emission as a shock wave diagnostic and probe of ultrafast phase transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, E J; Armstrong, M R; Kim, K Y; Glownia, J H; Howard, M; Piner, E; Roberts, J

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first experimental observations of terahertz frequency radiation emitted when a terahertz frequency acoustic wave propagates past an interface between materials of differing piezoelectric coefficients. We show that this fundamentally new phenomenon can be used to probe structural properties of thin films. Then, we present molecular dynamics simulations showing that detectable THz frequency radiation can be emitted when a wurtzite structure crystal transforms to a rocksalt structure under shock compression on picosecond timescales. We show that information about the kinetics of the transformation is contained in the time-dependence of the THz field.

  5. Gamma-Rays as Probes for the Multi-Dimensionality of Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hoeflich

    2001-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present $\\gamma $-ray spectra for a set of Type Ia supernovae models. Our study is based on a detailed Monte Carlo transport scheme for both spherical and full 3-D geometries. Classical and new challenges of the $\\gamma $ ray astronomy are addressed. We find that $\\gamma $-rays are very suitable to reveal the structure of the envelope and, thus, they allow to probe properties of the nuclear burning front and the progenitor, namely its central density and global asphericities. The potential problems are discussed for the quantitative comparison between theoretical and observed line fluxes during the first few months after the explosion.

  6. LHC and B physics probes of neutrinoless double beta decay in supersymmetry without R-parity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allanach, B C; Kom, C H; Pas, H

    ar X iv :0 90 3. 03 47 v3 [ he p- ph ] 24 Ju l 2 00 9 Preprint typeset in JHEP style - HYPER VERSION CAVENDISH-HEP-2009-01 DAMTP-2008-86 DO-TH-08/10 LHC and B physics probes of neutrinoless double beta decay in supersymmetry without R-parity B... , Dortmund, Germany E-mails: b.c.allanach@damtp.cam.ac.uk, kom@hep.phy.cam.ac.uk, heinrich.paes@uni-dortmund.de Abstract: In the event of an observation of neutrinoless double beta decay, a relevant question would be: what lepton number violating physics...

  7. Low Temperature Age Hardening in U-13 at.% Nb: An Atom Probe Tomography Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, A. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Field, R. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hackenberg, R. E, [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thoma, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brown, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teter, D. F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Russell, Kaye F [ORNL; Edmonds, D. V. [University of Leeds, UK; Beverini, G. [University of Leeds, UK

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low temperature aging (<350 C) of U-13 at.% Nb martensite results in increased strength levels accompanied by significant ductility loss. To determine the decomposition mechanism(s) responsible for these mechanical property changes, atom probe tomography was used to examine the niobium and impurity distributions after aging at 200 or 300 C for times ranging from 2 h to 70 days. No patterns of niobium or impurity atoms were observed that would indicate segregation to the martensitic twin interfaces, making this hardening mechanism unlikely. Phase separation into roughly equiaxed regions of high and low niobium concentration was clearly observed after aging at 300 C for 70 days. However, only subtle niobium concentration changes were observed after aging at 200 C relative to the as-quenched condition, indicating that conventional phase separation is an unlikely explanation for the dramatic mechanical property changes at 200 C. Therefore, consideration of aging mechanisms other than segregation and phase separation may be warranted.

  8. Multi-frequency cable vibration experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiggins, Andrew (Andrew Dale)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of Multi-Frequency cable vibration experiments at Reynolds number 7600 were carried out at the MIT Tow Tank using the Virtual Cable Towing Apparatus (VCTA). Motions observed in a Direct Numerical Simulation of a ...

  9. Scanning probe microscopy with inherent disturbance suppression using micromechanical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Andrew William, 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) are affected by disturbances, or mechanical noise, in their environments which can limit their imaging resolution. This thesis introduces a general approach for suppressing out-of-plane ...

  10. Application of FRET probes in the analysis of neuronal plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ueda, Yoshibumi

    Breakthroughs in imaging techniques and optical probes in recent years have revolutionized the field of life sciences in ways that traditional methods could never match. The spatial and temporal regulation of molecular ...

  11. Flexible high-temperature pH probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bielawski, John C. (Scotia, NY); Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA); Halbfinger, George P. (Schenectady, NY)

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible pH probe device is provided for use in hot water and other high temperature environments up to about 590.degree. F. The pH probe includes a flexible, inert tubular probe member, an oxygen anion conducting, solid state electrolyte plug located at the distal end of the tubular member, oxide powder disposed at the distal end of the tubular member; a metal wire extending along the tubular member and having a distal end in contact with the oxide powder so as to form therewith an internal reference electrode; and a compression fitting forming a pressure boundary seal around a portion of the tubular member remote from the distal end thereof. Preferably, the tubular member is made of polytetrafluoroethylene, and the solid state electrolyte plug is made of stabilized zirconia. The flexibility of the probe member enables placement of the electrode into the area of interest, including around corners, into confined areas and the like.

  12. Dynamic study of tunable stiffness scanning microscope probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega González, Myraida Angélica

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the dynamic characteristics of the in-plane tunable stiffness scanning microscope probe for an atomic force microscope (AFM). The analysis was carried out using finite element analysis (FEA) methods for ...

  13. Multi-probe robotic positioner for cryoablation in MRI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Faye Y

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the design of a guidance device for faster and more accurate targeting of multiple probes during cryoablation and other percutaneous interventions performed in closed bore magnetic resonance (MR) ...

  14. Weak lensing flexion as a probe of galaxy cluster substructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cain, Benjamin Martin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring galaxy cluster total masses and the amount of dark matter substructure within galaxy cluster haloes is a fundamental probe of the ACDM model of structure formation, as well as the interactions between baryonic ...

  15. Neural network calibration for miniature multi-hole pressure probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayagopal, Rajesh

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust and accurate neural network based algorithm phics. for the calibration of miniature multi-hole pressure probes has been developed and a detailed description of its features and use is presented. The code that was developed was intended...

  16. Embrittlement of RPV steels; An atom probe tomography perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Russell, Kaye F [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atom probe tomography has played a key role in the understanding of the embrittlement of neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels through the atomic level characterization of the microstructure. Atom probe tomography has been used to demonstrate the importance of the post weld stress relief treatment in reducing the matrix copper content in high copper alloys, the formation of {approx}-nm-diameter copper-, nickel-, manganese- and silicon-enriched precipitates during neutron irradiation in copper containing RPV steels, and the coarsening of these precipitates during post irradiation heat treatments. Atom probe tomography has been used to detect {approx}2-nm-diameter nickel-, silicon- and manganese-enriched clusters in neutron irradiated low copper and copper free alloys. Atom probe tomography has also been used to quantify solute segregation to, and precipitation on, dislocations and grain boundaries.

  17. Probing the size and environment induced phase transformation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the size and environment induced phase transformation in CdSe quantum dots. Probing the size and environment induced phase transformation in CdSe quantum dots. Abstract: The...

  18. Magnetic nanowire based high resolution magnetic force microscope probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    -resolution magnetic force microscope probes using preformed magnetic nanowires. Nickel and cobalt nanowires produced by electrodeposition were directly assembled onto the tip of a commercial atomic force microscope cantilever

  19. Development of Micromachined Probes for Bio-Nano Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yapici, Murat K.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of providing very fine, micro/nano scale interaction with matter; along with a broad range of applications made possible by incorporating MEMS sensing and actuation techniques. Micromachined probes consist of a well-defined tip structure that determines...

