National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for nuclear power plant

  1. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  2. Virginia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal ... Electric & Power Co" "2 Plants 4 Reactors","3,501","26,572",100.0 "Note: ...

  3. Vermont Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  4. Connecticut Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  5. Maryland Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant ...

  6. Georgia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  7. Ohio Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  8. Virginia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  9. Minnesota Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  10. Alabama Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  11. Wisconsin Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  12. Texas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  13. Tennessee Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  14. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  15. Michigan Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  16. Nebraska Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  17. Florida Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  18. Washington Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State ...

  19. California Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State ...

  20. Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State ...

  1. Louisiana Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant NameTotal Reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  2. Wisconsin Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name..."8,291",62.4,"NextEra Energy Point Beach LLC" "2 Plants 3 Reactors","1,584","13,281",100.0

  3. Maryland Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1, Unit 2","1,705","13,994",100.0,"Calvert Cliffs Nuclear PP Inc" "1 Plant 2 Reactors","1,705","13,994",100.0 "Note: Totals

  4. Massachusetts Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Unit 1",685,"5,918",100.0,"Entergy Nuclear Generation Co" "1 Plant 1 Reactor",685,"5,918",100.0 "Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to

  5. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  6. Owners of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, R.L.

    2000-01-12

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  7. Massachusetts Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Power Station Unit 1",685,"5,918",100.0,"Entergy Nuclear Generation Co" "1 Plant 1 Reactor",685,"5,918",100.0 "Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent ...

  8. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of September 1, 1982. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses.

  9. Nebraska Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Cooper Unit 1",767,"6,793",61.4,"Nebraska Public Power District" "Fort Calhoun Unit 1",478,"4,261",38.6,"Omaha Public Power District" "2 Plants 2

  10. Georgia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Edwin I Hatch Unit 1, Unit 2","1,759","13,902",41.5,"Georgia Power Co" "Vogtle Unit 1, Unit 2","2,302","19,610",58.5,"Georgia Power Co" "2 Plants 4

  11. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS).

  12. NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 05 NUCLEAR FUELS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title list of documents made publicly available, January 1-31, 1998 NONE 21 NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; BIBLIOGRAPHIES; NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS;...

  13. Dynamic Simulation Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-03

    DSNP (Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-Plants) is a system of programs and data files by which a nuclear power plant, or part thereof, can be simulated. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, the DSNP libraries, the DSNP precompiler, and the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a special-purpose, block-oriented, digital-simulation language developed to facilitate the preparation of dynamic simulations of a large variety of nuclear power plants. It is amore » user-oriented language that permits the user to prepare simulation programs directly from power plant block diagrams and flow charts by recognizing the symbolic DSNP statements for the appropriate physical components and listing these statements in a logical sequence according to the flow of physical properties in the simulated power plant. Physical components of nuclear power plants are represented by functional blocks, or modules. Many of the more complex components are represented by several modules. The nuclear reactor, for example, has a kinetic module, a power distribution module, a feedback module, a thermodynamic module, a hydraulic module, and a radioactive heat decay module. These modules are stored in DSNP libraries in the form of a DSNP subroutine or function, a block of statements, a macro, or a combination of the above. Basic functional blocks such as integrators, pipes, function generators, connectors, and many auxiliary functions representing properties of materials used in nuclear power plants are also available. The DSNP precompiler analyzes the DSNP simulation program, performs the appropriate translations, inserts the requested modules from the library, links these modules together, searches necessary data files, and produces a simulation program in FORTRAN.« less

  14. Kansas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1","1,160","9,556",100.0,"Wolf Creek Nuclear Optg Corp" "1 Plant 1 Reactor","1,160","9,556",100.0

  15. Arkansas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1, Unit 2","1,835","15,023",100.0,"Entergy Arkansas Inc" "1 Plant 2 Reactors","1,835","15,023",100.0

  16. Connecticut Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Millstone Unit 2, Unit 3","2,103","16,750",100.0,"Dominion Nuclear Conn Inc" "1 Plant 2 Reactors","2,103","16,750",100.0

  17. Tennessee Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Sequoyah Unit 1, Unit 2","2,278","18,001",64.9,"Tennessee Valley Authority" "Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1","1,123","9,738",35.1,"Tennessee Valley

  18. Ohio Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Davis Besse Unit 1",894,"5,185",32.8,"FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company" "Perry Unit 1","1,240","10,620",67.2,"FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company" "2

  19. Minnesota Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Monticello Unit 1",554,"4,695",34.8,"Northern States Power Co - Minnesota" "Prairie Island Unit 1, Unit 2","1,040","8,783",65.2,"Northern States Power Co -

  20. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  1. Michigan Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Donald C Cook Unit 1, Unit 2","2,069","15,646",52.8,"Indiana Michigan Power Co" "Fermi Unit 2","1,085","7,738",26.1,"Detroit Edison Co" "Palisades Unit

  2. Alabama Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Browns Ferry Unit 1, Unit 2, Unit 3","3,309","24,771",65.3,"Tennessee Valley Authority" "Joseph M Farley Unit 1, Unit 2","1,734","13,170",34.7,"Alabama Power

  3. Florida Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Crystal River Unit 3",860,0,"--","Progress Energy Florida Inc" "St Lucie Unit 1, Unit 2","1,678","12,630",52.8,"Florida Power & Light Co" "Turkey Point

  4. New Hampshire Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (nw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  5. North Carolina Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  6. New Jersey Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  7. New York Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  8. Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Beaver Valley Unit 1, Unit 2","1,777","14,994",19.3,"FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company" "Limerick Unit 1, Unit 2","2,264","18,926",24.3,"Exelon

  9. California Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Diablo Canyon Unit 1, Unit 2","2,240","18,430",57.2,"Pacific Gas & Electric Co" "San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Unit 2, Unit

  10. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Braidwood Generation Station Unit 1, Unit 2","2,330","19,200",20.0,"Exelon Nuclear" "Byron Generating Station Unit 1, Unit 2","2,300","19,856",20.6,"Exelon

  11. Texas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Comanche Peak Unit 1, Unit 2","2,406","20,208",48.9,"Luminant Generation Company LLC" "South Texas Project Unit 1, Unit 2","2,560","21,127",51.1,"STP Nuclear

  12. Iowa Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Duane Arnold Energy Center Unit 1",601,"4,451",100.0,"NextEra Energy Duane Arnold LLC" "1 Plant 1 Reactor",601,"4,451",100.0

  13. Louisiana Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant Name/Total Reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (Pprcent)","Owner" "River Bend Unit 1",974,"8,363",44.9,"Entergy Gulf States - LA LLC" "Waterford 3 Unit 3","1,168","10,276",55.1,"Entergy Louisiana Inc" "2 Plants 2

  14. Mississippi Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Grand Gulf Unit 1","1,251","9,643",100.0,"System Energy Resources, Inc" "1 Plant 1 Reactor","1,251","9,643",100.0

  15. Missouri Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Callaway Unit 1","1,190","8,996",100.0,"Union Electric Co" "1 Plant 1 Reactor","1,190","8,996",100.0 "Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to

  16. Arizona Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Palo Verde Unit 1, Unit 2, Unit 3","3,937","31,200",100.0,"Arizona Public Service Co" "1 Plant 3 Reactors","3,937","31,200",100.0 "Note: Totals may not equal sum of

  17. South Carolina Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    South Carolina nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State ...

  18. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  19. Kansas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1","1,160","9,556",100.0,"Wolf Creek Nuclear Optg Corp" "1 Plant 1 Reactor","1,160","9,556",100.0

  20. Vermont Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Vermont Yankee Unit 1",620,"4,782",100.0,"Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee" "1 Plant 1 Reactor",620,"4,782",100.0

  1. Arizona Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Palo Verde Unit 1, Unit 2, Unit 3","3,937","31,200",100.0,"Arizona Public Service Co" "1 Plant 3 ...

  2. Washington Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Columbia Generating Station Unit 2","1,097","9,241",100.0,"Energy Northwest" "1 Plant 1 Reactor","1,097","9,241",100.0

  3. Mississippi Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Grand Gulf Unit 1","1,251","9,643",100.0,"System Energy Resources, Inc" "1 Plant 1 Reactor","1,251","9,643",100.0

  4. Iowa Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Duane Arnold Energy Center Unit 1",601,"4,451",100.0,"NextEra Energy Duane Arnold LLC" "1 Plant 1 Reactor",601,"4,451",100.0

  5. DOE Announces Loan Guarantee Applications for Nuclear Power Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Loan Guarantee Applications for Nuclear Power Plant Construction DOE Announces Loan Guarantee Applications for Nuclear Power Plant Construction October 2, 2008 - 3:43pm Addthis ...

  6. New Jersey Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Oyster Creek Unit 1",615,"4,601",14.0,"Exelon Nuclear" "PSEG Hope Creek Generating Station Unit 1","1,161","9,439",28.8,"PSEG Nuclear LLC" "PSEG Salem Generating

  7. Arkansas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation ...,"1,835","15,023",100.0,"Entergy Arkansas Inc" "1 Plant 2 Reactors","1,835","15,023",100.0

  8. New York Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Indian Point Unit 2, Unit 3","2,063","16,321",39.0,"Entergy Nuclear Indian Point" "James A Fitzpatrick Unit 1",855,"6,361",15.2,"Entergy Nuc Fitzpatrick LLC" "Nine

  9. Missouri Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Callaway Unit 1","1,190","8,996",100.0,"Union Electric Co" "1 Plant 1 Reactor","1,190","8,996",100.0 "Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to ...

  10. North Carolina Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Brunswick Unit 1, Unit 2","1,858","14,808",36.3,"Progress Energy Carolinas Inc" "Harris Unit 1",900,"7,081",17.4,"Progress Energy Carolinas Inc" "McGuire

  11. South Carolina Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    South Carolina nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name/total reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Catawba Unit 1, Unit 2","2,258","18,964",36.5,"Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC" "H B Robinson Unit 2",724,"3,594",6.9,"Progress Energy Carolinas Inc"

  12. Radiological Assessment of effects from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NNSA presentation on Radiological Assessment of effects from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from May 13, 2011

  13. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  14. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  15. Owners of nuclear power plants: Percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, R.S.

    1987-08-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of June 1, 1987. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docked for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally canceled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants/licensees and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants/licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OL's). Footnotes for both parts appear at the end of this document.

