National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for nuclei particle counter

  1. Modification of laminar flow ultrafine condensation particle counters for the enhanced detection of 1 nm condensation nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang, C.; Chen, M.; McMurry, P. H.; Wang, J.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes simple modifications to thermally diffusive laminar flow ultrafine condensation particle counters (UCPCs) that allow detection of {approx}1 nm condensation nuclei with much higher efficiencies than have been previously reported. These nondestructive modifications were applied to a commercial butanol based UCPC (TSI 3025A) and to a diethylene glycol-based UCPC (UMN DEG-UCPC). Size and charge dependent detection efficiencies using the modified UCPCs (BNL 3025A and BNL DEGUCPC) were measured with high resolution mobility classified aerosols composed of NaCl, W, molecular ion standards of tetraalkyl ammonium bromide, and neutralizer-generated ions. With negatively charged NaCl aerosol, the BNL 3025A and BNL DEGUCPC achieved detection efficiencies of 37% (90x increase over TSI 3025A) at 1.68 nm mobility diameter (1.39 nm geometric diameter) and 23% (8x increase over UMN DEG-UCPC) at 1.19 nm mobility diameter (0.89 nm geometric diameter), respectively. Operating conditions for both UCPCs were identified that allowed negatively charged NaCl and W particles, but not negative ions of exactly the same mobility size, to be efficiently detected. This serendipitous material dependence, which is not fundamentally understood, suggests that vapor condensation might sometimes allow for the discrimination between air 'ions' and charged 'particles.' As a detector in a scanning mobility particle spectrometer (SMPS), a UCPC with this strong material dependence would allow for more accurate measurements of sub-2 nm aerosol size distributions due to the reduced interference from neutralizer-generated ions and atmospheric ions, and provide increased sensitivity for the determination of nucleation rates and initial particle growth rates.

  2. ARM - Measurement - Cloud condensation nuclei

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS : Aerosol Observing System CCN : Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Field Campaign Instruments AMT : Aerosol Modeling...

  3. Ice Nuclei in Marine Air: Biogenic Particles or Dust?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Hoose, C.; Poschl, U.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-01-11

    Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earths energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

  4. In-Situ Characterization of Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Interstitial, and background Particles using Single Particle Mass Spectrometer, SPLAT II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, D.; Earle, Michael; Easter, Richard C.; Korolev, Alexei; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter; Macdonald, A. M.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Strapp, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Aerosol indirect effect remains the most uncertain aspect of climate change modeling because proper test requires knowledge of individual particles sizes and compositions with high spatial and temporal resolution. We present the first deployment of a single particle mass spectrometer (SPLAT II) that is operated in a dual data acquisition mode to measure all the required individual particle properties with sufficient temporal resolution to definitively resolve the aerosol-cloud interaction in this exemplary case. We measured particle number concentrations, asphericity, and individual particle size, composition, and density with better than 60 seconds resolution. SPLAT II measured particle number concentrations between 70 particles cm-3and 300 particles cm-3, an average particle density of 1.4 g cm-3. Found that most particles are composed of oxygenated organics, many of which are mixed with sulfates. Biomass burn particles some with sulfates were prevalent, particularly at higher altitudes, and processed sea-salt was observed over the ocean. Analysis of cloud residuals shows that with time cloud droplets acquire sulfate by the reaction of peroxide with SO2. Based on the particle mass spectra and densities we find that the compositions of cloud condensation nuclei are similar to those of background aerosol but, contain on average ~7% more sulfate, and do not include dust and metallic particles. A comparison between the size distributions of background, activated, and interstitial particles shows that while nearly none of the activated particles is smaller than 115 nm, more than 80% of interstitial particles are smaller than 115 nm. We conclude that for this cloud the most important difference between CCN and background aerosol is particle size although having more sulfate also helps.

  5. Probing particle and nuclear physics models of neutrinoless double beta decay with different nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogli, G. L.; Rotunno, A. M. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica 'Michelangelo Merlin', Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Lisi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Half-life estimates for neutrinoless double beta decay depend on particle physics models for lepton-flavor violation, as well as on nuclear physics models for the structure and transitions of candidate nuclei. Different models considered in the literature can be contrasted - via prospective data - with a 'standard' scenario characterized by light Majorana neutrino exchange and by the quasiparticle random phase approximation, for which the theoretical covariance matrix has been recently estimated. We show that, assuming future half-life data in four promising nuclei ({sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 130}Te, and {sup 136}Xe), the standard scenario can be distinguished from a few nonstandard physics models, while being compatible with alternative state-of-the-art nuclear calculations (at 95% C.L.). Future signals in different nuclei may thus help to discriminate at least some decay mechanisms, without being spoiled by current nuclear uncertainties. Prospects for possible improvements are also discussed.

  6. Studies of the Single Particle Structure of Exotic Nuclei using Transfer Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Chartier, M.; Lemmon, R. C.; Pucknell, V. P. E.; Warner, D. D.; Timis, C.; Catford, W. N.; Baldwin, T. D.; Gelletly, W.; Pain, S. D.; Labiche, M.; Amzal, N.; Burns, M.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Spohr, K.; Ashwood, N.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Caballero, L.

    2006-04-26

    The TIARA+VAMOS+EXOGAM set-up has recently been installed at GANIL to study the single-particle structure of exotic nuclei. The unique characteristics of the TIARA array, combined with the large acceptance spectrometer VAMOS and the high efficiency Germanium detector array EXOGAM, has allowed high-resolution measurements of transfer reactions in inverse kinematics using low intensity exotic beams. We will describe the experimental set-up, data analysis and preliminary results of the first experiments using a 24Ne beam from SPIRAL, concentrating in particular on the performance of VAMOS that has been used to detect the heavy fragments after the (d,p) (d,d) and (d,t) reactions.

  7. Optical Model Potential Parameters for p, d, {sup 3}He and Alpha-Particle Scattering on Lithium Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtebayev, N.; Nassurlla, Marzhan; Nassurlla, Maulen; Kerimkulov, Zh. K.; Sakuta, S. B.

    2008-11-11

    Analysis of the p, d, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particles elastic scattering on the {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model at the beam energies up to 72 MeV. It was shown that the account of the cluster exchange mechanism together with the potential scattering allow reproducing the experimental cross-sections in the whole angular range.

  8. Two-particle correlations in continuum dipole transitions in Borromean nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagino, K.; Sagawa, H.; Nakamura, T.; Shimoura, S.

    2009-09-15

    We study the energy and angular distributions of two emitted neutrons from the dipole excitation of two typical, weakly bound Borromean nuclei, {sup 11}Li and {sup 6}He, by using a three-body model. Our calculation indicates that those distributions are considerably different between the two nuclei, even though both the nuclei exhibit similar strong dineutron correlations in the ground state to each other. We point out that this different behavior primarily reflects the interaction between the neutron and the core nucleus, especially the s-wave virtual state in {sup 10}Li, rather than the interaction between the valence neutrons.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Ice nuclei

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Ice nuclei Small particles around which ice particles form. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  10. Particle-number fluctuations and neutron-proton pairing effects on proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douici, M.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.

    2012-10-20

    The particle-number fluctuation effect on the root-mean-square (rms) proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei is studied in the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing case using an exact particle-number projection method and the Woods-Saxon model.

  11. Interference of fission amplitudes of neutron resonances and T-odd asymmetry for various prescission third particles in the ternary fission of nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. S.

    2011-12-15

    Differential cross sections for reactions of the true ternary fission of nuclei that was induced by cold polarized neutrons were constructed with allowance of the effect that Coriolis interaction and the interference between fission amplitudes of neutron resonances excited in fissile nuclei upon incidentneutron capture by target nuclei exerted on angular distributions of prescission third particles (alpha particles, neutrons, or photons). It is shown that T -odd TRI- and ROT-type asymmetries for prescission alpha particles are associated with, respectively, the odd and even components of the Coriolis interaction-perturbed amplitude of angular distributions of particles belonging to the types indicated above. These asymmetries have angular distributions differing from each other and stemming from a nontrivial dependence of these components on the neutron-resonance spins J{sub s} and their projections K{sub s} onto the symmetry axis of the nucleus involved. It is shown that angular distributions of prescission photons and neutrons from reactions of the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by cold polarized neutrons are determined by the effect of Coriolis forces exclusively. Therefore, the emerging T-odd asymmetries have a character of a ROT-type asymmetry and are universal for all target nuclei.

  12. Channel coupling and exchange of an alpha-particle cluster in deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakuta, S. B.; Burtebaev, N.; Artemov, S. V.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2012-07-15

    Existing experimental data on elastic and inelastic deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei in the energy range from 8 to 50 MeV were analyzed within the approach of coupled reaction channels. The coupling of elastic scattering and inelastic scattering accompanied by the transition to the 3{sup +} state at E{sub x} 2.186 MeV and the mechanism involving the exchange of an alpha-particle cluster were taken into account in respective calculations. The phenomenological potentials obtained from the present analysis describe well experimental angular distributions at all energies and in full angular ranges. The depths of the real and imaginary parts of the potentials in question depend smoothly on energy at fixed values of the remaining parameters. The energy dependence of relevant volume integrals agrees well with similar data for the p + {sup 6}Li, {alpha} + {sup 6}Li, and {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C systems and with the predictions of a microscopic theory.

  13. Prospects for further studies of effects of T-odd asymmetry in the emission of light particles in the polarized-neutron-induced ternary fission of heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, G. A. Gagarskii, A. M.; Guseva, I. S.; Kopatch, Yu. N.; Goennenwein, F.; Mutterer, M.

    2008-07-15

    Prospects for further studies of TRI and ROT effects of T-odd asymmetry in the emission of light particles in the ternary and binary fission of heavy nuclei that is induced by slow polarized neutrons are considered with a view to studying the mechanism for the formation of these effects and using them to get new information about fission dynamics. It is planned to investigate the dependence of the corresponding T-odd-asymmetry coefficients on the main characteristics of the fission reaction.

  14. Distributed performance counters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  15. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70 deg C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45 deg C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  16. Effects of T-odd asymmetry of the emission of light charged particles and photons during fission of heavy nuclei by polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagarskii, A. M.; Guseva, I. S.; Goennenwein, F.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Mutterer, M.; Kuz'mina, T. E.; Petrov, G. A.; Tyurin, G.; Nesvizhevsky, V.

    2011-12-15

    The new physical effects of T-odd asymmetry of the emission of light charged particles (LCPs) during the ternary fission of some heavy nuclei by cold polarized neutrons have been experimentally studied. The coefficients of triple scalar and vector correlation of the pulses of light particles and fission fragments (TRI effect) and the fivefold correlation of the same vectors (ROT effect) have been measured. These effects are believed to be caused by the rotation of polarized fissioning system around its polarization direction. The treatment of the experimental data for LCPs in the framework of this hypothesis leads to a good agreement between the calculation results and experimental data. The calculated value of the angle of rotation of the fission axis in the ternary fission of the polarized fissioning {sup 236}U* compound nucleus was used to process the results of measuring the ROT effect for {gamma} photons from binary-fission fragments of the same nucleus. A satisfactory description of these experimental data is obtained which serves a convincing confirmation of the rotation hypothesis.

  17. Miniature proportional counter for compression measurements of laser-fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, S.M.; Dellis, J.H.; Bennett, C.K.; Campbell, E.M.

    1981-10-01

    Direct drive laser fusion targets consisting of DT gas encapsulated in glass microshells produce 14.1 MeV neutrons that can interact with silicon-28 nuclei in the glass to produce a 2.2 minute aluminum-28 activity. From the number of /sup 28/Al nuclei created and the neutron yield, the compressed glass areal density can be found. To determine the number of activated atoms created, we collect approximately one-half of the target debris on a thin metal foil which is transferred to our beta-gamma coincidence detector. This detector consists of a 25 cm x 25 cm NaI(Tl) crystal having a 5 cm x 15 cm well. We have recently built a miniature proportional counter that fits into this well and is used to detect beta particles. It is constructed of .025 cm thick copper and has nine separate chambers through which methane flows. The coincidence background is 0.14 cpm and the measured beta efficiency is 45%. We are now building a .0125 cm thick counter made of aluminum having a predicted efficiency of > 90%.

  18. Portable multiplicity counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newell, Matthew R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jones, David Carl (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  19. Compressor surge counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Castleberry, Kimberly N. (Harriman, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A surge counter for a rotating compressor is provided which detects surging by monitoring the vibration signal from an accelerometer mounted on the shaft bearing of the compressor. The circuit detects a rapid increase in the amplitude envelope of the vibration signal, e.g., 4 dB or greater in less than one second, which is associated with a surge onset and increments a counter. The circuit is rendered non-responsive for a period of about 5 seconds following the detection which corresponds to the duration of the surge condition. This prevents multiple registration of counts during the surge period due to rapid swings in vibration amplitude during the period.

  20. Detection of Neutrons with Scintillation Counters

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Hofstadter, R.

    1948-11-01

    Detection of slow neutrons by: detection of single gamma rays following capture by cadmium or mercury; detection of more than one gamma ray by observing coincidences after capture; detection of heavy charged particles after capture in lithium or baron nuclei; possible use of anthracene for counting fast neutrons investigated briefly.

  1. Process Particle Counter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Leads to Efficient Use of Lower-Quality Fuels While both ... Widely available low-cost fuels generally contain more ... DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, Process Metrix ...

  2. Apparatuses and methods for detecting, identifying and quantitating radioactive nuclei and methods of distinguishing neutron stimulation of a radiation particle detector from gamma-ray stimulation of a detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jerald D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Drigert, Mark W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Aryaeinejad, Rahmat (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of detecting radioactive decay, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radioactive material, the radioactive material generating decay particles; b)providing a plurality of detectors proximate the sample, the detectors comprising a first set and a second set, the first set of the detectors comprising liquid state detectors utilizing liquid scintillation material coupled with photo tubes to generate a first electrical signal in response to decay particles stimulating the liquid scintillation material, the second set of the detectors comprising solid state detectors utilizing a crystalline solid to generate a second electrical signal in response to decay particles stimulating the crystalline solid; c) stimulating at least one of the detectors to generate at least one of the first and second electrical signals, the at least one of the first and second electrical signals being indicative of radioactive decay in the sample. In another aspect, the invention encompasses an apparatus for identifying and quantitating radioactive nuclei of a sample comprising radioactive material that decays to generate neutrons and high-energy .gamma.-rays.

  3. CHICO2 - A pixelated parallel-plate avalanche counter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CHICO2 - A pixelated parallel-plate avalanche counter CHICO2 is an upgrade version of CHICO (Compact Heavy Ion COunter) with improved position resolution. CHICO was designed specifically for Gammasphere as auxiliary detector for the charged-particle detection. The design and fabrication work were carried out at University of Rochester under NSF funding. A total of 26 Gammasphere/CHICO experiments were successfully fielded between 1996 and 2008 using various experimental techniques such as the

  4. Low latency counter event indication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY)

    2010-08-24

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events with interrupt indication includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each for counting signals representing event occurrences and providing a first count value representing lower order bits. An overflow bit device associated with each respective counter device is additionally set in response to an overflow condition. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits. An operatively coupled control device monitors each associated overflow bit device and initiates incrementing a second count value stored at a corresponding memory location in response to a respective overflow bit being set. The incremented second count value is compared to an interrupt threshold value stored in a threshold register, and, when the second counter value is equal to the interrupt threshold value, a corresponding "interrupt arm" bit is set to enable a fast interrupt indication. On a subsequent roll-over of the lower bits of that counter, the interrupt will be fired.

  5. Low latency counter event indication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY)

    2008-09-16

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events with interrupt indication includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each for counting signals representing event occurrences and providing a first count value representing lower order bits. An overflow bit device associated with each respective counter device is additionally set in response to an overflow condition. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits. An operatively coupled control device monitors each associated overflow bit device and initiates incrementing a second count value stored at a corresponding memory location in response to a respective overflow bit being set. The incremented second count value is compared to an interrupt threshold value stored in a threshold register, and, when the second counter value is equal to the interrupt threshold value, a corresponding "interrupt arm" bit is set to enable a fast interrupt indication. On a subsequent roll-over of the lower bits of that counter, the interrupt will be fired.

  6. Maintenance neutron coincidence counter manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krick, M.S.; Polk, P.J.; Atencio, J.D.

    1989-09-01

    A compact thermal-neutron coincidence counter has been constructed specifically for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a reference neutron detector for maintenance activities. The counter is designed for use only with {sup 252}Cf sources in SR-CF-100 capsules. This manual describes the detector's mechanical and electrical components and its operating characteristics. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY)

    2010-03-30

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  8. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY)

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  9. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  10. CHICO2, a two-dimensional pixelated parallel-plate avalanche counter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.; Flight, R. S.; Melchionna, A. M.; Zhou, C.; Lee, I. Y.; Swan, D.; Fox, R.; Anderson, J. T.

    2016-01-27

    CHICO2 (Compact Heavy Ion COunter), is a large solid-angle, charged-particle detector array developed to provide both θ and Φ angle resolutions matching those of GRETINA (Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking In-beam Nuclear Array). CHICO2 was successfully tested at the Argonne National Laboratory where it was fielded as an auxiliary detector with GRETINA for γ-ray spectroscopic studies of nuclei using a 252Cf spontaneous fission source, stable beams, and radioactive beams from CARIBU. In field tests of the 72,76Ge beams on a 0.5 mg/cm2208Pb target at the sub-barrier energy, CHICO2 provided charged-particle angle resolutions (FWHM) of 1.55° in θ and 2.47° in Φ. Thismore » achieves the design goal for both coordinates assuming a beam-spot size (>3 mm) and the target thickness (>0.5 mg/cm 2). The combined angular resolution of GRETINA/CHICO2 resulted in a Doppler-shift corrected energy resolution of 0.60% for 1 MeV coincident de-excitation γ-rays. This is nearly a factor of two improvements in resolution and sensitivity compared to Gammasphere/CHICO. Kinematically-coincident detection of scattered ions by CHICO2 still maintains the mass resolution (ΔM/M) of ~5% that enhanced isolation of scattered weak beams of interest from scattered contaminant beams.« less

  11. Plutonium nitrate bottle counter manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Adams, E.L.; Holbrooks, O.R.

    1984-03-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for plutonium nitrate assay in large storage bottles. This assay system can be used in the reprocessing plant or in the nitrate-to-oxide conversion facility. The system is based on the family of neutron detectors similar to the high-level neutron coincidence counter. This manual describes the system and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications. 4 references, 11 figures, 9 tables.

  12. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  13. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  14. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  15. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  16. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  17. Pygmy dipole resonance in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avdeenkov, A. V.; Kamerdzhiev, S. P.

    2009-08-15

    A brief survey of the state of the modern microscopic theory of the so-called pygmy dipole resonance in nuclei is given-in particular, some unresolved problems are listed. It is emphasized that, in order to explain the pygmy dipole resonance, it is necessary but not sufficient to take into account the coupling of single-particle degrees of freedom to photon degrees of freedom. The results of the calculations performed for the first time for the isovector pygmy dipole resonance and the isovector electric giant dipole resonance in {sup 124}Sn within a self-consistent approach involving, in addition to the standard quasiparticle random-phase approximation, a single-particle continuum and quasiparticle-phonon coupling of single-particle degrees of freedom to phonon degrees of freedom are presented. The results are found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The calculation of the isoscalar strength function in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance revealed that the nuclear-structure mechanism does not provide the isoscalar-strength suppression observed at energies in excess of 7 MeV in ({alpha}, {alpha}'{gamma}) reactions; therefore, this suppression may stem from the reaction mechanism.

  18. The decay of hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of hot compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions is discussed. The statistical decay of such compound nuclei is responsible for the abundant emission of complex fragments and high energy gamma rays. 43 refs., 23 figs.

  19. Introduction to the study of collisions between heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayman, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    Current investigations concerning the collisions of nuclei governed by small de Broglie wavelengths are reviewed. The wave packets localize nuclei in regions small compared to their diameters. Cross sections are examined for potential scattering, elastic scattering, quasi-molecular states, peripheral particle-transfer reactions, fusion, and deep inelastic collisions. Theories of fusion and deep inelastic collisions are summarized. This paper is in the nature of a review-tutorial. 45 references, 51 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)

  20. Aries Network Performance Counters Monitoring Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-09-04

    AriesNCL is a library to monitor and record network router tile performance counters on the Aries router of Cray's Cascade/XC30 platform.

  1. Alamos National Laboratory] 71; ANISOTROPY; CHERENKOV COUNTERS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory 71; ANISOTROPY; CHERENKOV COUNTERS; COSMIC RADIATION; EMISSION; ENERGY; MODULATION; PHYSICS; TIME DEPENDENCE; WATER The Milagro gamma-ray observatory is a...

  2. Electrochromic Counter Electrode - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Electrochromic Counter Electrode National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Nanocomposite Counter Electrode Materials for Electrochromic Windows (692 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Electrochromic materials change optical properties upon the injection of charge or charge carriers into the material,

  3. Elementary particle interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to {mu}{sup +} and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics. (LSP)

  4. Hardware Counter Multiplexing V1.2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-10-13

    The Hardware Counter Multiplexer works with the built-in counter registers on computer processors. These counters record varius low-level events as software runs, but they can cannot record all possible events at the same time. This software helps work around that limitation by counting a series of different events in sequence over a period of time. This in turn allows programmers to measure interesting combinations of events, rather than single events. The software is designed tomore » work with multithreaded or single-threaded programs.« less

  5. Prevent Counter | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Prevent Counter | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA

  6. Relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model for deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebran, J.-P.; Khan, E.; Pena Arteaga, D.; Vretenar, D.

    2011-06-15

    The relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model for axially deformed nuclei (RHFBz) is introduced. The model is based on an effective Lagrangian with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings in the particle-hole channel, and the central part of the Gogny force is used in the pairing channel. The RHFBz quasiparticle equations are solved by expansion in the basis of a deformed harmonic oscillator. Illustrative RHFBz calculations are performed for carbon, neon, and magnesium isotopes. The effect of explicitly including the pion field is investigated for binding energies, deformation parameters, and charge radii and has an impact on the nuclei's shape.

  7. Modular high speed counter employing edge-triggered code

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanstraelen, G.F.

    1993-06-29

    A high speed modular counter (100) utilizing a novel counting method in which the first bit changes with the frequency of the driving clock, and changes in the higher order bits are initiated one clock pulse after a 0'' to 1'' transition of the next lower order bit. This allows all carries to be known one clock period in advance of a bit change. The present counter is modular and utilizes two types of standard counter cells. A first counter cell determines the zero bit. The second counter cell determines any other higher order bit. Additional second counter cells are added to the counter to accommodate any count length without affecting speed.

  8. P-odd, P-even, and T-odd asymmetries in true quaternary fission of nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadmensky, S. G., E-mail: kadmensky@phys.vsu.ru; Titova, L. V. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)] [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    The coefficients of P-odd, P-even, and T -odd asymmetries for a third and a fourth prescission particle emitted in the true quaternary fission of nuclei that was induced by polarized cold neutrons were studied on the basis of quantum-mechanical fission theory. By using non-evaporation (nonadiabatic) mechanisms of light-particle emission, these coefficients were compared with the analogous coefficients for prescission third particles emitted in the ternary fission of nuclei.

  9. Results on the Performance of a Broad Band Focussing Cherenkov Counter

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Cester, R.; Fitch, V. L.; Montag, A.; Sherman, S.; Webb, R. C.; Witherell, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of ring imaging (broad band differential) Cherenkov detectors has become a very active area of interest in detector development at several high energy physics laboratories. Our group has previously reported on a method of Cherenkov ring imaging for a counter with large momentum and angular acceptance using standard photo multipliers. Recently, we have applied this technique to the design of a set of Cherenkov counters for use in a particle search experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). This new detector operates over the range 0.998 < ..beta.. < 1.000 in velocity with a delta..beta.. approx. 2 x 10{sup -4}. The acceptance in angle is +- 14 mrad in the horizontal and +- 28 mrad in the vertical. We report here on the performance of this counter.

  10. K = 0+ bands in Gadolinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popa, G.; Aprahamian, A.; Bruce, A. M.; Hirsch, J. G.; Draayer, J. P.

    2006-03-13

    The recent 160Gd(p,t)158Gd experiment has raised again the question about the nature of the low-lying excited 0+ states in deformed nuclei. New (p,t) experiments have resolved typically about ten low-lying excited 0+ states. Calculations using the IBA model, the projected shell model and the quasiparticle-phonon model have answered partially this question and showed the complicated nature of these states.We study the energy levels, their wave function content, and the corresponding B(E2) transitions in 156,158,160Gd nuclei, in the framework of the pseudo-SU(3) model. The theory uses a realistic Hamiltonian with single-particle energies and monopole pairing interactions in addition to the usual quadrupole-quadrupole term, with the pairing and quadrupole-quadrupole strengths taken from systematics. The calculations are carried out with a set of basis states with pseudo-spin zero proton and neutron configurations. The calculated B(E2) values suggest that the first excited 0+ state might have a mixed rotational and collective vibrational character, where the latter -- quasiparticle type excitations -- are not considered in this calculation.

  11. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C.; Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K.; Matsakos, T.; Lima, J. J. G.

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  12. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Paul

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a) two well-characterized source of soot particles and (b) a flow reactor for controlled OH and/or O3 oxidation of relevant gas phase species to produce well-characterized SOA particles. After formation, the aerosol particles are subjected to physical and chemical processes that simulate aerosol growth and aging. A suite of instruments in our laboratory is used to characterize the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles before and after processing. The Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ToF-AMS) together with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measures particle mass, volume, density, composition (including black carbon content), dynamic shape factor, and fractal dimension. The–ToF-AMS was developed at ARI with Boston College participation. About 120 AMS instruments are now in service (including 5 built for DOE laboratories) performing field and laboratory studies world-wide. Other major instruments include a thermal denuder, two Differential Mobility Analyzers (DMA), a Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCN), a Thermal desorption Aerosol GC/MS (TAG) and the new Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS). Optical instrumentation required for the studies have been brought to our laboratory as part of ongoing and planned collaborative projects with colleagues from DOE, NOAA and university laboratories. Optical instruments that will be utilized include a Photoacoustic Spectrometer (PAS), a Cavity Ring Down Aerosol Extinction Spectrometer (CRD-AES), a Photo Thermal Interferometer (PTI), a new 7-wavelength Aethalometer and a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Extinction Monitor (CAPS). These instruments are providing aerosol absorption, extinction and scattering coefficients at a range of atmospherically relevant wavelengths. During the past two years our work has continued along the lines of our original proposal. We report on 12 completed and/or continuing projects conducted during the period 08/14 to 0814/2015. These projects are described in 17 manuscripts published in refereed journals.

  13. Octupole shapes in heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, I.

    1994-08-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements show the presence of strong octupole correlations in thecyround states and low-lying states of odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei in the RaPa region. Evidence for octupole correlations is provided by the observation of parity doublets and reductions in M1 matrix elements, decoupling parameters, and Coriolis matrix elements Involving high-j states. Enhancement of E1 transition rates has also been observed for some of the octupole deformed nuclei. The most convincing argument for octupole deformation is provided by the similarities of the reduced alpha decay rates to the two members of parity doublets.

  14. Proton Distribution in Heavy Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Johnson, M. H; Teller, E.

    1953-11-13

    It is reasoned that, from considerations connected with beta-decay stability and Coulomb repulsion forces, a neutron excess is developed on the surface of heavy nuclei. Several consequences of this qualitative analysis in nucleon interactions are briefly noted. (K.S.)

  15. Microcantilever Counter Electrode Electrochemical Sensor in a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Three-Electrode Cell - Energy Innovation Portal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Microcantilever Counter Electrode Electrochemical Sensor in a Three-Electrode Cell Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryResearchers at ORNL have invented a compact, highly accurate system to detect and measure chemicals in solution. The device

  16. Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

  17. Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-10-01

    Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

  18. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  19. Self-regulating neutron coincidence counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baron, N.

    1980-06-16

    A device for accurately measuring the mass of /sup 240/Pu and /sup 239/Pu in a sample having arbitrary moderation and mixed with various contaminants. The device utilizes a thermal neutron well counter which has two concentric rings of neutron detectors separated by a moderating material surrounding the well. Neutron spectroscopic information derived by the two rings of detectors is used to measure the quantity of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu in device which corrects for background radiation, deadtime losses of the detector and electronics and various other constants of the system.

  20. Superdeformation in the mercury nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fernandez, P.B.; Moore, E.F.; Ahmad, I.; Khoo, T.L.; Wolfs, F.L.H. ); Drigert, M.W. ); Ye, D.; Beard, K.B.; Garg, U.; Reviol, W. ); Bearden, I.G.; Benet, P.; Daly, P.J.; Grabowski, Z.W. )

    1990-01-01

    We shall first summarize the present experimental situation concerning {sup 192}Hg, the nucleus regarded as the analog of {sup 152}Dy for this superdeformation (SD) region in that gaps are calculated to occur at large deformation for Z = 80 and N = 112. Proton and neutron excitations out of the {sup 192}Hg core will then be reviewed with particular emphasis on {sup 191}Hg and {sup 193}Tl. The presentation will conclude with a brief discussion on limits of the SD region for neutron deficient Hg nuclei. 26 refs., 10 figs.

  1. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to sup>4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  2. Using DMA for copying performance counter data to memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    A device for copying performance counter data includes hardware path that connects a direct memory access (DMA) unit to a plurality of hardware performance counters and a memory device. Software prepares an injection packet for the DMA unit to perform copying, while the software can perform other tasks. In one aspect, the software that prepares the injection packet runs on a processing core other than the core that gathers the hardware performance counter data.

  3. NNSA Releases New Nuclear Prevent, Counter, and Respond Report...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy ... on NNSA's efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation and terrorism, Prevent, Counter, and ...

  4. Blue Gene/Q Network Performance Counters Monitoring Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-03-12

    BGQNCL is a library to monitor and record network performance counters on the 5D torus interconnection network of IBM's Blue Gene/Q platform.

  5. BG/Q Performance Counters | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance Tools & APIs Tuning MPI on BGQ Tuning and Analysis Utilities (TAU) HPCToolkit HPCTW mpiP gprof Profiling Tools Darshan PAPI BGQ Performance Counters BGPM...

  6. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-09-24

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  7. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  8. Lineal energy calibration of mini tissue-equivalent gas-proportional counters (TEPC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conte, V.; Moro, D.; Colautti, P.; Grosswendt, B.

    2013-07-18

    Mini TEPCs are cylindrical gas proportional counters of 1 mm or less of sensitive volume diameter. The lineal energy calibration of these tiny counters can be performed with an external gamma-ray source. However, to do that, first a method to get a simple and precise spectral mark has to be found and then the keV/{mu}m value of this mark. A precise method (less than 1% of uncertainty) to identify this markis described here, and the lineal energy value of this mark has been measured for different simulated site sizes by using a {sup 137}Cs gamma source and a cylindrical TEPC equipped with a precision internal {sup 244}Cm alpha-particle source, and filled with propane-based tissue-equivalent gas mixture. Mini TEPCs can be calibrated in terms of lineal energy, by exposing them to {sup 137}Cesium sources, with an overall uncertainty of about 5%.

  9. State densities and spectrum fluctuations: Information propagation in complex nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, J.B.; Kota, V.K.B.

    1988-01-01

    At excitation energies in nuclei where the state density is unambiguously defined there is a sharp separation between the smoothed spectrum (which defines the density) and fluctuations about it which have recently been studied with a view to understanding some aspects of quantum chaos. We briefly review these two complementary subjects, paying special attention to: the role of the effective interaction in determining the density; the calculation of interacting-particle state and level densities, and of expectation values of interesting operators; the information about the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction which is carried both by the density and the fluctuations. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  10. The ABC's of Atomic Nuclei: The Modern Alchemist

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The ABC's of Atomic Nuclei: The Modern Alchemist  The nucleus  Chart of the nuclides  Nuclear force  Nuclear structure and excitations  Radioactivity and fission  Nuclear reactions and accelerators  Quark effects inside nucleus  Phases of nuclear matter  Origin of the elements  Applications of nuclear science Che-Ming Ko Texas A&M University http://www.lbl.gov/abc 2 Nucleus: Discovered by Ernest Rutherford in 1911 in alpha particles scattering from atoms. It is

  11. NNSA Releases New Nuclear Prevent, Counter, and Respond Report | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration New Nuclear Prevent, Counter, and Respond Report | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press

  12. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger than that of slim holes. As a result, the research team decided to complete the project, document the tested designs and seek further support for the concept outside of the DOE.

  13. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-07-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected.

  14. Optical Design Considerations for Efficient Light Collection from Liquid Scintillation Counters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counters measure charged particle-emitting radioactive isotopes and are used for environmental studies, nuclear chemistry, and life science. Alpha and beta emissions arising from the material under study interact with the scintillation cocktail to produce light. The prototypical liquid scintillation counter employs low-level photon-counting detectors to measure the arrival of the scintillation light produced as a result of the dissolved material under study interacting with the scintillation cocktail. For reliable operation the counting instrument must convey the scintillation light to the detectors efficiently and predictably. Current best practices employ the use of two or more detectors for coincidence processing to discriminate true scintillation events from background events due to instrumental effects such as photomultiplier tube dark rates, tube flashing, or other light emission not generated in the scintillation cocktail vial. In low background liquid scintillation counters additional attention is paid to shielding the scintillation cocktail from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) present in the laboratory and within the instruments construction materials. Low background design is generally at odds with optimal light collection. This study presents the evolution of a light collection design for liquid scintillation counting in a low background shield. The basic approach to achieve both good light collection and a low background measurement is described. The baseline signals arising from the scintillation vial are modeled and methods to efficiently collect scintillation light are presented as part of the development of a customized low-background, high sensitivity liquid scintillation counting system.