  20. Microfabricated Optical Sensor Probe for the Detection of Esophageal Cancer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chinna Balareddy, Karthik Reddy

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    spectrometry. The sensor probe consists of a lithographically patterned polymer waveguides chip and three micromachined positioning substrates and source/collection fibers to achieve 45 degree light incidence and collection of spatially resolved diffuse...

  1. Standard Quantum Limit for Probing Mechanical Energy Quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corbitt, Thomas R.

    We derive a standard quantum limit for probing mechanical energy quantization in a class of systems with mechanical modes parametrically coupled to external degrees of freedom. To resolve a single mechanical quantum, it ...

  2. Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorham, P.W.

    2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first observations of the Askaryan effect in ice: coherent impulsive radio Cherenkov radiation from the charge asymmetry in an electromagnetic (EM) shower. Such radiation has been observed in silica sand and rock salt, but this is the first direct observation from an EM shower in ice. These measurements are important since the majority of experiments to date that rely on the effect for ultra-high energy neutrino detection are being performed using ice as the target medium. As part of the complete validation process for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, we performed an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in June 2006 using a 7.5 metric ton ice target, yielding results fully consistent with theoretical expectations.

  3. Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANITA collaboration; P. W. Gorham; S. W. Barwick; J. J. Beatty; D. Z. Besson; W. R. Binns; C. Chen; P. Chen; J. M. Clem; A. Connolly; P. F. Dowkontt; M. A. DuVernois; R. C. Field; D. Goldstein; A. Goodhue; C. Hast; C. L. Hebert; S. Hoover; M. H. Israel; J. Kowalski; J. G. Learned; K. M. Liewer; J. T. Link; E. Lusczek; S. Matsuno; B. Mercurio; C. Miki; P. Miocinovic; J. Nam; C. J. Naudet; J. Ng; R. Nichol; K. Palladino; K. Reil; A. Romero-Wolf; M. Rosen; D. Saltzberg; D. Seckel; G. S. Varner; D. Walz; F. Wu

    2007-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first observations of the Askaryan effect in ice: coherent impulsive radio Cherenkov radiation from the charge asymmetry in an electromagnetic (EM) shower. Such radiation has been observed in silica sand and rock salt, but this is the first direct observation from an EM shower in ice. These measurements are important since the majority of experiments to date that rely on the effect for ultra-high energy neutrino detection are being performed using ice as the target medium. As part of the complete validation process for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, we performed an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in June 2006 using a 7.5 metric ton ice target, yielding results fully consistent with theoretical expectations.

  4. Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barwick, S W; Besson, D Z; Binns, W R; Chen, P; Clem, J M; Connolly, A; Dowkontt, P F; Duvernois, M A; Field, R C; Goldstein, D; Goodhue, A; Gorham, P W; Hast, C; Hebert, C L; Hoover, S; Israel, M H; Kowalski, J; Learned, J G; Liewer, K M; Link, J T; Lusczek, E; Matsuno, S; Mercurio, B; Miki, C; Miocinovic, P; Nam, J; Naudet, C J; Ng, J; Nichol, R; Palladino, K J; Reil, K; Romero-Wolf, A; Rosen, M; Saltzberg, D; Secke, D; Varner, G S; Walz, D; Wu, F

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first observations of the Askaryan effect in ice: coherent impulsive radio Cherenkov radiation from the charge asymmetry in an electromagnetic (EM) shower. Such radiation has been observed in silica sand and rock salt, but this is the first direct observation from an EM shower in ice. These measurements are important since the majority of experiments to date that rely on the effect for ultra-high energy neutrino detection are being performed using ice as the target medium. As part of the complete validation process for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, we performed an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in June 2006 using a 7.5 metric ton ice target, yielding results fully consistent with theoretical expectations.

  5. Observation on growth of bacteria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    5.16 Proposed copolymer from iptycene and fluorene............... 133 Figure 5.17 Perfluoropropylene trimers............................... 137 Figure 5.18 (a) Absorbance of 13 encapsulated in silica nanoparticles in solid state and (b... permeability, intracelular compartmentalization and photostability has made it dificult to extend the applications of probes from mamalian cels to plant cels, bacteria and yeast. 8 A careful examination of probe design with respect to their biocompatibility...

  6. Observing the next galactic supernova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Scott M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Beacom, John F.; Stanek, K. Z. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Vagins, Mark R. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No supernova (SN) in the Milky Way has been observed since the invention of the optical telescope, instruments for other wavelengths, neutrino detectors, or gravitational wave observatories. It would be a tragedy to miss the opportunity to fully characterize the next one. To aid preparations for its observations, we model the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions of a successful Galactic core-collapse supernova (ccSN), its shock breakout radiation, and its massive star progenitor. We find, at very high probability (? 100%), that the next Galactic SN will easily be detectable in the near-IR and that near-IR photometry of the progenitor star very likely (? 92%) already exists in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Most ccSNe (98%) will be easily observed in the optical, but a significant fraction (43%) will lack observations of the progenitor due to a combination of survey sensitivity and confusion. If neutrino detection experiments can quickly disseminate a likely position (?3°), we show that a modestly priced IR camera system can probably detect the shock breakout radiation pulse even in daytime (64% for the cheapest design). Neutrino experiments should seriously consider adding such systems, both for their scientific return and as an added and internal layer of protection against false triggers. We find that shock breakouts from failed ccSNe of red supergiants may be more observable than those of successful SNe due to their lower radiation temperatures. We review the process by which neutrinos from a Galactic ccSN would be detected and announced. We provide new information on the EGADS system and its potential for providing instant neutrino alerts. We also discuss the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions for the next Galactic Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Based on our modeled observability, we find a Galactic ccSN rate of 3.2{sub ?2.6}{sup +7.3} per century and a Galactic SN Ia rate of 1.4{sub ?0.8}{sup +1.4} per century for a total Galactic SN rate of 4.6{sub ?2.7}{sup +7.4} per century is needed to account for the SNe observed over the last millennium, which implies a Galactic star formation rate of 3.6{sub ?3.0}{sup +8.3} M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}.

  7. Free vibrations of U-shaped atomic force microscope probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezaei, E.; Turner, J. A., E-mail: jaturner@unl.edu [Mechanical and Materials Engineering, W342 Nebraska Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Contact resonance atomic force microscope (AFM) methods have been used to quantify the elastic and viscoelastic properties of a variety of materials such as polymers, ceramics, biological materials, and metals with spatial resolution on the order of tens of nanometers. This approach involves measurement of the resonant frequencies of the AFM probe both for the free case and the case for which the tip is in contact with a sample. Vibration models of the probe and tip-sample contact models are then used to determine the sample properties from the frequency behavior and to create images of the sample properties. This work has been primarily focused on rectangular, single-beam probes for which the vibration models are relatively simple. Recently, U-shaped AFM probes have been developed to allow local heating of samples and the resonances of these probes are much more complex. In this article, a simplified analytical model of these U-shaped probes is described. This three beam model includes two beams clamped at one end and connected with a perpendicular cross beam at the other end. The beams are assumed only to bend in flexure and twist but their coupling allows a wide range of possible dynamic behavior. Results are presented for the first ten modes and the mode shapes are shown to have complex coupling between the flexure and twisting of the beams, particularly for the higher modes. All resonant frequency results are in good agreement with finite element results for the three probe designs and two values of thickness considered (all wavenumbers are within 3.0%). This work is anticipated to allow U-shaped probes to be used eventually for quantitative measurements of sample material properties during heating using a contact resonance approach.