  16. Secretary Chu Visits Vogtle Nuclear Power Plant | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vogtle Nuclear Power Plant Secretary Chu Visits Vogtle Nuclear Power Plant February 15, 2012 - 3:54pm Addthis Secretary Chu traveled to Waynesboro, Georgia, to visit the Vogtle nuclear power plant, the site of what will be the first new nuclear reactors to be built in the United States in three decades. | Image credit: Southern Company. Secretary Chu traveled to Waynesboro, Georgia, to visit the Vogtle nuclear power plant, the site of what will be the first new nuclear reactors to be built in

  17. Lesson 7 - Waste from Nuclear Power Plants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 - Waste from Nuclear Power Plants Lesson 7 - Waste from Nuclear Power Plants This lesson takes a look at the waste from electricity production at nuclear power plants. It considers the different types of waste generated, as well as how we deal with each type of waste. Specific topics covered include: Nuclear Waste Some radioactive Types of radioactive waste Low-level waste High-level waste Disposal and storage Low-level waste disposal Spent fuel storage Waste isolation Reprocessing

  18. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Field Workers | Department of Energy Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants' (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile technology for the purpose of improving human performance and plant status control (PSC)

  19. DOE Announces Loan Guarantee Applications for Nuclear Power Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Construction | Department of Energy Loan Guarantee Applications for Nuclear Power Plant Construction DOE Announces Loan Guarantee Applications for Nuclear Power Plant Construction October 2, 2008 - 3:43pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced it has received 19 Part I applications from 17 electric power companies for federal loan guarantees to support the construction of 14 nuclear power plants in response to its June 30, 2008 solicitation. The

  20. SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CYCLE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Talbert, Robert J.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Filippov, Gennady A.; Bogojavlensky, Roald G.; Grishanin, Evgeny I.

    2005-07-01

    Revolutionary improvement of the nuclear plant safety and economy with light water reactors can be reached with the application of micro-fuel elements (MFE) directly cooled by a supercritical pressure light-water coolant-moderator. There are considerable advantages of the MFE as compared with the traditional fuel rods, such as: Using supercritical and superheated steam considerably increases the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle up to 44-45%. Strong negative coolant and void reactivity coefficients with a very short thermal delay time allow the reactor to shutdown quickly in the event of a reactivity or power excursion. Core melting and the creation of corium during severe accidents are impossible. The heat transfer surface area is larger by several orders of magnitude due to the small spherical dimensions of the MFE. The larger heat exchange surface significantly simplifies residual heat removal by natural convection and radiation from the core to a subsequent passive system of heat removal.

  1. Maryland Nuclear Profile - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,855,"6,755",90.2,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel"

  2. New York Nuclear Profile - R E Ginna Nuclear Power Plant

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    R E Ginna Nuclear Power Plant" "Unit","Summer Capacity (MW)","Net Generation (Thousand MWh)","Summer Capacity Factor (Percent)","Type","Commercial Operation Date","License Expiration Date" 1,581,"4,948",97.2,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel" ,581,"4,948",97.2

  3. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  4. Seismic requirements for design of nuclear power plants and nuclear test facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    This standard establishes engineering requirements for the design of nuclear power plants and nuclear test facilities to accommodate vibratory effects of earthquakes.

  5. Secretary Bodman Announces Federal Risk Insurance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Touts Robust Economy | Department of Energy Federal Risk Insurance for Nuclear Power Plants & Touts Robust Economy Secretary Bodman Announces Federal Risk Insurance for Nuclear Power Plants & Touts Robust Economy August 4, 2006 - 8:42am Addthis ATLANTA, GA - After touring Georgia Power and speaking to its employees, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced completion of the final rule that establishes the process for utility companies building

  6. Analysis of nuclear power plant component failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Items are shown that have caused 90% of the nuclear unit outages and/or deratings between 1971 and 1980 and the magnitude of the problem indicated by an estimate of power replacement cost when the units are out of service or derated. The funding EPRI has provided on these specific items for R and D and technology transfer in the past and the funding planned in the future (1982 to 1986) are shown. EPRI's R and D may help the utilities on only a small part of their nuclear unit outage problems. For example, refueling is the major cause for nuclear unit outages or deratings and the steam turbine is the second major cause for nuclear unit outages; however, these two items have been ranked fairly low on the EPRI priority list for R and D funding. Other items such as nuclear safety (NRC requirements), reactor general, reactor and safety valves and piping, and reactor fuel appear to be receiving more priority than is necessary as determined by analysis of nuclear unit outage causes.

  7. Prediction of Technological Failures in Nuclear Power Plant Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salnykov, A. A.

    2015-01-15

    A method for predicting operating technological failures in nuclear power plants which makes it possible to reduce the unloading of the generator unit during the onset and development of an anomalous engineering state of the equipment by detecting a change in state earlier and taking suitable measures. With the circulating water supply loop of a nuclear power plant as an example, scenarios and algorithms for predicting technological failures in the operation of equipment long before their actual occurrence are discussed.

  8. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  9. N.R. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; HEAT...

  10. Fresh nuclear fuel measurements at Ukrainian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Dickman, Debbie; Gavrilyuk, Victor; Drapey, Sergey; Kirischuk, Vladimir; Strilchuk, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Provisions on Nuclear Material Measurement System was enacted in Ukraine as an important regulatory driver to support international obligations in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. It defines key provisions and requirements for material measurement and measurement control programs to ensure the quality and reliability of measurement data within the framework of the State MC&A System. Implementing the Provisions requires establishing a number of measurement techniques for both fresh and spent nuclear fuel for various types of Ukrainian reactors. Our first efforts focused on measurements of fresh nuclear fuel from a WWR-1000 power reactor.

  11. DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant to Vyborg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshcheev, L. A.; Shul'ginov, N. G.

    2011-05-15

    DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant (LAES) to city of Vyborg is proposed. This will provide a comprehensive solution to several important problems in the development and control of the unified power system (EES) of Russia.

  12. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  13. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. New Hampshire Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Seabrook Unit 1","1,247","10,910",100.0,"NextEra Energy Seabrook LLC" "1 Plant 1 Reactor","1,247","10,910",100.0 "Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to ...

  15. Enhancement of NRC station blackout requirements for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, M. W.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) in response to Commission direction to conduct a systematic and methodical review of NRC processes and regulations to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission for its policy direction, in light of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The NTTF's review resulted in a set of recommendations that took a balanced approach to defense-in-depth as applied to low-likelihood, high-consequence events such as prolonged station blackout (SBO) resulting from severe natural phenomena. Part 50, Section 63, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 'Loss of All Alternating Current Power,' currently requires that each nuclear power plant must be able to cool the reactor core and maintain containment integrity for a specified duration of an SBO. The SBO duration and mitigation strategy for each nuclear power plant is site specific and is based on the robustness of the local transmission system and the transmission system operator's capability to restore offsite power to the nuclear power plant. With regard to SBO, the NTTF recommended that the NRC strengthen SBO mitigation capability at all operating and new reactors for design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NTTF also recommended strengthening emergency preparedness for prolonged SBO and multi-unit events. These recommendations, taken together, are intended to clarify and strengthen US nuclear reactor safety regarding protection against and mitigation of the consequences of natural disasters and emergency preparedness during SBO. The focus of this paper is on the existing SBO requirements and NRC initiatives to strengthen SBO capability at all operating and new reactors to address prolonged SBO stemming from design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NRC initiatives are intended to

  16. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  17. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  18. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  20. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1979 release data are compared with previous year's releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  1. Infrastructure development assistance modeling for nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J. H.; Hwang, K.; Park, K. M.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model, a general frame to be utilized in assisting newcomer countries to start a nuclear power program. A nuclear power plant project involves technical complexity and high level of investment with long duration. Considering newcomers are mostly developing countries that lack the national infrastructure, key infrastructure issues may constitute the principal constraints to the development of a nuclear power program. In this regard, it is important to provide guidance and support to set up an appropriate infrastructure when we help them with the first launch of nuclear power plant project. To date, as a sole nuclear power generation company, KHNP has been invited many times to mentor or assist newcomer countries for their successful start of a nuclear power program since Republic of Korea is an exemplary case of a developing country which began nuclear power program from scratch and became a major world nuclear energy country in a short period of time. Through hosting events organized to aid newcomer countries' initiation of nuclear power projects, difficulties have been recognized. Each event had different contents according to circumstances because they were held as an unstructured and one-off thing. By developing a general model, we can give more adequate and effective aid in an efficient way. In this paper, we created a model to identify necessary infrastructures at the right stage, which was mainly based on a case of Korea. Taking into account the assistance we received from foreign companies and our own efforts for technological self-reliance, we have developed a general time table and specified activities required to do at each stage. From a donor's perspective, we explored various ways to help nuclear infrastructure development including technical support programs, training courses, and participating in IAEA technical cooperation programs on a regular basis. If we further develop the model, the next task would be to

  2. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.

  3. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefitmore » of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.« less

  4. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  5. Understanding the nature of nuclear power plant risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denning, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the evolution of understanding of severe accident consequences from the non-mechanistic assumptions of WASH-740 to WASH-1400, NUREG-1150, SOARCA and today in the interpretation of the consequences of the accident at Fukushima. As opposed to the general perception, the radiological human health consequences to members of the Japanese public from the Fukushima accident will be small despite meltdowns at three reactors and loss of containment integrity. In contrast, the radiation-related societal impacts present a substantial additional economic burden on top of the monumental task of economic recovery from the nonnuclear aspects of the earthquake and tsunami damage. The Fukushima accident provides additional evidence that we have mis-characterized the risk of nuclear power plant accidents to ourselves and to the public. The human health risks are extremely small even to people living next door to a nuclear power plant. The principal risk associated with a nuclear power plant accident involves societal impacts: relocation of people, loss of land use, loss of contaminated products, decontamination costs and the need for replacement power. Although two of the three probabilistic safety goals of the NRC address societal risk, the associated quantitative health objectives in reality only address individual human health risk. This paper describes the types of analysis that would address compliance with the societal goals. (authors)

  6. Incidents at nuclear power plants caused by the human factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashin, V. A.

    2012-09-15

    Psychological analysis of the causes of incorrect actions by personnel is discussed as presented in the report 'Methodological guidelines for analyzing the causes of incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants.' The types of incorrect actions and classification of the root causes of errors by personnel are analyzed. Recommendations are made for improvements in the psychological analysis of causes of incorrect actions by personnel.

  7. Innovative applications of technology for nuclear power plant productivity improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naser, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, and new requirements and commitments. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the goal to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New plants are expected to perform more productively than current plants. In order to achieve and increase high productivity, it is necessary to look at innovative applications of modern technologies and new concepts of operation. The Electric Power Research Inst. is exploring and demonstrating modern technologies that enable cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and shifts to even higher performance levels, as well as provide tools for high performance in new plants. Several modern technologies being explored can provide multiple benefits for a wide range of applications. Examples of these technologies include simulation, visualization, automation, human cognitive engineering, and information and communications technologies. Some applications using modern technologies are described. (authors)

  8. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, J. Michael

    2002-01-01

    OAK-B135 Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction for Future Nuclear Power Plants

  9. Review of maintenance personnel practices at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chockie, A.D.; Badalamente, R.V.; Hostick, C.J.; Vickroy, S.C.; Bryant, J.L.; Imhoff, C.H.