  15. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  16. Very elongated nuclei near A = 194

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, J.A.; Henry, E.A.; Yates, S.W.; Wang, T.F.; Kuhnert, A. ); Brinkman, M.J.; Cizewski, J.A. ); Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.; Azaiez, F.; Korten, W.; Draper, J.E. )

    1990-10-01

    A {gamma}-ray cascade in {sup 191}Hg of 12 members with average energy spacing 37 keV and Q{sub t} {equals} 18(3)eb was reported by Moore, and coworkers in 1989. This was the first report of very elongated nuclei (superdeformation) in this mass region. Since then, some 25 {gamma}-ray cascades have been observed in 11 (slightly neutron deficient) Hg, Pb and Tl nuclei. The bands have similar dynamic moments-of-inertia. Some nuclei exhibit multiple bands, and the backbending phenomena has been observed. Level spins can be obtained from comparison of transition energies to rotational model formulas. Selected bands (in different nuclei) have equal transition energies (within 0.1%). Alignment in integer multiples of {h bar} has been observed. Properties of these bands will be described. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, James A. (Madison, WI); Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  18. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

    1980-05-23

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  19. Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-01-22

    The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

  20. Using DMA for copying performance counter data to memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-12-31

    A device for copying performance counter data includes hardware path that connects a direct memory access (DMA) unit to a plurality of hardware performance counters and a memory device. Software prepares an injection packet for the DMA unit to perform copying, while the software can perform other tasks. In one aspect, the software that prepares the injection packet runs on a processing core other than the core that gathers the hardware performance data.

  1. Message passing with a limited number of DMA byte counters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocksome, Michael (Rochester, MN); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kumar, Sameer (White Plains, NY); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN)

    2011-10-04

    A method for passing messages in a parallel computer system constructed as a plurality of compute nodes interconnected as a network where each compute node includes a DMA engine but includes only a limited number of byte counters for tracking a number of bytes that are sent or received by the DMA engine, where the byte counters may be used in shared counter or exclusive counter modes of operation. The method includes using rendezvous protocol, a source compute node deterministically sending a request to send (RTS) message with a single RTS descriptor using an exclusive injection counter to track both the RTS message and message data to be sent in association with the RTS message, to a destination compute node such that the RTS descriptor indicates to the destination compute node that the message data will be adaptively routed to the destination node. Using one DMA FIFO at the source compute node, the RTS descriptors are maintained for rendezvous messages destined for the destination compute node to ensure proper message data ordering thereat. Using a reception counter at a DMA engine, the destination compute node tracks reception of the RTS and associated message data and sends a clear to send (CTS) message to the source node in a rendezvous protocol form of a remote get to accept the RTS message and message data and processing the remote get (CTS) by the source compute node DMA engine to provide the message data to be sent.

  2. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  3. Development of a low background liquid scintillation counter for a shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Russell O.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-08-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently opened a shallow underground laboratory intended for measurement of lowconcentration levels of radioactive isotopes in samples collected from the environment. The development of a low-background liquid scintillation counter is currently underway to further augment the measurement capabilities within this underground laboratory. Liquid scintillation counting is especially useful for measuring charged particle (e.g., B, a) emitting isotopes with no (orvery weak) gamma-ray yields. The combination of high-efficiency detection of charged particle emission in a liquid scintillation cocktail coupled with the low-background environment of an appropriately-designed shield located in a clean underground laboratory provides the opportunity for increased-sensitivity measurements of a range of isotopes. To take advantage of the 35-meter water-equivalent overburden of the underground laboratory, a series of simulations have evaluated the instrumental shield design requirements to assess the possible background rate achievable. This report presents the design and background evaluation for a shallow underground, low background liquid scintillation counter design for sample measurements.

  4. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-09-14

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low-soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate particles exposed tomore » OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH and O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~ 0.1, indicating that chemically aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH-exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient number of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and is not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide range of solubilities.« less

  5. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-03-06

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water-solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water-solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate-particles exposed to OH andmore » O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH/O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~0.1, indicating that chemically-aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally-mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient amount of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide-range of solubilities.« less

  6. Boron-Lined Multichamber and Conventional Neutron Proportional Counter Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2010-09-07

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, multichamber proportional counter manufactured by LND, Inc. Also reported are results obtained with an earlier design of conventional, boron-lined, proportional counters from LND. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detectors.

  7. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclei Average Evaluation Product Available Bookmark and Share This plot shows the concentration of CCN measured by the cloud condensation particle counter versus the...

  8. DMA shared byte counters in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Heidelberger, Philip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-04-06

    A parallel computer system is constructed as a network of interconnected compute nodes. Each of the compute nodes includes at least one processor, a memory and a DMA engine. The DMA engine includes a processor interface for interfacing with the at least one processor, DMA logic, a memory interface for interfacing with the memory, a DMA network interface for interfacing with the network, injection and reception byte counters, injection and reception FIFO metadata, and status registers and control registers. The injection FIFOs maintain memory locations of the injection FIFO metadata memory locations including its current head and tail, and the reception FIFOs maintain the reception FIFO metadata memory locations including its current head and tail. The injection byte counters and reception byte counters may be shared between messages.

  9. Particle Astrophysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Astrophysics Particle Astrophysics Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505) 667-5657 Email Particle Astrophysics Stars offer unique laboratories for particle physics. They can be sensitive to minute interactions of neutrinos, as well as to other, hypothetical weakly interacting particles. The origin of this sensitivity lies in the mechanism of stellar evolution: it can be sped up, or even

  10. A Combined Neutron and Gamma-Ray Multiplicity Counter Based on Liquid Scintillation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas Enqvist; Marek Flaska; Jennifer Dolan; David L. Chichester; Sara A. Pozzi

    2011-10-01

    Multiplicity counters for neutron assay have been extensively used in materials control and accountability for nonproliferation and nuclear safeguards. Typically, neutron coincidence counters are utilized in these fields. In this work, we present a measurement system that makes use not only of neutron (n) multiplicity counting but also of gamma-ray (g) multiplicity counting and the combined higher-order multiples containing both neutrons and gamma rays. The benefit of this approach is in using both particle types available from the sample, leading to a reduction in measurement times needed when using more measurables. We present measurement results of n, g, nn, ng, gg, nnn, nng, ngg, and ggg multiples emitted by Mixed-Oxide (MOX) samples measured at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The MOX measurement is compared to initial validation of the detection system done using a 252Cf source. The dual radiation measuring system proposed here uses extra measurables to improve the statistics when compared to a neutron-only system and allows for extended analysis and interpretation of sample parameters. New challenges such as the effect of very high intrinsic gamma-ray sources in the case of MOX samples is discussed. Successful measurements of multiples rates can be performed also when using high-Z shielding.

  11. Particle separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moosmuller, Hans (Reno, NV); Chakrabarty, Rajan K. (Reno, NV); Arnott, W. Patrick (Reno, NV)

    2011-04-26

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  12. Boron-Lined Multitube Neutron Proportional Counter Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2010-09-07

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, multitube proportional counter manufactured by Centronic Ltd. (Surry, U.K. and Houston, TX). This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detector.

  13. Beyond single particle mass spectrometry: multidimensional characterisation of individual aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, D.

    2009-09-10

    The behavior of small aerosol particles depends on a number of their physical and chemical properties, many of which are strongly coupled. The size, internal composition, density, shape, morphology, hygroscopicity, index of refraction, activity as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei, and other attributes of individual particles - all play a role in determining particle properties and their impacts. The traditional particle characterization approaches rely on separate parallel measurements that average over an ensemble of particles of different sizes and/or compositions and later attempt to draw correlations between them. As a result such studies overlook critical differences between particles and bulk and miss the fact that individual particles often exhibit major differences. Here we review the recently developed methods to simultaneously measure in-situ and in real time several of the attributes for individual particles using single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT or its second generation SPLAT II. We also discuss novel approaches developed for classification, visualization and mining of large datasets produced by the multidimensional single particle characterization.

  14. Scintillating fiber tracking at high luminosities using Visible Light Photon counter readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atac, M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper reviews the research work on the Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPC) that have been developed for the scintillating fiber tracking at high luminosity colliders and high rate fixed target experiments. The devices originated from the joint work between UCLA and Rockwell International Science Center. The VLPCs are capable of counting photons very efficiently down to a single photon level with high avalanche gain, producing pulses at very high rates with very short rise times. Due to small gain dispersions they can be used in counting photons with high quantum efficiencies, therefore they are excellent devices for charged particle tracking using small diameter scintillating plastic fibers. In this paper, fiber tracking for the CDF and D0 upgrades and a possible usage of the VLPC readout for the experiment E803 at Fermilab will be discussed.

  15. Particle generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hess, Wayne P.; Joly, Alan G.; Gerrity, Daniel P.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Sushko, Peter V.; Shlyuger, Alexander L.

    2005-06-28

    Energy tunable solid state sources of neutral particles are described. In a disclosed embodiment, a halogen particle source includes a solid halide sample, a photon source positioned to deliver photons to a surface of the halide, and a collimating means positioned to accept a spatially defined plume of hyperthermal halogen particles emitted from the sample surface.

  16. Asymmetry dependence of nucleon correlations in spherical nuclei extracted from a dispersive-optical-model analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, J. M.; Shane, R.; Waldecker, S. J.; Dickhoff, W. H.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Crowell, A. S.; Esterline, J. H.; Fallin, B.; Howell, C. R.; Westerfeldt, C.; Youngs, M.; Crowe, B. J. III; Pedroni, R. S.

    2011-06-15

    Neutron elastic-scattering angular distributions were measured at beam energies of 11.9 and 16.9 MeV on {sup 40,48}Ca targets. These data plus other elastic-scattering measurements, total and reaction cross-sections measurements, (e,e{sup '}p) data, and single-particle energies for magic and doubly magic nuclei have been analyzed in the dispersive optical-model (DOM), generating nucleon self-energies (optical-model potentials) that can be related, via the many-body Dyson equation, to spectroscopic factors and occupation probabilities. It is found that, for stable nuclei with N{>=}Z, the imaginary surface potential for protons exhibits a strong dependence on the neutron-proton asymmetry. This result leads to a more modest dependence of the spectroscopic factors on asymmetry. The measured data and the DOM analysis of all considered nuclei clearly demonstrate that the neutron imaginary surface potential displays very little dependence on the neutron-proton asymmetry for nuclei near stability (N{>=}Z).

  17. Shell effects in hot nuclei and their influence on nuclear composition in supernova matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Suguru [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Takano, Masatoshi [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan and Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    We calculate nuclear composition in supernova (SN) matter explicitly taking into account the temperature dependence of nuclear shell effects. The abundance of nuclei in SN matter is important in the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae and, in recently constructed equations of state (EOS) for SN matter, the composition of nuclei are calculated assuming nuclear statistical equilibrium wherein the nuclear internal free energies govern the composition. However, in these EOS, thermal effects on the shell energy are not explicitly taken into account. To address this shortfall, we calculate herein the shell energies of hot nuclei and examine their influence on the composition of SN matter. Following a simplified macroscopic-microscopic approach, we first calculate single-particle (SP) energies by using a spherical Woods-Saxon potential. Then we extract shell energies at finite temperatures using Strutinsky method with the Fermi distribution as the average occupation probability of the SP levels. The results show that at relatively low temperatures, shell effects are still important and magic nuclei are abundant. However, at temperatures above approximately 2 MeV, shell effects are almost negligible, and the mass fractions with shell energies including the thermal effect are close to those obtained from a simple liquid drop model at finite temperatures.

  18. A new equation of state with light nuclei and their weak interactions in core-collapse supernova simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furusawa, Shun; Yamada, Shoichi [Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nagakura, Hiroki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke [Numazu College of Technology, Ooka 3600, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan); Suzuki, Hideyuki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamazaki 2641, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ? 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hands, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei have different evolutions from those without it in non-linear evolution phase. The matter in the gain region has various densities and temperatures and there appear regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. These results indicate that the inelastic reactions of light nuclei, especially deuterons, should be incorporated in the simulations of core-collapse supernovae.

  19. A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for DANCE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.; Kwan, E.; Henderson, R. A.; Gostic, J. M.; Carter, D.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2012-08-04

    A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for the detection of fission fragments was developed for a highly segmented 4π γ-ray calorimeter, namely the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments located at the Lujan Center of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. It has been used successfully for experiments with 235U, 238Pu,239Pu, and 241Pu isotopes to provide a unique signature to differentiate the fission from the competing neutron-capture reaction channel. We also used it to study the spontaneous fission in 252Cf. The design and performance of this avalanche counter for targets with extreme α-decay rate up to ~2.4×108/s are described.

  20. Boron-10 Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-01

    The shortage of 3He has triggered the search for effective alternative neutron detection technologies for national security applications, including international nuclear safeguards. Any alternative neutron detection technology must satisfy two basic criteria: it must meet a neutron detection efficiency requirement, and it must be insensitive to gamma-ray interference at a prescribed level while still meeting the neutron detection requirement. For nuclear safeguards, a system must perform measurements in the field with a prescribed precision in a specified time. This paper describes an effort to design, model and test an alternatives-based neutron coincidence counter for nuclear safeguards applications. The technology chosen for use in an alternatives-based uranium neutron coincidence collar was boron-lined proportional counters. Extensive modeling was performed of various system configurations and comparisons were made to measurements on a commercial prototype boron-10 based uranium neutron coincidence collar.

  1. Particle separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    Method and apparatus (10) are provided for separating and classifying particles (48,50,56) by dispersing the particles within a fluid (52) that is upwardly flowing within a cone-shaped pipe (12) that has its large end (20) above its small end (18). Particles of similar size and shape (48,50) migrate to individual levels (A,B) within the flowing fluid. As the fluid is deflected by a plate (42) at the top end of the pipe (12), the smallest particles are collected on a shelf-like flange (40). Ever larger particles are collected as the flow rate of the fluid is increased. To prevent particle sticking on the walls (14) of the pipe (12), additional fluid is caused to flow into the pipe (12) through holes (68) that are specifically provided for that purpose. Sticking is further prevented by high frequency vibrators (70) that are positioned on the apparatus (10).

  2. Trillion Particles,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trillion Particles, 120,000 cores, and 350 TBs: Lessons Learned from a Hero IO Run on Hopper Surendra Byna , Andrew Uselton , Prabhat , David Knaak , and Yun...

  3. Particle preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, K.L.; Conrad, F.J.; Custer, C.A.; Rhykerd, C.L. Jr.

    1998-12-29

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents. 3 figs.

  4. Particle preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L.; Conrad, Frank J.; Custer, Chad A.; Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L.

    2005-09-20

    An apparatus and method for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents.

  5. Particle preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Conrad, Frank J. (Russellville, NM); Custer, Chad A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents.

  6. Particle preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Conrad, Frank J. (Russellville, SC); Custer, Chad A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents.

  7. Nuclei at extreme conditions. A relativistic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afanasjev, Anatoli

    2014-11-14

    The major goals of the current project were further development of covariant density functional theory (CDFT), better understanding of its features, its application to different nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics phenomena and training of graduate and undergraduate students. The investigations have proceeded in a number of directions which are discussed in detail in the part “Accomplishments” of this report. We have studied the role of isovector and isoscalar proton-neutron pairings in rotating nuclei; based on available experimental data it was concluded that there are no evidences for the existence of isoscalar proton-neutron pairing. Generalized theoretical approach has been developed for pycnonuclear reaction rates in the crust of neutron stars and interior of white dwarfs. Using this approach, extensive database for considerable number of pycnonuclear reactions involving stable and neutron-rich light nuclei has been created; it can be used in future for the study of various nuclear burning phenomena in different environments. Time-odd mean fields and their manifestations in terminating states, non-rotating and rotating nuclei have been studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory. Contrary to non-relativistic density functional theories these fields, which are important for a proper description of nuclear systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, are uniquely defined in the CDFT framework. Hyperdeformed nuclear shapes (with semi-axis ratio 2.5:1 and larger) have been studied in the Z = 40-58 part of nuclear chart. We strongly believe that such shapes could be studied experimentally in the future with full scale GRETA detector.

  8. The Structure of Nuclei Far from Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zganjar, E.F.

    1999-02-25

    From among a number of important nuclear structure results that have emerged from our research program during the past few years, two stand out as being of extra significance. These are: (a) the identification of a diabatic coexisting structure in {sup 187}Au which arises solely from differences in proton occupation of adjacent oscillator shells, and (b) the realization of a method for estimating EO strength in nuclei and the resulting prediction that the de-excitation of superdeformed bands may proceed, in some cases, by strong EO transitions.

  9. Collective excitation spectra of transitional even nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quentin, P. Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay . Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse); Deloncle, I.; Libert, J. . Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse); Sauvage, J. . Inst. de Physique Nucleaire)

    1990-11-06

    This talk is dealing with the nuclear low energy collective motion as described in the context of microscopic versions of the Bohr Hamiltonian. Two different ways of building microscopically Bohr collective Hamiltonians will be sketched; one within the framework of the Generator Coordinate Method, the other using the Adiabatic Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock-Boholyubov approximation. A sample of recent results will be presented which pertains to the description of transitional even nuclei and to the newly revisited phenomenon of superdeformation at low spin.

  10. Cross Sections for Nuclei A = 3 - 20

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cross Sections with Proton and Alpha Induced Reactions for Nuclei A = 3 - 20 I. Introduction: We have scanned the NSR from 1910-present for various articles with proton and alpha induced reactions. We have used the program Plot Digitizer 2.5.0 to extract the excitation functions from figures in the articles. In some cases the uncertainties are provided in the figures, we have noted this in comments, but we have made no attempt to extract the uncertainties. In cases where the data are given in

  11. Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? Guided by the recent experimental confirmation of the validity of the Effective Momentum Approximation (EMA) in quasi-elastic scattering off nuclei, we have re-examined the extraction of the Longitudinal and Transverse Response Functions in medium-weight and heavy

  12. Compound And Rotational Damping In Warm Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leoni, S.; Bracco, A.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Camera, F.; Grassi, C.; Million, B.; Paleni, A.; Pignanelli, M.; Vigezzi, E.; Wieland, O.; Matsuo, M.; Doessing, T.; Herskind, B.; Hagemann, G.B.; Wilson, J.; Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M.; LoBianco, G.; Petrache, C.M.

    2005-04-05

    The {gamma}-decay from excited nuclei is used to study the interplay between rotational motion and compound nucleus formation in deformed nuclei. A new analysis technique is presented which allows for the first time to directly measure the rotational and compound damping widths {gamma}rot and {gamma}{mu} from {gamma}-coincidence spectra. The method is first tested on simulated spectra and then applied to high-statistics EUROBALL data on the nucleus 163Er. Experimental values of {approx_equal}200 and 20 keV are obtained for {gamma}rot and {gamma}{mu}, respectively, in the spin region I {approx_equal} 30-40 ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}), in good agreement with microscopic cranked shell model calculations for the specific nucleus. A dependence of rotational damping on the K-quantum number of the nuclear states is also observed, both in experiment and theory, resulting in a {approx_equal}30% reduction of {gamma}rot for high-K states. This points to a delayed onset of rotational damping in high-K configurations.

  13. Calculation of nuclear reaction cross sections on excited nuclei...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Calculation of nuclear reaction cross sections on excited nuclei with the coupled-channels method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Calculation of nuclear reaction cross ...

  14. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods of capturing and...

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - MASRAD: Cloud Condensate Nuclei Chemistry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Condensate Nuclei Chemistry Measurements Campaign Links AMF Point Reyes Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns MArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle...

  16. Testing a Cloud Condensation Nuclei Remote Sensing Method

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Cloud Condensation Nuclei Remote Sensing Method S. J. Ghan Climate Physics Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington D. R. Collin Department of Atmospheric...

  17. Ground-State Decays for Nuclei A = 3 - 20

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ground State Beta-Decay and Particle Unbound Resonances Data for A = 3 - 20 Nuclei Go to the Text Only section below if you prefer to view the nuclides in a text list. 18Mg 19Mg 20Mg 17Na 18Na 19Na 20Na 15Ne 16Ne 17Ne 18Ne 19Ne 20Ne 14F 15F 16F 17F 18F 19F 20F 11O 12O 13O 14O 15O 16O 17O 18O 19O 20O 10N 11N 12N 13N 14N 15N 16N 17N 18N 19N 20N 7C 8C 9C 10C 11C 12C 13C 14C 15C 16C 17C 18C 19C 20C 6B 7B 8B 9B 10B 11B 12B 13B 14B 15B 16B 17B 18B 19B 20B 5Be 6Be 7Be 8Be 9Be 10Be 11Be 12Be 13Be 14Be

  18. Fabrication of solar cells with counter doping prevention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Timothy D; Li, Bo; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-02-19

    A solar cell fabrication process includes printing of dopant sources over a polysilicon layer over backside of a solar cell substrate. The dopant sources are cured to diffuse dopants from the dopant sources into the polysilicon layer to form diffusion regions, and to crosslink the dopant sources to make them resistant to a subsequently performed texturing process. To prevent counter doping, dopants from one of the dopant sources are prevented from outgassing and diffusing into the other dopant source. For example, phosphorus from an N-type dopant source is prevented from diffusing to a P-type dopant source comprising boron.

  19. Mechanisms of neutrinoless double-beta decay: A comparative analysis of several nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, A. [DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Borisov, A. V., E-mail: borisov@phys.msu.r [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Zhuridov, D. V. [Scuola Normale Superiore (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The neutrinoless double beta decay of several nuclei that are of interest from the experimental point of view ({sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 130}Te, and {sup 136}Xe) is investigated on the basis of a general Lorentzinvariant effective Lagrangian describing physics effects beyond the Standard Model. The half-lives and angular-correlation coefficients for electrons are calculated for various decay mechanisms associated, in particular, with the exchange of Majorana neutrinos, supersymmetric particles (with R-parity violation), leptoquarks, and right-handed W{sub R} bosons. The effect of theoretical uncertainties in the values of relevant nuclear matrix elements on decay features is considered.

  20. Counter-Top Thermoacoustic Refrigerator- An Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anwar, Mahmood; Ghazali, Normah Mohd

    2010-06-28

    Thermoacoustic phenomenon is a new alternative refrigeration technology. Though design and fabrication is complex for getting the desired effect, it is environmentally friendly and successful system showed that it is relatively easy to run compared to the traditional vapor compression refrigeration system. Currently, theories supporting the thermoacoustic refrigeration systems are yet to be comprehensive to make them commercially viable. Theoretical, experimental, and numerical studies are being done to address the thermodynamics-acoustics interactions. In this study, experimental investigations were completed to test the feasibility of the practical use of a thermoacoustic refrigerator in its counter-top form for future specific application. The system was designed and fabricated based on linear acoustic theory. Acoustic power was given by a loud speaker and thermoacoustic effects were measured in terms of the cooling effects produced at resonanance. Investigations showed that discrepancies between designed and working resonance frequency exist. Thermoacoutic cooling improved at a certain frequency, achieved when the working frequency was varied away from the design frequency. A cooling effect of 4.8 K below the ambient temperature of 23.3 deg. C was obtained from the counter-top thermoacoustic system. This system uses no refrigerants and no compressor to generate the cooling effect, a potential to be further investigated for a practical system.

  1. Eta-mesic nuclei: Past, present, future

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Haider, Q.; Liu, Lon -Chang

    2015-09-23

    Eta-mesic nucleus or the quasibound nuclear state of an eta (η) meson in a nucleus is caused by strong interaction force alone. This new type of nuclear species, which extends the landscape of nuclear physics, has been extensively studied since its prediction in 1986. We review and analyze in great detail the models of the fundamental η–nucleon interaction leading to the formation of an η–mesic nucleus, the methods used in calculating the properties of a bound η, and the approaches employed in the interpretation of the pertinent experimental data. In view of the successful observation of the η–mesic nucleus 25Mgηmore » and other promising experimental results, future direction in searching for more η–mesic nuclei is suggested.« less

  2. Subthreshold Photofission of Even-Even Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadmensky, S.G.; Rodionova, L.V. [Voronezh State University, Universitetskaya pl. 1, Voronezh, 394693 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-01

    Within quantum-mechanical fission theory, the angular distributions of fragments originating from the subthreshold photofission of the even-even nuclei {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu are analyzed for photon energies below 7 MeV. Special features of various fission channels are assessed under the assumption that the fission barrier has a two-humped shape. It is shown that the maximum value of the relative orbital angular momentum L{sub m} of fission fragments can be found upon taking into account deviations from the predictions of A. Bohr's formula for the angular distributions of fission fragments. The result is L{sub m} {approx_equal} 30. The existence of an 'isomeric shelf' for the angular distributions of fragments from {sup 236}U and {sup 238}U photofission in the low-energy region is confirmed.

  3. HTML for Nuclei A = 3 - 20

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HTML for Nuclei A = 3 - 20 Go to the Text Only below if you prefer to view the nuclides in a text list. Read the HTML Introduction Page to see what new features the HTML documents will provide. HTML is provided for the following nuclides: 17P 16Si 17Si 16Al 17Al 20Al 14Mg 16Mg 17Mg 18Mg 19Mg 20Mg 13Na 14Na 16Na 17Na 18Na 19Na 20Na 10Ne 11Ne 12Ne 13Ne 14Ne 16Ne 17Ne 18Ne 19Ne 20Ne 10F 11F 12F 13F 14F 15F 16F 17F 18F 19F 20F 10O 11O 12O 13O 14O 15O 16O 17O 18O 19O 20O 8N 9N 10N 11N 12N 13N 14N 15N

  4. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  5. Reporting Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Medications, and Dietary Supplements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2008-02-01

    Overview of types of prescription drugs and over-the-counter medications that must be reported in DOE's Human Reliability Program.

  6. Properties of nuclei in the nobelium region studied within the covariant, Skyrme, and Gogny energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobaczewski, J.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Bender, M.; Shi, Yue

    2015-07-29

    In this study, we calculate properties of the ground and excited states of nuclei in the nobelium region for proton and neutron numbers of 92 ? Z ? 104 and 144 ? N ? 156, respectively. We use three different energy-density-functional (EDF) approaches, based on covariant, Skyrme, and Gogny functionals, each with two different parameter sets. A comparative analysis of the results obtained for quasiparticle spectra, oddeven and two-particle mass staggering, and moments of inertia allows us to identify single-particle and shell effects that are characteristic to these different models and to illustrate possible systematic uncertainties related to using the EDF modelling.

  7. Surface micromachined counter-meshing gears discrimination device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-12-12

    A surface micromachined Counter-Meshing Gears (CMG) discrimination device which functions as a mechanically coded lock. Each of two CMG has a first portion of its perimeter devoted to continuous driving teeth that mesh with respective pinion gears. Each EMG also has a second portion of its perimeter devoted to regularly spaced discrimination gear teeth that extend outwardly on at least one of three levels of the CMG. The discrimination gear teeth are designed so as to pass each other without interference only if the correct sequence of partial rotations of the CMG occurs in response to a coded series of rotations from the pinion gears. A 24 bit code is normally input to unlock the device. Once unlocked, the device provides a path for an energy or information signal to pass through the device. The device is designed to immediately lock up if any portion of the 24 bit code is incorrect.

  8. Particle blender

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willey, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    An infinite blender that achieves a homogeneous mixture of fuel microspheres is provided. Blending is accomplished by directing respective groups of desired particles onto the apex of a stationary coaxial cone. The particles progress downward over the cone surface and deposit in a space at the base of the cone that is described by a flexible band provided with a wide portion traversing and in continuous contact with the circumference of the cone base and extending upwardly therefrom. The band, being attached to the cone at a narrow inner end thereof, causes the cone to rotate on its arbor when the band is subsequently pulled onto a take-up spool. As a point at the end of the wide portion of the band passes the point where it is tangent to the cone, the blended particles are released into a delivery tube leading directly into a mold, and a plate mounted on the lower portion of the cone and positioned between the end of the wide portion of the band and the cone assures release of the particles only at the tangent point.

  9. New Particle Formation Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, JN; McMurry, PH

    2015-01-01

    The scientific foci of the New Particle Formation Study were the formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols and the impacts of newly formed particles on cloud processes. Specifically, we planned to: (1) to identify the species and mechanisms responsible for the initial steps of new particle formation, i.e., the formation of thermodynamically stable clusters; (2) investigate the role of acid-base chemistry in new particle growth through measurements of ammonia and amines as well as organic and inorganic acids in both atmospheric nanoparticles and the gas phase; (3) investigate the contribution of other surface area or volume-controlled processes to nanoparticle formation and growth; (4) create a comprehensive dataset related to new particle formation and growth that can be used as input for our own thermodynamic models as well as the modeling efforts by our Department of Energy (DOE) Aerosol Life Cycle working group collaborators; (5) characterize the increase of the number and activity of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) due to particle formation and growth; (6) determine the regional extent of new particle formation to address the role that atmospheric transport plays in determining the impacts, if any, of new particle formation on cloud number and properties.

  10. M3D-K simulations of sawteeth and energetic particle transport in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Wei; Sheng, Zheng-Mao [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Wang, Feng [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Nonlinear simulations of sawteeth and related energetic particle transport are carried out using the kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K. MHD simulations show repeated sawtooth cycles for a model tokamak equilibrium. Furthermore, test particle simulations are carried out to study the energetic particle transport due to a sawtooth crash. The results show that energetic particles are redistributed radially in the plasma core, depending on pitch angle and energy. For trapped particles, the redistribution occurs for particle energy below a critical value in agreement with existing theories. For co-passing particles, the redistribution is strong with little dependence on particle energy. In contrast, the redistribution level of counter-passing particles decreases with increasing particle energy.

  11. Relativistic mean field calculations in neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Roy, Subinit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block AF, Sector 1, Kolkata- 700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Relativistic mean field calculations have been employed to study neutron rich nuclei. The Lagrange's equations have been solved in the co-ordinate space. The effect of the continuum has been effectively taken into account through the method of resonant continuum. It is found that BCS approximation performs as well as a more involved Relativistic Continuum Hartree Bogoliubov approach. Calculations reveal the possibility of modification of magic numbers in neutron rich nuclei. Calculation for low energy proton scattering cross sections shows that the present approach reproduces the density in very light neutron rich nuclei.

  12. Electromagnetic Studies of Mesons, Nucleons, and Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Oliver K.

    2013-08-20

    Professor Baker was a faculty member at Hampton University in Hampton, Virginia, and, jointly, a Staff Physicist at Jefferson Lab in nearby Newport News from September 1989 to July 2006. The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the grant DE-FG02-97ER41035 Electromagnetic Studies of Mesons, Nucleons, and Nuclei, while Baker was in this joint appointment. Baker sent a closeout report on these activities to Hampton Universitys Sponsored Research Office some years ago, shortly after joining Yale University in 2006. In the period around 2001, the research grant with Baker as the Principal Investigator (PI) was put under the supervision of Professor Liguang Tang at Hampton University. Baker continued to pursue the research while in this join appointment, however the administrative responsibilities with the DOE and with Hampton University rested with Professor Tang after 2001, to my recollection. What is written in this document is from Bakers memory of the research activities, which he has not pursued since joining the Yale University faculty.

  13. THEORETICAL STUDIES OF HADRONS AND NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STEPHEN R COTANCH

    2007-03-20

    This report details final research results obtained during the 9 year period from June 1, 1997 through July 15, 2006. The research project, entitled ?Theoretical Studies of Hadrons and Nuclei?, was supported by grant DE-FG02-97ER41048 between North Carolina State University [NCSU] and the U. S. Department of Energy [DOE]. In compliance with grant requirements the Principal Investigator [PI], Professor Stephen R. Cotanch, conducted a theoretical research program investigating hadrons and nuclei and devoted to this program 50% of his time during the academic year and 100% of his time in the summer. Highlights of new, significant research results are briefly summarized in the following three sections corresponding to the respective sub-programs of this project (hadron structure, probing hadrons and hadron systems electromagnetically, and many-body studies). Recent progress is also discussed in a recent renewal/supplemental grant proposal submitted to DOE. Finally, full detailed descriptions of completed work can be found in the publications listed at the end of this report.

  14. Nuclear structure/nuclei far from stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casten, R.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Moller, P.; Bauer, W.W.; Brenner, D.S.; Butler, G.W.; Crawford, J.E.; Davids, C.N.; Dyer, P.L.; Gregorich, K.; Hagbert, E.G.; Hamilton, W.D.; Harar, S.; Haustein, P.E.; Hayes, A.C.; Hoffman, D.C.; Hsu, H.H.; Madland, D.G.; Myers, W.D.; Penttila, H.T.; Ragnarsson, I.; Reeder, P.L.; Robertson, G.H.; Rowley, N.; Schreiber, F.; Seifert, H.L.; Sherrill, B.M.; Siciliano, E.R.; Sprouse, G.D.; Stephens, F

    1990-01-01

    This report outlines some of the nuclear structure topics discussed at the Los Alamos Workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB). In it we also tried to convey some of the excitement of the participants for utilizing RIBs in their future research. The introduction of radioactive beams promises to be a major milestone for nuclear structure perhaps even more important than the last such advance in beams based on the advent of heavy-ion accelerators in the 1960's. RIBs not only will allow a vast number of new nuclei to be studies at the extremes of isospin, but the variety of combinations of exotic proton and neutron configurations should lead to entirely new phenomena. A number of these intriguing new studies and the profound consequences that they promise for understanding the structure of the atomic nucleus, nature's only many-body, strongly-inteacting quantum system, are discussed in the preceeding sections. However, as with any scientific frontier, the most interesting phenomena probably will be those that are not anticipated--they will be truly new.

  15. Single-ended counter-rotating radial turbine for space application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coomes, E.P.; Wilson, D.G.; Webb, B.J.; McCabe, S.J.

    1987-05-13

    A single-ended turbine with counter-rotating blades operating with sodium as the working fluid. The single-ended, counter-rotating feature of the turbine results in zero torque application to a space platform. Thus, maneuvering of the platform is not adversely affected by the turbine. 4 figs.

  16. Low-energy collective modes of deformed superfluid nuclei within...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low-energy collective modes of deformed superfluid nuclei within the finite-amplitude method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low-energy collective modes of deformed ...

  17. Isovector dipole strength in nuclei with extreme neutron excess

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arteaga, D. Pena; Khan, E.; Ring, P.

    2009-03-15

    The E1 strength is systematically analyzed in very neutron-rich Sn nuclei, beyond {sup 132}Sn until {sup 166}Sn, within the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation. The great neutron excess favors the appearance of a deformed ground state for {sup 142-162}Sn. The evolution of the low-lying strength in deformed nuclei is determined by the interplay of two factors, isospin asymmetry and deformation: while greater neutron excess increases the total low-lying strength, deformation hinders and spreads it. Very neutron rich deformed nuclei may not be as good candidates as spherical nuclei like {sup 132}Sn for the experimental study of low-lying E1 strength.