  8. Probing Compositeness with Higgs Boson Decays at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maria Hoffmann; Anna Kaminska; Rosy Nicolaidou; Stathes Paganis

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is proposed to directly probe the Higgs boson compositeness using the unique characteristics of a boosted Higgs boson produced in association with a weak gauge boson ($W^{\\pm},Z$). The discovery potential for the upcoming LHC running is presented, showing that compositeness scales up to 3 TeV can be probed at the LHC with an integrated luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}=3000$ fb$^{-1}$ collected at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

  9. Complex quantum networks as structured environments: engineering and probing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes Nokkala; Fernando Galve; Roberta Zambrini; Sabrina Maniscalco; Jyrki Piilo

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider structured environments modeled by bosonic quantum networks and investigate the control and probing of their spectral density. We demonstrate how to engineer a desired spectral density by changing the network structure. We show that the spectral density can be very accurately detected via a locally immersed probe system for virtually any network configuration. We illustrate our findings presenting examples of spectral densities for networks of genuine complexity.

  10. Experimental observation of very low-frequency macroscopic modes in a dusty plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goree, John

    they are in contact with neutral gas, although superthermal velocities have been observed in some experiments.3,4 Like

  11. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  12. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Kalinin, Sergei V. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  13. MiniBooNE Results and Neutrino Schemes with 2 sterile Neutrinos: Possible Mass Orderings and Observables related to Neutrino Masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srubabati Goswami; Werner Rodejohann

    2007-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The MiniBooNE and LSND experiments are compatible with each other when two sterile neutrinos are added to the three active ones. In this case there are eight possible mass orderings. In two of them both sterile neutrinos are heavier than the three active ones. In the next two scenarios both sterile neutrinos are lighter than the three active ones. The remaining four scenarios have one sterile neutrino heavier and another lighter than the three active ones. We analyze all scenarios with respect to their predictions for mass-related observables. These are the sum of neutrino masses as constrained by cosmological observations, the kinematic mass parameter as measurable in the KATRIN experiment, and the effective mass governing neutrinoless double beta decay. It is investigated how these non-oscillation probes can distinguish between the eight scenarios. Six of the eight possible mass orderings predict positive signals in the KATRIN and future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. We also remark on scenarios with three sterile neutrinos. In addition we make some comments on the possibility of using decays of high energy astrophysical neutrinos to discriminate between the mass orderings in presence of two sterile neutrinos.

  14. Atomic Probes of Noncommutative Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles D. Lane

    2002-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the role of Lorentz symmetry in noncommutative field theory. We find that a Lorentz-violating standard-model extension involving ordinary fields is general enough to include any realisitc noncommutative field theory as a subset. This leads to various theoretical consequences, as well as bounds from existing experiments at the level of (10 TeV)$^{-2}$ on the scale of the noncommutativity parameter.

  15. Probing protein orientation near charged surfaces with an implicit-solvent model and the PyGBe code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher D. Cooper; Lorena A. Barba

    2015-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein-surface interactions are ubiquitous in biological processes and bioengineering, yet are not fully understood. In the field of biosensors, a key factor in biosensor performance is the orientation of biomolecules near charged surfaces. The aim of this work is developing and assessing a computational model to study proteins interacting with charged surfaces and obtain orientation data. After extending the implicit-solvent model used in the open-source code PyGBe and deriving an analytical solution for simple geometry, our careful grid-convergence analysis builds confidence on the correctness and value of our approach for probing protein orientation. Further computational experiments support it: they study preferred orientations for protein GB1 D4' and immunoglobulin G. Sampling the free energy for protein GB1 at a range of tilt and rotation angles with respect to the charged surface, we calculated the probability of the protein orientation and observed a dipolar behavior. This result is consistent with published molecular-dynamics simulations and experimental studies using this protein. The case of immunoglobulin G is more challenging due to the large size of the molecule, but it is also more relevant to biosensor technology. The probability distribution of orientations for this protein at varying surface charge and salt concentration suggests that it is easier to control the antibody orientation with low salt concentration and high surface charge. The results also show that local interactions dominate over dipole moment for this protein. In view of its capacity to deal with much larger biomolecules than direct simulation, this implicit-solvent model can offer a valuable approach in biosensor studies.

  16. A photoelectron velocity map imaging spectrometer for experiments combining synchrotron and laser radiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keeffe, P.; Bolognesi, P.; Coreno, M.; Avaldi, L. [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo (Italy); Moise, A.; Richter, R.; Cautero, G.; Stebel, L.; Sergo, R. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Pravica, L. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, Western Australia (Australia); Ovcharenko, Y. [Institute of Electron Physics, 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A velocity map imaging/ion time-of-flight spectrometer designed specifically for pump-probe experiments combining synchrotron and laser radiations is described. The in-house built delay line detector can be used in two modes: the high spatial resolution mode and the coincidence mode. In the high spatial resolution mode a kinetic energy resolution of 6% has been achieved. The coincidence mode can be used to improve signal-to-noise ratio for the pump-probe experiments either by using a gate to count electrons only when the laser is present or by recording coincidences with the ion formed in the ionization process.

  17. Probing the Absolute Mass Scale of Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prof. Joseph A. Formaggio

    2011-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental efforts of the Neutrino Physics Group at MIT center primarily around the exploration of neutrino mass and its significance within the context of nuclear physics, particle physics, and cosmology. The group has played a prominent role in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino experiment dedicated to measure neutrino oscillations from 8B neutrinos created in the sun. The group is now focusing its efforts in the measurement of the neutrino mass directly via the use of tritium beta decay. The MIT group has primary responsibilities in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino mass experiment, expected to begin data taking by 2013. Specifically, the MIT group is responsible for the design and development of the global Monte Carlo framework to be used by the KATRIN collaboration, as well as responsibilities directly associated with the construction of the focal plane detector. In addition, the MIT group is sponsoring a new research endeavor for neutrino mass measurements, known as Project 8, to push beyond the limitations of current neutrino mass experiments.

  18. Classical Novae as a Probe of the Cataclysmic Variable Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean M. Townsley; Lars Bildsten

    2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical Novae (CNe) are the brightest manifestation of mass transfer onto a white dwarf in a cataclysmic variable (CV). As such, they are probes of the mass transfer rate, Mdot, and WD mass, Mwd, in these interacting binaries. Our calculations of the dependence of the CN ignition mass, Mign, on Mdot and Mwd yields the recurrence times of these explosions. We show that the observed CNe orbital period distribution is consistent with the interrupted magnetic braking evolutionary scenario, where at orbital periods Porb > 3 hr mass transfer is driven by angular momentum loss via a wind from the companion star and at Porb < 3 hr by gravitational radiation. About 50% of CNe occur in binaries accreting at Mdot ~= 10^{-9} Msun/yr with Porb = 3-4 hr, with the remaining 50% split evenly between Porb longer (higher Mdot) and shorter (lower Mdot) than this. This resolution of the relative contribution to the CN rate from different CVs tells us that 3(9)x10^5 CVs with WD mass 1.0(0.6)Msun are needed to produce one CN per year. Using the K-band specific CN rate measured in external galaxies, we find a CV birthrate of 2(4)x10^{-4}/yr per 10^{10}Lsun,K, very similar to the luminosity specific Type Ia supernova rate in elliptical galaxies. Likewise, we predict that there should be 60-180 CVs for every 10^6Lsun,K in an old stellar population, similar to the number of X-ray identified CVs in the globular cluster 47 Tuc, showing no overabundance relative to the field. Using a two-component steady state model of CV evolution we show that the fraction of CVs which are magnetic (22%) implies a birthrate of 8% relative to non-magnetic CVs, similar to the fraction of strongly magnetic field WDs. (abridged)

  19. In-situ scanning probe microscopy of electrodeposited nickel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, James J.; Dibble, Dean C.