    1984-05-01

    As part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored Maintenance Qualifications and Staffing Project, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted a preliminary assessment of nuclear power plant (NPP) maintenance practices. As requested by the NRC, the following areas within the maintenance function were examined: personnel qualifications, maintenance training, overtime, shiftwork and staffing levels. The purpose of the assessment was to identify the primary safety-related problems that required further analysis before specific recommendations can be made on the regulations affecting NPP maintenance operations.

  10. Advanced maintenance, inspection & repair technology for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinton, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Maintenance, inspection, and repair technology for nuclear power plants is outlined. The following topics are discussed: technology for reactor systems, reactor refueling bridge, fuel inspection system, fuel shuffling software, fuel reconstitution, CEA/RCCA/CRA inspection, vessel inspection capabilities, CRDM inspection and repair, reactor internals inspection and repair, stud tensioning system, stud/nut cleaning system, EDM machining technology, MI Cable systems, core exit T/C nozzle assemblies, technology for steam generators, genesis manipulator systems, ECT, UT penetrant inspections, steam generator repair and cleaning systems, technology for balance of plant, heat exchangers, piping and weld inspections, and turbogenerators.

  11. U.S. Nuclear Power Plants: Continued Life or Replacement After 60? (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plants generate approximately 20% of U.S. electricity, and the plants in operation today are often seen as attractive assets in the current environment of uncertainty about future fossil fuel prices, high construction costs for new power plants (particularly nuclear plants), and the potential enactment of greenhouse gas regulations. Existing nuclear power plants have low fuel costs and relatively high power output. However, there is uncertainty about how long they will be allowed to continue operating.

  12. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant licensing.

  13. Regression analysis of technical parameters affecting nuclear power plant performances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghazy, R.; Ricotti, M. E.; Trueco, P.

    2012-07-01

    Since the 80's many studies have been conducted in order to explicate good and bad performances of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), but yet no defined correlation has been found out to be totally representative of plant operational experience. In early works, data availability and the number of operating power stations were both limited; therefore, results showed that specific technical characteristics of NPPs were supposed to be the main causal factors for successful plant operation. Although these aspects keep on assuming a significant role, later studies and observations showed that other factors concerning management and organization of the plant could instead be predominant comparing utilities operational and economic results. Utility quality, in a word, can be used to summarize all the managerial and operational aspects that seem to be effective in determining plant performance. In this paper operational data of a consistent sample of commercial nuclear power stations, out of the total 433 operating NPPs, are analyzed, mainly focusing on the last decade operational experience. The sample consists of PWR and BWR technology, operated by utilities located in different countries, including U.S. (Japan)) (France)) (Germany)) and Finland. Multivariate regression is performed using Unit Capability Factor (UCF) as the dependent variable; this factor reflects indeed the effectiveness of plant programs and practices in maximizing the available electrical generation and consequently provides an overall indication of how well plants are operated and maintained. Aspects that may not be real causal factors but which can have a consistent impact on the UCF, as technology design, supplier, size and age, are included in the analysis as independent variables. (authors)

  14. Understanding seismic design criteria for Japanese Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Costello, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the seismic design practice for nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic design codes and standards for both nuclear as well as non-nuclear structures have been reviewed and summarized. Some key documents for understanding Japanese seismic design criteria are also listed with brief descriptions. The paper highlights the design criteria to determine the seismic demand and component capacity in comparison with U.S. criteria, the background studies which have led to the current Japanese design criteria, and a survey of current research activities. More detailed technical descriptions are presented on the development of Japanese shear wall equations, design requirements for containment structures, and ductility requirements.

  15. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  16. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Nuclear Power Plant Siting Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-01-28

    This database is a repository of comprehensive licensing and technical reviews of siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria for advanced light water reactor (ALWR) nuclear power plants. The program is designed to be used by applicants for an early site permit or combined construction permit/operating license (10CFRR522, Subparts A and C) as input for the development of the application. The database is a complete, menu-driven, self-contained package that can search and sort the supplied datamore » by topic, keyword, or other input. The software is designed for operation on IBM compatible computers with DOS.« less

  17. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, J.G.

    1993-11-16

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  18. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James G.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

  19. DOE Summit on Improving the Economics of America's Nuclear Power Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Summit on Improving the Economics of America's Nuclear Power Plants DOE Summit on Improving the Economics of America's Nuclear Power Plants May 19, 2016 - 3:10pm Addthis 202-586-9680 DOE News WASHINGTON - Today, the Energy Department convened a summit on Improving the Economics of America's Nuclear Power Plants. Secretary Moniz, Members of Congress, stakeholders, and experts discussed potential solutions to address the unique challenges facing the nuclear industry in the

  20. Vitrification of Polyvinyl Chloride Waste from Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Jiawei [Kyoto University (Japan); Choi, Kwansik [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung-Hwa [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung-Chan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung-Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-15

    Vitrification is considered as an economical and safe treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs). Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle LLW from its NPPs. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the largest volume of dry active wastes and is the main waste stream to treat. Glass formulation development for PVC waste is the focus of study. The minimum additive waste stabilization approach has been utilized in vitrification. It was found that glasses can incorporate a high content of PVC ash (up to 50 wt%), which results in a large volume reduction. A glass frit, KEP-A, was developed to vitrify PVC waste after the optimization of waste loading, melt viscosity, melting temperature, and chemical durability. The KEP-A could satisfactorily vitrify PVC with a waste loading of 30 to 50 wt%. The PVC-frit was tolerant of variations in waste composition.

  1. Prognostics and Life Beyond 60 for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard J. Bond; Pradeep Ramuhalli; Magdy S. Tawfik; Nancy J. Lybeck

    2011-06-01

    Safe, secure, reliable and sustainable energy supply is vital for advanced and industrialized life styles. To meet growing energy demand there is interest in longer term operation (LTO) for the existing nuclear power plant fleet and enhancing capabilities in new build. There is increasing use of condition based maintenance (CBM) for active components and periodic in service inspection (ISI) for passive systems: there is growing interest in deploying on-line monitoring. Opportunities exist to move beyond monitoring and diagnosis based on pattern recognition and anomaly detection to and prognostics with the ability to provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL). The adoption of digital I&C systems provides a framework within which added functionality including on-line monitoring can be deployed, and used to maintain and even potentially enhance safety, while at the same time improving planning and reducing both operations and maintenance costs.

  2. Analysis of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Costs: A 1995 Update, An

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs. The Energy Information Administration published three reports on this subject during the period 1988-1995.

  3. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  4. The NuGas{sup TM} Concept - Combining a Nuclear Power Plant with a Gas-Fired Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, Paul; Smith, Alistair

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear power plants produce low carbon emissions and stable, low cost electricity. Combined cycle gas-fired power plants are cheap and quick to build and have very flexible operation. If you could combine these two technologies, you could have an ideal base-load power plant. (authors)

  5. Secretary Chu's Remarks at Vogtle Nuclear Power Plant -- As Prepared...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    60 years ago, scientists in Arco, Idaho successfully used nuclear energy to power four light bulbs. They laid the groundwork for decades of clean electricity and put the U.S. at...

  6. Nuclear power plant simulators: their use in operator training and requalification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.W.; Baer, D.K.; Francis, C.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the capabilities and use of nuclear power plant simulators either built or being built by the US nuclear power industry; to determine the adequacy of existing standards for simulator design and for the training of power plant operators on simulators; and to assess the issues about simulator training programs raised by the March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2.

  7. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  8. Expert systems applied to two problems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K.Y.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation describes two prototype expert systems applied to two problems in nuclear power plants. One problem is spare parts inventory control, and the other one is radionuclide release from containment during severe accident. The expert system for spare parts inventory control can handle spare parts requirements not only in corrective, preventive, or predictive maintenance, but also when failure rates of components or parts are updated by new data. Costs and benefits of spare parts inventory acquisition are evaluated with qualitative attributes such as spare part availability to provide the inventory manager with an improved basis for decision making. The expert system is implemented with Intelligence/Compiler on an IBM-AT. The other expert system for radionuclide release from containment can estimate magnitude, type, location, and time of release of radioactive materials from containment during a severe accident nearly on line, based on the actual measured physical parameters such as temperature and pressure inside the containment. The expert system has a function to check the validation of sensor data. The expert system is implemented with KEE on a Symbolics LISP machine.

  9. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  10. Ukraine Loads U.S. Nuclear Fuel into Power Plant as Part of DOE-Ukraine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Fuel Qualification Program | Department of Energy Ukraine Loads U.S. Nuclear Fuel into Power Plant as Part of DOE-Ukraine Nuclear Fuel Qualification Program Ukraine Loads U.S. Nuclear Fuel into Power Plant as Part of DOE-Ukraine Nuclear Fuel Qualification Program April 9, 2010 - 12:11pm Addthis KYIV, UKRAINE - Officials from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy today (April 8, 2010) participated in a ceremony in Ukraine to mark the insertion of

  11. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Power and distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.

    1994-05-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in power and distribution transformers important to license renewal in commercial nuclear power plants. The intent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  12. Nuclear Safety Risk Management in Refueling Outage of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijing Wu; Guozhang Shen

    2006-07-01

    The NPP is used to planning maintenance, in-service inspection, surveillance test, fuel handling and design modification in the refueling outage; the operator response capability will be reduced plus some of the plant systems out of service or loss of power at this time. Based on 8 times refueling outage experiences of the Qinshan NPP, this article provide some good practice and lesson learned for the nuclear safety risk management focus at four safety function areas of Residual Heat Removal Capability, Inventory Control, Power availability and Reactivity control. (authors)

  13. Integration of Biorefineries and Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants - A Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Sherrell R; Flanagan, George F; Borole, Abhijeet P

    2009-03-01

    Biomass-based ethanol and nuclear power are two viable elements in the path to U.S. energy independence. Numerous studies suggest nuclear power could provide a practical carbon-free heat source alternative for the production of biomass-based ethanol. In order for this coupling to occur, it is necessary to examine the interfacial requirements of both nuclear power plants and bioethanol refineries. This report describes the proposed characteristics of a small cogeneration nuclear power plant, a biochemical process-based cellulosic bioethanol refinery, and a thermochemical process-based cellulosic biorefinery. Systemic and interfacial issues relating to the co-location of either type of bioethanol facility with a nuclear power plant are presented and discussed. Results indicate future co-location efforts will require a new optimized energy strategy focused on overcoming the interfacial challenges identified in the report.