  18. Scissors mode of Gd nuclei studied from resonance neutron capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroll, J.; Baramsai, B.; Becker, J. A.; and others

    2012-10-20

    Spectra of {gamma} rays following the neutron capture at isolated resonances of stable Gd nuclei were measured. The objectives were to get new information on photon strength of {sup 153,155-159}Gd with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors-mode vibration. An analysis of the data obtained clearly indicates that the scissors mode is coupled not only to the ground state, but also to all excited levels of the nuclei studied. The specificity of our approach ensures unbiasedness in estimating the sumed scissors-mode strength {Sigma}B(M1){up_arrow}, even for odd product nuclei, for which conventional nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements yield only limited information. Our analysis indicates that for these nuclei the sum {Sigma}B(M1){up_arrow} increases with A and for {sup 157,159}Gd it is significantly higher compared to {sup 156,158}Gd.

  19. {alpha}-cluster states in N{ne}Z nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, V. Z.; Rogachev, G. V.

    2012-10-20

    The importance of studies of {alpha}-Cluster structure in N{ne}Z light nuclei is discussed. Spin-parity assignments for the low-lying levels in {sup 10}C are suggested.

  20. Cell diameter measurements obtained with a handheld cell counter could be used as a surrogate marker of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines exposed to SN-38

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahara, Makiko; Inoue, Takeshi; Fujii, Hirofumi; Kotake, Kenjiro; Sugano, Kokichi

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: Chemo-sensitivity to SN-38 was assayed by the automated cell counter. Colon cancer cell line, HCT116 cells were more sensitive to SN-38 than HT29 cells. Increase of cell size reflects G2/M arrest. Appearance of small particles indicates cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: In vitro assessment of chemosensitivity are important for experiments evaluating cancer therapies. The Scepter 2.0 cell counter, an automated handheld device based on the Coulter principle of impedance-based particle detection, enables the accurate discrimination of cell populations according to cell size and volume. In this study, the effects of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, on the colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 were evaluated using this device. The cell count data obtained with the Scepter counter were compared with those obtained with the {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake assay, which has been used to measure cell proliferation in many previous studies. In addition, we examined whether the changes in the size distributions of these cells reflected alterations in the frequency of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induced by SN-38 treatment. In our experiments using the Scepter 2.0 cell counter, the cell counts were demonstrated to be accurate and reproducible measure and alterations of cell diameter reflected G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data show that easy-to-use cell counting tools can be utilized to evaluate the cell-killing effects of novel treatments on cancer cells in vitro.

  1. Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Light Nuclei Using Chiral Potentials

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Light Nuclei Using Chiral Potentials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Light Nuclei Using Chiral Potentials Authors: Lynn, J. E. ; Carlson, J. ; Epelbaum, E. ; Gandolfi, S. ; Gezerlis, A. ; Schwenk, A. Publication Date: 2014-11-04 OSTI Identifier: 1181024 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters

  2. Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy

  3. Toward A Fundamental Understanding Of Nuclear Reactions And Exotic Nuclei

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Toward A Fundamental Understanding Of Nuclear Reactions And Exotic Nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward A Fundamental Understanding Of Nuclear Reactions And Exotic Nuclei Authors: Quaglioni, S ; Hupin, G ; Langhammer, J ; Romero-Redondo, C ; Schuster, M D ; Johnson, C W ; Navratil, P ; Roth, R Publication Date: 2014-09-19 OSTI Identifier: 1165824 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-661058

  4. Toward A Fundamental Understanding Of Nuclear Reactions And Exotic Nuclei

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Toward A Fundamental Understanding Of Nuclear Reactions And Exotic Nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward A Fundamental Understanding Of Nuclear Reactions And Exotic Nuclei × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  5. Real-time multi-mode neutron multiplicity counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S; Alvarez, Raymond A

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments are directed to a digital data acquisition method that collects data regarding nuclear fission at high rates and performs real-time preprocessing of large volumes of data into directly useable forms for use in a system that performs non-destructive assaying of nuclear material and assemblies for mass and multiplication of special nuclear material (SNM). Pulses from a multi-detector array are fed in parallel to individual inputs that are tied to individual bits in a digital word. Data is collected by loading a word at the individual bit level in parallel, to reduce the latency associated with current shift-register systems. The word is read at regular intervals, all bits simultaneously, with no manipulation. The word is passed to a number of storage locations for subsequent processing, thereby removing the front-end problem of pulse pileup. The word is used simultaneously in several internal processing schemes that assemble the data in a number of more directly useable forms. The detector includes a multi-mode counter that executes a number of different count algorithms in parallel to determine different attributes of the count data.

  6. Improved Technology To Prevent Nuclear Proliferation And Counter Nuclear Terrorism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J; Yuldashev, B; Labov, S; Knapp, R

    2006-06-12

    As the world moves into the 21st century, the possibility of greater reliance on nuclear energy will impose additional technical requirements to prevent proliferation. In addition to proliferation resistant reactors, a careful examination of the various possible fuel cycles from cradle to grave will provide additional technical and nonproliferation challenges in the areas of conversion, enrichment, transportation, recycling and waste disposal. Radiation detection technology and information management have a prominent role in any future global regime for nonproliferation. As nuclear energy and hence nuclear materials become an increasingly global phenomenon, using local technologies and capabilities facilitate incorporation of enhanced monitoring and detection on the regional level. Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation and countering radiological/nuclear terrorism. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, passive detection, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. For example, various gamma ray imaging approaches are being explored to combine spatial resolution with background suppression in order to enhance sensitivity many-fold at reasonable standoff distances and acquisition times. New materials and approaches are being developed in order to provide adequate energy resolution in field use without the necessity for liquid nitrogen. Different detection algorithms enable fissile materials to be distinguished from other radioisotopes.

  7. Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shivvers, Steve D. (Prole, IA)

    2009-08-18

    A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

  8. Structure of p-shell nuclei using three-nucleon interactions evolved with the similarity renormalization group

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jurgenson, E. D.; Maris, P.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Navratil, P.; Ormand, W. E.; Vary, J. P.

    2013-05-13

    The similarity renormalization group (SRG) is used to soften interactions for ab initio nuclear structure calculations by decoupling low- and high-energy Hamiltonian matrix elements. The substantial contribution of both initial and SRG-induced three-nucleon forces requires their consistent evolution in a three-particle basis space before applying them to larger nuclei. While, in principle, the evolved Hamiltonians are unitarily equivalent, in practice the need for basis truncation introduces deviations, which must be monitored. Here we present benchmark no-core full configuration calculations with SRG-evolved interactions in p-shell nuclei over a wide range of softening. As a result, these calculations are used to assessmore » convergence properties, extrapolation techniques, and the dependence of energies, including four-body contributions, on the SRG resolution scale.« less

  9. Production of thorium-229 using helium nuclei

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Garland, Marc Alan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A method for producing .sup.229Th includes the steps of providing .sup.226Ra as a target material, and bombarding the target material with alpha particles, helium-3, or neutrons to form .sup.229Th. When neutrons are used, the neutrons preferably include an epithermal neutron flux of at least 1.times.10.sup.13 n s.sup.-1cm.sup.-2. .sup.228Ra can also be bombarded with thermal and/or energetic neutrons to result in a neutron capture reaction to form .sup.229Th. Using .sup.230Th as a target material, .sup.229Th can be formed using neutron, gamma ray, proton or deuteron bombardment.

  10. Hardware enabled performance counters with support for operating system context switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2015-06-30

    A device for supporting hardware enabled performance counters with support for context switching include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect information associated with one or more computer system related activities, a first register operable to store a memory address, a second register operable to store a mode indication, and a state machine operable to read the second register and cause the plurality of performance counters to copy the information to memory area indicated by the memory address based on the mode indication.

  11. Leading twist nuclear shadowing phenomena in hard processes with nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonid Frankfurt, Vadim Guzey, Mark Strikman

    2012-03-01

    We present and discuss the theory and phenomenology of the leading twist theory of nuclear shadowing which is based on the combination of the generalization of Gribov-Glauber theory, QCD factorization theorems, and HERA QCD analysis of diffraction in lepton-proton deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We apply this technique for the analysis of a wide range of hard processes with nuclei-inclusive DIS on deuterons, medium-range and heavy nuclei, coherent and incoherent diffractive DIS with nuclei, and hard diffraction in proton-nucleus scattering - and make predictions for the effect of nuclear shadowing in the corresponding sea quark and gluon parton distributions. We also analyze the role of the leading twist nuclear shadowing in generalized parton distributions in nuclei and certain characteristics of final states in nuclear DIS. We discuss the limits of applicability of the leading twist approximation for small x scattering off nuclei and the onset of the black disk regime and methods of detecting it. It will be possible to check many of our predictions in the near future in the studies of the ultraperipheral collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Further checks will be possible in pA collisions at the LHC and forward hadron production at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Detailed tests will be possible at an Electon-Ion Collider (EIC) in USA and at the Large Hadron-Electron Collider (LHeC) at CERN.

  12. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarifeo-Saldivia, Ariel E-mail: atarisal@gmail.com; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Santiago; Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago ; Mayer, Roberto E.

    2014-01-15

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

  13. Effect of air on energy and rise-time spectra measured by proportional gas counter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawano, T.; Tanaka, M.; Isozumi, S.; Isozumi, Y.; Tosaki, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    Air exerts a negative effect on radiation detection using a gas counter because oxygen contained in air has a high electron attachment coefficient and can trap electrons from electron-ion pairs created by ionization from incident radiation in counting gas. This reduces radiation counts. The present study examined the influence of air on energy and rise-time spectra measurements using a proportional gas counter. In addition, a decompression procedure method was proposed to reduce the influence of air and its effectiveness was investigated. For the decompression procedure, the counting gas inside the gas counter was decompressed below atmospheric pressure before radiation detection. For the spectrum measurement, methane as well as various methane and air mixtures were used as the counting gas to determine the effect of air on energy and rise-time spectra. Results showed that the decompression procedure was effective for reducing or eliminating the influence of air on spectra measurement using a proportional gas counter. (authors)

  14. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  15. Statistics of particle time-temperature histories.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

    2014-10-01

    Particles in non - isothermal turbulent flow are subject to a stochastic environment tha t produces a distribution of particle time - temperature histories. This distribution is a function of the dispersion of the non - isothermal (continuous) gas phase and the distribution of particles relative to that gas phase. In this work we extend the one - dimensional turbulence (ODT) model to predict the joint dispersion of a dispersed particle phase and a continuous phase. The ODT model predicts the turbulent evolution of continuous scalar fields with a model for the cascade of fluctuations to smaller sc ales (the 'triplet map') at a rate that is a function of the fully resolved one - dimens ional velocity field . Stochastic triplet maps also drive Lagrangian particle dispersion with finite Stokes number s including inertial and eddy trajectory - crossing effect s included. Two distinct approaches to this coupling between triplet maps and particle dispersion are developed and implemented along with a hybrid approach. An 'instantaneous' particle displacement model matches the tracer particle limit and provide s an accurate description of particle dispersion. A 'continuous' particle displacement m odel translates triplet maps into a continuous velocity field to which particles respond. Particles can alter the turbulence, and modifications to the stochastic rate expr ession are developed for two - way coupling between particles and the continuous phase. Each aspect of model development is evaluated in canonical flows (homogeneous turbulence, free - shear flows and wall - bounded flows) for which quality measurements are ava ilable. ODT simulations of non - isothermal flows provide statistics for particle heating. These simulations show the significance of accurately predicting the joint statistics of particle and fluid dispersion . Inhomogeneous turbulence coupled with the in fluence of the mean flow fields on particles of varying properties alter s particle dispersion. The joint particle - temperature dispersion leads to a distribution of temperature histories predicted by the ODT . Predictions are shown for the lower moments an d the full distributions of the particle positions, particle - observed gas temperatures and particle temperatures. An analysis of the time scales affecting particle - temperature interactions covers Lagrangian integral time scales based on temperature autoco rrelations, rates of temperature change associated with particle motion relative to the temperature field and rates of diffusional change of temperatures. These latter two time scales have not been investigated previously; they are shown to be strongly in termittent having peaked distributions with long tails. The logarithm of the absolute value of these time scales exhibits a distribution closer to normal. A cknowledgements This work is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under their Counter - Weapons of Mass Destruction Basic Research Program in the area of Chemical and Biological Agent Defeat under award number HDTRA1 - 11 - 4503I to Sandia National Laboratories. The authors would like to express their appreciation for the guidance provi ded by Dr. Suhithi Peiris to this project and to the Science to Defeat Weapons of Mass Destruction program.

  16. U.S., China Partner to Counter Nuclear Smuggling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partner to Counter Nuclear Smuggling U.S., China Partner to Counter Nuclear Smuggling January 19, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON D.C. - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) today announced the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with China that paves the way for the establishment of a radiation detection training center in Qinhuangdao, China. Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman and Vice Minister SUN Yibiao of the General Administration of

  17. Prevent, Counter, and Respond-A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Threats (FY 2016-2020) | National Nuclear Security Administration Prevent, Counter, and Respond-A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-2020) | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our

  18. Plutonium Measurements with a Fast-Neutron Multiplicity Counter for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer L. Dolan; Marek Flaska; Alexis Poitrasson-Riviere; Andreas Enqvist; Paolo Peerani; David L. Chichester; Sara A. Pozzi

    2014-11-01

    Measurements were performed at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy to field test a fast-neutron multiplicity counter developed at the University of Michigan. The measurements allowed the illustration of the systems photon discrimination abilities, efficiency when measuring neutron multiplicity, ability to characterize 240Pueff mass, and performance relative to a currently deployed neutron coincidence counter. This work is motivated by the need to replace and improve upon 3He neutron detection systems for nuclear safeguards applications.

  19. Damping, motional narrowing, and chaos in rotational nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, F. S.; Deleplanque, M. A.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Fallon, P.; Diamond, R. M.; Ward, D.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.

    2008-09-15

    We have studied the unresolved {gamma}-ray spectrum of three ytterbium nuclei produced in heavy-ion fusion reactions and measured the two damping widths, {gamma}{sub {mu}}, the spreading (compound-damping) width, and {gamma}{sub rot}, the rotational damping width, together with P{sub nar}, the probability that the population enters and leaves a given state via the same component of the wave function. Our results for {gamma}{sub {mu}} and {gamma}{sub rot} are in good agreement with theoretical expectations, as well as with those of other groups using different methods. Our results for P{sub nar} lead to a new method for quantitative evaluation of the full order-to-chaos transition in these Yb nuclei. Finally, we provide the first evidence for the motional narrowing of {gamma}{sub rot} in nuclei. The basic physics occurring in this region is level mixing, which our simulation technique reproduces surprisingly well.

  20. Intrinsic excitations in deformed nuclei: characteristic predictions of the IBA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casten, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Deformed nuclei represent perhaps the largest and best studied class of nuclear level schemes. The Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model is devised so as to provide a general framework for the description of low lying collective states in nuclei spanning vibrational, rotational (i.e., deformed) and axially asymmetric types as well as the transitional species intermediate between these limiting cases. The juxtaposition of these two statements makes it all the more surprising that until recently there had been no thorough test of the model in such nuclei. Partly, the explanation for this lies in the type of data required for an adequate test. Since the IBA predicts a broad range of collective states it requires a correspondingly thorough empirical test. Moreover, in deformed nuclei, though the characteristic predictions that distinguish the IBA from the traditional, familiar collective model of harmonic ..beta.. and ..gamma.. vibrations are important, their clearest manifestation occurs in very weak, hard-to-detect low energy transitions between excited vibrational bands (in particular between ..beta.. and ..gamma.. bands), that had not heretofore been systematically observed. The present brief summary will begin with a review of the properties of the (n,..gamma..) reaction that render it a useful empirical tool for such studies, and follow this with a description of the results of the /sup 168/Er study and the application of the IBA model to the resultant level scheme. The discussion will then be generalized to other deformed nuclei and to the inherent systematic predictions that must characterize the IBA for such nuclei. Many of these ideas will be related to the role of finite boson number in the IBA.

  1. Particle Identification in the NIMROD-ISiS Detector Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuenschel, S.; Hagel, K.; May, L. W.; Wada, R.; Yennello, S. J.

    2009-03-10

    Interest in the influence of the neutron-to-proton (N/Z) ratio on multifragmenting nuclei has demanded an improvement in the capabilities of multi-detector arrays as well as the companion analysis methods. The particle identification method used in the NIMROD-ISiS 4{pi} array is described. Performance of the detectors and the analysis method are presented for the reaction of {sup 86}Kr+{sup 64}Ni at 35 MeV/u.

  2. Chiral three-nucleon forces and pairing in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesinski, Thomas; Hebeler, K.; Duguet, Thomas C; Schwenk, Achim

    2012-01-01

    We present the first study of pairing in nuclei including three-nucleon forces. We perform systematic calculations of the odd-even mass staggering generated using a microscopic pairing interaction at first order in chiral low-momentum interactions. Significant repulsive contributions from the leading chiral three-nucleon forces are found. Two- and three-nucleon interactions combined account for approximately 70% of the experimental pairing gaps, which leaves room for self-energy and induced interaction effects that are expected to be overall attractive in nuclei.

  3. JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2014-05-16

    The grant JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei (DOE DE?FG02?06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.?based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

  4. Modeling the Effect of Ice Nuclei on ARM Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upper-Tropospheric Ice Water Content in TWP-ICE Xiping Zeng, Wei-Kuo Tao, Minghua Zhang, and Shaochen Xie March 31, 2009 Papers Published Recently * Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, M. Zhang, A. Y. Hou, S. Xie, S. Lang, X. Li, D. Starr, X. Li, and J. Simpson, 2009: An indirect effect of ice nuclei on atmospheric radiation. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 41-61. * Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, M. Zhang, A. Y. Hou, S. Xie, S. Lang, X. Li, D. Starr, and X. Li, 2009: A contribution by ice nuclei to global warming. Quart. J. Roy.

  5. Exotic modes of excitation in proton rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paar, N.

    2011-11-30

    The framework of relativistic energy density functional has been applied in description of excitation phenomena in nuclei close to the proton drip line. In particular, low-lying dipole excitations have been studied using relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation, based on effective Lagrangians with density dependent meson nucleon couplings. In the isovector dipole channel, the occurrence of pronounced low-lying dipole peaks is predicted, corresponding to the proton pygmy dipole resonance. Since this exotic mode still awaits its experimental confirmation, systematic calculations have been conducted within a pool of neutron deficient nuclei, in order to identify the best possible candidates for measurements.

  6. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grisham, Larry R. (Lawrence Township, Mercer County, NJ); Post, Jr., Douglass E. (Belle Mead, NJ); Dawson, John M. (Pacific Palisades, CA)

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

  7. Particle physics---Experimental. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  8. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  9. ENHANCED ACCRETION RATES OF STARS ON SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES BY STAR-DISK INTERACTIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Just, Andreas; Yurin, Denis; Makukov, Maxim; Berczik, Peter; Omarov, Chingis; Spurzem, Rainer; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil Y.

    2012-10-10

    We investigate the dynamical interaction of a central star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and a central accretion disk (AD). The dissipative force acting on stars in the disk leads to an enhanced mass flow toward the SMBH and to an asymmetry in the phase space distribution due to the rotating AD. The AD is considered as a stationary Keplerian rotating disk, which is vertically extended in order to employ a fully self-consistent treatment of stellar dynamics including the dissipative force originating from star-gas ram pressure effects. The stellar system is treated with a direct high-accuracy N-body integration code. A star-by-star representation, desirable in N-body simulations, cannot be extended to real particle numbers yet. Hence, we carefully discuss the scaling behavior of our model with regard to particle number and tidal accretion radius. The main idea is to find a family of models for which the ratio of two-body relaxation time and dissipation time (for kinetic energy of stellar orbits) is constant, which then allows us to extrapolate our results to real parameters of galactic nuclei. Our model is derived from basic physical principles and as such it provides insight into the role of physical processes in galactic nuclei, but it should be regarded as a first step toward more realistic and more comprehensive simulations. Nevertheless, the following conclusions appear to be robust: the star accretion rate onto the AD and subsequently onto the SMBH is enhanced by a significant factor compared to purely stellar dynamical systems neglecting the disk. This process leads to enhanced fueling of central disks in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and to an enhanced rate of tidal stellar disruptions. Such disruptions may produce electromagnetic counterparts in the form of observable X-ray flares. Our models improve predictions for their rates in quiescent galactic nuclei. We do not yet model direct stellar collisions in the gravitational potential well of the black hole, which could further enhance the growth rate of the black hole. Our models are relevant for quiescent galactic nuclei, because all our mass accretion rates would give rise to luminosities much smaller than the Eddington luminosity. To reach Eddington luminosities, outflows, and feedback as in the most active QSOs, other scenarios are needed, such as gas accretion after galaxy mergers. However, for AGNs close to the Eddington limit, this process may not serve as the dominant accretion process due to the long timescale.

  10. Folding model description of reactions with exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.; Hassanain, M. A.; Mokhtar, S. R.; Zaki, M. A.; Mahmoud, Zakaria M. M.; Farid, M. El-Azab

    2012-08-15

    Microscopic folding calculations based upon the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nuclearmatter densities of the interacting nuclei have been carried out to explain recently measured experimental data of the {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn elastic scattering cross section at four different laboratory energies near the Coulomb barrier. The extracted reaction cross sections are also considered.

  11. Electric dipole moments of light nuclei from {chi}EFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higa, Renato

    2013-03-25

    I present recent calculations of EDMs of light nuclei using chiral effective field theory techniques. At leading-order, we argue that they can be expressed in terms of six CP-violating low-energy constants. With our expressions, eventual non-zero measurements of EDMs of deuteron, helion, and triton can be combined to disentangle the different sources of CP-violation.

  12. Thermal Neutron Capture for Nuclei A = 3 - 20

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Neutron Capture Evaluated Data for Nuclei A 3 - 20 Go to the Text Only below if you prefer to view the nuclides in a text list. 19Ne 20Ne 18F 19F 20F 15O 16O 17O 18O 19O...

  13. Elementary particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1990-09-20

    We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with ballon-borne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quark-gluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the >TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used.

  14. On the model discriminating power of mu to e conversion in nuclei...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    On the model discriminating power of mu to e conversion in nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the model discriminating power of mu to e conversion in nuclei ...

  15. On the model discriminating power of mu to e conversion in nuclei...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    On the model discriminating power of mu to e conversion in nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the model discriminating power of mu to e conversion in nuclei...

  16. Protons Hog the Momentum in Neutron-Rich Nuclei | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protons Hog the Momentum in Neutron-Rich Nuclei theories large nuclei and has implications for ultra-cold atomic gas systems and neutron stars Research has shown that protons and...

  17. Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Calculations for Light Nuclei ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Calculations for Light Nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Calculations for Light Nuclei You are...

  18. Method for enhancing selectivity and recovery in the fractional flotation of particles in a flotation column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klunder, Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2011-08-09

    The method relates to particle separation from a feed stream. The feed stream is injected directly into the froth zone of a vertical flotation column in the presence of a counter-current reflux stream. A froth breaker generates a reflux stream and a concentrate stream, and the reflux stream is injected into the froth zone to mix with the interstitial liquid between bubbles in the froth zone. Counter-current flow between the plurality of bubbles and the interstitial liquid facilitates the attachment of higher hydrophobicity particles to bubble surfaces as lower hydrophobicity particles detach. The height of the feed stream injection and the reflux ratio may be varied in order to optimize the concentrate or tailing stream recoveries desired based on existing operating conditions.

  19. Search for Massive Particles Produced in Interactions at 30 BeV

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Franzini, P.; Leontic, B.; Rahm, D.; Samios, N.; Schwartz, M.

    1965-01-01

    We report here the results of a search for moderately stable negatively charged particles in the mass region of 2.5 - 5.0 BeV, produced in collisions of 30 BeV protons with tungsten nuclei at the Brookhaven A.G.S.

  20. Development of Labview based data acquisition and multichannel analyzer software for radioactive particle tracking system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Abdullah, Jaafar B.; Hassan, Hearie B.

    2015-04-29

    A DAQ (data acquisition) software called RPTv2.0 has been developed for Radioactive Particle Tracking System in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. RPTv2.0 that features scanning control GUI, data acquisition from 12-channel counter via RS-232 interface, and multichannel analyzer (MCA). This software is fully developed on National Instruments Labview 8.6 platform. Ludlum Model 4612 Counter is used to count the signals from the scintillation detectors while a host computer is used to send control parameters, acquire and display data, and compute results. Each detector channel consists of independent high voltage control, threshold or sensitivity value and window settings. The counter is configured with a host board and twelve slave boards. The host board collects the counts from each slave board and communicates with the computer via RS-232 data interface.

  1. Properties of nuclei in the nobelium region studied within the covariant, Skyrme, and Gogny energy density functionals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dobaczewski, J.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Bender, M.; Robledo, L. M.; Shi, Yue

    2015-07-29

    In this study, we calculate properties of the ground and excited states of nuclei in the nobelium region for proton and neutron numbers of 92 ≤ Z ≤ 104 and 144 ≤ N ≤ 156, respectively. We use three different energy-density-functional (EDF) approaches, based on covariant, Skyrme, and Gogny functionals, each with two different parameter sets. A comparative analysis of the results obtained for quasiparticle spectra, odd–even and two-particle mass staggering, and moments of inertia allows us to identify single-particle and shell effects that are characteristic to these different models and to illustrate possible systematic uncertainties related to using themore » EDF modelling.« less

  2. Small Particles, Big Impact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the type of particle and its elevation above Earth's surface, these particles can tip the energy balance toward heating or cooling," says Dr. William Gustafson, an atmospheric...

  3. Nuclear and Particle Futures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear and Particle Futures Nuclear and Particle Futures The Lab's four Science Pillars harness our scientific capabilities for national security solutions. Contacts Pillar ...

  4. Mechanism of supporting sub-communicator collectives with O(64) counters as opposed to one counter for each sub-communicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Blocksome, Michael; Miller, Douglas

    2013-09-03

    A system and method for enhancing barrier collective synchronization on a computer system comprises a computer system including a data storage device. The computer system includes a program stored in the data storage device and steps of the program being executed by a processor. The system includes providing a plurality of communicators for storing state information for a bather algorithm. Each communicator designates a master core in a multi-processor environment of the computer system. The system allocates or designates one counter for each of a plurality of threads. The system configures a table with a number of entries equal to the maximum number of threads. The system sets a table entry with an ID associated with a communicator when a process thread initiates a collective. The system determines an allocated or designated counter by searching entries in the table.

  5. Analog quadrature signal to phase angle data conversion by a quadrature digitizer and quadrature counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchenauer, C.J.

    1981-09-23

    The quadrature phase angle phi (t) of a pair of quadrature signals S/sub 1/(t) and S/sub 2/(t) is digitally encoded on a real time basis by a quadrature digitizer for fractional phi (t) rotational excursions and by a quadrature up/down counter for full phi (t) rotations. The pair of quadrature signals are of the form S/sub 1/(t) = k(t) sin phi (t) and S/sub 2/(t) = k(t) cos phi (t) where k(t) is a signal common to both. The quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter may be used together or singularly as desired or required. Optionally, a digital-to-analog converter may follow the outputs of the quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter to provide an analog signal output of the quadrature phase angle phi (t).

  6. PFPF canister counter for foreign plutonium (PCAS-3) hardware operations and procedures manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Kroncke, K.E.; Miller, M.C. ); Takahashi, S.; Seki, S.; Inose, S.; Yamamoto, T. )

    1993-01-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of plutonium powder contained in tall storage canisters. The counter was designed for installation in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility fabrication plant. Each canister contains from one to five cans of PuO[sub 2]. The neutron counter measures the spontaneous-fission rate from the plutonium and, when this is combined with the plutonium isotopic ratios, the plutonium mass is determined. The system can accommodate plutonium loadings up to 12 kg, with 10 kg being a typical loading. Software has been developed to permit the continuous operation of the system in an unattended mode. Authentication techniques have been developed for the system. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  7. PFPF canister counter for foreign plutonium (PCAS-3) hardware operations and procedures manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Kroncke, K.E.; Miller, M.C.; Takahashi, S.; Seki, S.; Inose, S.; Yamamoto, T.

    1993-01-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of plutonium powder contained in tall storage canisters. The counter was designed for installation in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility fabrication plant. Each canister contains from one to five cans of PuO{sub 2}. The neutron counter measures the spontaneous-fission rate from the plutonium and, when this is combined with the plutonium isotopic ratios, the plutonium mass is determined. The system can accommodate plutonium loadings up to 12 kg, with 10 kg being a typical loading. Software has been developed to permit the continuous operation of the system in an unattended mode. Authentication techniques have been developed for the system. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  8. Analog quadrature signal to phase angle data conversion by a quadrature digitizer and quadrature counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchenauer, C. Jerald (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    The quadrature phase angle .phi.(t) of a pair of quadrature signals S.sub.1 (t) and S.sub.2 (t) is digitally encoded on a real time basis by a quadrature digitizer for fractional .phi.(t) rotational excursions and by a quadrature up/down counter for full .phi.(t) rotations. The pair of quadrature signals are of the form S.sub.1 (t)=k(t) sin .phi.(t) and S.sub.2 (t)=k(t) cos .phi.(t) where k(t) is a signal common to both. The quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter may be used together or singularly as desired or required. Optionally, a digital-to-analog converter may follow the outputs of the quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter to provide an analog signal output of the quadrature phase angle .phi.(t).

  9. Cross-flow versus counter-current flow packed-bed scrubbers: a mathematical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-02-01

    Little is known about the mass transfer properties of packing media exposed to a crossflow of gas and liquid, whereas there is abundant information related to counter-current scrubbers. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of mass transfer and hydrodynamics in cross- flow packed bed scrubbers and compares those with information available for counter current towers, so that the first can be evaluated and/or designed based on data derived for the second. Mathematical models of mass transfer in cross-flow and counter- current packed bed scrubbers are presented. From those, one can predict the removal effectiveness of a crossflow scrubber from the number of transfer units (NTU) calculated for a similar counterflow operation; alternatively, when the removal effectiveness in counterflow is known, one can predict the corresponding NTU in crossflow.

  10. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veerender, P. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  11. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ccn

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter (CCN) Instrument Categories...

  12. Magnetic moments of light nuclei from lattice quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beane, S.? R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S.; Detmold, W.; Lin, H.? W.; Orginos, K.; Parreo, A.; Savage, M.? J.; Tiburzi, B.? C.

    2014-12-16

    We present the results of lattice QCD calculations of the magnetic moments of the lightest nuclei, the deuteron, the triton and 3He, along with those of the neutron and proton. These calculations, performed at quark masses corresponding to m? ~ 800 MeV, reveal that the structure of these nuclei at unphysically heavy quark masses closely resembles that at the physical quark masses. We find that the magnetic moment of 3He differs only slightly from that of a free neutron, as is the case in nature, indicating that the shell-model configuration of two spin-paired protons and a valence neutron captures its dominant structure. Similarly a shell-model-like moment is found for the triton, ?3H ~ ?p. The deuteron magnetic moment is found to be equal to the nucleon isoscalar moment within the uncertainties of the calculations.

  13. Heaviest Nuclei: New Element with Atomic Number 117

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oganessian, Yuri [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Russia and Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    2010-09-01

    One of the fundamental outcomes of the nuclear shell model is the prediction of the 'stability islands' in the domain of the hypothetical super heavy elements. The talk is devoted to the experimental verification of these predictions - the synthesis and study of both the decay and chemical properties of the super heavy elements. The discovery of a new chemical element with atomic number Z=117 is reported. The isotopes 293117 and 294117 were produced in fusion reactions between 48Ca and 249Bk. Decay chains involving 11 new nuclei were identified by means of the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator. The measured decay properties show a strong rise of stability for heavier isotopes with Z =111, validating the concept of the long sought island of enhanced stability for heaviest nuclei.

  14. Magnetic moments of light nuclei from lattice quantum chromodynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beane, S.  R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S.; Detmold, W.; Lin, H.  W.; Orginos, K.; Parreño, A.; Savage, M.  J.; Tiburzi, B.  C.

    2014-12-16

    We present the results of lattice QCD calculations of the magnetic moments of the lightest nuclei, the deuteron, the triton and 3He, along with those of the neutron and proton. These calculations, performed at quark masses corresponding to mπ ~ 800 MeV, reveal that the structure of these nuclei at unphysically heavy quark masses closely resembles that at the physical quark masses. We find that the magnetic moment of 3He differs only slightly from that of a free neutron, as is the case in nature, indicating that the shell-model configuration of two spin-paired protons and a valence neutron captures itsmore » dominant structure. Similarly a shell-model-like moment is found for the triton, μ3H ~ μp. The deuteron magnetic moment is found to be equal to the nucleon isoscalar moment within the uncertainties of the calculations.« less

  15. Low-lying Gamow-Teller transitions in spherical nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cakmak, N.; Uenlue, S.; Selam, C.

    2012-01-15

    The Pyatov Method has been used to study the low-lying Gamow-Teller transitions in the mass region of 98 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To A Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 130. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the total Hamiltonian have been solved within the framework of proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The low-lying {beta} decay log(ft) values have been calculated for the nuclei under consideration.

  16. The interplay between regular and chaotic motion in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotter, I.

    1987-04-01

    The regular motion of nucleons in the low-lying nuclear states and the chaotic motion in the compound nuclei are shown to arise from the interplay of conservative and dissipative forces in the open quantum mechanical nuclear system. The regularity at low level density is caused by self-organization in a conservative field of force. At high level density, chaoticity appears since information on the environment is transferred into the system by means of dissipative forces.

  17. The Onset of Deformation in Neutron-Deficient At Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.B.; Chapman, R.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Dorvaux, O.; Helariutta, K.; Jones, P.M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kankaanpaa, H.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Le Coz, Y.; Leino, M.; Middleton, D.J.; Muikku, M.; Nieminen, P.; Rahkila, P.; Savelius, A.; Spohr, K.-M.

    1999-12-31

    Excited states in the {sup 197}At nucleus have been identified for the first time using the recoil-decay-tagging technique. The excitation energy of these states is found to be consistent with the systematics of neutron-deficient At nuclei and with calculations indicating that the nucleus may be deformed in its ground state. A more recent experiment, to study states in {sup 195}At, is discussed.

  18. The onset of deformation in neutron-deficient At nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M. B.; Chapman, R.; Middleton, D. J.; Spohr, K.-M.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Helariutta, K.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kankaanpaeae, H.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Nieminen, P.; Rahkila, P.; Savelius, A.; Coz, Y. Le

    1999-11-16

    Excited states in the {sup 197}At nucleus have been identified for the first time using the recoil-decay-tagging technique. The excitation energy of these states is found to be consistent with the systematics of neutron-deficient. At nuclei and with calculations indicating that the nucleus may be deformed in its ground state. A more recent experiment, to study states in {sup 195}At, is discussed.