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance characteristics and material properties such as stress, microstructure, and composition of nickel coatings and electroformed components can be controlled over a wide range by the addition of small amounts of surface-active compounds to the electroplating bath. Saccharin is one compound that is widely utilized for its ability to reduce tensile stress and refine grain size in electrodeposited nickel. While the effects of saccharin on nickel electrodeposition have been studied by many authors in the past, there is still uncertainty over saccharin's mechanisms of incorporation, stress reduction, and grain refinement. In-situ scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a tool that can be used to directly image the nucleation and growth of thin nickel films at nanometer length scales to help elucidate saccharin's role in the development and evolution of grain structure. In this study, in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques are used to investigate the effects of saccharin on the morphological evolution of thin nickel films. By observing mono-atomic height nickel island growth with and without saccharin present we conclude that saccharin has little effect on the nickel surface mobility during deposition at low overpotentials where the growth occurs in a layer-by-layer mode. Saccharin was imaged on Au(l11) terraces as condensed patches without resolved packing structure. AFM measurements of the roughness evolution of nickel films up to 1200 nm thick on polycrystalline gold indicate that saccharin initially increases the roughness and surface skewness of the deposit that at greater thickness becomes smoother than films deposited without saccharin. Faceting of the deposit morphology decreases as saccharin concentration increases even for the thinnest films that have 3-D growth.

  20. Probing supernova physics with neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Minakata; H. Nunokawa; R. Tomas; J. W. F. Valle

    2002-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We point out that solar neutrino oscillations with large mixing angle as evidenced in current solar neutrino data have a strong impact on strategies for diagnosing collapse-driven supernova (SN) through neutrino observations. Such oscillations induce a significant deformation of the energy spectra of neutrinos, thereby allowing us to obtain otherwise inaccessible features of SN neutrino spectra. We demonstrate that one can determine temperatures and luminosities of non-electron flavor neutrinos by observing bar{nu}_{e} from galactic SN in massive water Cherenkov detectors by the charged current reactions on protons.

  1. Gamma Ray Burst Neutrinos Probing Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia; F. Halzen

    2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Very high energy, short wavelength, neutrinos may interact with the space-time foam predicted by theories of quantum gravity. They would propagate like light through a crystal lattice and be delayed, with the delay depending on the energy. This will appear to the observer as a violation of Lorenz invariance. Back of the envelope calculations imply that observations of neutrinos produced by gamma ray bursts may reach Planck-scale sensitivity. We revisit the problem considering two essential complications: the imprecise timing of the neutrinos associated with their poorly understood production mechanism in the source and the indirect nature of their energy measurement made by high energy neutrino telescopes.

  2. Hot-electron-driven charge transfer processes on O2 Pt,,111... surface probed by ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Michael

    it with an ultrafast laser pulse, charge transfer induced changes in the platinum-oxygen bond were observedHot-electron-driven charge transfer processes on O2 Ã?Pt,,111... surface probed by ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet pulses C. Lei,1, * M. Bauer,2 K. Read,1 R. Tobey,1 Y. Liu,3 T. Popmintchev,1 M. M. Murnane,1 and H. C

  3. Carrier Dynamics in InGaN/GaN SQW Structure Probed by the Transient Grating Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okamoto, Koichi

    Carrier Dynamics in InGaN/GaN SQW Structure Probed by the Transient Grating Method; 78.55.Cr; 78.67.De; S7.14 Carrier dynamics in GaN and InGaN/GaN SQW structures were observed by using inhomogeneity of In composition. Recently, InGaN/GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been commercialized

  4. Filename: FVB Invo2 Forced 121061.CHP Probe Array Type: MG_U74Av2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betz, William J.

    121061.CHP Probe Array Type: MG_U74Av2 Algorithm: Statistical Probe Pair Thr: 8 Controls: Antisense.13 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Filename: FVB Invo2 Forced 121062.CHP Probe Array Type: MG_U74Av2 Algorithm: Statistical Probe Pair Thr: 8

  5. Probing nuclear matter with jet conversions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Fries, Rainer J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    present some estimates for the rate of jet conversions in a consistent Fokker-Planck framework and their impact on future high-p(T) identified hadron measurements at RHIC and LHC. We also suggest some novel observables to test flavor effects....

  6. Umbral oscillations as a probe of sunspot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelatif, T.E.H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of the solar five-minute oscillations with a sunspot is thoroughly explored, both on observational and theoretical grounds. Simple theoretical models are developed in order to understand the observations of umbral oscillations. Observations made at the National Solar Observatory detected both the three-minute and five-minute umbral oscillations at photospheric heights. The three-minute oscillations were found to have a kinetic energy density six times higher in the photosphere than in the chromosphere and to be concentrated in the central part of the umbra, supporting the photospheric resonance theory for the three-minute umbral oscillations. The five-minute oscillations are attenuated in the umbra, which appears to act as a filter in selecting some of the peaks in the power spectrum of five-minute oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The k-omega power spectrum of the umbral oscillations shows a shift of power to longer wavelengths. Theoretical models of the transmission of acoustic waves into a magnetic region explain both observed effects.

  7. Time-resolved electron thermal conduction by probing of plasma formation in transparent solids with high power subpicosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vu, B.T.V.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation work includes a series of experimental measurements in a search for better understanding of high temperature (10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}K) and high density plasmas (10{sup 22}-10{sup 24}cm{sup {minus}3}) produced by irradiating a transparent solid target with high intensity (10{sup 13} - 10{sup 15}W/cm{sup 2}) and subpicosecond (10{sup {minus}12}-10{sup {minus}13}s) laser pulses. Experimentally, pump and probe schemes with both frontside (vacuum-plasma side) and backside (plasma-bulk material side) probes are used to excite and interrogate or probe the plasma evolution, thereby providing useful insights into the plasma formation mechanisms. A series of different experiments has been carried out so as to characterize plasma parameters and the importance of various nonlinear processes. Experimental evidence shows that electron thermal conduction is supersonic in a time scale of the first picosecond after laser irradiation, so fast that it was often left unresolved in the past. The experimental results from frontside probing demonstrate that upon irradiation with a strong (pump) laser pulse, a thin high temperature ({approximately}40eV) super-critical density ({approximately}10{sup 23}/cm{sup 3}) plasma layer is quickly formed at the target surface which in turn becomes strongly reflective and prevents further transmission of the remainder of the laser pulse. In the bulk region behind the surface, it is also found that a large sub-critical ({approximately}10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3}) plasma is produced by inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption and collisional ionization. The bulk underdense plasma is evidenced by large absorption of the backside probe light. A simple and analytical model, modified from the avalanche model, for plasma evolution in transparent materials is proposed to explain the experimental results. Elimination of the bulk plasma is then experimentally illustrated by using targets overcoated with highly absorptive films.