  14. New Technologies for Repairing Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-11

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a technique to repair aging cables that have been subjected to degradation associated with long-term thermal and radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. The physical degradation of the aging cables manifests itself primarily as cracking and increased brittleness of the polymeric electrical insulation. Therefore, the proposed cable-repair concept comprises development of techniques to impart a softening agent within the deteriorated polymer insulation jacket so as to regain the ability of the insulation to stretch without failing and possibly to heal existing cracks in the insulation. Our approach is to use commercially available ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) as the relevant test material, demonstrate the adsorption of chemical treatments in the EPR and quantify changes in resulting physical and mechanical properties. EPR cable samples have been thermally treated in air to produce specimens corresponding to the full range of cable age-performance points from new (>350% elongation at break) to end-of-life (<50% elongation at break). The current focus is on two chemical treatments selected as candidates for restoring age-related cable elasticity loss: a rubber plasticizer and a reactive silane molecule. EPR specimens of 200, 150, 100, and 50% elongation at break have been soaked in the candidate chemical treatments and the kinetics of chemical uptake, measured by change in mass of the samples, has been determined. Mechanical properties as a function of aging and chemical treatment have been measured including ultimate tensile strength, tensile modulus at 50% strain, elongation at break, and storage modulus. Dimensional changes with treatment and changes in glass transition temperature were also investigated. These ongoing experiments are expected to provide insight into the physical-chemical nature of the effect of thermal degradation on EPR rejuvenation limits and to advance novel methods for

  15. Probabilistic methods in seismic risk assessment for nuclear power plants: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in seismic risk analysis applied to the design and siting of nuclear power plants was addressed in this meeting. Presentations were entered individually into the date base. (ACR)

  16. An artificial neutral network fault-diagnostic adviser for a nuclear power plant with error prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Keehoon

    1992-12-31

    This thesis is part of an ongoing project at Iowa State University to develop ANN bases fault diagnostic systems to detect and classify operational transients at nuclear power plants.

  17. An artificial neutral network fault-diagnostic adviser for a nuclear power plant with error prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Keehoon.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is part of an ongoing project at Iowa State University to develop ANN bases fault diagnostic systems to detect and classify operational transients at nuclear power plants.

  18. Coupling Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion technology (OTEC) with nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, M.K.; Rezachek, D.; Chen, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The prospects of utilizing an OTEC Related Bottoming Cycle to recover waste heat generated by a large nuclear (or fossil) power plant are examined. With such improvements, OTEC can become a major energy contributor. 12 refs.

  19. (Safety and reliability of nuclear power plant technology)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, T.L.

    1990-10-22

    The traveler attended the 16th MPA Seminar on the Safety and Reliability of Plant Technology with Special Emphasis on Nuclear Technology. The objective of the trip was to gather information and data that could prove useful to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsored Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) and Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Programs and to present a paper entitled, Effects of Irradiation on Initiation and Crack-Arrest Toughness of Two High-Copper Welds and on Stainless Steel Cladding. This paper summarizes results from the 5th, 6th, and 7th Irradiation Series of experiments performed within the HSSI Program by the Metals and Ceramics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  20. Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December 2010 | Department of Energy Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, December 2010 Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, December 2010 Energy and water are both essential to sustainable development and economic productivity. Ample supplies of water are essential to energy production, and water management is dependent on ample supplies of energy for water treatment and transportation. The critical nexus between energy and

  1. Recommendations to the NRC on human engineering guidelines for nuclear power plant maintainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badalamente, R.V.; Fecht, B.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eklund, J.D.; Hartley, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document contains human engineering guidelines which can enhance the maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines have been derived from general human engineering design principles, criteria, and data. The guidelines may be applied to existing plants as well as to plants under construction. They apply to nuclear power plant systems, equipment and facilities, as well as to maintenance tools and equipment. The guidelines are grouped into seven categories: accessibility and workspace, physical environment, loads and forces, maintenance facilities, maintenance tools and equipment, operating equipment design, and information needs. Each chapter of the document details specific maintainability problems encountered at nuclear power plants, the safety impact of these problems, and the specific maintainability design guidelines whose application can serve to avoid these problems in new or existing plants.

  2. Prognostics Health Management and Life Beyond 60 for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing interest in longer-term operation of the current US nuclear power plant fleet. This paper will present an overview of prognostic health management (PHM) technologies that could play a role in the safe and effective operation of nuclear power plants during extended life. A case study in prognostics for materials degradation assessment, using laboratory-scale measurements, is briefly discussed, and technical gaps that need to be addressed prior to PHM system deployment for nuclear power life extension are presented.

  3. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

  4. Topics in nuclear power (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NUCLEAR POWER STATION; GAIN; JAPAN; NATURAL DISASTERS; NUCLEAR INDUSTRY; NUCLEAR POWER; NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS; PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATION; REACTOR ACCIDENTS; REACTOR MAINTENANCE;...

  5. COMPUTERIZATION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHARA,J.M.; HIGGINS,J.; STUBLER,W.

    2000-07-30

    Emergency operating procedures (EOPs) in nuclear plants guide operators in handling significant process disturbances. Historically these procedures have been paper-based. More recently, computer-based procedure (CBP) systems have been developed to improve the usability of EOPs. The objective of this study was to establish human factors review guidance for CBP systems based on a technically valid methodology. First, a characterization of CBPs was developed for describing their key design features, including both procedure representation and functionality. Then, the research on CBPs and related areas was reviewed. This information provided the technical basis on which the guidelines were developed. For some aspects of CBPs the technical basis was insufficient to develop guidance; these aspects were identified as issues to be addressed in future research.

  6. Contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) to core melt at United States nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giachetti, R.T. (Giachetti (Richard T.), Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This report looks at WASH-1400 and several other Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and Probabilistic Safety Studies (PSSs) to determine the contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events to the total core melt probability at eight nuclear power plants in the United States. After considering each plant individually, the results are compared from plant to plant to see if any generic conclusions regarding ATWS, or core melt in general, can be made. 8 refs., 34 tabs.

  7. Incentive regulation of investor-owned nuclear power plants by public utility regulators. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, M.D.; Seely, H.E.; Merritt, C.R.; Baker, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) periodically surveys the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and state regulatory commissions that regulate utility owners of nuclear power plants. The NRC is interested in identifying states that have established economic or performance incentive programs applicable to nuclear power plants, how the programs are being implemented, and in determining the financial impact of the programs on the utilities. The NRC interest stems from the fact that such programs have the potential to adversely affect the safety of nuclear power plants. The current report is an update of NUREG/CR-5975, Incentive Regulation of Investor-Owned Nuclear Power Plants by Public Utility Regulators, published in January 1993. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulatory agency that administers an incentive program and each utility that owns at least 10% of an affected nuclear power plant. The agreements, orders, and settlements that form the basis for each incentive program were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program.

  8. Yonggwang nuclear power plant units 3 and 4; Bridging the gap to the next generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heider, R.C.; Daley, T.J.; Green, K.J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of nuclear energy since the oil embargo of 1973 has displaced the use of 4.3 billion barrels of imported oil, which helped conserve 1 billion tons of coal and 6.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas for future generations, and helped protect the environment by reducing utility emissions of carbon dioxide by 20% a year. The current 112 operating nuclear energy plants generate more electricity than those of France, Japan, and the Soviet Union-nations that have made a national commitment to nuclear energy-combined. Yet it has been over 10 years since the last construction permit was issued for a nuclear power plant in the United States. Considering a projected shortfall in baseload electric generation capacity in the mid-1990s, new requirements for costly air pollution controls on coal plants, the concern over increased dependence on oil imports from the unstable Middle East region, and the increased concern over the possible long-term effects of greenhouse gas emissions, the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC), the governing organization for the commercial nuclear energy industry, has developed a strategic plan with the goal of being able to order new nuclear power plants by the mid-1990s. The strategic plan, which contains 14 enabling conditions or building blocks, outlines an integrated effort to address the range of institutional and technical issues on which significant progress must be achieved to make nuclear power attractive in the United States for the 1990s.

  9. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia; Galyean, William; Gupta, Abhinav; Dimitrijevic, Vesna; Malsch, Marty

    2003-01-29

    OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.

  10. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heather D. Medema; Ronald K. Farris

    2012-09-01

    This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile technology for the purpose of improving human performance and plant status control (PSC) for field workers in an NPP setting. This document especially is directed at NPP business managers, Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and other non-Information Technology personnel. This information is not intended to replace basic project management practices or reiterate these processes, but is to support decision-making, planning, and preparation of a business case.

  11. Reassessment of selected factors affecting siting of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.; Mubayi, V.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1997-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has performed a series of probabilistic consequence assessment calculations for nuclear reactor siting. This study takes into account recent insights into severe accident source terms and examines consequences in a risk based format consistent with the quantitative health objectives (QHOs) of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy. Simplified severe accident source terms developed in this study are based on the risk insights of NUREG-1150. The results of the study indicate that both the quantity of radioactivity released in a severe accident as well as the likelihood of a release are lower than those predicted in earlier studies. The accident risks using the simplified source terms are examined at a series of generic plant sites, that vary in population distribution, meteorological conditions, and exclusion area boundary distances. Sensitivity calculations are performed to evaluate the effects of emergency protective action assumptions on the risk of prompt fatality and latent cancers fatality, and population relocation. The study finds that based on the new source terms the prompt and latent fatality risks at all generic sites meet the QHOs of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy by margins ranging from one to more than three orders of magnitude. 4 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Boring

    2011-09-01

    nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

  13. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Structures - Overview of Methods and Related Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, Dan J

    2009-05-01

    The objectives of this limited study were to provide an overview of the methods that are available for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete and metallic structures, and to provide an assessment of the status of methods that address inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. In meeting these objectives a general description of nuclear power plant safety-related structures was provided as well as identification of potential degradation factors, testing and inspection requirements, and operating experience; methods for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures and containment metallic pressure boundaries were identified and described; and applications of nondestructive evaluation methods specifically related to inspection of thick-section reinforced concrete structures and inaccessible portions of containment metallic pressure boundaries were summarized. Recommendations are provided on utilization of test article(s) to further advance nondestructive evaluation methods related to thick-section, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary representative of nuclear power plant containments. Conduct of a workshop to provide an update on applications and needed developments for nondestructive evaluation of nuclear power plant structures would also be of benefit.

  14. Online Condition Monitoring to Enable Extended Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-03-31

    Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by economic considerations. Online condition monitoring is a means to improve both the safety and economics of extending the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants, enabling adoption of proactive aging management. With regard to active components (e.g., pumps, valves, motors, etc.), significant experience in other industries has been leveraged to build the science base to support adoption for online condition-based maintenance and proactive aging management in the nuclear industry. Many of the research needs are associated with enabling proactive management of aging in passive components (e.g., pipes, vessels, cables, containment structures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of online condition monitoring for the nuclear power industry with an emphasis on passive components. Following the overview, several technology/knowledge gaps are identified, which require addressing to facilitate widespread online condition monitoring of passive components.