  19. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Benefits of Particle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to build Fermilab's Tevatron, the world's first superconducting synchrotron. Medicine: cancer therapy Cancer therapy The technologies of particle physics have yielded dramatic...

  20. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics 101 | Worldwide Particle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Higgs boson 2012 The ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the CERN's Large Hadron Collider independently discovered the Higgs boson, which confers mass to other particles. Quarks up (u) ...

  1. Position-sensitive proportional counter with low-resistance metal-wire anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit is provided which allows the use of a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) proportional counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode of the counter. A pair of specially designed active-capacitance preamplifiers are used to terminate the anode ends wherein the anode is treated as an RC line. The preamplifiers act as stabilized active capacitance loads and each is composed of a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier, a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction and handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10.sup.6 counts/sec).

  2. Laser particle sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, J.C.; Buican, T.N.

    1987-11-30

    Method and apparatus are provided for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser is used to define an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam is provided for interrogating the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam is provided to intersect the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis. 2 figs.

  3. Laser particle sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Buican, Tudor N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser defines an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam interrogates the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam intersects the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis.

  4. Materials characterisation with the associated particle technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perot, Bertrand; Carasco, Cedric; Deyglun, Clement; Eleon, Cyrille; Mariani, Alain; Ma, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-01

    Since the last past years, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache, France, together with Partners from European and National projects, has been studying the application of fast neutron interrogation with the Associated Particle Technique for material identification in different areas of homeland and maritime security, and for the characterisation of the materials constituting radioactive waste. Fast 14 MeV neutrons are produced from the H-3(H-2,n)alpha fusion reaction in a sealed tube neutron generator embedding an alpha detector. The alpha particle is used to tag neutron direction and emission time, thus allowing the electronic selection of neutron-induced gamma spectra in the voxels of interest. Gamma rays emitted by tagged neutron interactions on the present nuclei (C, O, N, Fe, Al, Si, Cl, etc.) are recorded with spectroscopic detectors and analysed to determine elemental proportions, thus allowing material identification. Investigations have been conducted for the detection of explosives, illicit drugs and contraband materials in cargo containers, for the inspection of objects lying on the sea floor suspected to contain explosives like mines, bombs, torpedoes, etc., for the recognition of an improvised chemical device, and for material identification in radioactive waste packages. Recently the detection of special nuclear materials is being investigated using time correlation analysis between induced fission particles, instead of gamma-ray spectroscopy. The paper presents an overview of these studies and last results. (authors)

  5. Fermilab | Science | Particle Accelerators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Accelerators PXIE As America's particle physics laboratory, Fermilab operates and builds powerful particle accelerators for investigating the smallest things human beings have ever observed. About 2,300 physicists from all over the world come to Fermilab to conduct experiments using particle accelerators. These machines not only drive discovery, they are themselves the subjects of research and innovation. Scientists and engineers at Fermilab actively advance accelerator science and

  6. Core excitation effects in the breakup of halo nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro, A. M.; Diego, R. de; Lay, J. A.; Crespo, R.; Johnson, R. C.; Arias, J. M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.

    2012-10-20

    The role of core excitation in the structure and dynamics of two-body halo nuclei is investigated. We present calculations for the resonant breakup of {sup 11}Be on protons at an incident energy of 63.7 MeV/nucleon, where core excitation effects were shown to be important. To describe the reaction, we use a recently developed extension of the DWBA formalism which incorporates these core excitation effects within the no-recoil approximation. The validity of the no-recoil approximation is also examined by comparing with DWBA calculations which take into account core recoil. In addition, calculations with two different continuum representations are presented and compared.

  7. Effects of Distortion on the Intercluster Motion in Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Bertulani, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Irgaziev, B.; Miljanic, D.; Tumino, A.

    2009-08-26

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades as well as {sup 6}Li, {sup 3}He and {sup 9}Be induced ones. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the spectator momentum distribution in {sup 6}Li and deuterium, which have widely been used as a Trojan Horse nuclei, will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed in these cases.

  8. Calculation of nuclear reaction cross sections on excited nuclei with the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    coupled-channels method (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Calculation of nuclear reaction cross sections on excited nuclei with the coupled-channels method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Calculation of nuclear reaction cross sections on excited nuclei with the coupled-channels method We calculate nuclear cross sections on excited nuclei in the fast neutron energy range. We partition the whole process into two contributions: the direct reaction part and the compound nuclear

  9. New Measurements of High-Momentum Nucleons and Short-Range Structures in Nuclei

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fomin, N.; Arrington, J.; Asaturyan, R.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Bosted, P.; Bruell, A.; Bukhari, M. H. S.; Christy, M. E.; Chudakov, E.; et al

    2012-02-01

    We present new, high-Q2 measurements of inclusive electron scattering from high-momentum nucleons in nuclei. This yields an improved extraction of the strength of two-nucleon correlations for several nuclei, including light nuclei where clustering effects can, for the first time, be examined. The data extend to the kinematic regime where three-nucleon correlations are expected to dominate and we observe significantly greater strength in this region than previous measurements.

  10. Energy and Mass Dependences of the Parameters of the Semimicroscopic Folding Model for Alpha Particles at Low and Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuterbekov, K.A.; Zholdybayev, T.K.; Kukhtina, I.N.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.

    2005-06-01

    The energy and mass dependences of the parameters of the semimicroscopic alpha-particle potential are investigated for the first time in the region of low and intermediate energies. Within the semimicroscopic folding model, both elastic and inelastic differential and total cross sections for reactions on various nuclei are well described by using global parameters obtained in this study.

  11. Improved carrier mobility of chemical vapor deposition-graphene by counter-doping with hydrazine hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Haoran; Sui, Yanping; Zhang, Yaqian; Ge, Xiaoming; Yu, Guanghui Xie, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaoliang; Jin, Zhi; Liu, Xinyu

    2015-03-02

    We developed a counter-doping method to tune the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene by varying the concentration and time of graphene exposure to hydrazine hydrate (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O). The shift of G and 2D peaks of Raman spectroscopy is analyzed as a function of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O concentration. The result revealed that N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O realized n-type doping on CVD grown graphene. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement proved the existence of nitrogen, which indicated the adsorption of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} on the surface of graphene. After counter-doping, carrier mobility, which was measured by Hall measurements, increased three fold.

  12. Simulations of Lithium-Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Gd-Loaded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowles, Christian C.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-31

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Lithium-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology Coincidence Counting for Gd-loaded Fuels at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the development of a lithium-based neutron coincidence counter for nondestructively assaying Gd loaded nuclear fuel. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of a lithium-based coincidence counter for the possible measurement of Gd-loaded nuclear fuel. A comparison of lithium-based simulations and UNCL-II simulations with and without Gd loaded fuel is provided. A lithium-based model, referred to as PLNS3A-R1, showed strong promise for assaying Gd loaded fuel.

  13. Adhesive particle shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (Dublin, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Albuquerque, NM); Walton, Christopher (Berkeley, CA); Folta, James (Livermore, CA)

    2009-01-06

    An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

  14. Magnetic dipole excitations in nuclei: Elementary modes of nucleonic motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyde, Kris; Neumann-Cosel, Peter von; Richter, Achim

    2010-07-15

    The nucleus is one of the most multifaceted many-body systems in the Universe. It exhibits a multitude of responses depending on the way one ''probes'' it. With increasing technical advancements of beams at the various accelerators and of detection systems the nucleus has, over and over again, surprised us by expressing always new ways of ''organized'' structures and layers of complexity. Nuclear magnetism is one of those fascinating faces of the atomic nucleus discussed in the present review. We shall not just limit ourselves to presenting the by now large data set that has been obtained in the past two decades using various probes, electromagnetic and hadronic alike and that presents ample evidence for a low-lying orbital scissors mode around 3 MeV, albeit fragmented over an energy interval of the order of 1.5 MeV, and higher-lying spin-flip strength in the energy region 5-9 MeV in deformed nuclei nor to the presently discovered evidence for low-lying proton-neutron isovector quadrupole excitations in spherical nuclei. To the contrary, the experimental evidence is put in the perspectives of understanding the atomic nucleus and its various structures of well-organized modes of motion and thus enlarges the discussion to more general fermion and bosonic many-body systems.

  15. Magnetic moments of light nuclei from lattice quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beane, S.  R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S.; Detmold, W.; Lin, H.  W.; Orginos, K.; Parreño, A.; Savage, M.  J.; Tiburzi, B.  C.

    2014-12-16

    We present the results of lattice QCD calculations of the magnetic moments of the lightest nuclei, the deuteron, the triton and 3He, along with those of the neutron and proton. These calculations, performed at quark masses corresponding to mπ ~ 800 MeV, reveal that the structure of these nuclei at unphysically heavy quark masses closely resembles that at the physical quark masses. We find that the magnetic moment of 3He differs only slightly from that of a free neutron, as is the case in nature, indicating that the shell-model configuration of two spin-paired protons and a valence neutron captures its dominant structure. Similarly a shell-model-like moment is found for the triton, μ3H ~ μp. The deuteron magnetic moment is found to be equal to the nucleon isoscalar moment within the uncertainties of the calculations.

  16. Eta-mesic nuclei: Past, present, future Haider, Q. [Fordham Univ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liu, Lon -Chang Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS Eta-mesic nuclei; final-state interaction; binding...

  17. J.E. 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; DEFORMED NUCLEI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    years of nuclear fission: Nuclear data and measurements series Lynn, J.E. 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; DEFORMED NUCLEI; FISSION BARRIER; FISSION; HISTORICAL ASPECTS;...

  18. Failure of the gross theory of beta decay in neutron deficient nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, R. B.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The neutron deficient isotopes 117-121Xe, 117-124Cs, and 122-124Ba were produced by a beam of 28Si from the LBNL SuperHILAC on a target of natMo. The isotopes were mass separated and their beta decay schemes were measured with a Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS). The beta strengths derived from these data decreased dramatically to levels above ?1 MeV for the even-even decays; 34 MeV for even-Z, odd-N decays; 45 MeV for the odd-Z, even-N decays; and 78 MeV for the odd-Z, odd-N decays. The decreasing strength to higher excitation energies in the daughters contradicts the predictions of the Gross Theory of Beta Decay. The integrated beta strengths are instead found to be consistent with shell model predictions where the single-particle beta strengths are divided amoung many low-lying levels. The experimental beta strengths determined here have been used calculate the half-lives of 143 neutron deficient nuclei with Z=5164 to a precision of 20% with respect to the measured values.

  19. Photon-axion mixing within the jets of active galactic nuclei and prospects for detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.; Chadwick, P.M. E-mail: p.m.chadwick@durham.ac.uk

    2014-10-01

    Very high energy ?-ray observations of distant active galactic nuclei (AGN) generally result in higher fluxes and harder spectra than expected, resulting in some tension with the level of the extragalactic background light (EBL). If hypothetical axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) were to exist, this tension could be relieved since the oscillation of photons to ALPs would mitigate the effects of EBL absorption and lead to softer inferred intrinsic AGN spectra. In this paper we consider the effect of photon-ALP mixing on observed spectra, including the photon-ALP mixing that would occur within AGN jets. We then simulate observations of three AGN with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a next generation ?-ray telescope, to determine its prospects for detecting the signatures of photon-ALP mixing on the spectra. We conclude that prospects for CTA detecting these signatures or else setting limits on the ALP parameter space are quite promising. We find that prospects are improved if photon-ALP mixing within the jet is properly considered and that the best target for observations is PKS 2155-304.

  20. Failure of the gross theory of beta decay in neutron deficient nuclei

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Firestone, R. B.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The neutron deficient isotopes 117-121Xe, 117-124Cs, and 122-124Ba were produced by a beam of 28Si from the LBNL SuperHILAC on a target of natMo. The isotopes were mass separated and their beta decay schemes were measured with a Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS). The beta strengths derived from these data decreased dramatically to levels above ≈1 MeV for the even-even decays; 3–4 MeV for even-Z, odd-N decays; 4–5 MeV for the odd-Z, even-N decays; and 7–8 MeV for the odd-Z, odd-N decays. The decreasing strength to higher excitation energies in the daughters contradicts the predictions of the Gross Theory of Betamore » Decay. The integrated beta strengths are instead found to be consistent with shell model predictions where the single-particle beta strengths are divided amoung many low-lying levels. The experimental beta strengths determined here have been used calculate the half-lives of 143 neutron deficient nuclei with Z=51–64 to a precision of 20% with respect to the measured values.« less

  1. DIVERSE ACTIVE WELL NEUTRON COINCIDENCE COUNTER UTILITY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewberry, R; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-01-08

    In this paper we describe use of the Aquila active well neutron coincidence counter for nuclear material assays of {sup 235}U in multiple analytical techniques at Savannah River Site (SRS), at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and at Argonne West National Laboratory (AWNL). The uses include as a portable passive neutron counter for field measurements searching for evidence of {sup 252}Cf deposits and storage; as a portable active neutron counter using an external activation source for field measurements searching for trace {sup 235}U deposits and holdup; for verification measurements of U-Al reactor fuel elements; for verification measurements of uranium metal; and for verification measurements of process waste of impure uranium in a challenging cement matrix. The wide variety of uses described demonstrate utility of the technique for neutron coincidence verification measurements over the dynamic ranges of 100 g-5000 g for U metal, 200 g-1300 g for U-Al, and 8 g-35 g for process waste. In addition to demonstrating use of the instrument in both the passive and active modes, we also demonstrate its use in both the fast and thermal neutron modes.

  2. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J. -D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; et al

    2015-03-16

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water solublemore » fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was estimated to be ~ 0.15 for the accumulation mode and ~ 0.36 for the coarse mode, respectively. The obtained κv, ws for the accumulation mode is in good agreement with earlier data reported for remote sites in the Amazon rain forest (κv ≈ 0.15) and a Colorado boreal forest (κv ≈ 0.16). We used the Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule to predict the chemical composition dependent hygroscopicity, κv, p. The obtained κv, p values overestimate the experimental FDHA-KIM-derived κv, ws by factors of 1.8 and 1.5 for the accumulation and coarse modes, respectively. This divergence can be partly explained by incomplete dissolution of the hygroscopic inorganic compounds resulting from kinetic limitations due to a sparingly soluble organic coating. The TEM and STXM-NEXAFS results indicate that aged submicron (>300 nm) and supermicron aerosol particles possess core-shell structures with an inorganic core, and are enriched in organic carbon at the mixed particle surface. The direct FDHA kinetic studies provide a bulk diffusion coefficient of water of ~ 10−12 cm2 s−1 indicating a semi-solid state of the organic-rich phase leading to kinetic limitations of water uptake and release during hydration and dehydration cycles. Overall the present ZOTTO data set, obtained in the growing season, has revealed a strong influence of organic carbon on the hygroscopic properties of the ambient aerosols. The sparingly soluble organic coating controls hygroscopic growth, phase transitions, and microstructural rearrangement processes. The observed kinetic limitations can strongly influence the outcome of experiments performed on multi-second time scales, such as the commonly applied HTDMA (Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) and CCNC (Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter) measurements.« less

  3. Prevent Counter

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    nuclear materials and the security implications of the global deployment of civil nuclear power.

    The FY 2015 NPCR is available for download

  4. NEUTRON COUNTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, C.D.; Carlson, R.L.; Tubinis, M.P.

    1958-07-29

    An ionization chamber instrument is described for cylindrical electrodes with an ionizing gag filling the channber. The inner electrode is held in place by a hermetic insulating seal at one end of the outer electrode, the other end of the outer electrode being closed by a gas filling tube. The outer surface of the inner electrode is coated with an active material which is responsive to neutron bombardment, such as uranium235 or boron-10, to produce ionizing radiations in the gas. The transverse cross sectional area of the inner electrode is small in relation to that of the channber whereby substantially all of the radiations are directed toward the outer electrode.

  5. Precision gap particle separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Miles, Robin; Jones, II., Leslie M.; Stockton, Cheryl

    2004-06-08

    A system for separating particles entrained in a fluid includes a base with a first channel and a second channel. A precision gap connects the first channel and the second channel. The precision gap is of a size that allows small particles to pass from the first channel into the second channel and prevents large particles from the first channel into the second channel. A cover is positioned over the base unit, the first channel, the precision gap, and the second channel. An port directs the fluid containing the entrained particles into the first channel. An output port directs the large particles out of the first channel. A port connected to the second channel directs the small particles out of the second channel.

  6. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Physics photo At Fermilab, a robust scientific program pursues answers to key questions about the laws of nature and the cosmos. The challenge of particle physics is to discover what the universe is made of and how it works. By building some of the largest and most complex machines in the world, Fermilab scientists expand humankind's understanding of matter, energy, space and time. Fermilab is at the forefront of research into neutrinos, ubiquitous but hard-to-catch particles that might

  7. Nuclear & Particle Physics, Astrophysics, Cosmology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear & Particle Physics science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Nuclear & Particle Physics, Astrophysics, Cosmology National security depends on science and ...

  8. Bioactivation of particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinaud, Fabien (Berkeley, CA); King, David (San Francisco, CA); Weiss, Shimon (Los Angeles, CA)

    2011-08-16

    Particles are bioactivated by attaching bioactivation peptides to the particle surface. The bioactivation peptides are peptide-based compounds that impart one or more biologically important functions to the particles. Each bioactivation peptide includes a molecular or surface recognition part that binds with the surface of the particle and one or more functional parts. The surface recognition part includes an amino-end and a carboxy-end and is composed of one or more hydrophobic spacers and one or more binding clusters. The functional part(s) is attached to the surface recognition part at the amino-end and/or said carboxy-end.

  9. Sandia Energy - Particle Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of combustion-generated particles with fast time response and high sensitivity. Measurement techniques are targeted for studies of soot formation and evolution and must...

  10. Rotation of highly excited nuclei: Mass dependence of rotational damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Million, B.; Frattini, S.; Bracco, A.; Leoni, S.; Camera, F.; Blasi, N.; Lo Bianco, G.; Pignanelli, M.; Vigezzi, E.; Herskind, B.; Doessing, T.; Bergstroem, M.; Varmette, P.; Toermaenen, S.; Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Napoli, D. R.; Matsuo, M.

    1999-11-16

    The {gamma}-decay of the continuum has been measured in two mass regions. The excitation function of the continuum decay as well as spectral shape and fractional Doppler shifts are discussed for both {sup 114}Te and {sup 164}Yb compound nuclei, and show the typical features of rotational collective motion. Moreover, in both cases an upper limit of {gamma}{sub rot} is given and the number of decay-paths is determined from the fluctuation analysis method. Simulations based on microscopic calculations of the rotational damping model reproduce quite well the experimental findings for both N{sub path} and the scaling of {gamma}{sub rot} as a function of the mass number.

  11. Theory of Multiple Coulomb Scattering from Extended Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Cooper, L. N.; Rainwater, J.

    1954-08-01

    Two independent methods are described for calculating the multiple scattering distribution for projected angle scattering resulting when very high energy charged particles traverse a thick scatterer. The results are compared with the theories of Moliere and Olbert.

  12. Design and performance of A 3He-free coincidence counter based on parallel plate boron-lined proportional technology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Marlow, J. B.

    2015-07-01

    Thermal neutron counters utilized and developed for deployment as non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments in the field of nuclear safeguards traditionally rely on 3He-based proportional counting systems. 3He-based proportional counters have provided core NDA detection capabilities for several decades and have proven to be extremely reliable with range of features highly desirable for nuclear facility deployment. Facing the current depletion of 3He gas supply and the continuing uncertainty of options for future resupply, a search for detection technologies that could provide feasible short-term alternative to 3He gas was initiated worldwide. As part of this effort, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) designedmore » and built a 3He-free full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter based on boron-lined proportional technology. The boronlined technology was selected in a comprehensive inter-comparison exercise based on its favorable performance against safeguards specific parameters. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial performance evaluation of the prototype High Level Neutron counter – Boron (HLNB). The initial results suggest that current HLNB design is capable to provide ~80% performance of a selected reference 3He-based coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter, HLNCC). Similar samples are expected to be measurable in both systems, however, slightly longer measurement times may be anticipated for large samples in HLNB. The initial evaluation helped to identify potential for further performance improvements via additional tailoring of boron-layer thickness.« less

  13. Atomic nuclei decay modes by spontaneous emission of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M.; Sndulescu, A.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    The great majority of the known nuclides with Z>40, including the so-called stable nuclides, are metastable with respect to several modes of spontaneous superasymmetric splitting. A model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay allows one to estimate the lifetimes and the branching ratios relative to the alpha decay for these natural radioactivities. From a huge amount of systematic calculations it is concluded that the process should proceed with maximum intensity in the trans-lead nuclei, where the minimum lifetime is obtained from parent-emitted heavy ion combinations leading to a magic (/sup 208/Pb) or almost magic daughter nucleus. More than 140 nuclides with atomic number smaller than 25 are possible candidates to be emitted from heavy nuclei, with half-lives in the range of 10/sup 10/--10/sup 30/ s: /sup 5/He, /sup 8en-dash10/Be, /sup 11,12/B, /sup 12en-dash16/C, /sup 13en-dash17/N, /sup 15en-dash22/O, /sup 18en-dash23/F, /sup 20en-dash26/Ne, /sup 23en-dash28/Na, /sup 23en-dash30/Mg, /sup 27en-dash32/Al, /sup 28en-dash36/Si, /sup 31en-dash39/P, /sup 32en-dash42/S, /sup 35en-dash45/Cl, /sup 37en-dash47/Ar, /sup 40en-dash49/ K, . .Ca, /sup 44en-dash53/ Sc, /sup 46en-dash53/Ti, /sup 48en-dash54/V, and /sup 49en-dash55/ Cr. The shell structure and the pairing effects are clearly manifested in these new decay modes.

  14. P-odd and P-even correlations for third particles in ternary fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunakov, V. E., E-mail: bunakov@vb13190.spbu.edu; Kadmensky, S. G., E-mail: kadmensky@phys.vsu.ru; Titova, L. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2008-12-15

    Within quantum-mechanical fission theory, P-odd and P-even correlations in angular distributions of products of the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized cold and thermal neutrons are investigated on the basis of a nonevaporative mechanism of third-particle emission and under the assumption that a two-humped fission barrier exists. It is shown that these correlations for third particles are induced by the analogous correlations for ternary-fission fragments, the latter being transferred to the third particle because of the kinematical conditions of third-particle emission that are associated with the charge and mass asymmetry of fragments. Optimum methods for observing the above correlations for third particles are discussed. The possibility of discovering the emission of prescission neutrons in the fission process against the background of evaporated neutrons by means of studying P-odd and P-even correlations is explored.

  15. Electric Dipole Moments in Radioactive Nuclei, Tests of Time Reversal Symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auerbach, N.

    2010-11-24

    The research of radioactive nuclei opens new possibilities to study fundamental symmetries, such as time reversal and reflection symmetry. Such nuclei often provide conditions to check in an optimal way certain symmetries and the violation of such symmetries. We will discuss the possibility of obtaining improved limits on violation of time reversal symmetry using pear shaped radioactive nuclei. An effective method to test time reversal invariance in the non-strange sector is to measure parity and time reversal violating (T-P-odd) electromagnetic moments, (such as the static electric dipole moment). Parity and time reversal violating components in the nuclear force may produce P-T-odd moments in nuclei which in turn induce such moments in atoms. We will discuss the possibility that in some reflection asymmetric, heavy nuclei (which are radioactive) these moments are enhanced by several orders of magnitude. Present and future experiments, which will test this idea, will be mentioned.

  16. RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearns, Edward

    2013-07-12

    This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

  17. Pileup per particle identification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Harris, Philip; Low, Matthew; Tran, Nhan

    2014-10-09

    We propose a new method for pileup mitigation by implementing pileup per particle identification (PUPPI). For each particle we first define a local shape ? which probes the collinear versus soft diffuse structure in the neighborhood of the particle. The former is indicative of particles originating from the hard scatter and the latter of particles originating from pileup interactions. The distribution of ? for charged pileup, assumed as a proxy for all pileup, is used on an event-by-event basis to calculate a weight for each particle. The weights describe the degree to which particles are pileup-like and are used tomorerescale their four-momenta, superseding the need for jet-based corrections. Furthermore, the algorithm flexibly allows combination with other, possibly experimental, probabilistic information associated with particles such as vertexing and timing performance. We demonstrate the algorithm improves over existing methods by looking at jet pT and jet mass. We also find an improvement on non-jet quantities like missing transverse energy.less

  18. Pileup per particle identification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Harris, Philip; Low, Matthew; Tran, Nhan

    2014-10-09

    We propose a new method for pileup mitigation by implementing “pileup per particle identification” (PUPPI). For each particle we first define a local shape α which probes the collinear versus soft diffuse structure in the neighborhood of the particle. The former is indicative of particles originating from the hard scatter and the latter of particles originating from pileup interactions. The distribution of α for charged pileup, assumed as a proxy for all pileup, is used on an event-by-event basis to calculate a weight for each particle. The weights describe the degree to which particles are pileup-like and are used tomore » rescale their four-momenta, superseding the need for jet-based corrections. Furthermore, the algorithm flexibly allows combination with other, possibly experimental, probabilistic information associated with particles such as vertexing and timing performance. We demonstrate the algorithm improves over existing methods by looking at jet pT and jet mass. As a result, we also find an improvement on non-jet quantities like missing transverse energy.« less

  19. Pileup per particle identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Harris, Philip; Low, Matthew; Tran, Nhan

    2014-10-09

    We propose a new method for pileup mitigation by implementing pileup per particle identification (PUPPI). For each particle we first define a local shape ? which probes the collinear versus soft diffuse structure in the neighborhood of the particle. The former is indicative of particles originating from the hard scatter and the latter of particles originating from pileup interactions. The distribution of ? for charged pileup, assumed as a proxy for all pileup, is used on an event-by-event basis to calculate a weight for each particle. The weights describe the degree to which particles are pileup-like and are used to rescale their four-momenta, superseding the need for jet-based corrections. Furthermore, the algorithm flexibly allows combination with other, possibly experimental, probabilistic information associated with particles such as vertexing and timing performance. We demonstrate the algorithm improves over existing methods by looking at jet pT and jet mass. We also find an improvement on non-jet quantities like missing transverse energy.

  20. Light Nuclei and HyperNuclei from Quantum Chromodynamics in the Limit of SU(3) Flavor Symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beane, S R; Cohen, S D; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J

    2013-02-01

    The binding energies of a range of nuclei and hypernuclei with atomic number A <= 4 and strangeness |s| <= 2, including the deuteron, di-neutron, H-dibaryon, {sup 3}He, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}He, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}He, and {sub {Lambda}{Lambda}}{sup 4}He, are calculated in the limit of flavor-SU(3) symmetry at the physical strange quark mass with quantum chromodynamics (without electromagnetic interactions). The nuclear states are extracted from Lattice QCD calculations performed with n{sub f}=3 dynamical light quarks using an isotropic clover discretization of the quark-action in three lattice volumes of spatial extent L ~ 3.4 fm, 4.5 fm and 6.7 fm, and with a single lattice spacing b ~ 0.145 fm.

  1. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Boning; Herbold, Eric B.; Homel, Michael A.; Regueiro, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  2. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  3. HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Courant, E.D.; Livingston, M.S.; Snyder, H.S.

    1959-04-14

    An improved apparatus is presented for focusing charged particles in an accelerator. In essence, the invention includes means for establishing a magnetic field in discrete sectors along the path of moving charged particles, the magnetic field varying in each sector in accordance with the relation. B = B/ sub 0/ STAln (r-r/sub 0/)/r/sub 0/!, where B/sub 0/ is the value of the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit of radius r/sub 0/ of the path of the particles, B equals the magnetic field at the radius r of the chamber and n equals the magnetic field gradient index, the polarity of n being abruptly reversed a plurality of times as the particles travel along their arcuate path. With this arrangement, the particles are alternately converged towards the axis of their equillbrium orbit and diverged therefrom in successive sectors with a resultant focusing effect.

  4. Validation of the MCNPX-PoliMi Code to Design a Fast-Neutron Multiplicity Counter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Dolan; A. C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester

    2012-07-01

    Many safeguards measurement systems used at nuclear facilities, both domestically and internationally, rely on He-3 detectors and well established mathematical equations to interpret coincidence and multiplicity-type measurements for verifying quantities of special nuclear material. Due to resource shortages alternatives to these existing He-3 based systems are being sought. Work is also underway to broaden the capabilities of these types of measurement systems in order to improve current multiplicity analysis techniques. As a part of a Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technology (MPACT) project within the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Technology Program we are designing a fast-neutron multiplicity counter with organic liquid scintillators to quantify important quantities such as plutonium mass. We are also examining the potential benefits of using fast-neutron detectors for multiplicity analysis of advanced fuels in comparison with He-3 detectors and testing the performance of such designs. The designs are being developed and optimized using the MCNPX-PoliMi transport code to study detector response. In the full paper, we will discuss validation measurements used to justify the use of the MCNPX-PoliMi code paired with the MPPost multiplicity routine to design a fast neutron multiplicity counter with liquid scintillators. This multiplicity counter will be designed with the end goal of safeguarding advanced nuclear fuels. With improved timing qualities associated with liquid scintillation detectors, we can design a system that is less limited by nuclear materials of high activities. Initial testing of the designed system with nuclear fuels will take place at Idaho National Laboratory in a later stage of this collaboration.

  5. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Robert B. (Shoreham, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  6. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  7. Risk assessment methodology applied to counter IED research & development portfolio prioritization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevitz, Daniel W; O' Brien, David A; Zerkle, David K; Key, Brian P; Chavez, Gregory M

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to protect the United States from the ever increasing threat of domestic terrorism, the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), has significantly increased research activities to counter the terrorist use of explosives. More over, DHS S&T has established a robust Counter-Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED) Program to Deter, Predict, Detect, Defeat, and Mitigate this imminent threat to the Homeland. The DHS S&T portfolio is complicated and changing. In order to provide the ''best answer'' for the available resources, DHS S&T would like some ''risk based'' process for making funding decisions. There is a definite need for a methodology to compare very different types of technologies on a common basis. A methodology was developed that allows users to evaluate a new ''quad chart'' and rank it, compared to all other quad charts across S&T divisions. It couples a logic model with an evidential reasoning model using an Excel spreadsheet containing weights of the subjective merits of different technologies. The methodology produces an Excel spreadsheet containing the aggregate rankings of the different technologies. It uses Extensible Logic Modeling (ELM) for logic models combined with LANL software called INFTree for evidential reasoning.

  8. T invariance and T-odd asymmetries for the cold-polarized-neutron-induced fission of nonoriented nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadmensky, S. G., E-mail: kadmensky@phys.vsu.ru [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation); Bunakov, V. E. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Titova, L. V. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    It is shown that the coefficients D{sup exp} for all T-odd asymmetries observed experimentally in the cross sections for the reactions of cold-polarized-neutron-induced fission of nonoriented target nuclei (which involves the emission of prescission and evaporated particles) comply in shape and scale with the coefficients D{sup theor} calculated for the analogous asymmetries on the basis of quantum-mechanical nuclear-fission theory for T-invariant Hamiltonians of fissile systems. It is also shown that the asymmetries in question arise upon taking into account the effect of (i) the interference between the fission amplitudes of s- and p-wave resonances of a polarized fissile compound nucleus formed in the aforementioned reactions; (ii) the collective rotation of the compound nucleus in question (this rotation entails a change in the angular distributions of fission fragments and third particles); and (iii) the wriggling vibrations of this compound nucleus in the vicinity of its scission point, which lead to the appearance of high aligned spins of fission fragments, with the result that the emission of neutrons and photons evaporated from these fragments becomes anisotropic. The possible contribution of T-noninvariant interactions to the formation of the T-odd asymmetries under analysis is estimated by using the results obtained in experimentally testing the detailed-balance principle, (P-A) theorem, and T invariance of cross sections for elastic proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering.

  9. Particle Physics Masterclass

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Helio Takai

    2010-01-08

    Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,

  10. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  11. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Sue I. (Berkeley, CA); Fergenson, David P. (Alamo, CA); Srivastava, Abneesh (Santa Clara, CA); Bogan, Michael J. (Dublin, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Oakland, CA); Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA)

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  12. ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN

    2013-07-30

    The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in NO?A, Double Chooz, and KamLAND neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

  13. Diffuse γ-ray emission from misaligned active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.; Calore, F.; Ajello, M.; Latronico, L.

    2014-01-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with jets seen at small viewing angles are the most luminous and abundant objects in the γ-ray sky. AGNs with jets misaligned along the line of sight appear fainter in the sky but are more numerous than the brighter blazars. We calculate the diffuse γ-ray emission due to the population of misaligned AGNs (MAGNs) unresolved by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). A correlation between the γ-ray luminosity and the radio-core luminosity is established and demonstrated to be physical by statistical tests, as well as compatible with upper limits based on Fermi-LAT data for a large sample of radio-loud MAGNs. We constrain the derived γ-ray luminosity function by means of the source-count distribution of the radio galaxies detected by the Fermi-LAT. We finally calculate the diffuse γ-ray flux due to the whole MAGN population. Our results demonstrate that MAGNs can contribute from 10% up to nearly the entire measured isotropic gamma-ray background. We evaluate a theoretical uncertainty on the flux of almost an order of magnitude.

  14. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  15. System for forming janus particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Liang (Midland, MI); Jiang, Shan (Champaign, IL); Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL)

    2011-01-25

    The invention is a method of forming Janus particles, that includes forming an emulsion that contains initial particles, a first liquid, and a second liquid; solidifying the first liquid to form a solid that contains at least a portion of the initial particles on a surface of the solid; and treating the exposed particle sides with a first surface modifying agent, to form the Janus particles. Each of the initial particles on the surface has an exposed particle side and a blocked particle side.

  16. Studies of exotic nuclei with few-nucleon transfer reactions Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuosmaa, Alan H.

    2014-10-30

    This final report summarizes the activities conducted under DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER41320, titled "Study of exotic nuclei with few-nucleon transfer reactions," A. H. Wuosmaa Principal Investigator.

  17. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R.; Kruichak, Jessica Nicole

    2015-11-17

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  18. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R; Kruichar, Jessica Nicole

    2015-04-07

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  19. Simple description of light W, Os, and Pt nuclei in the interacting boson model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCutchan, E.A.; Zamfir, N.V.