  8. Ultrafast probing of the x-ray-induced lattice and electron dynamics in graphite at atomic-resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hau-Riege, S

    2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We used LCLS pulses to excite thin-film and bulk graphite with various different microstructures, and probed the ultrafast ion and electron dynamics through Bragg and x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS). We pioneered XRTS at LCLS, making this technique viable for other users. We demonstrated for the first time that the LCLS can be used to characterize warm-dense-matter through Bragg and x-ray Thomson scattering. The warm-dense-matter conditions were created using the LCLS beam. Representative examples of the results are shown in the Figure above. In our experiment, we utilized simultaneously both Bragg and two Thomson spectrometers. The Bragg measurements as a function of x-ray fluence and pulse length allows us to characterize the onset of atomic motion at 2 keV with the highest resolution to date. The Bragg detector was positioned in back-reflection, providing us access to scattering data with large scattering vectors (nearly 4{pi}/{lambda}). We found a clear difference between the atomic dynamics for 70 and 300 fs pulses, and we are currently in the process of comparing these results to our models. The outcome of this comparison will have important consequences for ultrafast diffractive imaging, for which it is still not clear if atomic resolution can truly be achieved. The backward x-ray Thomson scattering data suggests that the average graphite temperature and ionization was 10 eV and 1.0, respectively, which agrees with our models. In the forward scattering data, we observed an inelastic feature in the Thomson spectrum that our models currently do not reproduce, so there is food for thought. We are in the process of writing these results up. Depending on if we can combine the Bragg and Thomson data or not, we plan to publish them in a single paper (e.g. Nature or Science) or as two separate papers (e.g. two Phys. Rev. Lett.). We will present the first analysis of the results at the APS Plasma Meeting in November 2010. We had a fantastic experience performing our experiment at the LCLS, and we are grateful to the beamline scientists and all the support personnel for enabling this experiment. A major hurdle was the very short transition time of two days, which despite all our preparations did not give us sufficient time to test the full system before the start of the beam time. We further were not able to make optimal use of the beam time since we had to exchange samples in the middle of the 36-hours shift. An additional 12-hours break could have avoided this. Finally, our experiment would have benefitted from the best possible focus, but 5 shifts do not allow performing the experiment while fine-tuning the focusing optics.

  9. On the Observation of the Cosmic Ray Anisotropy below 10$^{15}$ eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Di Sciascio; R. Iuppa

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of the anisotropy in the arrival direction of cosmic rays is complementary to the study of their energy spectrum and chemical composition to understand their origin and propagation. It is also a tool to probe the structure of the magnetic fields through which cosmic rays travel. As cosmic rays are mostly charged nuclei, their trajectories are deflected by the action of galactic magnetic field they propagate through before reaching the Earth atmosphere, so that their detection carries directional information only up to distances as large as their gyro-radius. If cosmic rays below $10^{15}{\\rm\\,eV}$ are considered and the local galactic magnetic field ($\\sim3{\\rm\\,\\mu G}$) is accounted for, gyro-radii are so short that isotropy is expected. At most, a weak di-polar distribution may exist, reflecting the contribution of the closest CR sources. However, a number of experiments observed an energy-dependent \\emph{"large scale"} anisotropy in the sidereal time frame with an amplitude of about 10$^{-4}$ - 10$^{-3}$, revealing the existence of two distinct broad regions: an excess distributed around 40$^{\\circ}$ to 90$^{\\circ}$ in Right Ascension (commonly referred to as "tail.in" excess) and a deficit (the "loss cone") around 150$^{\\circ}$ to 240$^{\\circ}$ in Right Ascension. In recent years the Milagro and ARGO-YBJ collaborations reported the of a "medium" scale anisotropy inside the tail-in region. The observation of such small features has been recently claimed by the IceCube experiment also in the Southern hemisphere. So far, no theory of cosmic rays in the Galaxy exists which is able to explain the origin of these different anisotropies leaving the standard model of cosmic rays and that of the galactic magnetic field unchanged at the same time.

  10. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Chen, Guang-Hong [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD curves tended to be steeper. The CHO generated the best quantitative agreement with human observers with its CD curve overlapping with that of human observer. Statistical equivalence between CHO and humans can be claimed within 11% of the human observer results, including both the disk and lesion detection experiments.Conclusions: The model observer method can be used to accurately represent human observer performance with the stochastic DPC-CT noise for SKE tasks with sizes ranging from 8 to 128 pixels. The incorporation of the anatomical noise remains to be studied.

  11. Double beta decay experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Barabash

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present status of double beta decay experiments are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments, NEMO-3 and CUORICINO, are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments are considered. In these experiments sensitivity for the effective neutrino mass will be on the level of (0.1-0.01) eV.

  12. Vibrational Stark Spectroscopy in Proteins: A Probe and Calibration for Electrostatic Eun Sun Park, Steven S. Andrews, Robert B. Hu, and Steven G. Boxer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Steven G.

    shifts).15,16 Electrochromic band shifts in a protein result from the inter- action between a probe, and the observed electrochromic band shift is E ) hcj ) -µ,Fmatrix, where µ is the change in dipole moment associated with a spectroscopic transition. To interpret or calculate the electrochromic band shift in terms

  13. Atomic Collapse Observed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists Observe Atomic Collapse State Quantum Mechanics Prediction Confirmed in Graphene Using NERSC's Hopper April 26, 2013 | Tags: Hopper, Materials Science Contact: Linda...

  14. Hot Pot Field Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

  15. Hot Pot Field Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

  16. Probing the Constituent Structure of Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukas Gruending; Stefan Hofmann; Sophia Müller; Tehseen Rug

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the cross section for scattering processes between graviton emitters on the near side of a Schwarzschild surface and absorbers on its far side, that is black hole constituents. We show that these scatterings allow to directly extract structural observables such as the momentum distribution of black hole constituents. For this we employ a quantum bound state description originally developed in quantum chromodynamics and recently applied to general relativity that allows to consider black holes in a relativistic Hartree like framework.

  17. Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy of Magnetic Vortices inVery Underdoped yttrium-barium-copper-oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guikema, Janice Wynn; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Since their discovery by Bednorz and Mueller (1986), high-temperature cuprate superconductors have been the subject of intense experimental research and theoretical work. Despite this large-scale effort, agreement on the mechanism of high-T{sub c} has not been reached. Many theories make their strongest predictions for underdoped superconductors with very low superfluid density n{sub s}/m*. For this dissertation I implemented a scanning Hall probe microscope and used it to study magnetic vortices in newly available single crystals of very underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (Liang et al. 1998, 2002). These studies have disproved a promising theory of spin-charge separation, measured the apparent vortex size (an upper bound on the penetration depth {lambda}{sub ab}), and revealed an intriguing phenomenon of ''split'' vortices. Scanning Hall probe microscopy is a non-invasive and direct method for magnetic field imaging. It is one of the few techniques capable of submicron spatial resolution coupled with sub-{Phi}{sub 0} (flux quantum) sensitivity, and it operates over a wide temperature range. Chapter 2 introduces the variable temperature scanning microscope and discusses the scanning Hall probe set-up and scanner characterizations. Chapter 3 details my fabrication of submicron GaAs/AlGaAs Hall probes and discusses noise studies for a range of probe sizes, which suggest that sub-100 nm probes could be made without compromising flux sensitivity. The subsequent chapters detail scanning Hall probe (and SQUID) microscopy studies of very underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} crystals with T{sub c} {le} 15 K. Chapter 4 describes two experimental tests for visons, essential excitations of a spin-charge separation theory proposed by Senthil and Fisher (2000, 2001b). We searched for predicted hc/e vortices (Wynn et al. 2001) and a vortex memory effect (Bonn et al. 2001) with null results, placing upper bounds on the vison energy inconsistent with the theory. Chapter 5 discusses imaging of isolated vortices as a function of T{sub c}. Vortex images were fit with theoretical magnetic field profiles in order to extract the apparent vortex size. The data for the lowest T{sub c}'s (5 and 6.5 K) show some inhomogeneity and suggest that {lambda}{sub ab} might be larger than predicted by the T{sub c} {proportional_to} n{sub s}(0)/m* relation first suggested by results of Uemura et al. (1989) for underdoped cuprates. Finally, Chapter 6 examines observations of apparent ''partial vortices'' in the crystals. My studies of these features indicate that they are likely split pancake vortex stacks. Qualitatively, these split stacks reveal information about pinning and anisotropy in the samples. Collectively these magnetic imaging studies deepen our knowledge of cuprate superconductivity, especially in the important regime of low superfluid density.