  15. Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Belles, Randy; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; Holcomb, David Eugene; Korsah, Kofi; Loebl, Andy; Mays, Gary T; Muhlheim, Michael David; Mullens, James Allen; Poore III, Willis P; Qualls, A L; Wilson, Thomas L; Waterman, Michael E.

    2010-02-01

    This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within the same

  16. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  17. Secretary Chu's Remarks at Vogtle Nuclear Power Plant -- As Prepared...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tom Fanning, President of Southern Company Paul Bowers, President and Chief Executive Officer of Georgia Power Tom Smith, Chief Executive Officer of Oglethorpe Power Bob Johnston, ...

  18. OVERVIEW OF A RECONFIGURABLE SIMULATOR FOR MAIN CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plant modernization in the U.S. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  19. The status of nuclear power plants in the People's Republic of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puckett, J.

    1991-05-01

    China's main energy source is coal, but transportation and environmental problems make that fuel less than desirable. Therefore, the Chinese, as part of an effort toward alternative energy sources, are developing nuclear power plants. In addition to providing a cleaner power source, development of nuclear energy would improve the Chinese economic condition and give the nation greater world status. China's first plants, at Qinshan and Daya Bay, are still incomplete. However, China is working toward completion of those reactors and planning the training and operating procedures needed to operate them. At the same time, it is improving its nuclear fuel exports. As they develop the capability for generating nuclear power, the Chinese seem to be aware of the accompanying quality and safety considerations, which they have declared to be first priorities. 50 refs., 7 figs.

  20. The Regulatory Challenges of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants in Korea - 13101

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jungjoon; Ahn, Sangmyeon; Choi, Kyungwoo; Kim, Juyoul; Kim, Juyub

    2013-07-01

    As of 2012, 23 units of nuclear power plants are in operation, but there is no experience of permanent shutdown and decommissioning of nuclear power plant in Korea. It is realized that, since late 1990's, improvement of the regulatory framework for decommissioning has been emphasized constantly from the point of view of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)'s safety standards. And it is known that now IAEA prepare the safety requirement on decommissioning of facilities, its title is the Safe Decommissioning of Facilities, General Safety Requirement Part 6. According to the result of IAEA's Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to Korea in 2011, it was recommended that the regulatory framework for decommissioning should require decommissioning plans for nuclear installations to be constructed and operated and these plans should be updated periodically. In addition, after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan in March of 2011, preparedness for early decommissioning caused by an unexpected severe accident became also important issues and concerns. In this respect, it is acknowledged that the regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Korea need to be improved. First of all, we identify the current status and relevant issues of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants compared to the IAEA's safety standards in order to achieve our goal. And then the plan is to be established for improvement of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea. After dealing with it, it is expected that the revised regulatory framework for decommissioning could enhance the safety regime on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea in light of international standards. (authors)

  1. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  2. Remarks by Secretary Moniz at the Summit on Improving the Economics of America’s Nuclear Power Plants-- As Delivered

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Keynote Address by Secretary Moniz at the Department of Energy Summit on Improving the Economics of America’s Nuclear Power Plants

  3. Proceedings of the 2006 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'06

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-01

    Following the highly successful ICAPP'05 meeting held in Seoul Korea, the 2006 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covers the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. The program covers lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program by technical track deals with: - 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting medium term utility needs; design and regulatory issues; business, political and economic challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. - 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, hydrogen production and other industrial uses; advanced thermal and fast reactors. - 3. Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as, super critical water reactors, liquid metal reactors, gaseous and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. - 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and

  4. Initiating Event Rates at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants. 1988 - 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, John A.; Bower, Gordon R.

    2014-02-01

    Analyzing initiating event rates is important because it indicates performance among plants and also provides inputs to several U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) risk-informed regulatory activities. This report presents an analysis of initiating event frequencies at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants since each plant’s low-power license date. The evaluation is based on the operating experience from fiscal year 1988 through 2013 as reported in licensee event reports. Engineers with nuclear power plant experience staff reviewed each event report since the last update to this report for the presence of valid scrams or reactor trips at power. To be included in the study, an event had to meet all of the following criteria: includes an unplanned reactor trip (not a scheduled reactor trip on the daily operations schedule), sequence of events starts when reactor is critical and at or above the point of adding heat, occurs at a U.S. commercial nuclear power plant (excluding Fort St. Vrain and LaCrosse), and is reported by a licensee event report. This report displays occurrence rates (baseline frequencies) for the categories of initiating events that contribute to the NRC’s Industry Trends Program. Sixteen initiating event groupings are trended and displayed. Initiators are plotted separately for initiating events with different occurrence rates for boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. p-values are given for the possible presence of a trend over the most recent 10 years.

  5. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  6. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs: A 1995 update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-21

    Over the years real (inflation-adjusted) O&M cost have begun to level off. The objective of this report is to determine whether the industry and NRC initiatives to control costs have resulted in this moderation in the growth of O&M costs. Because the industry agrees that the control of O&M costs is crucial to the viability of the technology, an examination of the factors causing the moderation in costs is important. A related issue deals with projecting nuclear operating costs into the future. Because of the escalation in nuclear operating costs (and the fall in fossil fuel prices) many State and Federal regulatory commissions are examining the economics of the continued operation of nuclear power plants under their jurisdiction. The economics of the continued operation of a nuclear power plant is typically examined by comparing the cost of the plants continued operation with the cost of obtaining the power from other sources. This assessment requires plant-specific projections of nuclear operating costs. Analysts preparing these projections look at past industry-wide cost trends and consider whether these trends are likely to continue. To determine whether these changes in trends will continue into the future, information about the causal factors influencing costs and the future trends in these factors are needed. An analysis of the factors explaining the moderation in cost growth will also yield important insights into the question of whether these trends will continue.

  7. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  8. Volume I, Summary Report: A Roadmap to Deploy New Nuclear Power Plants in the United States by 2010:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Nuclear power plants in the United States currently produce about 20 percent of the nation’s electricity. This nuclear-generated electricity is safe, clean and economical, and does not emit...

  9. Method To Monitor Nuclear Power Plant Risk from Transmission Grid Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Gregg; K Canavan

    2004-10-30

    This report examines a method to monitor and trend the transmission grid in the local vicinity of a nuclear o other generating station. The method addresses the potential for a loss of off-site power following a plant trip or a loss-of-coolant accident.

  10. Guidance for a large tabletop exercise for a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinstein, E.D.; Bates, E.F.; Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S.

    1995-03-01

    Tabletop exercises are held to discuss issues related to the response of organizations to an emergency event. This document describes in task format the planning, conduct, and reporting of lessons learned for a large interagency tabletop. A sample scenario, focus areas, and discussion questions based on a simulated accident at a commercial nuclear power plant are provided.

  11. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  12. Survey of thermal-hydraulic models of commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Determan, J.C.; Hendrix, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the thermal-hydraulic models of nuclear power plants has been performed to identify the NRC's current analytical capabilities for critical event response. The survey also supports ongoing research for accident management. The results of the survey are presented here. The PC database which records detailed data on each model is described.

  13. Survey of thermal-hydraulic models of commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Determan, J.C.; Hendrix, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the thermal-hydraulic models of nuclear power plants has been performed to identify the NRC`s current analytical capabilities for critical event response. The survey also supports ongoing research for accident management. The results of the survey are presented here. The PC database which records detailed data on each model is described.

  14. Prognostics and Health Management in Nuclear Power Plants: A Review of Technologies and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Hines, Wes; Upadhyaya, Belle

    2012-07-17

    This report reviews the current state of the art of prognostics and health management (PHM) for nuclear power systems and related technology currently applied in field or under development in other technological application areas, as well as key research needs and technical gaps for increased use of PHM in nuclear power systems. The historical approach to monitoring and maintenance in nuclear power plants (NPPs), including the Maintenance Rule for active components and Aging Management Plans for passive components, are reviewed. An outline is given for the technical and economic challenges that make PHM attractive for both legacy plants through Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) and new plant designs. There is a general introduction to PHM systems for monitoring, fault detection and diagnostics, and prognostics in other, non-nuclear fields. The state of the art for health monitoring in nuclear power systems is reviewed. A discussion of related technologies that support the application of PHM systems in NPPs, including digital instrumentation and control systems, wired and wireless sensor technology, and PHM software architectures is provided. Appropriate codes and standards for PHM are discussed, along with a description of the ongoing work in developing additional necessary standards. Finally, an outline of key research needs and opportunities that must be addressed in order to support the application of PHM in legacy and new NPPs is presented.

  15. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  16. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  17. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  18. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1983-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1980 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1980 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  20. High Energy Utilization, Co-Generation Nuclear power Plants With Static Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel P.

    2002-07-01

    In addition to being cost effective, very small nuclear power plants with static energy conversion could meet the needs and the energy mix in underdeveloped countries and remote communities, which may include electricity, residential and industrial space heating, seawater desalination, and/or high temperature process heat or steam for industrial uses. These plants are also an attractive option in naval, marine, and undersea applications, when the absence of a sound signature is highly desirable. An Analysis is performed of Gas Cooled Reactor (CGR) and Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (LMR), very small nuclear power plants with static energy conversion, using a combination of options. These include Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converters (AMTECs) and both single segment and segmented thermoelectric converters. The total energy utilization of these plants exceeds 88%. It includes the fraction of the reactor's thermal power converted into electricity and delivered to the Grid at 6.6 kVA and those used for residential and industrial space heating at {approx}370 K, seawater desalination at 400 K, and/or high temperature process heat or steam at {approx}850 K. In addition to its inherently high reliability, modularity, low maintenance and redundancy, static energy conversion used in the present study could deliver electricity to the Grid at a net efficiency of 29.5%. A LMR plant delivers 2-3 times the fraction of the reactor thermal power converted into electricity in a GCR plant, but could not provide for both seawater desalination and high temperature process heat/steam concurrently, which is possible in GCR plants. The fraction of the reactor's thermal power used for non-electrical power generation in a GCR plant is {approx} 10 - 15% higher than in a LMR plant. (authors)

  1. Application of PSA to review and define technical specifications for advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Reinhart, F.M.; Wohl, M.L.