    2005-05-01

    A simple, two-parameter IBA-1 Hamiltonian is applied to light W, Os, and Pt nuclei with N {<=} 104. Equal emphasis is placed on fitting all low-lying positive parity excitations resulting in a good description of energy levels and electromagnetic transition rates. A mapping of these parameters into the IBA symmetry triangle finds that these nuclei lie rather central in the triangle and close to the phase transition region of the IBA model.

  20. Synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions using radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolanczuk, Robert

    2010-06-15

    Chances of synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions (one-neutron-out reactions) using radioactive beams are evaluated. Because in most of the cases intensities of radioactive beams are significantly less than those of the stable beams, reactions with the greatest radioactive-beam intensities for the particular elements are considered. The results are compared with the recent ones obtained by Loveland [Phys. Rev. C 76, 014612 (2007)], who investigated the same nuclei.

  1. Reich-Moore Parameterization of ({alpha},n) Reactions on Light Nuclei:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Impact on a Neutron Source Calculation in an Oxide Fuel (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reich-Moore Parameterization of ({alpha},n) Reactions on Light Nuclei: Impact on a Neutron Source Calculation in an Oxide Fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reich-Moore Parameterization of ({alpha},n) Reactions on Light Nuclei: Impact on a Neutron Source Calculation in an Oxide Fuel Evaluated data are adjusted on experimental measurements using nuclear reaction models. Among these data,

  2. Low-energy collective modes of deformed superfluid nuclei within the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    finite-amplitude method (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Low-energy collective modes of deformed superfluid nuclei within the finite-amplitude method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low-energy collective modes of deformed superfluid nuclei within the finite-amplitude method Authors: Hinohara, Nobuo ; Kortelainen, Markus ; Nazarewicz, Witold Publication Date: 2013-06-17 OSTI Identifier: 1103819 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review C Additional

  3. Chiral Three-Nucleon Interactions in Light Nuclei, Neutron- α Scattering,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Neutron Matter (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Chiral Three-Nucleon Interactions in Light Nuclei, Neutron- α Scattering, and Neutron Matter Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 8, 2017 Title: Chiral Three-Nucleon Interactions in Light Nuclei, Neutron- α Scattering, and Neutron Matter Authors: Lynn, J. E. ; Tews, I. ; Carlson, J. ; Gandolfi, S. ; Gezerlis, A. ; Schmidt, K. E. ; Schwenk, A. Publication Date: 2016-02-09 OSTI

  4. Structure of Light Neutron-rich Nuclei Studied with Transfer Reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wuosmaa, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Transfer reactions have been used for many years to understand the shell structure of nuclei. Recent studies with rare-isotope beams extend this work and make it possible to probe the evolution of shell structure far beyond the valley of stability, requiring measurements in inverse kinematics. We present a novel technical approach to measurements in inverse kinematics, and apply this method to different transfer reactions, each of which probes different properties of light, neutron-rich nuclei.

  5. Supertwistors and massive particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezincescu, Luca; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2014-07-15

    In the (super)twistor formulation of massless (super)particle mechanics, the mass-shell constraint is replaced by a spin-shell constraint from which the spin content can be read off. We extend this formalism to massive (super)particles (with N-extended spacetime supersymmetry) in three and four spacetime dimensions, explaining how the spin-shell constraints are related to spin, and we use it to prove equivalence of the massive N=1 and BPS-saturated N=2 superparticle actions. We also find the supertwistor form of the action for spinning particles with N-extended worldline supersymmetry, massless in four dimensions and massive in three dimensions, and we show how this simplifies special features of the N=2 case. -- Highlights: Spin-shell constraints are related to Poincar Casimirs. Twistor form of 4D spinning particle for spin N/2. Twistor proof of scalar/antisymmetric tensor equivalence for 4D spin 0. Twistor form of 3D particle with arbitrary spin. Proof of equivalence of N=1 and N=2 BPS massive 4D superparticles.

  6. RESONATOR PARTICLE SEPARATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blewett, J.P.

    1962-01-01

    A wave guide resonator structure is described for use in separating particles of equal momentum but differing in mass and having energies exceeding one billion electron volts. The particles are those of sub-atomic size and are generally produced as a result of the bombardment of a target by a beam such as protons produced in a high-energy accelerator. In this wave guide construction, the particles undergo preferential deflection as a result of the presence of an electric field. The boundary conditions established in the resonator are such as to eliminate an interfering magnetic component, and to otherwise phase the electric field to obtain a traveling wave such as one which moves at the same speed as the unwanted particle. The latter undergoes continuous deflection over the whole length of the device and is, therefore, eliminated while the wanted particle is deflected in opposite directions over the length of the resonator and is thus able to enter an exit aperture. (AEC)

  7. Physics of collisions between ultrarelativistic nuclei: Manifestation of collective effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korotkikh, V. L.

    2009-11-15

    Experimental results concerning heavy-ion collisions studied by means of the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at an energy of 100 GeV per nucleon and showing manifestations of collective effects are surveyed. These effects are interpreted as a consequence of the formation of a dense thermalized medium referred to as quark-gluon plasma (strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma, quark-gluon matter, parton medium). An azimuthal anisotropy of particles, the suppression of the particle yield at high transverse momenta in relation to proton-proton collisions, and a change in the shape of the peak from a hadron jet in nucleus-nucleus collisions are spectacular manifestations of collective effects.

  8. Co-evolution of galactic nuclei and globular cluster systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Tremaine, Scott

    2014-04-10

    We revisit the hypothesis that dense galactic nuclei are formed from inspiraling globular clusters. Recent advances in the understanding of the continuous formation of globular clusters over cosmic time and the concurrent evolution of the galaxy stellar distribution allow us to construct a simple model that matches the observed spatial and mass distributions of clusters in the Galaxy and the giant elliptical galaxy M87. In order to compare with observations, we model the effects of dynamical friction and dynamical evolution, including stellar mass loss, tidal stripping of stars, and tidal disruption of clusters by the growing galactic nucleus. We find that inspiraling globular clusters form a dense central structure, with mass and radius comparable to the typical values in observed nuclear star clusters (NSCs) in late-type and low-mass early-type galaxies. The density contrast associated with the NSC is less pronounced in giant elliptical galaxies. Our results indicate that the NSC mass as a fraction of mass of the galaxy stellar spheroid scales as M{sub NSC}/M{sub ?}?0.0025 M{sub ?,11}{sup ?0.5}. Thus disrupted globular clusters could contribute most of the mass of NSCs in galaxies with stellar mass below 10{sup 11} M {sub ?}. The inner part of the accumulated cluster may seed the growth of a central black hole via stellar dynamical core collapse, thereby relieving the problem of how to form luminous quasars at high redshift. The seed black hole may reach ?10{sup 5} M {sub ?} within ? 1 Gyr of the beginning of globular cluster formation.

  9. The Spectroscopy of Neutron-Rich sdf-Shell Nuclei Using the CLARA-PRISMA Setup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, X.; Hodsdon, A.; Chapman, R.; Burns, M.; Keyes, K.; Ollier, J.; Papenberg, A.; Spohr, K.; Azaiez, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Stanoiu, M.; Haas, F.; Caurier, E.; Curien, D.; Nowacki, F.; Salsac, M.-D.; Bazzacco, D.; Beghini, S.; Farnea, E.; Menegazzo, R.

    2006-08-14

    Since the discovery of the breakdown of shell effects in very neutron-rich N=20 and 28 nuclei, studies of the properties of nuclei far from stability have been of intense interest since they provide a unique opportunity to increase our understanding of nuclear interactions in extreme conditions and often challenge our theoretical models.Deep-inelastic processes can be used to populated high spin states of neutron-rich nuclei. In the deep-inelastic processes, an equilibration in N/Z between the target and projectile nuclei is achieved. For most heavy neutron-rich target nuclei, the N/Z ratio is 1.5 - 1.6, while for the possible neutron-rich sdf-shell projectile it is about 1.2. Thus by using deep-inelastic processes one can populate neutron-rich nuclei around N=20 and N=28.New results for the spectroscopy of neutron-rich N=22 36Si and 37P are presented here.

  10. BIPOLAR JETS LAUNCHED FROM ACCRETION DISKS. II. THE FORMATION OF ASYMMETRIC JETS AND COUNTER JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh E-mail: nezami@mpia.de

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the jet launching from accretion disks, in particular the formation of intrinsically asymmetric jet/counter jet systems. We perform axisymmetric MHD simulations of the disk-jet structure on a bipolar computational domain covering both hemispheres. We apply various models such as asymmetric disks with (initially) different scale heights in each hemisphere, symmetric disks into which a local disturbance is injected, and jets launched into an asymmetric disk corona. We consider both a standard global magnetic diffusivity distribution and a novel local diffusivity model. Typical disk evolution first shows substantial disk warping and then results in asymmetric outflows with a 10%-30% mass flux difference. We find that the magnetic diffusivity profile is essential for establishing a long-term outflow asymmetry. We conclude that bipolar asymmetry in protostellar and extragalactic jets can indeed be generated intrinsically and maintained over a long time by disk asymmetries and the standard jet launching mechanism.

  11. Electrochemical sensor having suspended element counter electrode and deflection method for current sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2010-05-18

    An electrochemical suspended element-based sensor system includes a solution cell for holding an electrolyte comprising solution including at least one electrochemically reducible or oxidizable species. A working electrode (WE), reference electrode (RE) and a counter electrode (CE) are disposed in the solution. The CE includes an asymmetric suspended element, wherein one side of the suspended element includes a metal or a highly doped semiconductor surface. The suspended element bends when current associated with reduction or oxidation of the electrochemically reducible or oxidizable species at the WE passes through the suspended element. At least one measurement system measures the bending of the suspended element or a parameter which is a function of the bending.

  12. Carbon-particle generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  13. Biological particle identification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

  14. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  15. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-09-09

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  16. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

  17. Heaviest Antimatter Particle Detected with NERSC Help

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is likely to stand for years to come. The STAR Experiment Collisions of energetic gold nuclei inside STAR briefly recreate conditions in the hot, dense early universe only...

  18. A Single Tower Configuration of the Modular Gamma Box Counter System - 13392

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, K.; Nakazawa, D.; Francalangia, J.; Gonzalez, H.

    2013-07-01

    Canberra's Standard Gamma Box Counter System is designed to perform accurate quantitative assays of gamma emitting nuclides for a wide range of large containers including B-25 crates and ISO shipping containers. Using a modular building-block approach, the system offers tremendous flexibility for a variety of measurement situations with wide ranges of sample activities and throughput requirements, as well as the opportunity to modify the configuration for other applications at a later date. The typical configuration consists of two opposing towers each equipped with two high purity germanium detectors, and an automated container trolley. This paper presents a modified configuration, consisting of a single tower placed inside a measurement trailer with three detector assemblies, allowing for additional vertical segmentation as well as a viewing a container outside the trailer through the trailer wall. An automatic liquid nitrogen fill system is supplied for each of the detectors. The use of a forklift to move the container for horizontal segmentation is accommodated by creating an additional operational and calibration set-up in the NDA 2000 software to allow for the operator to rotate the container and assay the opposite side, achieving the same sensitivity as a comparable two-tower system. This Segmented Gamma Box Counter System retains the core technologies and design features of the standard configuration. The detector assemblies are shielded to minimize interference from environmental and plant background, and are collimated to provide segmentation of the container. The assembly positions can also be modified in height and distance from the container. The ISOCS calibration software provides for a flexible approach to providing the calibrations for a variety of measurement geometries. The NDA 2000 software provides seamless operation with the current configuration, handling the data acquisition and analysis. In this paper, an overview of this system is discussed, along with the measured performance results, calibration methodology and verification, and minimum detectable activity levels. (authors)

  19. Advanced Characterization of Particles and Particle-Cell Interactions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Characterization of Particles and Particle-Cell Interactions Advanced Characterization of Particles and Particle-Cell Interactions 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PDF icon 2004_deer_cowin.pdf More Documents & Publications Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of Single Ultrafine Diesel Tailpipe Particles ACES: Evaluation of Tissue Response to Inhaled

  20. Carl Gagliardi Modern Particle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carl Gagliardi Modern Particle Accelerators and Detectors A Household Survey Carl A. Gagliardi 2 Carl Gagliardi Alyson Clarke * High school All Star swimmer * My niece To do well in her sport, she really needs to know how to ACCELERATE 3 Carl Gagliardi Deena Greer * Physician * My wife To ACCELERATE healing, she needs to DETECT problems that are impossible to see 4 Carl Gagliardi How Do We Accelerate? Let's ask Alyson We drop things! 5 Carl Gagliardi How Do We "Drop" Particles? We can

  1. Fission Particle Emission Multiplicity Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-27

    Simulates discrete neutron and gamma-ray emission from the fission of heavy nuclei that is either spontaneous or neutron induced. This is a function library that encapsulates the fission physics and is intended to be called Monte Carlo transport code.

  2. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  3. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Mendez, Victor P. (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  4. Azimuthal correlations of projectile and target fragments in collisions between gold nuclei of energy 10.6 GeV per nucleon and emulsion nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdurakhmanov, U. U.; Gulamov, K. G.; Zhokhova, S. I.; Lugovoi, V. V. Navotny, V. Sh. Chudakov, V. M.

    2008-03-15

    Intra-and intergroup azimuthal correlations of projectile and target fragments are found in collisions between gold and emulsion nuclei. The statistical significance of these correlations is high. The methodological distortions associated with the measurement errors are investigated in detail and are taken into account.

  5. The angular clustering of WISE-selected active galactic nuclei: Different halos for obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donoso, E.; Yan, Lin; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.

    2014-07-01

    We calculate the angular correlation function for a sample of ?170,000 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extracted from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog, selected to have red mid-IR colors (W1 W2 > 0.8) and 4.6 ?m flux densities brighter than 0.14 mJy). The sample is expected to be >90% reliable at identifying AGNs and to have a mean redshift of (z) = 1.1. In total, the angular clustering of WISE AGNs is roughly similar to that of optical AGNs. We cross-match these objects with the photometric Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog and distinguish obscured sources with r W2 > 6 from bluer, unobscured AGNs. Obscured sources present a higher clustering signal than unobscured sources. Since the host galaxy morphologies of obscured AGNs are not typical red sequence elliptical galaxies and show disks in many cases, it is unlikely that the increased clustering strength of the obscured population is driven by a host galaxy segregation bias. By using relatively complete redshift distributions from the COSMOS survey, we find that obscured sources at (z) ? 0.9 have a bias of b = 2.9 0.6 and are hosted in dark matter halos with a typical mass of log (M/M {sub ?} h {sup 1}) ? 13.5. In contrast, unobscured AGNs at (z) ? 1.1 have a bias of b = 1.6 0.6 and inhabit halos of log (M/M {sub ?} h {sup 1}) ? 12.4. These findings suggest that obscured AGNs inhabit denser environments than unobscured AGNs, and they are difficult to reconcile with the simplest AGN unification models, where obscuration is driven solely by orientation.

  6. Chemical Characterization of Individual Particles and Residuals of Cloud Droplets and Ice Crystals Collected On Board Research Aircraft in the ISDAC 2008 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Brooks, Sarah D.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Glen, Andrew; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Marry K.; Liu, Peter; MacDonald, A. M.; Strapp, J. Walter; McFarquhar, Greg

    2013-06-24

    Although it has been shown that size of atmospheric particles has a direct correlation with their ability to act as cloud droplet and ice nuclei, the influence of composition of freshly emitted and aged particles in nucleation processes is poorly understood. In this work we combine data from field measurements of ice nucleation with chemical imaging of the sampled particles to link aerosol composition with ice nucleation ability. Field measurements and sampling were conducted during the Indirect and Semidirect Aerosols Campaign (ISDAC) over Barrow, Alaska, in the springtime of 2008. In-situ ice nucleation measurements were conducted using a Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC). Measured number concentrations of ice nuclei (IN) varied from frequent values of 0.01 per liter to more than 10 per liter. Residuals of airborne droplets and ice crystals were collected through a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI). The compositions of individual atmospheric particles and the residuals were studied using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (CCSEM/EDX) and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy coupled with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Chemical analysis of cloud particle residuals collected during an episode of high ice nucleation suggests that both size and composition may influence aerosol's ability to act as IN. The STXM/NEXAFS chemical composition maps of individual residuals have characteristic structures of either inorganic or black carbon cores coated by organic materials. In a separate flight, particle samples from a biomass burning plume were collected. Although it has previously been suggested that episodes of biomass burning contribute to increased numbers of highly effective ice nuclei, in this episode we observed that only a small fraction were effective ice nuclei. Most of the particles from the biomass plume episode were smaller in size and were composed of homogeneous organic material without identifiable cores.

  7. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  8. Magnetic structure of light nuclei from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Emmanuel; Detmold, William; Orginos, Kostas; Parreño, Assumpta; Savage, Martin J.; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Beane, Silas R.

    2015-12-09

    Lattice QCD with background magnetic fields is used to calculate the magnetic moments and magnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons and of light nuclei with $A\\le4$, along with the cross-section for the $M1$ transition $np\\rightarrow d\\gamma$, at the flavor SU(3)-symmetric point where the pion mass is $m_\\pi\\sim 806$ MeV. These magnetic properties are extracted from nucleon and nuclear energies in six uniform magnetic fields of varying strengths. The magnetic moments are presented in a recent Letter. For the charged states, the extraction of the polarizability requires careful treatment of Landau levels, which enter non-trivially in the method that is employed. The nucleon polarizabilities are found to be of similar magnitude to their physical values, with $\\beta_p=5.22(+0.66/-0.45)(0.23) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$ and $\\beta_n=1.253(+0.056/-0.067)(0.055) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$, exhibiting a significant isovector component. The dineutron is bound at these heavy quark masses and its magnetic polarizability, $\\beta_{nn}=1.872(+0.121/-0.113)(0.082) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$ differs significantly from twice that of the neutron. A linear combination of deuteron scalar and tensor polarizabilities is determined by the energies of the $j_z=\\pm 1$ deuteron states, and is found to be $\\beta_{d,\\pm 1}=4.4(+1.6/-1.5)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$. The magnetic polarizabilities of the three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems are found to be positive and similar in size to those of the proton, $\\beta_{^{3}\\rm He}=5.4(+2.2/-2.1)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$, $\\beta_{^{3}\\rm H}=2.6(1.7)(0.1) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$, $\\beta_{^{4}\\rm He}=3.4(+2.0/-1.9)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$. Mixing between the $j_z=0$ deuteron state and the spin-singlet $np$ state induced by the background magnetic field is used to extract the short-distance two-nucleon counterterm, ${\\bar L}_1$, of the pionless effective theory for $NN$ systems (equivalent to the meson-exchange current contribution in nuclear potential models), that dictates the cross-section for the $np\\to d\\gamma$ process near threshold. Thus, combined with previous determinations of NN scattering parameters, this enables an ab initio determination of the threshold cross-section at these unphysical masses.

  9. Magnetic structure of light nuclei from lattice QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chang, Emmanuel; Detmold, William; Orginos, Kostas; Parreño, Assumpta; Savage, Martin J.; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Beane, Silas R.

    2015-12-09

    Lattice QCD with background magnetic fields is used to calculate the magnetic moments and magnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons and of light nuclei withmore » $$A\\le4$$, along with the cross-section for the $M1$ transition $$np\\rightarrow d\\gamma$$, at the flavor SU(3)-symmetric point where the pion mass is $$m_\\pi\\sim 806$$ MeV. These magnetic properties are extracted from nucleon and nuclear energies in six uniform magnetic fields of varying strengths. The magnetic moments are presented in a recent Letter. For the charged states, the extraction of the polarizability requires careful treatment of Landau levels, which enter non-trivially in the method that is employed. The nucleon polarizabilities are found to be of similar magnitude to their physical values, with $$\\beta_p=5.22(+0.66/-0.45)(0.23) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$ and $$\\beta_n=1.253(+0.056/-0.067)(0.055) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$, exhibiting a significant isovector component. The dineutron is bound at these heavy quark masses and its magnetic polarizability, $$\\beta_{nn}=1.872(+0.121/-0.113)(0.082) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$ differs significantly from twice that of the neutron. A linear combination of deuteron scalar and tensor polarizabilities is determined by the energies of the $$j_z=\\pm 1$$ deuteron states, and is found to be $$\\beta_{d,\\pm 1}=4.4(+1.6/-1.5)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$. The magnetic polarizabilities of the three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems are found to be positive and similar in size to those of the proton, $$\\beta_{^{3}\\rm He}=5.4(+2.2/-2.1)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$, $$\\beta_{^{3}\\rm H}=2.6(1.7)(0.1) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$, $$\\beta_{^{4}\\rm He}=3.4(+2.0/-1.9)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$. Mixing between the $j_z=0$ deuteron state and the spin-singlet $np$ state induced by the background magnetic field is used to extract the short-distance two-nucleon counterterm, $${\\bar L}_1$$, of the pionless effective theory for $NN$ systems (equivalent to the meson-exchange current contribution in nuclear potential models), that dictates the cross-section for the $$np\\to d\\gamma$$ process near threshold. Thus, combined with previous determinations of NN scattering parameters, this enables an ab initio determination of the threshold cross-section at these unphysical masses.« less

  10. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of a filament channel and the implications for the nature of counter-streamings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P. F.; Fang, C.; Harra, L. K.

    2014-03-20

    The dynamics of a filament channel are observed with imaging and spectroscopic telescopes before and during the filament eruption on 2011 January 29. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral observations reveal that there are no EUV counterparts of the H? counter-streamings in the filament channel, implying that the ubiquitous H? counter-streamings found by previous research are mainly due to longitudinal oscillations of filament threads, which are not in phase between each other. However, there exist larger-scale patchy counter-streamings in EUV along the filament channel from one polarity to the other, implying that there is another component of unidirectional flow (in the range of 10 km s{sup 1}) inside each filament thread in addition to the implied longitudinal oscillation. Our results suggest that the flow direction of the larger-scale patchy counter-streaming plasma in the EUV is related to the intensity of the plage or active network, with the upflows being located at brighter areas of the plage and downflows at the weaker areas. We propose a new method to determine the chirality of an erupting filament on the basis of the skewness of the conjugate filament drainage sites. This method suggests that the right-skewed drainage corresponds to sinistral chirality, whereas the left-skewed drainage corresponds to dextral chirality.

  11. An in-line thermal-neutron coincidence counter for WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) certification measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krick, M.S.; Osborne, L.; Polk, P.J.; Atencio, J.D.; Bjork, C.

    1989-10-01

    A custom-designed, in-line, thermal-neutron coincidence counter has been constructed for the certification of plutonium waste intended for storage at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The mechanical and electrical components of the system and its performance characteristics are described. 6 refs., 16 figs.

  12. A counter-charge layer in generalized solvents framework for electrical double layers in neat and hybrid ionic liquid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jingsong; Feng, Guang; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui; Meunier, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have received significant attention as electrolytes due to a number of attractive properties such as their wide electrochemical windows. Since electrical double layers (EDLs) are the cornerstone for the applications of RTILs in electrochemical systems such as supercapacitors, it is important to develop an understanding of the structure capacitance relationships for these systems. Here we present a theoretical framework termed counter-charge layer in generalized solvents (CGS) for describing the structure and capacitance of the EDLs in neat RTILs and in RTILs mixed with different mass fractions of organic solvents. Within this framework, an EDL is made up of a counter-charge layer exactly balancing the electrode charge, and of polarized generalized solvents (in the form of layers of ion pairs, each of which has a zero net charge but has a dipole moment the ion pairs thus can be considered as a generalized solvent) consisting of all RTILs inside the system except the counter-ions in the counter-charge layer, together with solvent molecules if present. Several key features of the EDLs that originate from the strong ion ion correlation in RTILs, e.g., overscreening of electrode charge and alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions, are explicitly incorporated into this framework. We show that the dielectric screening in EDLs is governed predominately by the polarization of generalized solvents (or ion pairs) in the EDL, and the capacitance of an EDL can be related to its microstructure with few a priori assumptions or simplifications. We use this framework to understand two interesting phenomena observed in molecular dynamics simulations of EDLs in a neat IL of 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and in a mixture of [BMIM][BF4] and acetonitrile (ACN): (1) the capacitance of the EDLs in the [BMIM][BF4]/ACN mixture increases only slightly when the mass fraction of ACN in the mixture increases from zero to 50% although the dielectric constant of bulk ACN is more than two times higher than that of neat [BMIM][BF4]; (2) the capacitance of EDLs near negative electrodes (with BMIM+ ion as the counter-ion) is smaller than that near positive electrodes (with BF4as counter-ion) although the closest approaches of both ions to the electrode surface are nearly identical.

  13. Movement of particles using sequentially activated dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-02-03

    Manipulation of DNA and cells/spores using dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces to perform sample preparation protocols for polymerized chain reaction (PCR) based assays for various applications. This is accomplished by movement of particles using sequentially activated dielectrophoretic particle trapping. DEP forces induce a dipole in particles, and these particles can be trapped in non-uniform fields. The particles can be trapped in the high field strength region of one set of electrodes. By switching off this field and switching on an adjacent electrodes, particles can be moved down a channel with little or no flow.

  14. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected atmospheric particles below 273 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Roedel, Tobias R.; Gilles, Marry K.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2012-09-25

    Atmospheric ice formation induced by particles with complex chemical and physical properties through heterogeneous nucleation is not well understood. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by ambient particles collected from urban environments in Los Angeles and Mexico City are presented. Using a vapour controlled cooling system equipped with an optical microscopy, the range of onset conditions for ice nucleation and water uptake by the collected particles was determined as a function of temperature (200{273 K) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) up to water saturation. Three distinctly different types of authentic atmospheric particles were investigated including soot particles associated with organics/inorganics, inorganic particles of marine origin coated with organic material, and Pb/Zn containing inorganic particles apportioned to anthropogenic emissions relevant to waste incineration. Single particle characterization was provided by micro-spectroscopic analyses using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption ne structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Above 230 K, signicant differences in water uptake and immersion freezing effciencies of the different particle types were observed. Below 230 K, the particles exhibited high deposition ice nucleation effciencies and formed ice at RHice values well below homogeneous ice nucleation limits. The data show that the chemical composition of these eld{collected particles plays an important role in determining water uptake and immersion freezing. Heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coeffcients, cumulative ice nuclei (IN) spectrum, and IN activated fraction for deposition ice nucleation are derived. The presented ice nucleation data demonstrate that anthropogenic and marine particles comprising of various chemical and physical properties exhibit distinctly different ice nucleation effciencies and can serve as effcient IN at atmospheric conditions typical for cirrus and mixed phase clouds. This indicates a potential link between human activities and cloud formation, and thus climate.

  15. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment, which collected data at SLAC until 2008. They continued to analyze the voluminous BaBar data with an emphasis on precision tests of Quantum Chromodynamics and on properties of the "eta_B," a bottom quark paired in a meson with a strange quark. The ATLAS experiment became the principal research focus for Purohit. One of the world's largest pieces of scientific equipment, ATLAS observes particle collisions at the highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Our efforts on ATLAS included participation in the commissioning, calibration, and installation of components called "CSCs". The unprecedented energy of 14 TeV enabled the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to declare discovery of the famous Higgs particle in 2012.

  16. MOJAVE: Monitoring of jets in active galactic nuclei with VLBA experiments. XI. Spectral distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovatta, Talvikki; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Clausen-Brown, Eric; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas; Homan, Daniel C.; Lister, Matthew L.

    2014-06-01

    We have obtained milliarcsecond-scale spectral index distributions for a sample of 190 extragalactic radio jets through the Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with the VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) project. The sources were observed in 2006 at 8.1, 8.4, 12.1, and 15.4 GHz, and we have determined spectral index maps between 8.1 and 15.4 GHz to study the four-frequency spectrum in individual jet features. We have performed detailed simulations to study the effects of image alignment and (u, v)-plane coverage on the spectral index maps to verify our results. We use the spectral index maps to study the spectral index evolution along the jet and determine the spectral distributions in different locations of the jets. The core spectral indices are on average flat with a mean value of +0.22 0.03 for the sample, while the jet spectrum is in general steep with a mean index of 1.04 0.03. A simple power-law fit is often inadequate for the core regions, as expected if the cores are partially self-absorbed. The overall jet spectrum steepens at a rate of about 0.001 to 0.004 per deprojected parsec when moving further out from the core with flat spectrum radio quasars having significantly steeper spectra (mean 1.09 0.04) than the BL Lac objects (mean 0.80 0.05). However, the spectrum in both types of objects flattens on average by ?0.2 at the locations of the jet components indicating particle acceleration or density enhancements along the jet. The mean spectral index at the component locations of 0.81 0.02 corresponds to a power-law index of ?2.6 for the electron energy distribution. We find a significant trend that jet components with linear polarization parallel to the jet (magnetic field perpendicular to the jet) have flatter spectra, as expected for transverse shocks. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have more jet components with perpendicular magnetic field alignment, which may explain their generally flatter spectra. The overall steepening of the spectra with distance can be explained with radiative losses if the jets are collimating or with the evolution of the high-energy cutoff in the electron spectrum if the jets are conical. This interpretation is supported by a significant correlation with the age of the component and the spectral index, with older components having steeper spectra.

  17. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

  18. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  19. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  20. Particle measurement systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Paul T. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-10-04

    A system according to one embodiment includes a light source for generating light fringes; a sampling mechanism for directing a particle through the light fringes; and at least one light detector for detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes. A method according to one embodiment includes generating light fringes using a light source; directing a particle through the light fringes; and detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes using at least one light detector.

  1. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Aron J.; Mori-Snchez, Paula

    2014-01-28

    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  2. Studies of heavy-ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, W.U.

    1993-08-01

    This report contain papers on the following topics: The Cold-Fusion Saga; Decay Patterns of Dysprosium Nuclei Produced in {sup 32}S + {sup 118,124}Sn Fusion Reactions; Unexpected Features of Reactions Between Very Heavy Ions at Intermediate Bombarding Energies; Correlations Between Neutrons and Charged Products from the Dissipative Reaction {sup 197}Au+{sup 208}Pb at E/A = 29 MeV; Dissipative Dynamics of Projectile-Like Fragment Production in the Reaction {sup 209}Bi+{sup 136}Xe at E/A = 28.2 MeV; Dynamical Production of Intermediate-Mass Fragments in Peripheral {sup 209}Bi+{sup 136}Xe Collisions at E{sub lab}/A = 28.2 MeV; The Rochester 960-Liter Neutron Multiplicity Meter; A Simple Pulse Processing Concept for a Low-Cost Pulse-Shape-Based Particle Identification; A One-Transistor Preamplifier for PMT Anode Signals; A Five-Channel Multistop TDC/Event Handler for the SuperBall Neutron Multiplicity Meter; Construction of the SuperBall -- a 16,000-Liter Neutron Detector for Calorimetric Studies of Intermediate-Energy Heavy-Ion Reactions; A Computer Code for Light Detection Efficiency Calculations for Photo-multipliers of a Neutron Detector; Evaluation of Gd-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for the SuperBall Neutron Calorimeter; and Measurement of the Interaction of Cosmic-Ray {mu}{sup {minus}} with a Muon Telescope.

  3. Integral charged particle nuclear date bibliography. Editon 1, Supplement 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

    1986-04-01

    This bibliography is divided into three sections, ''References'', ''Target Index'', and ''Residual Index.'' The ''References'' section contains all references satisfying the following criteria: excitation functions, thick targets, or product yield leading to the formation of a ground or metastable state; the atomic mass and charge of the incident particle must be greater than or equal to 1; the atomic mass of the target must be greater than or equal to 1; and the atomic masses of the outgoing and residual nuclei must be greater than or equal to 1 with the exception of processes which do not lead to a definite residual nucleus and of gamma-ray production cross sections. The ''Target Index'' section contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite target nucleus and reaction. These reference lines contain the Journal name, followed by the volume and page number. The ''Residual Index'' section also contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite residual nucleus and a definite target-reaction.

  4. Particle Theory & Cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafi, Qaisar; Barr, Steven; Gaisser, Thomas; Stanev, Todor

    2015-03-31

    1. Executive Summary (April 1, 2012 - March 31, 2015) Title: Particle Theory, Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Qaisar Shafi University of Delaware (Principal Investigator) Stephen M. Barr, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Thomas K. Gaisser, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Todor Stanev, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) The proposed research was carried out at the Bartol Research included Professors Qaisar Shafi Stephen Barr, Thomas K. Gaisser, and Todor Stanev, two postdoctoral fellows (Ilia Gogoladze and Liucheng Wang), and several graduate students. Five students of Qaisar Shafi completed their PhD during the period August 2011 - August 2014. Measures of the group’s high caliber performance during the 2012-2015 funding cycle included pub- lications in excellent refereed journals, contributions to working groups as well as white papers, and conference activities, which together provide an exceptional record of both individual performance as well as overall strength. Another important indicator of success is the outstanding quality of the past and current cohort of graduate students. The PhD students under our supervision regularly win the top departmental and university awards, and their publications records show excellence both in terms of quality and quantity. The topics covered under this grant cover the frontline research areas in today’s High Energy Theory & Phenomenology. For Professors Shafi and Barr they include LHC related topics including supersymmetry, collider physics, fl vor physics, dark matter physics, Higgs boson and seesaw physics, grand unifi and neutrino physics. The LHC two years ago discovered the Standard Model Higgs boson, thereby at least partially unlocking the secrets behind electroweak symmetry breaking. We remain optimistic that new and exciting physics will be found at LHC 14, which explain our focus on physics beyond the Standard Model. Professors Shafi continued his investigations in cosmology, specifically on supergravity and GUT infl models, primordial gravity waves, dark matter models. The origin of baryon and dark matter in the universe has been explored by Professors Barr and Shafi The research program of Professors Gaisser and Stanev address current research topics in Particle Astrophysics, in particular atmospheric and cosmogenic neutrinos and ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Work also included use of LHC data to improve tools for interpreting cascades generated in the atmosphere by high-energy particles from the cosmos. Cosmogenic neutrinos produced by interactions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays as they propagate through the cosmic microwave background radiation provides insight into the origin of the highest energy particles in nature. Overall, the research covered topics in the energy, cosmic and intensity frontiers.

  5. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C. E.; Belova, E. V.; Brown, M. R.; Gray, T.; Cothran, C. D.; Schaffer, M. J.