  18. Atom probe tomography studies of Al?O? gate dielectrics on GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazumder, Baishakhi, E-mail: bmazumder@engineering.ucsb.edu; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Liu, Xiang; Yeluri, Ramya; Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Atom probe tomography was used to achieve three-dimensional characterization of in situ Al?O?/GaN structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Al?O? dielectrics grown at three different temperatures of 700, 900, and 1000 °C were analyzed and compared. A low temperature GaN cap layer grown atop Al?O? enabled a high success rate in the atom probe experiments. The Al?O?/GaN interfaces were found to be intermixed with Ga, N, and O over the distance of a few nm. Impurity measurements data showed that the 1000 °C sample contains higher amounts of C (4 × 10¹?/cm³) and lower amounts of H (7 × 10¹?/cm³), whereas the 700 °C sample exhibits lower C impurities (<10¹?/cm³) and higher H incorporation (2.2 × 10²?/cm³). On comparing with Al?O? grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), it was found that the MOCVD Al?O?/GaN interface is comparatively abrupt. Scanning transmission electron microscopy data showed that the 900 °C and 1000 °C MOCVD films exhibit polycrystalline nature, while the ALD films were found to be amorphous.

  19. Non-degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy of single GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhya, Prashanth C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prasankumar, Rohiy P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, George T [SNL; Martinez, Julio A [SNL; Li, Qiming [SNL; Swartzentruber, Brian S [SNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatially-resolved ultrafast transient absorption measurements on a single GaN nanowire give insight into carrier relaxation dynamics as a function of the probe polarization and position on the nanowire on a femtosecond timescale. The synthesis and optical characterization of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has gained considerable attention in recent years owing to their unique electronic and optical properties that arise from their anisotropic geometry, large surface to volume ratio and two-dimensional quasiparticle confinement, Post-growth characterization of their properties is crucial in understanding the fundamental physical processes that can lead to enhanced functionality of NW-based devices, In particular, it is important to understand the carrier relaxation pathways in individual NWs, since the geometry of these nanostructures can significantly influence carrier recombination and/or trapping. In this respect, ultrafast optical techniques offer reliable and non-contact spectroscopic tools to study carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures. In summary, time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy was performed on single GaN NWs. These measurements give insight into the different processes that govern carrier capture, particularly at surface states, and relaxation in individual nanostructures. Our experiments thus demonstrate the value of single-particle ultrafast optical spectroscopy in understanding the physical processes that govern the properties of semiconductor NWs, while suggesting approaches to optimize NW-based devices for nanophotonic applications.

  20. Counting voids to probe dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pisani, Alice; Hamaus, Nico; Alizadeh, Esfandiar; Biswas, Rahul; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Hirata, Christopher M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the number of observed voids in galaxy redshift surveys is a sensitive function of the equation of state of dark energy. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we find the error ellipses in the $w_0-w_a$ plane when the equation of state of dark energy is assumed to be of the form $w_{CPL}(z)=w_0 +w_a z/(1+z)$. We forecast the number of voids to be observed with the ESA Euclid satellite and the NASA WFIRST mission, taking into account updated details of the surveys to reach accurate estimates of their power. The theoretical model for the forecast of the number of voids is based on matches between abundances in simulations and the analytical prediction. To take into account the uncertainties within the model, we marginalize over its free parameters when calculating the Fisher matrices. The addition of the void abundance constraints to the data from Planck, HST and supernova survey data noticeably tighten the $w_0-w_a$ parameter space. We thus quantify the improvement in the constraints due to the use of...

  1. Damaged Fuel Experiment DF-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasser, R.D.; Fryer, C.P.; Gauntt, R.O.; Marshall, A.C.; Reil, K.O.; Stalker, K.T.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of in-pile experiments addressing LWR severe fuel damage phenomena has been conducted in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ACRR Debris Formation and Relocation (DF) experiments are quasi-separate effects tests that provide a data base for the development and verification of models for LWR severe core damage accidents. The first experiment in this series, DF-1, was performed on March 15, 1984, and the results are presented in this report. The DF-1 experiment examined the effects of low initial clad oxidation conditions on fuel damage and relocation processes. The DF-1 test assembly consisted of a nine-rod square-matrix bundle that employed PWR-type fuel rods with a 0.5-m fissile length. The fuel rods were composed of 10% enriched UO{sub 2} pellets within a zircaloy-4 cladding. Steam flowed through the test bundle at flow rates varying between 0.5 and 3 g/s, and the ACRR maintained a peak power level of 1.5 MW during the high temperature oxidation phase of the test inducing {approximately}8.5 kW fission power and {approximately}20 kW peak oxidation power in the assembly. Visual observation showed early clad relocation and partial blockage formation at the grid spacer location accompanied by production of a dense aerosol. Posttest cross sections show liquefaction losses of fuel in excess of 10 volume percent, as well as large fractional losses of cladding material from the upper two-thirds of the bundle. The quantity of hydrogen measured during the test was consistent with the observed magnitude of cladding oxidation. Oxidation driven heating rates of 25 K/s and peak temperatures in excess of 2525 K were observed. The analyses, interpretation, and application of these results to severe fuel damage accidents are discussed. 27 refs., 118 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Very high energy probes of the quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.; Madansky, L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the penetrating probes of nuclear matter the most frequently discussed have been those which involve the detection of photons or leptons with m/sub T/ approx. = P/sub T/ < 3 GeV. This is the expected range of emission from a hot, thermalized plasma of quarks and gluons. The suggestion has been made that in very high energy collisions of nuclei the properties of high P/sub T/ jets may also reflect the characteristics of the nuclear medium through which the parent partons have propagated just after the collision. In this note we expand on the possible uses of such a probe.

  3. Top polarization as a probe of new physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohini M Godbole; Saurabh D Rindani; Kumar Rao; Ritesh K Singh

    2010-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of new physics scenarios containing a high mass vector resonance on top pair production at the LHC, using the polarization of the produced top. In particular we use kinematic distributions of the secondary lepton coming from top decay, which depends on top polarization, as it has been shown that the angular distribution of the decay lepton is insensitive to the anomalous tbW vertex and hence is a pure probe of new physics in top quark production. Spin sensitive variables involving the decay lepton are used to probe top polarization. Some sensitivity is found for the new couplings of the top.