    1995-11-01

    As part of the design certification process, probabilistic safety assessments (PSAS) are performed at the design stage for each advanced nuclear power plant. Among other usages, these PSAs are important inputs in defining the Technical Specifications (TSs) for these plants. Knowledge gained from their use in improving the TSs for operating nuclear power plants is providing methods and insights for using PSAs at this early stage. Evaluating the safety or the risk significance of the TSs to be defined for an advanced plant encompasses diverse aspects: (a) determining the basic limiting condition for operation (LCO); (b) structuring conditions associated with the LCO; (c) defining completion times (equivalent to allowed outage times in the TS for conventional plants); and, (d) prescribing required actions to be taken within the specified completion times. In this paper, we consider the use of PSA in defining the TSs for an advanced nuclear plant, namely General Electric`s Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). Similar approaches are being taken for ABB-CE`s System 80+ and Westinghouse`s AP-600. We discuss the general features of an advanced reactor`s TS, how PSA is being used in reviewing the TSs, and we give an example where the TS submittal was reviewed using a PSA-based analysis to arrive at the requirements for the plant.

  2. Dynamic Operations Wayfinding System (DOWS) for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids; Ulrich, Thomas Anthony; Lew, Roger Thomas

    2015-08-01

    A novel software tool is proposed to aid reactor operators in respond- ing to upset plant conditions. The purpose of the Dynamic Operations Wayfind- ing System (DOWS) is to diagnose faults, prioritize those faults, identify paths to resolve those faults, and deconflict the optimal path for the operator to fol- low. The objective of DOWS is to take the guesswork out of the best way to combine procedures to resolve compound faults, mitigate low threshold events, or respond to severe accidents. DOWS represents a uniquely flexible and dy- namic computer-based procedure system for operators.

  3. Extending Sensor Calibration Intervals in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2012-11-15

    Currently in the USA, sensor recalibration is required at every refueling outage, and it has emerged as a critical path item for shortening outage duration. International application of calibration monitoring, such as at the Sizewell B plant in UK, has shown that sensors may operate for eight years, or longer, within calibration tolerances. Online monitoring can be employed to identify those sensors which require calibration, allowing for calibration of only those sensors which need it. The US NRC accepted the general concept of online monitoring for sensor calibration monitoring in 2000, but no plants have been granted the necessary license amendment to apply it. This project addresses key issues in advanced recalibration methodologies and provides the science base to enable adoption of best practices for applying online monitoring, resulting in a public domain standardized methodology for sensor calibration interval extension. Research to develop this methodology will focus on three key areas: (1) quantification of uncertainty in modeling techniques used for calibration monitoring, with a particular focus on non-redundant sensor models; (2) accurate determination of acceptance criteria and quantification of the effect of acceptance criteria variability on system performance; and (3) the use of virtual sensor estimates to replace identified faulty sensors to extend operation to the next convenient maintenance opportunity.

  4. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Levine

    2006-01-27

    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  5. Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status provided. Operating experience related to performance of the concrete structures is presented. Basic components of a program to manage aging of the concrete structures are identified and described: (1) Degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; (2) Assessment and remediation: i.e., component selection, in- service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions; and (3) Estimation of performance at present or some future point in time: i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk. Finally, areas are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  6. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  7. Integrated head package cable carrier for a nuclear power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meuschke, Robert E.; Trombola, Daniel M.

    1995-01-01

    A cabling arrangement is provided for a nuclear reactor located within a containment. Structure inside the containment is characterized by a wall having a near side surrounding the reactor vessel defining a cavity, an operating deck outside the cavity, a sub-space below the deck and on a far side of the wall spaced from the near side, and an operating area above the deck. The arrangement includes a movable frame supporting a plurality of cables extending through the frame, each connectable at a first end to a head package on the reactor vessel and each having a second end located in the sub-space. The frame is movable, with the cables, between a first position during normal operation of the reactor when the cables are connected to the head package, located outside the sub-space proximate the head package, and a second position during refueling when the cables are disconnected from the head package, located in the sub-space. In a preferred embodiment, the frame straddles the top of the wall in a substantially horizontal orientation in the first position, pivots about an end distal from the head package to a substantially vertically oriented intermediate position, and is guided, while remaining about vertically oriented, along a track in the sub-space to the second position.

  8. Devices and methods for managing noncombustible gasses in nuclear power plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marquino, Wayne; Moen, Stephan C; Wachowiak, Richard M; Gels, John L; Diaz-Quiroz, Jesus; Burns, Jr., John C

    2014-12-23

    Systems passively eliminate noncondensable gasses from facilities susceptible to damage from combustion of built-up noncondensable gasses, such as H2 and O2 in nuclear power plants, without the need for external power and/or moving parts. Systems include catalyst plates installed in a lower header of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) condenser, a catalyst packing member, and/or a catalyst coating on an interior surface of a condensation tube of the PCCS condenser or an annular outlet of the PCCS condenser. Structures may have surfaces or hydrophobic elements that inhibit water formation and promote contact with the noncondensable gas. Noncondensable gasses in a nuclear power plant are eliminated by installing and using the systems individually or in combination. An operating pressure of the PCCS condenser may be increased to facilitate recombination of noncondensable gasses therein.

  9. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - tanks and pools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blocker, E.; Smith, S.; Philpot, L.; Conley, J.

    1996-02-01

    Continued operation of nuclear power plants for periods that extend beyond their original 40-year license period is a desirable option for many U.S. utilities. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of operating license renewals is necessary before continued operation becomes a reality. Effective aging management for plant components is important to reliability and safety, regardless of current plant age or extended life expectations. However, the NRC requires that aging evaluations be performed and the effectiveness of aging management programs be demonstrated for components considered within the scope of license renewal before granting approval for operation beyond 40 years. Both the NRC and the utility want assurance that plant components will be highly reliable during both the current license term and throughout the extended operating period. In addition, effective aging management must be demonstrated to support Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) activities.

  10. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC`s Maintenance Team Inspection reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.

    1992-12-31

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of sixty-seven of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections have been reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Relevant information has been extracted from these inspection reports sorted into several categories; including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified.

  11. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  12. Design issues concerning Iran`s Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was {approx}80% complete and unit 2 was {approx}50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  14. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2014-04-30

    This report describes research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  15. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the status of ongoing research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  16. Near-term improvements for nuclear power plant control room annunciator systems. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rankin, W.L.; Duvernoy, E.G.; Ames, K.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Eckenrode, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    This report sets forth a basic design philosophy with its associated functional criteria and design principles for present-day, hard-wired annunciator systems in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. It also presents a variety of annunciator design features that are either necessary for or useful to the implementation of the design philosophy. The information contained in this report is synthesized from an extensive literature review, from inspection and analysis of control room annunciator systems in the nuclear industry and in related industries, and from discussions with a variety of individuals who are knowledgeable about annunciator systems, nuclear plant control rooms, or both. This information should help licensees and license applicants in improving their hard-wired, control room annunciator systems as outlined by NUREG-0700.

  17. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC maintenance team inspection reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.; Grove, E.; Taylor, J.

    1993-12-01

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of 67 of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant systems, structures, and components. Relevant information was extracted from these inspection reports and sorted into several categories, including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified. The information also was sorted according to systems and components, including: Auxiliary Feedwater, Main Feedwater, High Pressure Injection for both BWRs and PWRs, Service Water, Instrument Air, and Emergency Diesel Generator Air Start Systems, and Emergency Diesel Generators Air Start Systems, emergency diesel generators, electrical components such as switchgear, breakers, relays, and motor control centers, motor operated valves and check valves. This information was compared to insights gained from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue also are discussed.

  18. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  19. Underground collocation of nuclear power plant reactors and repository to facilitate the post-renaissance expansion of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Carl W; Elkins, Ned Z

    2008-01-01

    Underground collocation of nuclear power reactors and the nuclear waste management facilities supporting those reactors, termed an underground nuclear park (UNP), appears to have several advantages compared to the conventional approach to siting reactors and waste management facilities. These advantages include the potential to lower reactor capital and operating cost, lower nuclear waste management cost, and increase margins of physical security and safety. Envirorunental impacts related to worker health, facility accidents, waste transportation, and sabotage and terrorism appear to be lower for UNPs compared to the current approach. In-place decommissioning ofUNP reactors appears to have cost, safety, envirorunental and waste disposal advantages. The UNP approach has the potential to lead to greater public acceptance for the deployment of new power reactors. Use of the UNP during the post-nuclear renaissance time frame has the potential to enable a greater expansion of U.S. nuclear power generation than might otherwise result. Technical and economic aspects of the UNP concept need more study to determine the viability of the concept.

  20. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWR) (NUREG-1123) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog and Examiners' Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Examinations (NUREG-1121) will cover those topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55. The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at boiling water reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring personnel and public health and safety. The BWR K/A Catalog is organized into five major sections: Plant-wide Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. The BWR Catalog represents a modification of the form and content of the K/A Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Pressurized Water Reactors (NUREG-1122). First, categories of knowledge and ability statements have been redefined. Second, the scope of the definition of emergency and abnormal plant evolutions has been revised in line with a symptom-based approach. Third, K/As related to the operational applications of theory have been incorporated into the delineations for both plant systems and emergency and abnormal plant evolutions, while K/As pertaining to theory fundamental to plant operation have been delineated in a separate theory section. Finally, the components section has been revised.

  1. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC's Maintenance Team Inspection reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.

    1992-01-01

    A plant's maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of sixty-seven of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections have been reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Relevant information has been extracted from these inspection reports sorted into several categories; including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified.

  2. Application of Entry-Time Processes in Asset Management for Nuclear Power Plants (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Nelson

    2008-01-23

    A mathematical model of entry-time processes was developed, and a computational method for solving that model was verified. This methodology was demonstrated via application to a succession of increasingly more complex subsystems of nuclear power plants. The effort culminated in the application to main generators that constituted the PhD dissertation of Shuwen (Eric) Wang. Dr. Wang is now employed by ABS Consulting, in Anaheim, CA. ABS is a principal provider to the nuclear industry of technical services related to reliability and safety.

  3. Validation of smart sensor technologies for instrument calibration reduction in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashemian, H M; Mitchell, D W; Petersen, K M; Shell, C S

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of a research and development project on the validation of new techniques for on-line testing of calibration drift of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. These techniques generally involve a computer-based data acquisition and data analysis system to trend the output of a large number of instrument channels and identify the channels that have drifted out of tolerance. This helps limit the calibration effort to those channels which need the calibration, as opposed to the current nuclear industry practice of calibrating essentially all the safety-related instrument channels at every refueling outage.

  4. Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident

  5. Development of a Flexible Computerized Management Infrastructure for a Commercial Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Hajek, Brian K.; Usman, Shoaib

    2006-05-01

    The report emphasizes smooth transition from paper-based procedure systems (PBPSs) to computer-based procedure systems (CBPSs) for the existing commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. The expected advantages and of the transition are mentioned including continued, safe and efficient operation of the plants under their recently acquired or desired extended licenses. The report proposes a three-stage survey to aid in developing a national strategic plan for the transition from PBPSs to CBPSs. It also includes a comprehensive questionnaire that can be readily used for the first stage of the suggested survey.