    2011-11-15

    Recent counter-helicity spheromak merging experiments in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) have produced a novel compact torus (CT) with unusual features. These include a persistent antisymmetric toroidal magnetic field profile and a slow, nonlinear emergence of the n = 1 tilt mode. Experimental measurements are inconclusive as to whether this unique CT is a fully merged field-reversed configuration (FRC) with strong toroidal field or a partially merged ''doublet CT'' configuration with both spheromak- and FRC-like characteristics. In this paper, the SSX merging process is studied in detail using three-dimensional resistive MHD simulations from the Hybrid Magnetohydrodynamics (HYM) code. These simulations show that merging plasmas in the SSX parameter regime only partially reconnect, leaving behind a doublet CT rather than an FRC. Through direct comparisons, we show that the magnetic structure in the simulations is highly consistent with the SSX experimental observations. We also find that the n = 1 tilt mode begins as a fast growing linear mode that evolves into a slower-growing nonlinear mode before being detected experimentally. A simulation parameter scan over resistivity, viscosity, and line-tying shows that these parameters can strongly affect the behavior of both the merging process and the tilt mode. In fact, merging in certain parameter regimes is found to produce a toroidal-field-free FRC rather than a doublet CT.

  6. Development of an Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for Trace Level Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Panisko, Mark E.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been established as one of the radiation detection techniques useful in elucidating environmental processes and environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities. The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULB-LSC) under construction in the Shallow Underground Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory aims to further reduce the MDAs and/or required sample processing. Through layers of passive shielding in conjunction with an active veto and 30 meters water equivalent overburden, the background reduction is expected to be 10 to 100 times below typical analytic low-background liquid scintillation systems. Simulations have shown an expected background of around 14 counts per day. A novel approach to the light collection will use a coated hollow light guide cut into the inner copper shielding. Demonstration LSC measurements will show low-energy detection, spectral deconvolution, and alpha/beta discrimination capabilities, from trials with standards of tritium, strontium-90, and actinium-227, respectively. An overview of the system design and expected demonstration measurements will emphasize the potential applications of the ULB-LSC in environmental monitoring for treaty verification, reach-back sample analysis, and facility inspections.

  7. PRESTO polarization transfer to quadrupolar nuclei: Implications for dynamic nuclear polarization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-08-04

    We show both experimentally and numerically on a series of model systems that in experiments involving transfer of magnetization from 1H to the quadrupolar nuclei under magic-angle-spinning (MAS), the PRESTO technique consistently outperforms traditionally used cross polarization (CP), affording more quantitative intensities, improved lineshapes, better overall sensitivity, and straightforward optimization. This advantage derives from the fact that PRESTO circumvents the convoluted and uncooperative spin dynamics during the CP transfer under MAS, by replacing the spin-locking of quadrupolar nuclei with a single central transition selective 90° pulse and using a symmetry-based recoupling sequence in the 1H channel. This is important inmore » the context of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, where the efficient transfer of enhanced 1H polarization is desired to obtain the highest sensitivity.« less

  8. PRESTO polarization transfer to quadrupolar nuclei: Implications for dynamic nuclear polarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perras, Frdric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-08-04

    We show both experimentally and numerically on a series of model systems that in experiments involving transfer of magnetization from 1H to the quadrupolar nuclei under magic-angle-spinning (MAS), the PRESTO technique consistently outperforms traditionally used cross polarization (CP), affording more quantitative intensities, improved lineshapes, better overall sensitivity, and straightforward optimization. This advantage derives from the fact that PRESTO circumvents the convoluted and uncooperative spin dynamics during the CP transfer under MAS, by replacing the spin-locking of quadrupolar nuclei with a single central transition selective 90 pulse and using a symmetry-based recoupling sequence in the 1H channel. This is important in the context of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, where the efficient transfer of enhanced 1H polarization is desired to obtain the highest sensitivity.

  9. Micro-Spectroscopic Imaging and Characterization of Individually Identified Ice Nucleating Particles from a Case Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knopf, Daniel A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Wang, Bingbing; O'Brien, Rachel E.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Moffet, Ryan C.

    2014-09-03

    The effect of anthropogenic and biogenic organic particles on atmospheric glaciation processes is poorly understood. We use an optical microscopy (OM) setup to identify the location of ice nuclei (IN) active in immersion freezing and deposition ice nucleation for temperatures of 200-273 K within a large population of particles sampled from an ambient environment. Applying multi-modal micro-spectroscopy methods we characterize the physicochemical properties of individual IN in particle populations collected in central California. Chemical composition and mixing state analysis of particle populations are performed to identify characteristic particle-type classes. All particle-types contained organic material. Particles in these samples take up water at subsaturated conditions, induce immersion freezing at subsaturated and saturated conditions above 226 K, and act as deposition IN below 226 K. The identified IN belong to the most common particle-type classes observed in the field samples: organic coated sea salt, Na-rich, and secondary and refractory carbonaceous particles. Based on these observations, we suggest that the IN are not always particles with unique chemical composition and exceptional ice nucleation propensity; rather, they are common particles in the ambient particle population. Thus, particle composition and morphology alone are insufficient to assess their potential to act as IN. The results suggest that particle-type abundance is also a crucial factor in determining the ice nucleation efficiency of specific IN types. These findings emphasize that ubiquitous organic particles can induce ice nucleation under atmospherically relevant conditions and that they may play an important role in atmospheric glaciation processes.

  10. Characterization of Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles and their Atmospheric Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Ezell, Michael J.; Perraud, Veronique; Johnson, Stanley N.; Bruns, Emily; Yu, Yong; Imre, D.; Alexander, M. L.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2010-03-30

    The photooxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of NO2, with and without added NaNO3 seed particles, has been studied in a large diameter flow tube. Particles formed by homogeneous nucleation and by condensation on the pre-existing seeds were sampled at various stages of the reaction, dried using four diffusion dryers, size selected at different mobility diameters (dm) using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), and characterized with a single particle mass spectrometer (SPLAT II). It was found that homogeneously nucleated particles are spherical, have a density (?) of 1.25 0.02 g cm-3 ( 2 ?) and contain a significant amount of organic nitrates. The mass spectra of the low volatility products condensed on the NaNO3 seed particles were found to be virtually the same as in the case of homogeneous nucleation. The data show that the presence of even a submonolayer of organics on the NaNO3 particles causes water retention that leads to a decrease in particle density and that the amount of water retained increases with organic coating thickness. Thicker coatings appear to inhibit water evaporation from the particle seeds altogether. This suggests that in the atmosphere, where low volatility organics are plentiful, some hygroscopic salts will retain water and have different densities and refractive indices than expected in the absence of the organic coating. This water retention combined with the organic shell on the particles can potentially impact light scattering by these particles and activity as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), as well as heterogeneous chemistry and photochemistry on the particles.

  11. Low-lying dipole response in the stable {sup 40,48}Ca nuclei with the second random-phase approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambacurta, D.; Catara, F.

    2011-09-15

    Low-energy dipole excitations are analyzed for the stable isotopes {sup 40}Ca and {sup 48}Ca in the framework of the Skyrme-second random-phase approximation. The corresponding random-phase approximation calculations provide a negligible strength distribution for both nuclei in the energy region from 5 to 10 MeV. The inclusion and the coupling of 2 particle-2 hole configurations in the second random-phase approximation lead to an appreciable dipole response at low energies for the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 48}Ca. The presence of a neutron skin in the nucleus {sup 48}Ca would suggest the interpretation of the low-lying response in terms of a pygmy excitation. The composition of the excitation modes (content of 1 particle-1 hole and 2 particle-2 hole configurations), their transition densities and their collectivity (number and coherence of the different contributions) are analyzed. This analysis indicates that, in general, these excitations cannot be clearly interpreted in terms of oscillations of the neutron skin against the core with the exception of the peak with the largest B(E1) value, which is located at 9.09 MeV. For this peak the neutron transition density dominates and the neutron and proton transition densities oscillate out of phase in the internal part of the nucleus leading to a strong mixing of isoscalar and isovector components. Therefore, this state shows some features usually associated to pygmy resonances.

  12. Particle-free microchip processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geller, A.S.; Rader, D.J.

    1996-06-04

    Method and apparatus for reducing particulate contamination in microchip processing are disclosed. The method and apparatus comprise means to reduce particle velocity toward the wafer before the particles can be deposited on the wafer surface. A reactor using electric fields to reduce particle velocity and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. A reactor using a porous showerhead to reduce particle velocities and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. 5 figs.

  13. Particle-free microchip processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geller, Anthony S. (7723 Storrie Pl. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109); Rader, Daniel J. (7217 Ottawa Rd. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109)

    1996-01-01

    Method and apparatus for reducing particulate contamination in microchip processing are disclosed. The method and apparatus comprise means to reduce particle velocity toward the wafer before the particles can be deposited on the wafer surface. A reactor using electric fields to reduce particle velocity and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. A reactor using a porous showerhead to reduce particle velocities and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed.

  14. No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei Authors: Quaglioni, S ; Navratil, P ; Hupin, G ; Langhammee, J ; Romero-Redondo, C ; Roth, R Publication Date: 2012-09-24 OSTI Identifier: 1053647 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-586292 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: 20th International IUPAP Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics

  15. No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale

  16. Isospin effects in N ≈ Z nuclei in extended density functional theory

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Isospin effects in N ≈ Z nuclei in extended density functional theory Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 25, 2017 Title: Isospin effects in N ≈ Z nuclei in extended density functional theory Authors: Satuła, Wojciech ; Nazarewicz, Witold Publication Date: 2016-01-25 OSTI Identifier: 1235743 Grant/Contract Number: DOE-DE-SC0008511; DOE-DE-SC0013365 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal

  17. Recent results at ultrahigh spin: Terminating states and beyond in mass 160 rare-earth nuclei

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paul, E. S.; Rees, J. M.; Hampson, P.; Riley, M. A.; Simpson, J.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Baron, J. S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Garg, U.; et al

    2015-01-01

    A classic region of band termination at high spin occurs in rare-earth nuclei with around ten valence nucleons above the 146Gd closed core. The results are presented here for such non-collective oblate (γ = 60°) terminating states in odd-Z 155Ho, odd–odd 156Ho, and even–even 156Er, where they are compared with neighboring nuclei. In addition to these particularly favoured states, the occurrence of collective triaxial strongly deformed (TSD) bands, bypassing the terminating states and extending to over 65ℏ, is reviewed.

  18. The NuSTAR View of Nearby Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei: The Cases

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: The NuSTAR View of Nearby Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei: The Cases of NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The NuSTAR View of Nearby Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei: The Cases of NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560 Authors: Balokovic, M. ; /Caltech ; Comastri, A. ; /Bologna Observ. ; Harrison, F.A. ; /Caltech ; Alexander, D.M. ;

  19. The NuSTAR View of Nearby Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei: The Cases

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The NuSTAR View of Nearby Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei: The Cases of NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The NuSTAR View of Nearby Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei: The Cases of NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560 × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information

  20. {alpha}-cluster structure and density waves in oblate nuclei (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect {alpha}-cluster structure and density waves in oblate nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: {alpha}-cluster structure and density waves in oblate nuclei Pentagon and triangle shapes in {sup 28}Si and {sup 12}C are discussed in relation to nuclear density waves. In the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics calculations, the K{sup {pi}=}5{sup -} band in {sup 28}Si and the K{sup {pi}=}3{sup -} band in {sup 12}C are described by the pentagon and triangle

  1. Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Calculations for Light Nuclei (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Calculations for Light Nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Calculations for Light Nuclei No abstract prepared. Authors: Navratil, P Publication Date: 2007-06-23 OSTI Identifier: 920850 Report Number(s): UCRL-PROC-232457 TRN: US0802034 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: International School of Physics "Enrico

  2. The energy dependence of the electric dipole strength in heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosse, Eckart; Becvar, Frantisek; Junghans, Arnd R.; Rusev, Gencho; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2009-01-28

    On the basis of new photon scattering measurements and a reevaluation of average neutron resonance capture data we investigate how well Lorentzians adjusted to photo-neutron data in the giant dipole resonances give a good description of the photon strength also below the neutron threshold. If deformation effects are properly taken into account this is verified down to about 5 MeV for various nuclei with A>80 such that the previously employed differentiation between deformed and non-deformed nuclei is no longer necessary.

  3. Pygmy and Giant Dipole Response Function in Neutron Rich Nuclei at Finite Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahin, Ersin; Bozkurt, Kutsal; Sirin, Mehmet

    2010-01-21

    We investigate pygmy and giant dipole resonance (PDR-GDR) for the case of neutron rich soft nuclei {sup 68}Ni and heavy nuclei {sup 208}Pb using effective nucleon-nucleon Skyrme interactions SLy7 and KDEO at finite temperature. We use the mean-field theory (HF) and employ the random phase approximation (RPA) in a coordinate space. We then compare the PDR calculations for the different Skyrme interactions with their experimental results. We find that the PDR and GDR strength distribution depends sensitively on temperature, and especially for {sup 68}Ni the collective effects almost disappear at T = 4 MeV.

  4. Monoponucleosis: the wonderful things that monopoles can do to nuclei if they are there

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this talk we consider the wonderful things that monopoles can do to nuclei by examining nuclear physics in strong magnetic fields. We have seen that monopoles can bind nuclei. We shall investigate the following other possible processes: (1) mixing of singlet and triplet states of deuteron-like positronium; (2) production of a new kind of nuclear matter with nucleon moments oriented in the field; (3) catalysis of nuclear fission; (4) catalysis of nuclear fusion (with implications for solar neutrinos); and (5) enhancement of forbidden decays like triplet positronium, e.g. fission products.

  5. MONOPONUCLEOSIS: the wonderful things that monopoles can do to nuclei if they are there

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    In this talk we consider the wonderful things that monopoles can do to nuclei by examining nuclear physics in strong magnetic fields. We have seen that monopoles can bind nuclei. We shall investigate the following other possible processes: (1) mixing of singlet and triplet states of deuteron-like positornium; (2) production of a new kind of nuclear matter with nucleon moments oriented in the field; (3) catalysis of nuclear fission; (4) catalysis of nuclear fusion (with implications for solar neutrinos); and (5) enhancement of forbidden decays like triplet positronium, e.g., fission products.

  6. Protons Hog the Momentum in Neutron-Rich Nuclei | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Protons Hog the Momentum in Neutron-Rich Nuclei Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 05.01.15 Protons Hog the Momentum in Neutron-Rich Nuclei

  7. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2014-10-21

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  8. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Ward, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  9. Hadron particle theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1995-05-01

    Radiation therapy with ``hadrons`` (protons, neutrons, pions, ions) has accrued a 55-year track record, with by now over 30,000 patients having received treatments with one of these particles. Very good, and in some cases spectacular results are leading to growth in the field in specific well-defined directions. The most noted contributor to success has been the ability to better define and control the radiation field produced with these particles, to increase the dose delivered to the treatment volume while achieving a high degree of sparing of normal tissue. An additional benefit is the highly-ionizing, character of certain beams, leading to creater cell-killing potential for tumor lines that have historically been very resistant to radiation treatments. Until recently these treatments have been delivered in laboratories and research centers whose primary, or original mission was physics research. With maturity in the field has come both the desire to provide beam facilities more accessible to the clinical setting, of a hospital, as well as achieving, highly-efficient, reliable and economical accelerator and beam-delivery systems that can make maximum advantage of the physical characteristics of these particle beams. Considerable work in technology development is now leading, to the implementation of many of these ideas, and a new generation of clinically-oriented facilities is beginning to appear. We will discuss both the physical, clinical and technological considerations that are driving these designs, as well as highlighting, specific examples of new facilities that are either now treating, patients or that will be doing so in the near future.

  10. On Board, In-use Sensitivity Study of an Electrical Aerosol Detector (EAD) and Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) for Second by Second Diesel PM Measurements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  11. Removal of pollutant compounds from water supplies using ozone, ultraviolet light, and a counter, current packed column. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Many water pollutants are determined to be carcinogenic and often appear in very low concentrations and still pose a health risk. Conventional water treatment processes cannot remove these contaminants and there is a great demand for the development of alternative removal technologies. The use of ozone and ultraviolet light in a counter current packed column could prove to be an effective treatment process to remove these contaminants.

  12. Stimulated Raman scattering of beat wave of two counter-propagating X-mode lasers in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Kanika; Sajal, Vivek Varshney, Prateek; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K.

    2014-02-15

    Effects of transverse static magnetic field on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of the beat wave excited by two counter-propagating lasers are studied. Two counter-propagating lasers with frequency difference, ?{sub 1}??{sub 2}?2?{sub p}, drive a non resonant space charge beat mode at wave number k{sup ?}{sub 0}?k{sup ?}{sub 1}+k{sup ?}{sub 2} in a plasma, where k{sup ?}{sub 1} and k{sup ?}{sub 2} are wave vectors of lasers having frequencies ?{sub 1} and ?{sub 2}, respectively. The driven beat wave acts as a pump for SRS and excites parametrically a pair of plasma wave (?,k{sup ?}) and side band electromagnetic wave (?{sub 3},k{sup ?}{sub 3}) propagating in the sideward direction in such a way that momentum remains conserved. The growth rate of Raman process is maximum for side scattering at ?{sub s}=?/2 for lower values of applied magnetic field (?1?kG), which can be three fold by applying magnetic field ?5.0?kG. Thus, optimum value of magnetic field can be utilized to achieve maximum electron acceleration in counter propagating geometry of beat wave acceleration by reducing the growth rate of Raman process.

  13. Studies of Single-Particle Structure in the N=16 Region Using Transfer Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemmon, R. C.; Pucknell, V. P. E.; Warner, D. D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Chartier, M.; Timis, C.; Catford, W. N.; Baldwin, T. D.; Gelletly, W.; Pain, S. D.; Rejmund, M.; Labiche, M.; Amzal, N.; Burns, M.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Spohr, K.; Ashwood, N.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.

    2006-08-14

    We have developed a new experimental setup based at the GANIL/SPIRAL facility in Caen, France to measure one-nucleon transfer reactions in inverse kinematics in order to study the evolution of the single particle structure of exotic nuclei. The setup couples together three state-of-the-art detection systems: the TIARA Si array, the large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer VAMOS and the high-efficiency segmented Ge {gamma}-ray array EXOGAM. In a first experiment, the 24Ne(d,p)25Ne reaction has been studied to probe the N=16 shell closure. Details of the setup, data analysis and preliminary results are presented.

  14. Microscopic Description of the Exotic Nuclei Reactions by Using Folding model Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.; Hassanain, M. A.; Mokhtar, S. R.; El-Azab Farid, M.; Zaki, M. A.; Mahmoud, Zakaria M. M.

    2011-10-27

    A microscopic folding approach based upon the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nuclear matter densities of the interacting nuclei has been carried out to explain recently measured experimental data of the {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn elastic scattering reaction at four different laboratory energies near the Coulomb barrier. The corresponding reaction cross sections are also considered.

  15. Yields of photoneutron reactions on {sup 197}Au nuclei in the giant-dipole-resonance region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyshev, S. S.; Ermakov, A. N.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Kurilik, A. S.; Stopani, K. A.; Troschiev, S. Yu.

    2011-11-15

    Yields of photonuclear reactions on 197Au nuclei were measured in a beam of bremsstrahlung photons, the endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung spectrum being 29.1 MeV. These measurements were performed by means of the gamma-activation procedure. The results obtained in this way were compared with the results of earlier experiments and theoretical calculations.

  16. Density dependence of the symmetry energy from neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinas, X.; Centelles, M.; Roca-Maza, X.; Warda, M.

    2012-10-20

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy, characterized by the parameter L, is studied using information provided by the neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei. An estimate of L is obtained from experimental data of antiprotonic atoms. We also discuss the ability of parity violating electron scatering to obtain information about the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb.

  17. Nonlinear particle behavior during cross-type optical particle separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sang Bok; Lee, Kyung Heon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2009-12-28

    The effects of varying the ratio of the optical force to the viscous drag force, termed S, on cross-type optical particle separation were investigated experimentally to test previous theoretical predictions. The experiments were performed for various flow velocities, powers of the laser beam, and radii of the laser beam waist and the particles. The behaviors of the particles during optical separation were examined by measuring the retention distances and analyzing the particle trajectories. For small values of S, the particles move with constant velocity in the flow direction and the retention distance increases linearly with S. However, the particles accelerate and decelerate within the laser beam and the retention distance increases nonlinearly with S when S increases further.

  18. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Benefits of Particle Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benefits of Particle Physics photo Each generation of particle accelerators and detectors builds on the previous one, raising the potential for discovery and pushing the level of technology ever higher. In 1930, Ernest O. Lawrence, the father of particle accelerators, built the first hand-held cyclotron at Berkeley, California. Larger and more powerful accelerators soon followed. After a day's research, Lawrence often operated the Berkeley cyclotrons through the night to produce medical isotopes

  19. Southern Great Plains Ice Nuclei Characterization Experiment Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMott, PJ; Suski, KJ; Hill, TCJ; Levin, EJT

    2015-03-01

    The first ever ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements to be collected at the Southern Great Plains site were made during a period from late April to June 2014, as a trial for possible longer-term measurements at the site. These measurements will also be used to lay the foundation for understanding and parameterizing (for cloud resolving modeling) the sources of these climatically important aerosols as well as to augment the existing database containing this knowledge. Siting the measurements during the spring was intended to capture INP sources in or to this region from plant, soil, dust transported over long distances, biomass burning, and pollution aerosols at a time when they may influence warm-season convective clouds and precipitation. Data have been archived of real-time measurements of INP number concentrations as a function of processing conditions (temperature and relative humidity) during 18 days of sampling that spanned two distinctly different weather situations: a warm, dry and windy period with regional dust and biomass burning influences in early May, and a cooler period of frequent precipitation during early June. Precipitation delayed winter wheat harvesting, preventing intended sampling during that perturbation on atmospheric aerosols. INP concentrations were highest and most variable at all temperatures in the dry period, where we attribute the INP activity primarily to soil dust emissions. Additional offline INP analyses are underway to extend the characterization of INP to cover the entire mixed phase cloud regime from -5°C to -35°C during the full study. Initial comparisons between methods on four days show good agreement and excellent future promise. The additional offline immersion freezing data will be archived as soon as completed under separate funding. Analyses of additional specialized studies for specific attribution of INP to biological and smoke sources are continuing via the National Science Foundation and National Aeronautics and Space Administration funding that helped support instrumentation used for the measurements described herein. Aerosol Observing System aerosol data will be vital to the interpretation and parameterization of results as part of analyses for publications in preparation.

  20. Advanced Characterization of Particles and Particle-Cell Interactions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of Single Ultrafine Diesel Tailpipe Particles ACES: Evaluation of Tissue ...

  1. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics 101 | How Particle Physics Discovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Works How Particle Physics Discovery Works Matter at the smallest scale is made of elementary particles, pieces of matter that cannot be divided into anything smaller. As scientists over the past century have looked deeper and deeper into the atom, they have found the smallest things human beings have ever seen. How do they do it? The first step: accelerators The collision of particles at high energy, either with other particles or with a stationary target, allows physicists not only to look

  2. Description of true and delayed ternary nuclear fission accompanied by the emission of various third particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadmensky, S. G., E-mail: kadmensky@vsu.ru; Kadmensky, S. S.; Lyubashevsky, D. E. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-15

    The mechanisms and the features of the main types of nuclear ternary fission (that is, true ternary fission, in which a third particle is emitted before the rupture of the fissioning nucleus into fragments, and delayed ternary fission, in which a third particle is emitted from fission fragments going apart) are investigated within quantum-mechanical fission theory. The features of T-odd asymmetry in true ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons are investigated for the cases where alpha particles, prescission neutrons, and photons appear as third particles emitted by fissioning nuclei, the Coriolis interaction of the spin of the polarized fissioning nucleus with the spin of the third particle and the interference between the fission amplitudes for neutron resonances excited in the fissioning nucleus in the case of projectile-neutron capture being taken into account. For the cases where third particles emitted by fission fragments are evaporated neutrons or photons, T-odd asymmetries in delayed ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons are analyzed with allowance for the mechanism of pumping of large fission-fragment spins oriented orthogonally to the fragment-emission direction and with allowance for the interference between the fission amplitudes for neutron resonances.

  3. Intra-jet shocks in two counter-streaming, weakly collisional plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Kugland, N. L.; Park, H.-S.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B. A.; Ross, J. S.

    2012-07-15

    Counterstreaming laser-generated plasma jets can serve as a test-bed for the studies of a variety of astrophysical phenomena, including collisionless shock waves. In the latter problem, the jet's parameters have to be chosen in such a way as to make the collisions between the particles of one jet with the particles of the other jet very rare. This can be achieved by making the jet velocities high and the Coulomb cross-sections correspondingly low. On the other hand, the intra-jet collisions for high-Mach-number jets can still be very frequent, as they are determined by the much lower thermal velocities of the particles of each jet. This paper describes some peculiar properties of intra-jet hydrodynamics in such a setting: the steepening of smooth perturbations and shock formation affected by the presence of the 'stiff' opposite flow; the role of a rapid electron heating in shock formation; ion heating by the intrajet shock. The latter effect can cause rapid ion heating which is consistent with recent counterstreaming jet experiments by Ross et al.[Phys. Plasmas 19, 056501 (2012)].

  4. ARM - Measurement - Cloud ice particle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ice particle ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud ice particle Particles made of ice found in clouds. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or

  5. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Neutrinos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrinos photo Our universe is permeated with neutrinos - nearly massless, neutral particles that interact so rarely with other matter that trillions of them pass through our bodies each second without leaving a trace. These tiny particles, studied in world-leading Fermilab experiments, could be key to a deeper understanding of our universe. Neutrinos, first discovered in 1956, have some mysterious characteristics. They have puzzlingly low masses, compared to other elementary particles, and

  6. Design and performance of A 3He-free coincidence counter based on parallel plate boron-lined proportional technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Marlow, J. B.

    2015-07-01

    Thermal neutron counters utilized and developed for deployment as non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments in the field of nuclear safeguards traditionally rely on 3He-based proportional counting systems. 3He-based proportional counters have provided core NDA detection capabilities for several decades and have proven to be extremely reliable with range of features highly desirable for nuclear facility deployment. Facing the current depletion of 3He gas supply and the continuing uncertainty of options for future resupply, a search for detection technologies that could provide feasible short-term alternative to 3He gas was initiated worldwide. As part of this effort, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) designed and built a 3He-free full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter based on boron-lined proportional technology. The boronlined technology was selected in a comprehensive inter-comparison exercise based on its favorable performance against safeguards specific parameters. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial performance evaluation of the prototype High Level Neutron counter Boron (HLNB). The initial results suggest that current HLNB design is capable to provide ~80% performance of a selected reference 3He-based coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter, HLNCC). Similar samples are expected to be measurable in both systems, however, slightly longer measurement times may be anticipated for large samples in HLNB. The initial evaluation helped to identify potential for further performance improvements via additional tailoring of boron-layer thickness.

  7. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nation, John A.; Greenwald, Shlomo

    1989-01-01

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

  8. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nation, J.A.; Greenwald, S.

    1989-05-30

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications is disclosed. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle. 10 figs.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPLATT-II : Single Particle Laser Ablasion Time flown on Aircraft TDMA-AIR : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer- Airborne UW-CONVAIR580 : University of Washington...

  10. Continuous flow dielectrophoretic particle concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cummings, Eric B. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-04-17

    A continuous-flow filter/concentrator for separating and/or concentrating particles in a fluid is disclosed. The filter is a three-port device an inlet port, an filter port and a concentrate port. The filter separates particles into two streams by the ratio of their dielectrophoretic mobility to their electrokinetic, advective, or diffusive mobility if the dominant transport mechanism is electrokinesis, advection, or diffusion, respectively.Also disclosed is a device for separating and/or concentrating particles by dielectrophoretic trapping of the particles.

  11. Spectral statistics in noninteracting many-particle systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munoz, L.; Relano, A.; Retamosa, J. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Faleiro, E. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, E.U.I.T. Industrial, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28012 Madrid (Spain); Molina, R.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik Komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    It is widely accepted that the statistical properties of energy level spectra provide an essential characterization of quantum chaos. Indeed, the spectral fluctuations of many different systems like quantum billiards, atoms, or atomic nuclei have been studied. However, noninteracting many-body systems have received little attention, since it is assumed that they must exhibit Poisson-like fluctuations. Apart from a heuristic argument of Bloch, there are neither systematic numerical calculations nor a rigorous derivation of this fact. Here we present a rigorous study of the spectral fluctuations of noninteracting identical particles moving freely in a mean field emphasizing the evolution with the number of particles N as well as with the energy. Our results are conclusive. For N{>=}2 the spectra of these systems exhibit Poisson fluctuations provided that we consider sufficiently high excitation energies. Nevertheless, when the mean field is chaotic there exists a critical energy scale L{sub c}; beyond this scale, the fluctuations deviate from the Poisson statistics as a reminiscence of the statistical properties of the mean field.

  12. Non-classical nuclei and growth kinetics of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys during ageing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xin

    2014-01-10

    In this manuscript, we quantitatively calculated the thermodynamic properties of critical nuclei of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys. The concentration profiles of the critical nuclei and nucleation energy barriers were predicted by the constrained shrinking dimer dynamics (CSDD) method. It is found that Cr concentration distribution in the critical nuclei strongly depend on the overall Cr concentration as well as temperature. The critical nuclei are non-classical because the concentration in the nuclei is smaller than the thermodynamic equilibrium value. These results are in agreement with atomic probe observation. The growth kinetics of both classical and non-classical nuclei was investigated by the phase field approach. The simulations of critical nucleus evolution showed a number of interesting phenomena: 1) a critical classical nucleus first shrinks toward its non-classical nucleus and then grows; 2) a non-classical nucleus has much slower growth kinetics at its earlier growth stage compared to the diffusion-controlled growth kinetics. 3) a critical classical nucleus grows faster at the earlier growth stage than the non-classical nucleus. All of these results demonstrate that it is critical to introduce the correct critical nuclei in order to correctly capture the kinetics of precipitation.

  13. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  14. High spatial resolution particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

  15. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  16. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  17. Particle sizer and DNA sequencer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.

    2005-09-13

    An electrophoretic device separates and detects particles such as DNA fragments, proteins, and the like. The device has a capillary which is coated with a coating with a low refractive index such as Teflon.RTM. AF. A sample of particles is fluorescently labeled and injected into the capillary. The capillary is filled with an electrolyte buffer solution. An electrical field is applied across the capillary causing the particles to migrate from a first end of the capillary to a second end of the capillary. A detector light beam is then scanned along the length of the capillary to detect the location of the separated particles. The device is amenable to a high throughput system by providing additional capillaries. The device can also be used to determine the actual size of the particles and for DNA sequencing.

  18. High spatial resolution particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

  19. Chaos in the low-lying collective states of even-even nuclei: Classical limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alhassid, Y.; Whelan, N. (Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT (USA) A. W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1991-06-01

    We study the classical dynamical behavior of a family of Hamiltonians in the interacting boson model which describe the low-lying collective states of even-even nuclei. Two measures of classical chaos, the fractional volume of chaotic trajectories and the average largest Lyapunov exponent, are studied as a function of energy, angular momentum, and a parameter which interpolates between rotational and {gamma}-unstable nuclei. Near these two limits the dynamics is regular but in the transition region it becomes chaotic. The results agree with a previous study of quantum chaos in the corresponding quantal model, where spectral and {ital E}(2) intensity fluctuations were analyzed. Contrary to most previous numerical studies which were restricted to unrealistic models in two degrees of freedom, the present model is realistic and has five degrees of freedom. The latter correspond to the five quadrupole nuclear shape degrees of freedom.

  20. Shell structure in neutron rich nuclei by means of binary reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelis, G. de

    2014-08-14

    Nuclear structure studies far from stability rely mainly on the availability of radioactive nuclear beams but can complementary be addressed by means of high intensity beams of stable ions. In such contest, deep-inelastic and multinucleon transfer reactions are a powerful tool to populate yrast and non yrast states in neutron-rich nuclei. Particularly successful is here the combination of large acceptance spectrometers with highly segmented gamma-detector arrays. Such devices can provide the necessary channel selectivity to identify very rare signals. The AGATA gamma-ray detector array coupled to the PRISMA spectrometer at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) in Italy is one example. Large data sets have been collected at LNL for nuclei close to the N=20, 28, 40, 50 and 82 shell closures.

  1. Photo-disintegration of heavy nuclei at the core of Cen A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundu, Esha; Gupta, Nayantara E-mail: nayan@rri.res.in

    2014-04-01

    Fermi LAT has detected gamma ray emissions from the core of Cen A. More recently, a new component in the gamma ray spectrum from the core has been reported in the energy range of 4 GeV to tens of GeV. We show that the new component and the HESS detected spectrum of gamma rays from the core at higher energy have possibly a common origin in photo-disintegration of heavy nuclei. Assuming the cosmic rays are mostly Fe nuclei inside the core and their spectrum has a low energy cut-off at 52 TeV in the wind frame moving with a Doppler factor 0.25 with respect to the observer on earth, the cosmic ray luminosity required to explain the observed gamma ray flux above 1 GeV is found to be 1.5 10{sup 43} erg/sec.

  2. Evolution of the pygmy dipole resonance in nuclei with neutron excess

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Co', G.; Donno, V. De; Maieron, C.; Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M.

    2009-07-15

    The electric dipole excitation of various nuclei is calculated with a Random Phase Approximation phenomenological approach. The evolution of the strength distribution in various groups of isotopes of oxygen, calcium, zirconium, and tin is studied. The neutron excess produces E1 strength in the low-energy region. Indexes to measure the collectivity of the excitation are defined. We studied the behavior of proton and neutron transition densities to determine the isoscalar or isovector nature of the excitation. We observed that in medium-heavy nuclei the low-energy E1 excitation has characteristics rather different than those exhibited by the giant dipole resonance. This new type of excitation can be identified as a pygmy dipole resonance.

  3. Impact of heterogeneous ice nuclei on homogeneous freezing events in cirrus clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spichtinger, Peter; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2010-07-29

    The influence of initial heterogeneous nucleation on subsequent homogeneous nucleation events in cirrus clouds is investigated using a box model which includes the explicit impact of aerosols on the nucleation of ice crystals and sedimentation. Different effects are discussed, namely the impact of external mixtures of heterogeneous ice nuclei and the influence of size-dependent freezing thresholds. Several idealized experiments are carried out, which show that the treatment of external mixtures of ice nuclei can strongly change later homogeneous nucleation events (i.e., the ice crystal number densities) in different matters. The use of size-dependent freezing thresholds can also change the cloud prop erties when compared to more simple parameterizations. This size effect is most important for large IN concentrations. Based upon these findings, recommendations for future modeling and measurement efforts are presented.