  4. Probing Strain-Induced Changes in Electronic Structure with XMCD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br Bromine 43Probing OrganicProbing

  5. Probing Strain-Induced Changes in Electronic Structure with XMCD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br Bromine 43ProbingProbing Strain-Induced

  6. Probing Strain-Induced Changes in Electronic Structure with XMCD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br Bromine 43ProbingProbing

  7. Nucleon Structure Studies with Electromagnetic Probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, Michael F.

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from March 1, 2008 to June 14, 2009 under contract number DE-FG02-03ER41252. This is the final technical report under this contract. The experimental work described here is part of the electromagnetic nuclear physics program of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) Collaboration at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) that published 17 journal articles during the period of this report. One of these journal articles reported on the results of precise measurements of the neutron magnetic form factor. I was a spokesperson on this experiment and the publication of these results is the culmination of years of effort by a small subset of the CLAS Collaboration. As usual, undergraduate students were involved in all aspects of this work. Three Union College students participated in this program during the window of this report and one presented a paper on his work at the 2009 National Conference on Undergraduate Research (NCUR22). In this report, I discuss recent progress on the measurements of the neutron magnetic form factor and describe my service work for the CLAS Collaboration.

  8. Observational learning in horses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baer, Katherine Louise

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . One group served as control subjects while the other group functioned as a treated group (observers). The observers were allowed to watch a correctly performed discrimination task prior to testing of a learning response using the same task.... Discrimination testing was conducted on all horses daily for 14 days with criterion set at seven out of eight responses correct with the last five consecutively correct. The maximum number of trials performed without reaching set criterion was limited...

  9. Probing thermoelectric transport with cold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles Grenier; Corinna Kollath; Antoine Georges

    2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose experimental protocols to reveal thermoelectric and thermal effects in the transport properties of ultracold fermionic atoms, using the two-terminal setup recently realized at ETH. We show in particular that, for two reservoirs having equal particle numbers but different temperatures initially, the observation of a transient particle number imbalance during equilibration is a direct evidence of thermoelectric (off-diagonal) transport coefficients. This is a time-dependent analogue of the Seebeck effect, and a corresponding analogue of the Peltier effect can be proposed. We reveal that in addition to the thermoelectric coupling of the constriction a thermoelectric coupling also arises due to the finite dilatation coefficient of the reservoirs. We present a theoretical analysis of the protocols, and assess their feasibility by estimating the corresponding temperature and particle number imbalances in realistic current experimental conditions.

  10. Measurement of effective sheath width around cutoff probe in low-pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J., E-mail: sjyou@kriss.re.kr; Kim, J. H. [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies indicated that the measurement results of microwave probes can be improved by applying the adequate sheath width to their measurement models, and consequently the sheath width around the microwave probe tips has become very important information for microwave probe diagnostics. In this paper, we propose a method for measuring the argon plasma sheath width around the cutoff probe tips by applying the circuit model to the cutoff probe phase spectrum. The measured sheath width of the cutoff probe was found to be in good agreement with the floated sheath width calculated from the Child-Langmuir sheath law. The physical reasons for a discrepancy between the two measurements are also discussed.

  11. Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klír, D.; ?ezá?, K. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E. [Institute of Physics AS CR, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Cikhardtová, B.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic); Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 ?C. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

  12. The design of accurate micro-compression experiments , B.E. Schuster a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Qiuming

    WD. Science 2004;305:986]). Based on these simulations, we suggest guidelines for the development; Specimen geometry 1. Introduction Current commercial nano-indenters have sub-nanome- ter displacement. In a conventional nano-indentation experiment, a Berkovich tip is used to probe the nano-scale mechanical behavior

  13. EXPERIMENTS AND MODELLING OF CAVITATING FLOWS IN VENTURI: ATTACHED SHEET CAVITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 EXPERIMENTS AND MODELLING OF CAVITATING FLOWS IN VENTURI: ATTACHED SHEET CAVITATION S. Barre* , J and numerical studies were carried out to analyse cavitating flows and to describe the two- phase flow structures of attached sheet cavitation in Venturi geometries. New double optical probe measurements were

  14. Portable controls experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Richard Winston

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments for controls classes like MIT's 2.004 require large lab setups and expensive equipment such as oscilloscopes and function generators. We developed a series of controls experiments based on National Instruments' ...

  15. Double beta decay experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Barabash

    2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  16. Experiments: Preparation and Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    the experimental set­up und the results of performing the experiment. Again, this is part of human cultureExperiments: Preparation and Measurement by Arnold Neumaier, Vienna March 1996 Abstract Introduction Experiments, properly arranged, provide information about a physical system by suitable

  17. Active Probing Approach for Fault Localization in Computer Networks*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sethi, Adarshpal

    to develop tools for performing fault localization. We discuss various design issues involved and propose architecture for building such a tool. We describe an algorithm for probe set selection for problem detection a wide range of activities involving network design and operation [7, 9, 17, 18]. Network monitoring can

  18. Nanotube sensors Probing Macrophage Activity with Carbon-Nanotube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    devices is placed in a home- built flow-cell on top of a Peltier element to maintain the temperature available for single-cell studies with a versatile high-sensitivity probe of nanometer dimension. SWNTs have of singleproteins.Incomparisonwithcurrent electrical probesthat have lateral dimensions comparable to single cells

  19. Compact endocavity diagnostic probes for nuclear radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cui, Yonggang; James, Ralph; Bolotnikov, Aleksey

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the field of radiation imaging. In particular, the invention relates to an apparatus and a method for imaging tissue or an inanimate object using a novel probe that has an integrated solid-state semiconductor detector and complete readout electronics circuitry.

  20. Construction and testing of a flue-gas corrosion probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federer, J.I.; McEvers, J.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selection of suitable materials for industrial, waste-heat- recovery systems requires assessment of corrosion of materials in various flue-gas environments. Such assessments involve exposing candidate materials to high-temperature flue gases and analyzing the effects of the exposure conditions. Because corrosion is related to flue-gas chemical composition and temperature, variations in temperature complicate the determination of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms. Conversely, a relatively constant temperature allows a more accurate determination of the effects of exposure conditions. For this reason, controlled-temperature flue-gas corrosion probes were constructed and tested for exposure tests of materials. A prototype probe consisted of a silicon carbide tube specimen, supporting hardware, and instrumentation for controlling temperature by internal heating and cooling. An advanced probe included other tubular specimens. Testing of the probes in an industrial-type furnace at a nominal flue-gas temperature of 1200{degree}C revealed that temperature control was inadequate. The cooling mode imposed a substantial axial-temperature gradient on the specimens; while the heating mode imposed a smaller gradient, the heating capacity was very limited. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Steady and unsteady calibration of multi-hole probes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Espen S

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties like the density and viscosity. The algorithm utilizes a local least-squares modeling technique and has been tested on 4 novel miniature 7-hole probes that have been calibrated at NASA Langley Flow Modeling and Control Branch for the entire...

  2. Steady and unsteady calibration of multi-hole probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Espen S

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    discussed. A new type of pressure sensor has been developed with silicon-nitride diaphragm and a characteristic size of only 250 gm. These pressure sensors are small enough to be mounted close to the surface of a miniature hemispherical-tip probe, obtaining...