  6. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, J.; Kim, T.J.; Reynolds, S.

    1991-08-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act.

  7. Regularization of Feedwater Flow Rate Evaluation for Venturi Meter Fouling Problem in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gribok, Andrei V.; Attieh, Ibrahim K.; Hines, J. Wesley; Uhrig, Robert E.

    2001-04-15

    Inferential sensing is a method that can be used to evaluate parameters of a physical system based on a set of measurements related to these parameters. The most common method of inferential sensing uses mathematical models to infer a parameter value from correlated sensor values. However, since inferential sensing is an inverse problem, it can produce inconsistent results due to minor perturbations in the data. This research shows that regularization can be used in inferential sensing to produce consistent results. Data from Florida Power Corporation's Crystal River nuclear power plant (NPP) are used to give an important example of monitoring NPP feedwater flow rate.

  8. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  9. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, T.A.; Yu, C.K.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1994-05-01

    This is the fifth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology or nuclear power plants. The information is taken from two of several databases maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory`s ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The research section of the report covers dose reduction projects that are in the experimental or developmental phase. It includes topics such as steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvements in reactor materials, and inspection techniques. The section on health physics technology discusses dose reduction efforts that are in place or in the process of being implemented at nuclear power plants. A total of 105 new or updated projects are described. All project abstracts from this report are available to nuclear industry professionals with access to a fax machine through the ACEFAX system or a computer with a modem and the proper communications software through the ACE system. Detailed descriptions of how to access all the databases electronically are in the appendices of the report.

  10. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisner, Roger A; Mullens, James Allen; Wilson, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Qualls, A L; Muhlheim, Michael David; Holcomb, David Eugene; Loebl, Andy

    2007-08-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  11. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-08-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  12. A survey of repair practices for nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, C.B.; Naus, D.J.

    1998-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide assistance in their assessment of the effects of potential degradation on the structural integrity and leaktightness of metal containment vessels and steel liners of concrete containments in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to identify repair practices for restoring metallic containment pressure boundary components that have been damaged or degraded in service. This report presents issues associated with inservice condition assessments and continued service evaluations and identifies the rules and requirements for the repair and replacement of nonconforming containment pressure boundary components by welding or metal removal. Discussion topics include base and welding materials, welding procedure and performance qualifications, inspection techniques, testing methods, acceptance criteria, and documentation requirements necessary for making acceptable repairs and replacements so that the plant can be returned to a safe operating condition.

  13. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

  14. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  15. Method of installing a control room console in a nuclear power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  16. Online Monitoring of Concrete Structures in Nuclear Power Plants: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Cai, Guowei; Agarwal, Vivek

    2015-03-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants in the United States have initial operating licenses of 40 years, and many of these plants have applied for and received license extensions. As plant structures, systems, and components age, their useful life—considering both structural integrity and performance—is reduced as a result of deterioration of the materials. Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code-based design margins of safety. Structural health monitoring is required to produce actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. The online monitoring of concrete structures project conducted under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory is seeking to develop and demonstrate capabilities for concrete structures health monitoring. Through this research project, several national laboratories and Vanderbilt University propose to develop a framework of research activities for the health monitoring of nuclear power plant concrete structures that includes the integration of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report briefly discusses activities in this project during October-December, 2014. The most significant activity during this period was the organizing of a two-day workshop on research needs in online monitoring of concrete structures, hosted by Vanderbilt University in November 2014. Thirty invitees from academia, industry and government participated in the workshop. The presentations and discussions at the workshop surveyed current activities related to concrete structures deterioration modeling and monitoring, and identified the challenges, knowledge gaps, and opportunities for advancing the state of the art; these

  17. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O`Hearn, E.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  18. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  19. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K.

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  20. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs andmore » activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).« less

  1. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs and activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).

  2. Abnormal event identification in nuclear power plants using a neural network and knowledge processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohga, Yukiharu; Seki, Hiroshi (Hitachi, Ltd. Energy Research Lab., Ibarakiken (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    The combination of a neural network and knowledge processing have been used to identify abnormal events that cause a reactor to scram in a nuclear power plant. The neural network recognizes the abnormal event from the change pattern of analog data for state variables, and this result is confirmed from digital data using a knowledge base of plant status when each event occurs. The event identification method is tested using test data based on simulated results of a transient analysis program for boiling water reactors. It is confirmed that a neural network can identify an event in which it has been trained even when the plant conditions, such as fuel burnup, differ from those used in the training and when the analog data contain white noise. The network does not mistakenly identify the nontrained event as a trained one. The method is feasible for event identification, and knowledge processing improves the reliability of the identification.

  3. Investigation of Containment Flooding Strategy for Mark-III Nuclear Power Plant with MAAP4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su Weinian; Wang, S.-J.; Chiang, S.-C

    2005-06-15

    Containment flooding is an important strategy for severe accident management of a conventional boiling water reactor (BWR) system. The purpose of this work is to investigate the containment flooding strategy of the Mark-III system after a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) breach. The Kuosheng Power Plant is a typical BWR-6 nuclear power plant (NPP) with Mark-III containment. The Severe Accident Management Guideline (SAMG) of the Kuosheng NPP has been developed based on the BWR Owners Group (BWROG) Emergency Procedure and Severe Accident Guidelines, Rev. 2. Therefore, the Kuosheng NPP is selected as the plant for study, and the MAAP4 code is chosen as the tool for analysis. A postulated specific station blackout sequence for the Kuosheng NPP is cited as a reference case for this analysis. Because of the design features of Mark-III containment, the debris in the reactor cavity may not be submerged after an RPV breach when one follows the containment flooding strategy as suggested in the BWROG generic guideline, and the containment integrity could be challenged eventually. A more specific containment flooding strategy with drywell venting after an RPV breach is investigated, and a more stable plant condition is achieved with this strategy. Accordingly, the containment flooding strategy after an RPV breach will be modified for the Kuosheng SAMG, and these results are applicable to typical Mark-III plants with drywell vent path.

  4. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  6. Prognostic and health management of active assets in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy; Pham, Binh T.; Rusaw, Richard; Bickford, Randall

    2015-06-04

    This study presents the development of diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for active assets in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The research was performed under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Idaho National Laboratory researched, developed, implemented, and demonstrated diagnostic and prognostic models for generator step-up transformers (GSUs). The Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software developed by the Electric Power Research Institute was used to perform diagnosis and prognosis. As part of the research activity, Idaho National Laboratory implemented 22 GSU diagnostic models in the Asset Fault Signature Database and two wellestablished GSU prognostic models for the paper winding insulation in the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW-PHM Suite. The implemented models along with a simulated fault data stream were used to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of the FW-PHM Suite. Knowledge of the operating condition of plant asset gained from diagnosis and prognosis is critical for the safe, productive, and economical long-term operation of the current fleet of NPPs. This research addresses some of the gaps in the current state of technology development and enables effective application of diagnostics and prognostics to nuclear plant assets.

  7. Prognostic and health management of active assets in nuclear power plants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy; Pham, Binh T.; Rusaw, Richard; Bickford, Randall

    2015-06-04

    This study presents the development of diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for active assets in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The research was performed under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Idaho National Laboratory researched, developed, implemented, and demonstrated diagnostic and prognostic models for generator step-up transformers (GSUs). The Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software developed by the Electric Power Research Institute was used to perform diagnosis and prognosis. As part of the research activity, Idaho National Laboratory implemented 22 GSU diagnostic models in the Asset Fault Signature Database and twomore » wellestablished GSU prognostic models for the paper winding insulation in the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW-PHM Suite. The implemented models along with a simulated fault data stream were used to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of the FW-PHM Suite. Knowledge of the operating condition of plant asset gained from diagnosis and prognosis is critical for the safe, productive, and economical long-term operation of the current fleet of NPPs. This research addresses some of the gaps in the current state of technology development and enables effective application of diagnostics and prognostics to nuclear plant assets.« less

  8. A method to select human-system interfaces for nuclear power plants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hugo, Jacques Victor; Gertman, David Ira

    2015-10-19

    The new generation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will likely make use of state-of-the-art technologies in many areas of the plant. The analysis, design, and selection of advanced human–system interfaces (HSIs) constitute an important part of power plant engineering. Designers need to consider the new capabilities afforded by these technologies in the context of current regulations and new operational concepts, which is why they need a more rigorous method by which to plan the introduction of advanced HSIs in NPP work areas. Much of current human factors research stops at the user interface and fails to provide a definitive processmore » for integration of end user devices with instrumentation and control (I&C) and operational concepts. The current lack of a clear definition of HSI technology, including the process for integration, makes characterization and implementation of new and advanced HSIs difficult. This paper describes how new design concepts in the nuclear industry can be analyzed and how HSI technologies associated with new industrial processes might be considered. Furthermore, it also describes a basis for an understanding of human as well as technology characteristics that could be incorporated into a prioritization scheme for technology selection and deployment plans.« less

  9. A method to select human-system interfaces for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugo, Jacques Victor; Gertman, David Ira

    2015-10-19

    The new generation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will likely make use of state-of-the-art technologies in many areas of the plant. The analysis, design, and selection of advanced human–system interfaces (HSIs) constitute an important part of power plant engineering. Designers need to consider the new capabilities afforded by these technologies in the context of current regulations and new operational concepts, which is why they need a more rigorous method by which to plan the introduction of advanced HSIs in NPP work areas. Much of current human factors research stops at the user interface and fails to provide a definitive process for integration of end user devices with instrumentation and control (I&C) and operational concepts. The current lack of a clear definition of HSI technology, including the process for integration, makes characterization and implementation of new and advanced HSIs difficult. This paper describes how new design concepts in the nuclear industry can be analyzed and how HSI technologies associated with new industrial processes might be considered. Furthermore, it also describes a basis for an understanding of human as well as technology characteristics that could be incorporated into a prioritization scheme for technology selection and deployment plans.