  4. High-energy Electron Scattering and the Charge Distributions of Selected Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Hahn, B.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Hofstadter, R.

    1955-10-01

    Experimental results are presented of electron scattering by Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Bi, Th, and U, at 183 Mev and (for some of the elements) at 153 Mev. For those nuclei for which asphericity and inelastic scattering are absent or unimportant, i.e., Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Au, and Bi, a partial wave analysis of the Dirac equation has been performed in which the nuclei are represented by static, spherically symmetric charge distributions. Smoothed uniform charge distributions have been assumed; these are characterized by a constant charge density in the central region of the nucleus, with a smoothed-our surface. Essentially two parameters can be determined, related to the radium and to the surface thickness. An examination of the Au experiments show that the functional forms of the surface are not important, and that the charge density in the central regions is probably fairly flat, although it cannot be determined very accurately.

  5. Focusing particle concentrator with application to ultrafine particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hering, Susanne; Lewis, Gregory; Spielman, Steven R.

    2013-06-11

    Technology is presented for the high efficiency concentration of fine and ultrafine airborne particles into a small fraction of the sampled airflow by condensational enlargement, aerodynamic focusing and flow separation. A nozzle concentrator structure including an acceleration nozzle with a flow extraction structure may be coupled to a containment vessel. The containment vessel may include a water condensation growth tube to facilitate the concentration of ultrafine particles. The containment vessel may further include a separate carrier flow introduced at the center of the sampled flow, upstream of the acceleration nozzle of the nozzle concentrator to facilitate the separation of particle and vapor constituents.

  6. Fluxes and spectra of quasimonochromatic annihilation photons for studying E1 giant resonances in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzhilavyan, L. Z.

    2014-12-15

    The fluxes and spectra of quasimonochromatic photons originating from the in-flight annihilation of positrons interacting with electrons of targets are analyzed in the energy region characteristic of the excitation of E1 giant resonances in nuclei. Targets of small thickness and low atomic number are used. The dependences of the spectra on the energy and angle (and their scatter) for positrons incident to the target, on the collimation angle for photons, and on the target thickness are studied.

  7. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-103 Cloud Condensation Nuclei Profile Value-Added

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Cloud Condensation Nuclei Profile Value-Added Product S McFarlane C Sivaraman S Ghan October 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would

  8. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  9. Scaling of the giant dipole resonance widths in hot rotating nuclei from the ground state values

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, Srijit; Pandit, Deepak; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, Surajit; Banerjee, S. R.

    2008-12-15

    The systematics of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) widths in hot and rotating nuclei are studied in terms of temperature T, angular momentum J, and mass A. The different experimental data in the temperature range of 1-2 MeV have been compared with the thermal shape fluctuation model (TSFM) in the liquid drop formalism using a modified approach to estimate the average values of T, J, and A in the decay of the compound nucleus. The values of the ground state GDR widths have been extracted from the TSFM parametrization in the liquid drop limit for the corrected T, J, and A for a given system and compared with the corresponding available systematics of the experimentally measured ground state GDR widths for a range of nuclei from A=45 to 194. Amazingly, the nature of the theoretically extracted ground state GDR widths matches remarkably well, though 1.5 times smaller, with the experimentally measured ground state GDR widths consistently over a wide range of nuclei.

  10. Collisions induced by halo and weakly bound nuclei around the Coulomb barrier: Results at INFN-LNS Catania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figuera, Pierpaolo

    2012-10-20

    The study of collisions around the Coulomb barrier induced by halo and/or weakly bound nuclei has been the object of many publications in the last years, since the peculiar structure of such nuclei can strongly affect the reaction dynamics. In this paper we will summarize some results on the above topic obtained by our group at INFN-LNS Catania. Results concerning the study of elastic scattering and different reaction mechanisms in collisions induced by the halo nuclei {sup 11}Be and {sup 6}He and by the weakly bound stable nuclei {sup 6,7}Li on a {sup 64}Zn target, at energies around the Coulomb barrier, will be presented. The conclusions of our studies will be compared with the ones of other authors, in order to show if clear systematic conclusions can be drawn from the different papers published in the literature so far.

  11. Ice Nucleation of Bare and Sulfuric Acid-coated Mineral Dust Particles and Implication for Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Sanders, Cassandra N.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2014-08-27

    Ice nucleation properties of different dust species coated with soluble material are not well understood. We determined the ice nucleation ability of bare and sulfuric acid coated mineral dust particles as a function of temperature (-25 to -35 deg C) and relative humidity with respect to water (RHw). Five different mineral dust species: Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, montmorillonite, quartz and kaolinite were dry dispersed and size-selected at 150 nm and exposed to sulfuric acid vapors in the coating apparatus. The condensed sulfuric acid soluble mass fraction per particle was estimated from the cloud condensation nuclei activated fraction measurements. The fraction of dust particles nucleating ice at various temperatures and RHw was determined using a compact ice chamber. In water-subsaturated conditions, compared to bare dust particles, we found that only coated ATD particles showed suppression of ice nucleation ability while other four dust species did not showed the effect of coating on the fraction of particles nucleating ice. The results suggest that interactions between the dust surface and sulfuric acid vapor are important, such that interactions may or may not modify the surface via chemical reactions with sulfuric acid. At water-supersaturated conditions we did not observed the effect of coating, i.e. the bare and coated dust particles had similar ice nucleation behavior.

  12. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1988-12-01

    A real-time laser light-reflectivity technique is being used to study simultaneous thermophoretic and inertial influences on the deposition behavior of MgO particles produced via ultrasonic nebulization (submicrometer range). The deposition surface (a concave platinum ribbon) is exposed to a high velocity/temperature jet of alkali sulfate-free combustion products exiting from a seeded (C3[sub 3]H[sub 8]/air) microcombustor (110 cm[sup 3]). The reflectivity data were calibrated against deposition rates obtained from SEM pictures of the target, and were normalized with the nominal particle feed rate, in order to obtain the mass transfer Stanton number, St[sub m], trends depicted in Figure 1. For the submicron (ca. 0.7[mu]m) particles inertial effects appear to set in at Stokes (Stk) numbers of O(10[sup [minus]2]) (an order of magnitude lower than the ones needed for pure'' inertial impaction), affecting significantly the dominant thermophoretic deposition mechanism. A first order (in Stk) theoretical analysis of the problem in which particle inertia is treated as equivalent to pressure diffusion,'' cannot explain the observed dependence of the deposition rate on Stk. We are presently formulating a Lagrangian approach, valid for all values of Stk, in order to interpret these data. In addition, a Single Particle Counter (SPC) and Transit Time Velocimeter (TTV), are being developed, to allow more precise measurements of particle feed rates and velocities.

  13. Particle detection systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2010-05-11

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons and neutrons. In one implementation, a particle detection system employs a plurality of drift cells, which can be for example sealed gas-filled drift tubes, arranged on sides of a volume to be scanned to track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons. The drift cells can include a neutron sensitive medium to enable concurrent counting of neutrons. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold, uranium, plutonium, and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can concurrently detect any unshielded neutron sources occupying the volume from neutrons emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift cells can be used to also detect gamma rays. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  14. Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2003-12-09

    Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping carried out by introducing a side stream into the main stream to squeeze the fluid containing particles close to the electrodes producing the dielelectrophoretic forces. The region of most effective or the strongest forces in the manipulating fields of the electrodes producing the dielectrophoretic forces is close to the electrodes, within 100 .mu.m from the electrodes. The particle trapping arrangement uses a series of electrodes with an AC field placed between pairs of electrodes, which causes trapping of particles along the edges of the electrodes. By forcing an incoming flow stream containing cells and DNA, for example, close to the electrodes using another flow stream improves the efficiency of the DNA trapping.

  15. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  16. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  17. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Muons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Muons photo Two planned Fermilab experiments, Mu2e and Muon g-2, will use particles called muons to search for rare and hidden phenomena in the quantum realm. In recent years, particle physicists have increasingly turned their attention to finding evidence for physics beyond the already known building blocks of matter and subatomic forces that determine their interactions. Discoveries beyond the well-established Standard Model will help scientists answer some of the most puzzling and pressing

  18. Turbulent eddies in a compressible jet in crossflow measured using pulse-burst particle image velocimetry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beresh, Steven J.; Wagner, Justin L.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2016-02-02

    Pulse-burst Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV) has been employed to acquire time-resolved data at 25 kHz of a supersonic jet exhausting into a subsonic compressible crossflow. Data were acquired along the windward boundary of the jet shear layer and used to identify turbulenteddies as they convect downstream in the far-field of the interaction. Eddies were found to have a tendency to occur in closely spaced counter-rotating pairs and are routinely observed in the PIV movies, but the variable orientation of these pairs makes them difficult to detect statistically. Correlated counter-rotating vortices are more strongly observed to pass by at a larger spacing,more » both leading and trailing the reference eddy. This indicates the paired nature of the turbulenteddies and the tendency for these pairs to recur at repeatable spacing. Velocity spectra reveal a peak at a frequency consistent with this larger spacing between shear-layer vortices rotating with identical sign. The spatial scale of these vortices appears similar to previous observations of compressible jets in crossflow. Furthermore,super-sampled velocity spectra to 150 kHz reveal a power-law dependency of –5/3 in the inertial subrange as well as a –1 dependency at lower frequencies attributed to the scales of the dominant shear-layer eddies.« less

  19. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher (Los Alamos, NM); Fraser, Andrew Mcleod (Los Alamos, NM); Schultz, Larry Joe (Los Alamos, NM); Borozdin, Konstantin N. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich (Maynard, MA); Sossong, Michael James (Los Alamos, NM); Blanpied, Gary (Lexington, SC)

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  20. SUPERHEAVY NUCLEI:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 , Valery Zagrebaev 1 , and Walter Greiner 2 1 JINR, Dubna, Russia 2 FIAS, Frankfurt, Germany 2 * Where is the Stability Island centered? * How to reach this center? * How long...

  1. Particle analysis in an acoustic cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for acoustically manipulating one or more particles. Acoustically manipulated particles may be separated by size. The particles may be flowed in a flow stream and acoustic radiation pressure, which may be radial, may be applied to the flow stream. This application of acoustic radiation pressure may separate the particles. In one embodiment, the particles may be separated by size, and as a further example, the larger particles may be transported to a central axis.

  2. ARM - Datastreams - noaaaosccn100

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsnoaaaosccn100 Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1150249 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : NOAAAOSCCN100 Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data Active Dates 2009.04.16 - 2015.12.31 Measurement Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Originating Instrument Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter

  3. ARM - Datastreams - aosccn100

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsaosccn100 Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025150 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : AOSCCN100 Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data Active Dates 2010.10.08 - 2016.03.10 Measurement Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Originating Instrument Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter (CCN)

  4. Technology Advancements for Next Generation Falling Particle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technology Advancements for Next Generation Falling Particle Receivers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Technology Advancements for Next Generation Falling Particle...

  5. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while...

  6. California's Efforts for Advancing Ultrafine Particle Number...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efforts for Advancing Ultrafine Particle Number Measurements for Clean Diesel Exhaust California's Efforts for Advancing Ultrafine Particle Number Measurements for Clean Diesel...

  7. Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Providing scientific and technical leadership in fundamental and applied theoretical research on nuclear, particle, ...

  8. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  9. Berkeley Lab Particle Accelerator Sets World Record

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Traditional particle accelerators, like the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, which is 17 miles ... Particle Accelerators NERSC Resources Used: Edison, Hopper DOE Program ...

  10. Contribution from biogenic organic compounds to particle growth during the 2010 BEACHON-ROCS campaign in a Colorado temperate needleleaf forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, L.; Gierens, R.; Sogachev, A.; Mogensen, D.; Ortega, J.; Smith, J. N.; Harley, P. C.; Prenni, A. J.; Levin, E. J. T.; Turnipseed, A.; et al

    2015-08-06

    New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric phenomenon. During an NPF event, particles first form by nucleation and then grow further in size. The growth step is crucial because it controls the number of particles that can become cloud condensation nuclei. Among various physical and chemical processes contributing to particle growth, condensation by organic vapors has been suggested as important. In order to better understand the influence of biogenic emissions on particle growth, we carried out modeling studies of NPF events during the BEACHON-ROCS (Bio–hydro–atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosol, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Organic Carbonmore » Study) campaign at Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory in Colorado, USA. The site is representative of the semi-arid western USA. With the latest Criegee intermediate reaction rates implemented in the chemistry scheme, the model underestimates sulfuric acid concentration by 50 %, suggesting either missing sources of atmospheric sulfuric acid or an overestimated sink term. The results emphasize the contribution from biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to particle growth by demonstrating the effects of the oxidation products of monoterpenes and 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO). Monoterpene oxidation products are shown to influence the nighttime particle loadings significantly, while their concentrations are insufficient to grow the particles during the day. The growth of ultrafine particles in the daytime appears to be closely related to the OH oxidation products of MBO.« less

  11. Contribution from biogenic organic compounds to particle growth during the 2010 BEACHON-ROCS campaign in a Colorado temperate needleleaf forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, L.; Gierens, R.; Sogachev, A.; Mogensen, D.; Ortega, J.; Smith, J. N.; Harley, P. C.; Prenni, A. J.; Levin, E. J. T.; Turnipseed, A.; Rusanen, A.; Smolander, S.; Guenther, A. B.; Kulmala, M.; Karl, T.; Boy, M.

    2015-08-06

    New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric phenomenon. During an NPF event, particles first form by nucleation and then grow further in size. The growth step is crucial because it controls the number of particles that can become cloud condensation nuclei. Among various physical and chemical processes contributing to particle growth, condensation by organic vapors has been suggested as important. In order to better understand the influence of biogenic emissions on particle growth, we carried out modeling studies of NPF events during the BEACHON-ROCS (Bio–hydro–atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosol, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study) campaign at Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory in Colorado, USA. The site is representative of the semi-arid western USA. With the latest Criegee intermediate reaction rates implemented in the chemistry scheme, the model underestimates sulfuric acid concentration by 50 %, suggesting either missing sources of atmospheric sulfuric acid or an overestimated sink term. The results emphasize the contribution from biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to particle growth by demonstrating the effects of the oxidation products of monoterpenes and 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO). Monoterpene oxidation products are shown to influence the nighttime particle loadings significantly, while their concentrations are insufficient to grow the particles during the day. The growth of ultrafine particles in the daytime appears to be closely related to the OH oxidation products of MBO.

  12. Comminution process to produce engineered wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) substantially equal to the veneer thickness (Tv) and aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

  13. INTERACTION OF RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES WITH STARS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Shuo; Liu, F. K.; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer; Chen Xian E-mail: fkliu@bac.pku.edu.cn

    2012-03-20

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are the products of frequent galaxy mergers. The coalescence of the SMBHBs is a distinct source of gravitational wave (GW) radiation. The detections of the strong GW radiation and their possible electromagnetic counterparts are essential. Numerical relativity suggests that the post-merger supermassive black hole (SMBH) gets a kick velocity up to 4000 km s{sup -1} due to the anisotropic GW radiations. Here, we investigate the dynamical coevolution and interaction of the recoiling SMBHs and their galactic stellar environments with one million direct N-body simulations including the stellar tidal disruption by the recoiling SMBHs. Our results show that the accretion of disrupted stars does not significantly affect the SMBH dynamical evolution. We investigate the stellar tidal disruption rates as a function of the dynamical evolution of oscillating SMBHs in the galactic nuclei. Our simulations show that most stellar tidal disruptions are contributed by the unbound stars and occur when the oscillating SMBHs pass through the galactic center. The averaged disruption rate is {approx}10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, which is about an order of magnitude lower than that by a stationary SMBH at similar galactic nuclei. Our results also show that a bound star cluster is around the oscillating SMBH of about {approx}0.7% the black hole mass. In addition, we discover a massive cloud of unbound stars following the oscillating SMBH. We also investigate the dependence of the results on the SMBH masses and density slopes of the galactic nuclei.

  14. Apparatus And Method For Reducing Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect Using Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA)

    2005-08-09

    An aerodynamic base drag reduction apparatus and method for bluff bodies, such as tractor-trailer trucks, utilizing a pair of lift surfaces extending to lift surface tips and located alongside the bluff body such as on opposing left and right side surfaces. In a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, the pair of lift surfaces generate a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices which confluence together in the wake of the bluff body in a direction orthogonal to the flowstream. The confluence draws or otherwise turns the flowstream, such as the flowstream passing over a top surface of the bluff body, in and around behind a trailing end of the bluff body to raise the pressure on a base surface at the trailing end and thereby reduce the aerodynamic base drag.

  15. Apparatus And Method For Reducing Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect Using Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Sabari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA)

    2005-12-27

    An aerodynamic base drag reduction apparatus and method for bluff bodies, such as tractor-trailer trucks, utilizing a pair of lift surfaces extending to lift surface tips and located alongside the bluff body such as on opposing left and right side surfaces. In a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, the pair of lift surfaces generate a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices which confluence together in the wake of the bluff body in a direction orthogonal to the flowstream. The confluence draws or otherwise turns the flowstream, such as the flowstream passing over a top surface of the bluff body, in and around behind a trailing end of the bluff body to raise the pressure on a base surface at the trailing end and thereby reduce the aerodynamic base drag.

  16. Two-dimensional numerical study of two counter-propagating helium plasma jets in air at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Wen; Sang, Chaofeng; Wang, Dezhen; Liu, Fucheng

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, a computational study of two counter-propagating helium plasma jets in ambient air is presented. A two-dimensional fluid model is applied to investigate the physical processes of the two plasma jets interaction (PJI) driven by equal and unequal voltages, respectively. In all studied cases, the PJI results in a decrease of both plasma bullets propagation velocity. When the two plasma jets are driven by equal voltages, they never merge but rather approach each other around the middle of the gas gap at a minimum approach distance, and the minimal distance decreases with the increase of both the applied voltages and initial electron density, but increases with the increase of the relative permittivity. When the two plasma jets are driven by unequal voltages, we observe the two plasma jets will merge at the position away from the middle of the gas gap. The effect of applied voltage difference on the PJI is also studied.

  17. Particle injector for fluid systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruch, Jeffrey F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A particle injector device provides injection of particles into a liquid eam. The device includes a funnel portion comprising a conical member having side walls tapering from a top opening (which receives the particles) down to a relatively smaller exit opening. A funnel inlet receives a portion of the liquid stream and the latter is directed onto the side walls of the conical member so as to create a cushion of liquid against which the particles impact. A main section of the device includes an inlet port in communication with the exit opening of the funnel portion. A main liquid inlet receives the main portion of the liquid stream at high pressure and low velocity and a throat region located downstream of the main liquid inlet accelerates liquid received by this inlet from the low velocity to a higher velocity so as to create a low pressure area at the exit opening of the funnel portion. An outlet opening of the main section enables the particles and liquid stream to exit from the injector device.

  18. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-18

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  19. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  20. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  1. Spring and summer contrast in new particle formation over nine forest areas in North America

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, F.; Luo, G.; Pryor, S. C.; Pillai, P. R.; Lee, S. H.; Ortega, J.; Schwab, J. J.; Hallar, A. G.; Leaitch, W. R.; Aneja, V. P.; et al

    2015-08-06

    Recent laboratory chamber studies indicate a significant role for highly oxidized low volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF) but the actual role of these highly oxidized low volatility organics in atmospheric NPF remains uncertain. Here, particle size distributions (PSDs) measured in nine forest areas in North America are used to characterize the occurrence and intensity of NPF and to evaluate model simulations using an empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low volatility organics from alpha-pinene oxidation (Nucl-Org), and using an ion-mediated nucleation mechanism (excluding organics; Nucl-IMN). On average, NPFmoreoccurred on ~ 70 % of days during March for the four forest sites with springtime PSD measurements, while NPF occurred on only ~ 10 % of days in July for all nine forest sites. Both Nucl-Org and Nucl-IMN schemes capture the observed high frequency of NPF in spring, but the Nucl-Org scheme significantly over-predicts while the Nucl-IMN scheme slightly under-predicts NPF and particle number concentrations in summer. Statistical analyses of observed and simulated ultrafine particle number concentrations and frequency of NPF events indicate that the scheme without organics agrees better overall with observations. The two schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America, highlighting the need to reduce NPF uncertainties in regional and global earth system models.less

  2. Anti-proton annihilation in nuclei as a probe of QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1990-09-01

    Anti-proton annihilation in a nuclear target can test many novel aspects of quantum chromodynamics. In this talk I discuss a number of interesting features of such processes, including the formation of nuclear-bound quarkonium, tests of color transparency in hard, quasi-elastic nuclear reactions, higher-twist, coherent, and formation zone effects in hard inclusive nuclear reactions, reduced amplitude predictions for exclusive nuclear amplitudes, and color filter effects inclusive open and hidden charm production in nuclei. 43 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Quadrupole moments of some doubly-even molibden nuclei and the onset of collectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turkan, N.; Ibis, I.; Maras, I.

    2012-07-15

    A good description of the quadrupole moments is obtained by investigating {sup 94,96,98,100,102,104,106,108}Mo isotopes in terms of the interacting boson model. After the positiveparity states and electromagnetic-transition rates B(E2) of even-mass Mo nuclei were calculated it was seen that there is a good agreement between the obtained results and some previous experimental data. At the end of the quadrupole moment calculations it was proved that the results agree well with the previous experimental data.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of quadrupolar nuclei and dipolar field effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Jeffry Todd

    2004-12-21

    Experimental and theoretical research conducted in two areas in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented: (1) studies of the coherent quantum-mechanical control of the angular momentum dynamics of quadrupolar (spin I > 1/2) nuclei and its application to the determination of molecular structure; and (2) applications of the long-range nuclear dipolar field to novel NMR detection methodologies.The dissertation is organized into six chapters. The first two chapters and associated appendices are intended to be pedagogical and include an introduction to the quantum mechanical theory of pulsed NMR spectroscopy and the time dependent theory of quantum mechanics. The third chapter describes investigations of the solid-state multiple-quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) NMR experiment applied to I = 5/2 quadrupolar nuclei. This work reports the use of rotary resonance-matched radiofrequency irradiation for sensitivity enhancement of the I = 5/2 MQMAS experiment. These experiments exhibited certain selective line narrowing effects which were investigated theoretically.The fourth chapter extends the discussion of multiple quantum spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to a mostly theoretical study of the feasibility of enhancing the resolution of nitrogen-14 NMR of large biomolecules in solution via double-quantum spectroscopy. The fifth chapter continues to extend the principles of multiple quantum NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to make analogies between experiments in NMR/nuclear quadrupolar resonance (NQR) and experiments in atomic/molecular optics (AMO). These analogies are made through the Hamiltonian and density operator formalism of angular momentum dynamics in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.The sixth chapter investigates the use of the macroscopic nuclear dipolar field to encode the NMR spectrum of an analyte nucleus indirectly in the magnetization of a sensor nucleus. This technique could potentially serve as an encoding module for the recently developed NMR remote detection experiment. The feasibility of using hyperpolarized xenon-129 gas as a sensor is discussed. This work also reports the use of an optical atomic magnetometer to detect the nuclear magnetization of Xe-129 gas, which has potential applicability as a detection module for NMR remote detection experiments.

  5. Probing nuclei by deeply penetrating and peripherally interacting Hadron: Bridging low and high-energy processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, S. M.

    2013-08-15

    The search for signals of new phenomenon is an important trend in the contemporary strong interaction physics. The nuclear J/{psi} suppressions are considered as like candidates for the signals of unusual events, e.g. quark-gluon plasma. They were explained in the framework of Glauber approximation. On the contrary, we show that new experimental data on the total cross section of K{sup +}-nucleus interaction at intermediate energies cannot be described by the novel well-elaborated Glauber model. This may indicate a unique event in ground state nuclei (in-medium effect)

  6. Instantaneous-shape sampling for calculation of the electromagnetic dipole strength in transitional nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, S. Q.; Doenau, F.; Kaempfer, B.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Bentley, I.; Frauendorf, S.; Brant, S.

    2009-08-15

    Electromagnetic dipole absorption cross sections of transitional nuclei with large-amplitude shape fluctuations are calculated in a microscopic way by introducing the concept of instantaneous-shape sampling, which is based on slow shape dynamics as compared with fast dipole vibrations. The dipole strength is calculated by means of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) for the instantaneous shapes, the probability of which is obtained by means of the interacting boson approximation. The calculations agree well with the experimental photoabsorption cross sections near the nucleon emission threshold, but they underestimate it at low energies. The cumulative cross sections for the region below the threshold are a factor of 2 too low.

  7. Instantaneous-Shape Sampling for Calculating the Electromagnetic Dipole Strength in Transitional Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, S. Q.; Doenau, F.; Kaempfer, B.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Bentley, I.; Brant, S.; Frauendorf, S.

    2009-01-28

    Electromagnetic dipole absorption cross-sections of transitional nuclei with large-amplitude shape fluctuations are calculated in a microscopic way by introducing the concept of instantaneous-shape sampling. The concept bases on the slow shape dynamics as compared to the dipole vibrations. The dipole strength is calculated by means of RPA for the instantaneous shapes, the probability of which is obtained by means of IBA-1. Very good agreement with the experimental absorption cross sections near the nucleon emission threshold is obtained.

  8. DE/SC-ARM/TR-130 Aerosol Observing System Cloud Condensation Nuclei Average

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DE/SC-ARM/TR-130 Aerosol Observing System Cloud Condensation Nuclei Average (AOSCCNAVG) Value-Added Product Y Shi A Jefferson C Flynn July 2013 DOE/SC-ARM/TR-130 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,

  9. Low energy antineutrino detection using neutrino capture on electron capture decaying nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cocco, Alfredo G.; Mangano, Gianpiero; Messina, Marcello

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we present a study of the interaction of a low energy electron antineutrino on nuclei that undergo electron capture. We show that the two corresponding crossed reactions have a sizable cross section and are both suitable for detection of low energy antineutrino. However, only in the case where very specific conditions on the Q value of the decay are met or significant improvements on the performances of ion storage rings are achieved, these reactions could be exploited in the future to address the long standing problem of a direct detection of cosmological neutrino background.

  10. Relativistic QRPA Calculation of {beta}-Decay Rates of r-process Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marketin, T.; Paar, N.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    A systematic, fully self-consistent calculation of {beta}-decay rates is presented, based on a microscopic theoretical framework. Analysis is performed on a large number of nuclei from the valley of {beta} stability towards the neutron drip-line. Nuclear ground state is determined using the Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) model with density-dependent meson-nucleon coupling constants. Transition rates are calculated within the proton-neutron relativistic quasiparticle RPA (pn-RQRPA) using the same interaction that was used in the RHB equations.

  11. Naked singularities as particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, Mandar; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2010-11-15

    We investigate here the particle acceleration by naked singularities to arbitrarily high center of mass energies. Recently it has been suggested that black holes could be used as particle accelerators to probe the Planck scale physics. We show that the naked singularities serve the same purpose and probably would do better than their black hole counterparts. We focus on the scenario of a self-similar gravitational collapse starting from a regular initial data, leading to the formation of a globally naked singularity. It is seen that when particles moving along timelike geodesics interact and collide near the Cauchy horizon, the energy of collision in the center of mass frame will be arbitrarily high, thus offering a window to Planck scale physics.

  12. An Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM Spectrometer for Transient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM Spectrometer for Transient Emission Particle Measurements An Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM Spectrometer for Transient Emission Particle...

  13. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  14. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  15. Frontiers of particle beam physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1989-11-01

    First, a review is given of various highly-developed techniques for particle handling which are, nevertheless, being vigorously advanced at the present time. These include soft superconductor radio frequency cavities, hard superconductor magnets, cooling rings for ions and anti-protons, and damping rings for electrons. Second, attention is focused upon novel devices for particle generation, acceleration, and focusing. These include relativistic klystrons and free electron laser power sources, binary power multipliers, photocathodes, switched-power linacs, plasma beat-wave accelerators, plasma wake-field accelerators, plasma lenses, plasma adiabatic focusers and plasma compensators. 12 refs.

  16. Elementary Particles and Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lee, T. D.; Yang, C. N.

    1957-01-01

    Some general patterns of interactions between various elementary particles are reviewed and some general questions concerning the symmetry properties of these particles are studied. Topics are included on the theta-tau puzzle, experimental limits on the validity of parity conservation, some general discussions on the consequences due to possible non-invariance under P, C, and T, various possible experimental tests on invariance under P, C, and T, a two-component theory of the neutrino, a possible law of conservation of leptons and the universal Fermi interactions, and time reversal invariance and Mach's principle. (M.H.R.)

  17. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-05-22

    MCNP6, the latest and most advanced LANL Monte Carlo transport code, representing a merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX, is actually much more than the sum of those two computer codes; MCNP6 is available to the public via RSICC at Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In the present work, MCNP6 was validated and verified (V&V) against different experimental data on intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions, and results by several other codes, using mainly the latest modifications of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) and of the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) event generators CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03. It was found that MCNP6 using CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 describes well fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below, and can serve as a reliable simulation tool for different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU’s), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, to name just a few. Future improvements of the predicting capabilities of MCNP6 for such reactions are possible, and are discussed in this work.

  18. Shell model method for Gamow-Teller transitions in heavy, deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Zaochun [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275 (18), Beijing 102413 (China); Sun Yang [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Chen, Y.-S. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(18), Beijing 102413 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2006-11-15

    A method for calculation of Gamow-Teller transition rates is developed by using the concept of the Projected Shell Model (PSM). The shell model basis is constructed by superimposing angular-momentum-projected multiquasiparticle configurations, and nuclear wave functions are obtained by diagonalizing the two-body interactions in these projected states. Calculation of transition matrix elements in the PSM framework is discussed in detail, and the effects caused by the Gamow-Teller residual forces and by configuration-mixing are studied. With this method, it may become possible to perform a state-by-state calculation for {beta}-decay and electron-capture rates in heavy, deformed nuclei at finite temperatures. Our first example indicates that, while experimentally known Gamow-Teller transition rates from the ground state of the parent nucleus are reproduced, stronger transitions from some low-lying excited states are predicted to occur, which may considerably enhance the total decay rates once these nuclei are exposed to hot stellar environments.

  19. Astrophysical S factors for radiative proton capture by {sup 3}H and {sup 7}Li nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubovichenko, S. B.

    2011-03-15

    Within the potential cluster model where orbital states are classified according to Young diagrams and isospin, astrophysical S factors are considered for radiative proton capture by {sup 3}H and {sup 7}Li nuclei at energies of up to 1 and 10 keV, respectively. It is shown that the approach used, which takes into account only the E1 transition for the p{sup 3}H capture process, makes it possible to describe well the most recent experimental data at c.m. energies in the range from 50 keV to 5MeV. In the case of proton capture by {sup 7}Li nuclei, an M1 processwas taken into account in addition to the E1 transition, and a general behavior and the magnitude of the experimental S factor could be correctly reproduced owing to this at astrophysical energies, including the region around the resonance at 0.441 MeV (in the laboratory frame).

  20. THE ELECTRON ION COLLIDER. A HIGH LUMINOSITY PROBE OF THE PARTONIC SUBSTRUCTURE OF NUCLEONS AND NUCLEI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EDITED BY M.S. DAVIS

    2002-02-01

    By the end of this decade, the advancement of current and planned research into the fundamental structure of matter will require a new facility, the Electron Ion Collider (EIC). The EIC will collide high-energy beams of polarized electrons from polarized protons and neutrons, and unpolarized beams of electrons off atomic nuclei with unprecedented intensity. Research at the EIC will lead to a detailed understanding of the structure of the proton, neutron, and atomic nuclei as described by Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD), the accepted theory of the strong interaction. The EIC will establish quantitative answers to important questions by delivering dramatically increased precision over existing and planned experiments and by providing completely new experimental capabilities. Indeed, the EIC will probe QCD in a manner not possible previously. This document presents the scientific case for the design, construction and operation of the EIC. While realization of the EIC requires a significant advance in the development of efficient means of producing powerful beams of energetic electrons, an important consideration for choosing the site of the EIC is the planned upgrade to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The upgrade planned for RHIC will fully meet the requirements for the ion beam for the EIC, providing a distinct advantage in terms of cost, schedule and the final operation.

  1. Systematic study of electric dipole excitations with fully self-consistent Skyrme HF plus RPA calculation from light to medium-mass deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inakura, Tsunenori; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2009-05-04

    We undertake a systematic calculation on electric dipole responses of even-even nuclei for a wide mass region employing a fully self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus RPA approach. For an easy implementation of the fully self-consistent calculation, the finite amplitude method which we have proposed recently is employed. We calculated dipole responses in Cartesian mesh representation, which can deal with deformed nuclei but does not include pairing correlation. The calculated results show reasonable agreement for heavy nuclei while the average excitation energy are underestimated for light nuclei. The systematic calculation have reached Nickel isotopes. We show a compilation of calculated peak energies of giant dipole resonances.

  2. Method of identifying defective particle coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Mark E. (San Diego, CA); Whiting, Carlton D. (San Diego, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A method for identifying coated particles having defective coatings desig to retain therewithin a build-up of gaseous materials including: (a) Pulling a vacuum on the particles; (b) Backfilling the particles at atmospheric pressure with a liquid capable of wetting the exterior surface of the coated particles, said liquid being a compound which includes an element having an atomic number higher than the highest atomic number of any element in the composition which forms the exterior surface of the particle coating; (c) Drying the particles; and (d) Radiographing the particles. By television monitoring, examination of the radiographs is substantially enhanced.

  3. Gantry for medical particle therapy facility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trbojevic, Dejan (Wading River, NY)

    2012-05-08

    A particle therapy gantry for delivering a particle beam to a patient includes a beam tube having a curvature defining a particle beam path and a plurality of fixed field magnets sequentially arranged along the beam tube for guiding the particle beam along the particle path. In a method for delivering a particle beam to a patient through a gantry, a particle beam is guided by a plurality of fixed field magnets sequentially arranged along a beam tube of the gantry and the beam is alternately focused and defocused with alternately arranged focusing and defocusing fixed field magnets.

  4. Gantry for medical particle therapy facility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trbojevic, Dejan

    2013-04-23

    A particle therapy gantry for delivering a particle beam to a patient includes a beam tube having a curvature defining a particle beam path and a plurality of superconducting, variable field magnets sequentially arranged along the beam tube for guiding the particle beam along the particle path. In a method for delivering a particle beam to a patient through a gantry, a particle beam is guided by a plurality of variable field magnets sequentially arranged along a beam tube of the gantry and the beam is alternately focused and defocused with alternately arranged focusing and defocusing variable field magnets.