  3. Probing the Intrinsic Properties of Exfoliated Graphene: Raman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinz, Tony F.

    Probing the Intrinsic Properties of Exfoliated Graphene: Raman Spectroscopy of Free-standing graphene monolayers prepared by mechanical exfoliation of graphite are investigated. The graphene,7 or to solubilize macroscopic quantities of graphene,8 mechanical exfoliation of graphite9 currently remains

  4. Probing and Controlling Photothermal Heat Generation in Plasmonic Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    thermal hotspots. In the present study, new methods for designing and thermally probing thermoplasmonic suitable for heat generation compared with its more well-known complementary structure, the bow-tie antenna. We also demonstrate that highly localized and enhanced thermal hot spots can be realized

  5. Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body. 5 figs.

  6. Methods for making nucleotide probes for sequencing and synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M; Zhang, Kun; Chou, Joseph

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods for making a plurality of probes for analyzing a plurality of nucleic acid samples are provided. Compositions and methods for analyzing a plurality of nucleic acid samples to obtain sequence information in each nucleic acid sample are also provided.

  7. Development of Micromachined Probes for Bio-Nano Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yapici, Murat K.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . A scanning electron micrograph showing the existence of a wear scar on the scanning probe tip after writing. ........................................ 51 Figure 32. Computer images reconstructed from AFM measurement results showing the formation...? tips. .......................................................................................... 56 xi Page Figure 35. An illustration of the controllable process for the formation of variable sized cavities based on bulk micromachining of an SOI...

  8. Dynamic Active Probing of Helpdesk Databases Shenghuo Zhu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tao

    Dynamic Active Probing of Helpdesk Databases Shenghuo Zhu NEC Labs America zsh@sv.nec-labs.com Tao, customers often provide incomplete or even inaccurate infor- mation. Manually preparing a list). Features with question marks are questions being asked by the service team and users' answers

  9. Nanopatterning using NSOM probes integrated with high transmission nanoscale bowtie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Nanopatterning using NSOM probes integrated with high transmission nanoscale bowtie aperture experimental demonstration of field enhancement using such ridge antenna apertures in a bowtie shape integrated with nanoscale bowtie aperture. Consistent lines with width of 59 nm and as small as 24 nm have

  10. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Samoson, Ago (Tallinn, SU)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero.

  11. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, A.; Samoson, A.

    1990-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero. 8 figs.

  12. Fluid observers and tilting cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Coley; S. Hervik; W. C. Lim

    2006-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study perfect fluid cosmological models with a constant equation of state parameter $\\gamma$ in which there are two naturally defined time-like congruences, a geometrically defined geodesic congruence and a non-geodesic fluid congruence. We establish an appropriate set of boost formulae relating the physical variables, and consequently the observed quantities, in the two frames. We study expanding spatially homogeneous tilted perfect fluid models, with an emphasis on future evolution with extreme tilt. We show that for ultra-radiative equations of state (i.e., $\\gamma>4/3$), generically the tilt becomes extreme at late times and the fluid observers will reach infinite expansion within a finite proper time and experience a singularity similar to that of the big rip. In addition, we show that for sub-radiative equations of state (i.e., $\\gamma < 4/3$), the tilt can become extreme at late times and give rise to an effective quintessential equation of state. To establish the connection with phantom cosmology and quintessence, we calculate the effective equation of state in the models under consideration and we determine the future asymptotic behaviour of the tilting models in the fluid frame variables using the boost formulae. We also discuss spatially inhomogeneous models and tilting spatially homogeneous models with a cosmological constant.

  13. Direct Probes of 4 nm Diameter Gold Nanoparticles Interacting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the experiments. SHG charge screening experiments are consistent with an apparent zero net charge density associated with the positively charged gold nanoparticles when...

  14. Quantitatively Probing the Al Distribution in Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Huthwelker, Thomas; Pin, Sonia; Mei, Donghai; Schenter, Gregory K.; Govind, Niranjan; Camaioni, Donald M.; Hu, Jian Z.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The degree of substitution of Si4+ by Al3+ in the oxygen-terminated tetrahedra (Al T-sites) of zeolites determines the concentration of ion-exchange and Brønsted acid sites. As the location of the tetrahedra and the associated subtle variations in bond angles influence the acid strength, quantitative information about Al T-sites in the framework is critical to rationalize catalytic properties and to design new catalysts. A quantitative analysis is reported that uses a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy supported by DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. To discriminate individual Al atoms, sets of ab initio EXAFS spectra for various T-sites are generated from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations allowing quantitative treatment of the EXAFS single- and multiple-photoelectron scattering processes out to 3-4 atom shells surrounding the Al absorption center. It is observed that identical zeolite types show dramatically different Al-distributions. A preference of Al for T-sites that are part of one or more 4-member rings in the framework over those T-sites that are part of only 5- and 6-member rings in the HBEA150 sample has been determined from a combination of these methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.

  15. High Bandwidth Differential Amplifier for Shock Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, P. W., Tran, V., Chau, R.

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments/applications. The circuit has a bandwidth > 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of ?1.5 V with a common mode rejection of 250 V. Conductivity measurements of gas gun targets are measured by flowing high currents through the targets. The voltage is measured across the target using a technique similar to a four-point probe. Because of the design of the current source and load, the target voltage is approximately 250 V relative to ground. Since the expected voltage change in the target is < 1 V, the differential amplifier must have a large common mode rejection. High pass filters suppress internal ringing of operational amplifiers. Results of bench tests are shown.

  16. Observing Massive Galaxy Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major goal of contemporary astrophysics is understanding the origin of the most massive galaxies in the universe, particularly nearby ellipticals and spirals. Theoretical models of galaxy formation have existed for many decades, although low and high redshift observations are only beginning to put constraints on different ideas. We briefly describe these observations and how they are revealing the methods by which galaxies form by contrasting and comparing fiducial rapid collapse and hierarchical formation model predictions. The available data show that cluster ellipticals must have rapidly formed at z > 2, and that up to 50% of all massive galaxies at z ~ 2.5 are involved in major mergers. While the former is consistent with the monolithic collapse picture, we argue that hierarchal formation is the only model that can reproduce all the available observations.

  17. Air Observe System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

  18. Meson Photoproduction Experiments with CLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene Pasyuk

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large part of the experimental program in Hall B of the Jefferson Lab is dedicated to light baryon spectroscopy. Meson photoprodcution experiments are essential part of this program. CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) and availability of circularly and linearly polarized tagged photon beams and frozen spin polarized targets provide unique conditions for this type of experiments. This combination of experimental tools gives a remarkable opportunity to measure double polarization observables for different pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction processes. For the first time, a complete or nearly complete measurement became possible and will facilitate model independent extraction of the reaction amplitude. An overview of the experimental program and its current status together with recent results on double polarization measurements in ?{sup +} photoproduction are presented.

  19. Development of a microfluidic device for patterning multiple species by scanning probe lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivas Cardona, Juan Alberto

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning Probe Lithography (SPL) is a versatile nanofabrication platform that leverages microfluidic “ink” delivery systems with Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) for generating surface-patterned chemical functionality on the sub-100 nm length scale...

  20. The Architecture of the Qo Site of Cytochrome bc1 Complex Probed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Architecture of the Qo Site of Cytochrome bc1 Complex Probed by Superoxide Production. The Architecture of the Qo Site of Cytochrome bc1 Complex Probed by Superoxide Production....