  5. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  6. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  7. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Research & Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research & Development VLPC wafer for DZero future detector To investigate the smallest bits of matter, some of which last only a fraction of a second before decaying, scientists need something more powerful than a microscope. To study particles, physicists use particle detectors. These devices sense and record information about particles such as their masses, energies, momenta or points of origin. Different particles and different experiments require different types of particle detectors.

  8. PRODUCTION OF THE p-PROCESS NUCLEI IN THE CARBON-DEFLAGRATION MODEL FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi E-mail: iwamoto.nobuyuki@jaea.go.jp

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the nucleosynthesis of proton-rich isotopes in the carbon-deflagration model for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The seed abundances are obtained by calculating the s-process nucleosynthesis that is expected to occur in the repeating helium shell flashes on the carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarf (WD) during mass accretion from a binary companion. When the deflagration wave passes through the outer layer of the CO WD, p-nuclei are produced by photodisintegration reactions on s-nuclei in a region where the peak temperature ranges from 1.9 to 3.6 x 10{sup 9} K. We confirm the sensitivity of the p-process on the initial distribution of s-nuclei. We show that the initial C/O ratio in the WD does not affect much the yield of p-nuclei. On the other hand, the abundance of {sup 22}Ne left after s-processing has a large influence on the p-process via the {sup 22}Ne({alpha},n) reaction. We find that about 50% of p-nuclides are co-produced when normalized to their solar abundances in all adopted cases of seed distribution. Mo and Ru, which are largely underproduced in Type II supernovae (SNe II), are produced more than in SNe II although they are underproduced with respect to the yield levels of other p-nuclides. The ratios between p-nuclei and iron in the ejecta are larger than the solar ratios by a factor of 1.2. We also compare the yields of oxygen, iron, and p-nuclides in SNe Ia and SNe II and suggest that SNe Ia could make a larger contribution than SNe II to the solar system content of p-nuclei.

  9. THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. VI. THE NUCLEI OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE FORNAX CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Monica L.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Jordan, Andres; Mei, Simona; Peng, Eric W.; West, Michael J.

    2012-11-15

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Fornax Cluster Survey is a Hubble Space Telescope program to image 43 early-type galaxies in the Fornax cluster, using the F475W and F850LP bandpasses of the ACS. We employ both one-dimensional and two-dimensional techniques to characterize the properties of the stellar nuclei in these galaxies, defined as the central 'luminosity excesses', relative to a Sersic model fitted to the underlying host. We find 72% {+-} 13% of our sample (31 galaxies) to be nucleated, with only three of the nuclei offset by more than 0.''5 from their galaxy photocenter, and with the majority of nuclei having colors bluer than their hosts. The nuclei are observed to be larger, and brighter, than typical Fornax globular clusters and to follow different structural scaling relations. A comparison of our results to those from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey reveals striking similarities in the properties of the nuclei belonging to these different environments. We briefly review a variety of proposed formation models and conclude that, for the low-mass galaxies in our sample, the most important mechanism for nucleus growth is probably infall of star clusters through dynamical friction, while for higher mass galaxies, gas accretion triggered by mergers, accretions, and tidal torques is likely to dominate, with the relative importance of these two processes varying smoothly as a function of galaxy mass. Some intermediate-mass galaxies in our sample show a complexity in their inner structure that may be the signature of the 'hybrid nuclei' that arose through parallel formation channels.

  10. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Benefits of Particle Physics |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Computing In this Section: thumb Medicine thumb Homeland Security thumb Industry thumb Computing thumb Sciences thumb Workforce Development thumb A Growing List Computing: the World Wide Web The World Wide Web CERN scientist Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web to give particle physicists a tool to communicate quickly and effectively with globally dispersed colleagues at universities and laboratories. The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center had the first website in the

  11. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Benefits of Particle Physics |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Sciences In this Section: thumb Medicine thumb Homeland Security thumb Industry thumb Computing thumb Sciences thumb Workforce Development thumb A Growing List Synchrotron light sources Particle physicists originally built electron accelerators to explore the fundamental nature of matter. At first, they looked on the phenomenon of synchrotron radiation as a troublesome problem that sapped electrons' acceleration energy. However, they soon saw the potential to use this nuisance

  12. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

    1995-01-01

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  13. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  14. Process to make structured particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Angela Michelle; Richard, Monique N; Luhrs, Claudia; Blada, Timothy; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-02-04

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains structured particles. The process includes providing a first precursor in the form of a dry precursor powder, a precursor liquid, a precursor vapor of a liquid and/or a precursor gas. The process also includes providing a plasma that has a high field zone and passing the first precursor through the high field zone of the plasma. As the first precursor passes through the high field zone of the plasma, at least part of the first precursor is decomposed. An aerosol having a second precursor is provided downstream of the high field zone of the plasma and the decomposed first material is allowed to condense onto the second precursor to from structured particles.

  15. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Gary Don; Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott; Brown, Louanne Kay

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  16. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

    1998-06-09

    A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

  17. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  18. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  19. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  20. Charge-exchange QRPA with the Gogny Force for Axially-symmetric Deformed Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, M.; Goriely, S.; Péru, S.

    2014-06-15

    In recent years fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) calculations using finite range Gogny force have been performed to study electromagnetic excitations of several axially-symmetric deformed nuclei up to the {sup 238}U. Here we present the extension of this approach to the charge-exchange nuclear excitations (pnQRPA). In particular we focus on the Isobaric Analog and Gamow-Teller resonances. A comparison of the predicted GT strength distribution with existing experimental data is presented. The role of nuclear deformation is shown. Special attention is paid to β-decay half-lives calculations for which experimental data exist and for specific isotone chains of relevance for the r-process nucleosynthesis.

  1. Ab-Initio Hamiltonian Approach to Light Nuclei And to Quantum Field Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vary, J.P.; Honkanen, H.; Li, Jun; Maris, P.; Shirokov, A.M.; Brodsky, S.J.; Harindranath, A.; de Teramond, G.F.; Ng, E.G.; Yang, C.; Sosonkina, M.; /Ames Lab

    2012-06-22

    Nuclear structure physics is on the threshold of confronting several long-standing problems such as the origin of shell structure from basic nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions. At the same time those interactions are being developed with increasing contact to QCD, the underlying theory of the strong interactions, using effective field theory. The motivation is clear - QCD offers the promise of great predictive power spanning phenomena on multiple scales from quarks and gluons to nuclear structure. However, new tools that involve non-perturbative methods are required to build bridges from one scale to the next. We present an overview of recent theoretical and computational progress with a Hamiltonian approach to build these bridges and provide illustrative results for the nuclear structure of light nuclei and quantum field theory.

  2. Nucleon and nucleon-pair momentum distributions in A?12 nuclei

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wiringa, Robert B.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Pieper, Steven C.; Carlson, Joseph A.

    2014-02-10

    We report variational Monte Carlo calculations of single-nucleon momentum distributions for A?12 nuclei and nucleon-pair and nucleon-cluster momentum distributions for A?8. The wave functions have been generated for a Hamiltonian containing the Argonne ?18 two-nucleon and Urbana X three-nucleon potentials. The single-nucleon and nucleon-pair momentum distributions exhibit universal features attributable to the one-pion-exchange tensor interaction The single-nucleon distributions are broken down into proton and neutron components and spin-up and spin-down components where appropriate. The nucleon-pair momentum distributions are given separately for pp and pn pairs. The nucleon-cluster momentum distributions include dp in 3He, tp and dd in S4He, ?d inmore6Li,?t in 7Li, and ?? in 8Be. Detailed tables are provided on-line for download.less

  3. Extended investigation of superdeformed bands in {sup 151,152}Tb nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin, J.; Byrski, Th.; Duchene, G.; Beck, F. A.; Curien, D.; Dubray, N.; Dudek, J.; Courtin, S.; Dorvaux, O.; France, G. de; Gall, B.; Joshi, P.; Nourredine, A.; Pachoud, E.; Piqueras, I.; Vivien, J. P.; Gozdz, A.; Odahara, A.; Schunck, N.; Adimi, N.

    2008-01-15

    A detailed study of known and new SD bands in Tb isotopes has been performed with the use of the EUROBALL IV {gamma}-ray array. The high-statistics data set has allowed for the extension of known SD bands at low and high spins by new {gamma}-ray transitions. These transitions, as it turns out, correspond to the rotational frequencies where the principal superdeformed gaps (Z=66,N=86) close giving rise to up- or down-bending mechanisms. This enables to attribute the underlying theoretical configurations with much higher confidence as compared to the previous identifications. Five new SD bands have been discovered, three of them assigned to the {sup 152}Tb and the two others to the {sup 151}Tb nuclei. Nuclear mean-field calculations have been used to interpret the structure of known SD bands as well as of the new ones in terms of nucleonic configurations.

  4. Low-energy pion double charge exchange and nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of pion double-charge exchange (DCX) at energies 20 to 70 MeV are providing a new means for studying nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei. At these energies the nucleus is relatively transparent, allowing simpler theoretical models to be used in interpreting the data and leading to a clearer picture. Also the contribution to DCX of sequential charge-exchange scattering through the intermediate analog state is suppressed near 50 MeV and transitions through non-analog intermediate states become very important. Recent theoretical studies by several groups have shown that while transitions through the analog route involve relatively long nucleon-nucleon distances, those through non-analog intermediate states obtain nearly half their strength from nucleon pairs with less than 1 fermi separation. Thus DCX near 50 MeV is an excellent way to study short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations. 31 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. /sup 3/He-induced fission of nuclei 159

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becchetti, F.D.; Hicks, K.H.; Fields, C.A.; Peterson, R.J.; Raymond, R.S.; Ristinen, R.A.; Ullmann, J.L.; Zaidins, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    The fission of nuclei with 159< or =A< or =232 induced by the bombardment of 19.1 to 44.5 MeV /sup 3/He ions has been measured using solid-state detectors with time-of-flight measurements. Analysis with statistical fission theory, including precompound nucleon emission, indicates fission barriers which decrease only slightly relative to the liquid-drop model values with decreasing Z, approaching about 90% of the liquid-drop model barrier for Aroughly-equal160. These results are in contrast with measurements at higher angular momenta which indicate much lower fission barriers (60 to 70 % of the liquid-drop model) for this mass region. The angular correlations indicate complete, or slightly greater than complete momentum transfer to the compound system. This is in opposition to that observed using heavier projectiles where incomplete momentum transfer is probable.

  6. Structure of light neutron-rich nuclei and mechanism of elastic proton scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibraeva, E. T.; Zhusupov, M. A.; Imambekov, O.

    2011-11-15

    Differential cross sections for elastic p{sup 6}He, p{sup 8}Li, and p{sup 9}Li scattering at two energies of 70 and 700 MeV per nucleon were calculated within the Glauber theory of multiple diffractive scattering. Threeparticle wave functions ({alpha}-n-n for {sup 6}He, {alpha}-t-n for {sup 8}Li, and {sup 7}Li-n-n for {sup 9}Li) were used for realistic potentials of intercluster interactions. The sensitivity of elastic scattering to proton-nucleus interaction and to the structure of nuclei was explored. In particular, the dependence of the differential cross section on the contribution of higher order collisions, on scattering on the core and peripheral nucleons, and on the contribution of small wave-function components and their asymptotic behavior was determined. A comparison with available experimental data and with the results of calculations within different formalisms was performed.

  7. Interference effects in proton scattering on {sup 15}N nuclei at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibraeva, E. T.; Zhusupov, M.A.; Imambekov, O.; Krassovitskiy, P. M.

    2010-08-15

    The differential cross section for proton scattering on {sup 15}N nuclei is calculated within Glauber diffraction theory at energies of 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0 GeV. Use is made of the shell-model wave function for the {sup 15}N nucleus. The contribution of single and double collisions to the Glauber operator {Omega} is taken into account. The sensitivity of the differential cross sections to the contributions of scattering on nucleons from different shells, to the parameters of the elementary pN amplitude, and to the energy of projectile protons is investigated. It is shown that the interference between amplitudes corresponding to different collision multiplicities, as well as between the amplitudes for scattering on nucleons from different shells, determines special features of the cross section.

  8. Relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation. II. Pygmy dipole resonance in neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinova, E.; Ring, P.; Tselyaev, V.; Langanke, K.

    2009-05-15

    Theoretical studies of low-lying dipole strength in even-even spherical nuclei within the relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA) are presented. The RQTBA developed recently as an extension of the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (RQRPA) enables one to investigate the effects of the coupling of two-quasiparticle excitations to collective vibrations within a fully consistent calculation scheme based on covariant energy density functional theory. Dipole spectra of even-even {sup 130}Sn-{sup 140}Sn and {sup 68}Ni-{sup 78}Ni isotopes calculated within both RQRPA and RQTBA show two well-separated collective structures: the higher lying giant dipole resonance and the lower lying pygmy dipole resonance, which can be identified by the different behavior of the transition densities of states in these regions.

  9. Shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio from giant dipole resonances in hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Dinh Dang

    2011-09-15

    The Green-Kubo relation and fluctuation-dissipation theorem are employed to calculate the shear viscosity {eta} of a finite hot nucleus directly from the width and energy of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) of this nucleus. The ratio {eta}/s of shear viscosity {eta} to entropy density s is extracted from the experimental systematics of the GDR in copper, tin, and lead isotopes at finite temperature T. These empirical results are then compared with the predictions by several independent models as well as with almost model-independent estimations. Based on these results, it is concluded that the ratio {eta}/s in medium and heavy nuclei decreases with increasing temperature T to reach (1.3--4)x({h_bar}/2{pi})/(4{pi}k{sub B}) at T=5 MeV.

  10. Photoactivation experiment on {sup 197}Au and its implications for the dipole strength in heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, C.; Erhard, M.; Junghans, A. R.; Bemmerer, D.; Beyer, R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Grosse, E.

    2008-11-15

    The {sup 197}Au({gamma},n) reaction is used as an activation standard for photodisintegration studies on astrophysically relevant nuclei. At the bremsstrahlung facility of the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE (Electron Linear accelerator of high Brilliance and low Emittance) of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, photoactivation measurements on {sup 197}Au have been performed with bremsstrahlung endpoint energies from 8.0 to 15.5 MeV. The measured activation yield is compared with previous experiments as well as with calculations using Hauser-Feshbach statistical models. It is shown that the experimental data are best described by a two-Lorentzian parametrization with taking the axial deformation of {sup 197}Au into account. The experimental {sup 197}Au({gamma},n) reaction yield measured at ELBE via the photoactivation method is found to be consistent with previous experimental data using photon scattering or neutron detection methods.

  11. (p,. cap alpha. ) reactions on 1p, 2s-1d shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, F.; Trivisonno, D.; Avon, S.; Bianchin, R.; Rui, R.

    1983-07-01

    The /sup 12/C(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 9/B and /sup 32/S(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 29/P reactions have been studied at incident energies of 42.77 and 41.9 MeV, respectively. The experimental (p,..cap alpha..) relative cross sections are well reproduced by distorted wave direct pickup calculations with a semimicroscopic form factor and current shell model wave functions. A comparison between (p,..cap alpha..) and (/sup 3/He,d) spectra on 1p and 2s-1d shell nuclei, leading to the same final nucleus, shows a clear evidence of a dominant pickup process over the knockout mechanism in the dynamics of the (p,..cap alpha..) reaction.

  12. Microscopic description of spherical to {gamma}-soft shape transitions in Ba and Xe nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2010-03-15

    The rapid transition between spherical and {gamma}-soft shapes in Ba and Xe nuclei in the mass region A>=130 is analyzed using excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce the characteristic evolution of excitation spectra and E2 transition probabilities, and in general, a good agreement with available data is obtained. The calculated spectra display fingerprints of a second-order shape phase transition that can approximately be described by analytic solutions corresponding to the E(5) dynamical symmetry.

  13. Nuclear shape transitions in neutron-rich medium-mass nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarriguren, P.; Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Robledo, L. M.

    2012-10-20

    We study the isotopic evolution of the ground-state nuclear shapes in neutron-rich Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, and Mo isotopic chains. Both even-even and odd-A nuclei are included in the analysis. For the latter we also study the systematics of their one-quasiparticle low-lying configurations. The theoretical approach is based on a selfconsistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism with finite range Gogny energy density functionals. Neutron separation energies, charge radii, and the spin-parity of the ground states are calculated and compared with available data. Shape-transition signatures are identified around N= 60 isotones as discontinuities in both charge radii isotopic shifts and spin-parities of the ground states. The nuclear deformation including triaxiality is shown to play a relevant role in the understanding of the bulk and spectroscopic features of the ground and low-lying one-quasiparticle states.

  14. Ultrafast electrochemical preparation of graphene/CoS nanosheet counter electrodes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Chongyang; Zhu, Yimei; Min, Huihua; Xu, Feng; Chen, Jing; Dong, Hui; Tong, Ling; Sun, Litao

    2015-10-05

    Utilizing inexpensive, high-efficiency counter electrodes (CEs) to replace the traditional platinum counterparts in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is worthwhile. In this paper, we detail how we synchronously prepared composite CEs of CoS nanosheet arrays and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layers for the first time via a low temperature, ultrafast one-step electrochemical strategy. With this approach, the whole fabrication process of the composite CEs was only a small percentage of the average time (~15 hours) using other methods. The DSSC assembled with the rGO–CoS composite CE achieved an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.34%, which is dramatically higher than 6.27% of pure CoS CE-based DSSC and even exceeds 7.50% of Pt CE-based DSSC. The outstanding PCE breakthrough is undoubtedly attributed to the enhancement in electrocatalytic ability of the rGO–CoS composite CE due to the incorporation of highly conducting rGO layers and the GO layers-induced growth of CoS nanosheet arrays with higher density and larger surface area. Therefore, lower charge-transfer resistance and higher exchange current density can be achieved as corroborated by the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and Tafel polarization curves (TPCs). As a result, further experiments also proved that the electrochemical strategy exhibited its universality of fabricating other graphene-enhanced chalcogenide functional composite films.

  15. Ultrafast electrochemical preparation of graphene/CoS nanosheet counter electrodes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Chongyang; Zhu, Yimei; Min, Huihua; Xu, Feng; Chen, Jing; Dong, Hui; Tong, Ling; Sun, Litao

    2015-10-05

    Utilizing inexpensive, high-efficiency counter electrodes (CEs) to replace the traditional platinum counterparts in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is worthwhile. In this paper, we detail how we synchronously prepared composite CEs of CoS nanosheet arrays and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layers for the first time via a low temperature, ultrafast one-step electrochemical strategy. With this approach, the whole fabrication process of the composite CEs was only a small percentage of the average time (~15 hours) using other methods. The DSSC assembled with the rGO–CoS composite CE achieved an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.34%, which is dramatically higher than 6.27%more » of pure CoS CE-based DSSC and even exceeds 7.50% of Pt CE-based DSSC. The outstanding PCE breakthrough is undoubtedly attributed to the enhancement in electrocatalytic ability of the rGO–CoS composite CE due to the incorporation of highly conducting rGO layers and the GO layers-induced growth of CoS nanosheet arrays with higher density and larger surface area. Therefore, lower charge-transfer resistance and higher exchange current density can be achieved as corroborated by the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and Tafel polarization curves (TPCs). As a result, further experiments also proved that the electrochemical strategy exhibited its universality of fabricating other graphene-enhanced chalcogenide functional composite films.« less

  16. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  17. Method for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles, device for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yung Y

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for dispersing particles within a reaction field, the method comprising confining the particles to the reaction field using a standing wave. The invention also provides a system for coating particles, the system comprising a reaction zone; a means for producing fluidized particles within the reaction zone; a fluid to produce a standing wave within the reaction zone; and a means for introducing coating moieties to the reaction zone. The invention also provides a method for coating particles, the method comprising fluidizing the particles, subjecting the particles to a standing wave; and contacting the subjected particles with a coating moiety.

  18. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; Brown, D.; Hoblit, S.; Dietrich, F. S.

    2015-02-25

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. In conclusion, these results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.

  19. Elastic deuteron scattering on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei in the alpha-cluster model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhnoy, Yu. A.; Mikhailyuk, V. P.; Pilipenko, V. V. Fedorchenko, D. V.

    2013-07-15

    On the basis of the dispersive alpha-cluster model for target nuclei and the theory of multiple diffractive scattering, differential cross sections and analyzing powers for the elastic scattering of 400 and 700-MeV deuterons on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O target nuclei were calculated in the pointlike-deuteron approximation. In these calculations, the amplitude for incident-deuteron scattering on nuclei was constructed with the aid of amplitudes for d{alpha} scattering that were obtained from a fit to data on d{sup 16}O scattering. The same features were calculated on the basis of the diffraction approximation with allowance for the internal deuteron structure by using the amplitudes obtained earlier for nucleon scattering on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei within the same dispersive alpha-clustermodel. The latter made it possible to perform calculations without employing adjustable parameters. The observables calculated on the basis of either approach agree with available experimental data.

  20. Magnetic nano-particles | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic nano-particles The student will be involved in assembling CoFe2O4 nano-particles onto Si wafers for further studies by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) that will...

  1. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T (Clinton, TN) [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  2. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particles is that they can swell or shrink with changes in external triggers such as pH and temperature. Thus microgel particles can act like "nanosponges" and offer many...

  3. A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David

    2013-07-25

    Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.

  4. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles Print Microgels are soft-material particles consisting of cross-linked polymer networks, 100 nm to 1 m in diameter, dispersed...

  5. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles Print Microgels are soft-material particles consisting of cross-linked polymer networks, 100 nm to 1 m in diameter, dispersed in a...

  6. Environmental applications of the particle analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.

    1993-09-28

    This study demonstrates the applicability of particle counting technology for analysis of various water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Particle Analysis System described in this study determined the water quality of samples from environmental remediation, stormwater treatment, and drinking water treatment operations. Samples were measured in either discrete or on-line mode. This data showed filtration efficiencies, particle counts, particle size distributions, and real-time treatment system performance. Particle counting proved more sensitive than the turbidimetric measurement technique commonly used by the water treatment industry. Particle counting is a two-dimensional measurement of counts and sizes, whereas turbidity is a one-dimensional measurement of water clarity. Samples showing identical turbidities could be distinguished easily with the Particle Analysis System. The Particle Analysis System proved to be an efficient and reliable water quality measurement tool, and it is applicable to a variety of water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant.

  7. Ordered transport and identification of particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shera, E.B.

    1993-05-11

    A method and apparatus are provided for application of electrical field gradients to induce particle velocities to enable particle sequence and identification information to be obtained. Particle sequence is maintained by providing electroosmotic flow for an electrolytic solution in a particle transport tube. The transport tube and electrolytic solution are selected to provide an electroosmotic radius of >100 so that a plug flow profile is obtained for the electrolytic solution in the transport tube. Thus, particles are maintained in the same order in which they are introduced in the transport tube. When the particles also have known electrophoretic velocities, the field gradients introduce an electrophoretic velocity component onto the electroosmotic velocity. The time that the particles pass selected locations along the transport tube may then be detected and the electrophoretic velocity component calculated for particle identification. One particular application is the ordered transport and identification of labeled nucleotides sequentially cleaved from a strand of DNA.

  8. IBA for novice experimentalists. I. Introduction to IBA: mostly symmetries. II. Tests in even-even nuclei: mostly transitional systems. III. Supersymmetries: theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cizewski, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    The report contains the notes from a series of lectures on the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model. The lectures were presented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on July 28, 30 and August 1, 1982 by Jolie A. Cizewski from Yale University. The IBA was developed by F. Iachello and A. Arima starting about seven years ago to understand collective quadrupole excitations in medium and heavy mass nuclei away from closed shells. Since then the formalism has been extended to odd-mass nuclei and considerable work has gone into understanding the microscopic construction of the bosons in this model. The IBA has been applied to nuclei as light as Zn and Ge and as heavy as U and Pu; to nuclei near closed shells, such as Mo and Hg; to stable nuclei and nuclei far from stability. The present lectures were designed to give the experimentalist an introduction to the IBA and to give specific examples of how it could be applied to understand the structure of heavy even and odd mass nuclei. Much of the emphasis was on the symmetries (and supersymmetries) of the model and how the use of symmetries enabled the relatively straightforward understanding of empirical systems as deviations from these symmetries. The richness of possible applications of the IBA to understanding collective phenomena in nuclei was not fully explored, but rather a few illustrative examples were selected and described in detail. The references, accumulated at the end of this report, provide a more comprehensive, although not complete, list of tests of the IBA in even mass nuclei and the new symmetries in odd mass nuclei. The references also list the main theoretical papers which provide the details of the IBA formalism.

  9. Yukawa particles in a confining potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girotto, Matheus Levin, Yan; Santos, Alexandre P. dos; Colla, Thiago

    2014-07-07

    We study the density distribution of repulsive Yukawa particles confined by an external potential. In the weak coupling limit, we show that the mean-field theory is able to accurately account for the particle distribution. In the strong coupling limit, the correlations between the particles become important and the mean-field theory fails. For strongly correlated systems, we construct a density functional theory which provides an excellent description of the particle distribution, without any adjustable parameters.

  10. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  11. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  12. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  13. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the

  14. Georges Charpak, Particle Detectors, and Multiwire Chambers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Georges Charpak, Particle Detectors, and Multiwire Chambers Resources with Additional Information * Patents Georges Charpak Courtesy of CERN Nobel laureate Georges Charpak [was] a pioneer in the art and science of particle detection ... . [He] developed a host of particle detectors used throughout experimental particle physics. In 1968, he invented and developed the first multiwire proportional chamber, for which he won the [Physics] Nobel Prize in 1992 ... . The multiwire chamber differed from

  15. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  16. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  17. How Particle Accelerators Work | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Accelerators Work How Particle Accelerators Work June 18, 2014 - 4:11pm Addthis Infographic by <a href="/node/379579">Sarah Gerrity</a>, Energy Department. Infographic by Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Ben Dotson Ben Dotson Former Project Coordinator for Digital Reform, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? A particle accelerator is a machine that accelerates elementary particles, such as electrons or protons, to very high energies. Whether it's

  18. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how

  19. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer HTDMA : Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem...

  20. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara; Daisey, Joan M.; Stevens, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  1. Improving Photoelectron Counting and Particle Identification in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scintillation Detectors with Bayesian Techniques (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Improving Photoelectron Counting and Particle Identification in Scintillation Detectors with Bayesian Techniques Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving Photoelectron Counting and Particle Identification in Scintillation Detectors with Bayesian Techniques Improving Photoelectron Counting and Particle Identification in Scintillation Detectors with Bayesian Techniques article submitted to

  2. Optically active biological particle distinguishing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Kupperman, Robert H. (Washington, DC)

    1989-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to organic particle sorting and identification. High frequency pulses of circularly polarized light, alternating between left and right, intersect a fast moving stream of organic particles. Circular intensity differential scattering and linear intensity differential scattering are monitored to uniquely identify a variety of organic particles.

  3. Photobiomolecular metallic particles and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2003-05-06

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  4. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics 101

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Physics 101 Photo Have you ever wondered how often you could split a grain of sand into smaller pieces? Have you asked yourself what the sky is made of? Perhaps you have dreamed of traveling backwards in time? Physicists are as curious as you are. They look for answers to questions that people have pondered since they first began to wonder about the world and their place within it. You'll find some of the answers to these questions here. Explore the sections below to take a crash course

  5. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  6. Optical double-slit particle measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, D.A.; Wang, J.C.F.; Hencken, K.R.

    1982-03-25

    A method for in situ measurement of particle size is described. The size information is obtained by scanning an image of the particle across a double-slit mask and observing the transmitted light. This method is useful when the particle size of primary interest is 3..mu..m and larger. The technique is well suited to applications in which the particles are non-spherical and have unknown refractive index. It is particularly well suited to high temperature environments in which the particle incandescence provides the light source.

  7. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles Print Wednesday, 22 February 2006 00:00 Microgels are soft-material particles consisting of cross-linked polymer networks, 100 nm to 1 μm in diameter, dispersed in a continuous medium such as water. A useful feature of certain types of microgel particles is that they can swell or shrink with changes in external triggers such as pH and temperature. Thus microgel particles can act like

  8. Optical double-slit particle measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Freemont, CA); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method for in situ measurement of particle size is described. The size information is obtained by scanning an image of the particle across a double-slit mask and observing the transmitted light. This method is useful when the particle size of primary interest is 3 .mu.m and larger. The technique is well suited to applications in which the particles are non-spherical and have unknown refractive index. It is particularly well suited to high temperature environments in which the particle incandescence provides the light source.

  9. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  10. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics 101 | How to find the smallest

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particles - Particle Detectors How to find the smallest particles - Particle Detectors Scientists have invented and built many types of devices to detect particles. Most experiments at Fermilab use huge detectors that consist of intricate configurations of different detection devices, designed to collect the most possible information about the different types of particles created in a particle collision. Different types of particle detectors: Scintillators - When a high energy particle

  11. Electrochromic counter electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2005-02-22

    The present invention discloses an amorphous material comprising nickel oxide doped with tantalum that is an anodically coloring electrochromic material. The material of the present invention is prepared in the form of an electrode (200) having a thin film (202) of an electrochromic material of the present invention residing on a transparent conductive film (203). The material of the present invention is also incorporated into an electrochromic device (100) as a thin film (102) in conjunction with a cathodically coloring prior art electrochromic material layer (104) such that the devices contain both anodically coloring (102) and cathodically coloring (104) layers. The materials of the electrochromic layers in these devices exhibit broadband optical complimentary behavior, ionic species complimentary behavior, and coloration efficiency complimentary behavior in their operation.

  12. Particle Measurement Methodology: Comparison of On-road and Lab...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement Methodology: Comparison of On-road and Lab Diesel Particle Size Distributions Particle Measurement Methodology: Comparison of On-road and Lab Diesel Particle Size ...

  13. Method for non-contact particle manipulation and control of particle spacing along an axis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goddard, Gregory Russ; Kaduchak, Gregory; Jett, James Hubert; Graves, Steven Wayde

    2012-09-11

    Method and system for uniformly spacing particles in a flowing system comprising suspending particles in an elongated fluid filled cavity; exposing said cavity to an axial acoustic standing wave field, wherein said axial acoustic standing wave field drives said particles to nodal and anti-nodal positions along the center axis of said cavity to result in uniformly spaced particles; and focusing said particles to the center axis of said cavity.

  14. Method for non-contact particle manipulation and control of particle spacing along an axis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goddard, Gregory R; Kaduchak, Gregory; Jett, James H; Graves, Steven W

    2015-01-13

    Method and system for uniformly spacing particles in a flowing system comprising suspending particles in an elongated fluid filled cavity; exposing said cavity to an axial acoustic standing wave field, wherein said axial acoustic standing wave field drives said particles to nodal and anti-nodal positions along the center axis of said cavity to result in uniformly spaced particles; and focusing said particles to the center axis of said cavity.

  15. Extending the Capabilities of Single Particle Mass Spectrometry: II. Measurements of Aerosol Particle Density without DMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaden, Timothy D.; Imre, D.; Beranek, Josef; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-01-04

    Particle density is an important and useful property that is difficult to measure because it usually 5 requires separate instruments to measure two particle attributes. As density measurements are 6 often performed on size-classified particles, they are hampered by low particle numbers, and 7 hence poor temporal resolution. We present here a new method for measuring particle densities 8 using our single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT. This method takes advantage of the fact 9 that the detection efficiency in our single particle mass spectrometer drops off very rapidly as the 10 particle size decreases below ~125 nm creating a distinct sharp feature on the small particle side 11 of the vacuum aerodynamic size distribution. Thus, the two quantities needed to determine 12 particle density, the particle diameter and vacuum aerodynamic diameter, are known. We first 13 test this method on particles of known composition and find that the densities it yields are 14 sufficiently accurate. We then apply the method to obtain the densities of particles that were 15 characterized during an airborne field campaign. In addition, we show that the distinctive 16 features of the vacuum aerodynamic size distribution can be used to characterize the instrument 17 detection efficiency as a function of particle size. In general, the method presented here reduces 18 complexity and yields information with high temporal resolution while the instrument is 19 collecting routine data on particle size and composition.

  16. Coaxial microreactor for particle synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartsch, Michael; Kanouff, Michael P; Ferko, Scott M; Crocker, Robert W; Wally, Karl

    2013-10-22

    A coaxial fluid flow microreactor system disposed on a microfluidic chip utilizing laminar flow for synthesizing particles from solution. Flow geometries produced by the mixing system make use of hydrodynamic focusing to confine a core flow to a small axially-symmetric, centrally positioned and spatially well-defined portion of a flow channel cross-section to provide highly uniform diffusional mixing between a reactant core and sheath flow streams. The microreactor is fabricated in such a way that a substantially planar two-dimensional arrangement of microfluidic channels will produce a three-dimensional core/sheath flow geometry. The microreactor system can comprise one or more coaxial mixing stages that can be arranged singly, in series, in parallel or nested concentrically in parallel.

  17. Phosphorous doping a semiconductor particle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Gary Don; Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott

    1999-07-20

    A method (10) of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried (16, 18), with the phosphorus then being diffused (20) into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement.

  18. RFQ device for accelerating particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepard, Kenneth W. (Park Ridge, IL); Delayen, Jean R. (Naperville, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) device includes four spaced elongated, linear, tubular rods disposed parallel to a charged particle beam axis, with each rod supported by two spaced tubular posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. The rod and post geometry of the device has four-fold rotation symmetry, lowers the frequency of the quadrupole mode below that of the dipole mode, and provides large dipole-quadrupole mode isolation to accommodate a range of mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry of the structure, which can be formed by joining eight simple T-sections, provides a high degree of mechanical stability, is insensitive to mechanical displacement, and is particularly adapted for fabrication with superconducting materials such as niobium.

  19. RFQ device for accelerating particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepard, K.W.; Delayen, J.R.

    1995-06-06

    A superconducting radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) device includes four spaced elongated, linear, tubular rods disposed parallel to a charged particle beam axis, with each rod supported by two spaced tubular posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. The rod and post geometry of the device has four-fold rotation symmetry, lowers the frequency of the quadrupole mode below that of the dipole mode, and provides large dipole-quadrupole mode isolation to accommodate a range of mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry of the structure, which can be formed by joining eight simple T-sections, provides a high degree of mechanical stability, is insensitive to mechanical displacement, and is particularly adapted for fabrication with superconducting materials such as niobium. 5 figs.

  20. Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.