  10. NARAC Modeling During the Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Emergency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Probanz, B; Foster, K T; Simpson, M; Vogt, P; Aluzzi, F; Dillon, M; Homann, S

    2012-02-14

    This paper summarizes the activities of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant crisis. NARAC provided a wide range of products and analyses as part of its support including: (1) Daily Japanese weather forecasts and hypothetical release (generic source term) dispersion predictions to provide situational awareness and inform planning for U.S. measurement data collection and field operations; (2) Estimates of potential dose in Japan for hypothetical scenarios developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to inform federal government considerations of possible actions that might be needed to protect U.S. citizens in Japan; (3) Estimates of possible plume arrival times and dose for U.S. locations; and (4) Plume model refinement and source estimation based on meteorological analyses and available field data. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) deployed personnel to Japan and stood up 'home team' assets across the DOE complex to aid in assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The DOE Nuclear Incident Team (NIT) coordinated response activities, while DOE personnel provided predictive modeling, air and ground monitoring, sample collection, laboratory analysis, and data assessment and interpretation. DOE deployed the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) personnel, and the Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) to Japan. DOE/NNSA home team assets included the Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT); National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS); and Radiological Triage. NARAC was activated by the DOE/NNSA on March 11, shortly after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred. The center remained on active operations through late May when DOE ended its deployment to Japan. Over 32 NARAC staff members

  11. FRAMEWORK AND APPLICATION FOR MODELING CONTROL ROOM CREW PERFORMANCE AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman; Tuan Q Tran; Brian F Gore

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging project regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for visualizing and modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error associated with advanced control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of contributory cognitive factors for risk significant scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of reduced staffing levels in advanced control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of cognition, elements of situation awareness, and risk associated with human performance in next generation control rooms.

  12. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  13. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, T.A.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  14. Development and validation of instantaneous risk model in nuclear power plant's risk monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, J.; Hu, L.

    2012-07-01

    The instantaneous risk model is the fundament of calculation and analysis in a risk monitor. This study focused on the development and validation of an instantaneous risk model. Therefore the principles converting from the baseline risk model to the instantaneous risk model were studied and separated trains' failure modes modeling method was developed. The development and validation process in an operating nuclear power plant's risk monitor were also introduced. Correctness of instantaneous risk model and rationality of converting method were demonstrated by comparison with the result of baseline risk model. (authors)

  15. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

  16. The AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant innovative features for extended station blackout mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vereb, F.; Winters, J.; Schulz, T.; Cummins, E.; Oriani, L. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Station Blackout (SBO) is defined as 'a condition wherein a nuclear power plant sustains a loss of all offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of all onsite emergency alternating current (AC) power system. Station blackout does not include the loss of available AC power to buses fed by station batteries through inverters or by alternate AC sources as defined in this section, nor does it assume a concurrent single failure or design basis accident...' in accordance with Reference 1. In this paper, the innovative features of the AP1000 plant design are described with their operation in the scenario of an extended station blackout event. General operation of the passive safety systems are described as well as the unique features which allow the AP1000 plant to cope for at least 7 days during station blackout. Points of emphasis will include: - Passive safety system operation during SBO - 'Fail-safe' nature of key passive safety system valves; automatically places the valve in a conservatively safe alignment even in case of multiple failures in all power supply systems, including normal AC and battery backup - Passive Spent Fuel Pool cooling and makeup water supply during SBO - Robustness of AP1000 plant due to the location of key systems, structures and components required for Safe Shutdown - Diverse means of supplying makeup water to the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCS) and the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) through use of an engineered, safety-related piping interface and portable equipment, as well as with permanently installed onsite ancillary equipment. (authors)

  17. Feasibility Study of a Nuclear-Stirling Power Plant for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2005-02-06

    NASA is undertaking the design of a new spacecraft to explore the planet Jupiter and its three moons Calisto, Ganymede and Europa. This proposed mission, known as Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) would use a nuclear reactor and an associated electrical generation system (Reactor Power Plant - RPP) to provide power to the spacecraft. The JIMO spacecraft is envisioned to use this power for science and communications as well as Electric Propulsion (EP). Among other potential power-generating concepts, previous studies have considered Thermoelectric and Brayton power conversion systems, coupled to a liquid metal reactor for the JIMO mission. This paper will explore trades in system mass and radiator area for a nuclear reactor power conversion system, however this study will focus on Stirling power conversion. Stirling convertors have a long heritage operating in both power generation and the cooler industry, and are currently in use in a wide variety of applications. The Stirling convertor modeled in this study is based upon the Component Test Power Convertor design that was designed and operated successfully under the Civil Space Technology Initiative for use with the SP-100 nuclear reactor in the 1980's and early 1990's. The baseline RPP considered in this study consists of four dual-opposed Stirling convertors connected to the reactor by a liquid lithium loop. The study design is such that two of the four convertors would operate at any time to generate the 100 kWe while the others are held in reserve. For this study the Stirling convertors hot-side temperature is 1050 K, would operate at a temperature ratio of 2.4 for a minimum mass system and would have a system efficiency of 29%. The Stirling convertor would generate high voltage (400 volt), 100 Hz single phase AC that is supplied to the Power Management and Distribution system. The waste heat is removed from the Stirling convertors by a flowing liquid sodium-potassium eutectic and then rejected by a shared

  18. An overview of digital I and C system reliability analysis in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, L.

    2006-07-01

    The transition from analog to digital technology has occurred in industry as a whole. This has left those who still use analog systems in a tough situation because the suppliers are decreasing the amount of service and spare parts that they have on hand for analog systems. Therefore, the transition from analog to digital for the Instrumentation and Control systems in nuclear power plants is of no exception. Since safety is of paramount importance for nuclear industry, the reliability and safety of digital systems should be demonstrated in a systematic manner before they are being adopted. For the simplest digital systems, the hardware reliability and software reliability are two fundamental components for digital system reliability analysis. This paper provides a literature survey on the work that has been performed in this field. (authors)

  19. Nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundary materials and plans for collecting and presenting their properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    A program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) in their assessment of the effects of degradation (primarily corrosion) on the structural capacity and leaktight integrity of metal containments and steel liners of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to characterize and quantify manifestations of corrosion on the properties of steels used to construct containment pressure boundary components. This report describes a plan for use in collecting and presenting data and information on ferrous alloys permitted for use in construction of pressure retaining components in concrete and metal containments. Discussions about various degradation mechanisms that could potentially affect the mechanical properties of these materials are also included. Conclusions and recommendations presented in this report will be used to guide the collection of data and information that will be used to prepare a material properties data base for containment steels.

  20. Feasibility study for Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel dry storage facility in Ukraine. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    This document reports the results of a Feasibility Study sponsored by a TDA grant to Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine to study the construction of storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. It provides pertinent information to U.S. companies interested in marketing spent fuel storage technology and related business to countries of the former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe.

  1. Handbook of human-reliability analysis with emphasis on nuclear power plant applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, A D; Guttmann, H E

    1983-08-01

    The primary purpose of the Handbook is to present methods, models, and estimated human error probabilities (HEPs) to enable qualified analysts to make quantitative or qualitative assessments of occurrences of human errors in nuclear power plants (NPPs) that affect the availability or operational reliability of engineered safety features and components. The Handbook is intended to provide much of the modeling and information necessary for the performance of human reliability analysis (HRA) as a part of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of NPPs. Although not a design guide, a second purpose of the Handbook is to enable the user to recognize error-likely equipment design, plant policies and practices, written procedures, and other human factors problems so that improvements can be considered. The Handbook provides the methodology to identify and quantify the potential for human error in NPP tasks.

  2. Application of Entry-Time Processes to Asset Management in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Paul; Wang, Shuwen; Kee, Ernie J.

    2006-07-01

    The entry-time approach to dynamic reliability is based upon computational solution of the Chapman-Kolmogorov (generalized state-transition) equations underlying a certain class of marked point processes. Previous work has verified a particular finite-difference approach to computational solution of these equations. The objective of this work is to illustrate the potential application of the entry-time approach to risk-informed asset management (RIAM) decisions regarding maintenance or replacement of major systems within a plant. Results are presented in the form of plots, with replacement/maintenance period as a parameter, of expected annual revenue, along with annual variance and annual skewness as indicators of associated risks. Present results are for a hypothetical system, to illustrate the capability of the approach, but some considerations related to potential application of this approach to nuclear power plants are discussed. (authors)

  3. An improved gate valve for critical applications in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, M.S.; Alvarez, P.D.; Wang, J.K.; Somagyi, D.

    1996-12-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Generic Letters 89-10 for motor-operated valves (MOVs) and 95-07 for all power-operated valves document in detail the problems related to the performance of the safety-related valves in nuclear power plants. The problems relate to lack of reliable operation under design basis conditions including higher than anticipated stem thrust, unpredictable valve behavior, damage to the valve internals under blowdown/high flow conditions, significant degradation of performance when cycled under AP and flow, thermal binding, and pressure locking. This paper describes an improved motor-operated flexible wedge gate valve design, the GE Sentinel Valve, which is the outcome of a comprehensive and systematic development effort undertaken to resolve the issues identified in the NRC Generic Letters 89-10 and 95-07. The new design provides a reliable, long-term, low maintenance cost solution to the nuclear power industry. One of the key features incorporated in the disc permits the disc flexibility to be varied independently of the disc thickness (pressure boundary) dictated by the ASME Section III Pressure Vessel & Piping Code stress criteria. This feature allows the desired flexibility to be incorporated in the disc, thus eliminating thermal binding problems. A matrix of analyses was performed using finite element and computational fluid dynamics approaches to optimize design for stresses, flexibility, leak-tightness, fluid flow, and thermal effects. The design of the entire product line was based upon a consistent set of analyses and design rules which permit scaling to different valve sizes and pressure classes within the product line. The valve meets all of the ASME Section III Code design criteria and the N-Stamp requirements. The performance of the valve was validated by performing extensive separate effects and plant in-situ tests. This paper summarizes the key design features, analyses, and test results.

  4. Control room modernization at Finnish nuclear power plants - Two projects compared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laarni, J.; Norros, L.

    2006-07-01

    The modernization of automation systems and human-machine interfaces is a current issue at both of the two nuclear power plants (i.e., Fortum's Loviisa plant and TVO's Olkiluoto plant) in Finland. Since the plants have been launched in the 1970's or 1980's, technology is in part old-fashioned and needs to be renewed. At Olkiluoto upgrades of the turbine operator systems have already been conducted; at Loviisa the first phase of the modernization project has just started. Basically, there is a question of the complete digitalization of the information streams at the two plants, and transition from a conventional hard-wired or hybrid control room to a screen-based one. The new human-machine interfaces will comprise new technology, such as PC workstations, soft control, touch screens and large-screen overall displays. The modernization of human-system interfaces is carried out in a stepwise manner at both plants. At both plants the main driver has not been the need to renew the user interfaces of the control room, but the need to upgrade the automation systems. In part because of this, there is a lack of a systematic top-down approach in which different aspects of human factors (HF) engineering are considered in relationship to higher level goals. Our aim here is to give an overview description of the control room modernization projects at the two plants and provide a preliminary evaluation of their progress to date. The projects are also compared, for example, in terms of duration, scope and phasing, and who is responsible for the realization of the project. In addition, we also compare experiences from the Finnish projects to experiences from similar projects abroad. The main part of the data used in this study is based on designers' and project members' interviews. (authors)

  5. Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, Dan J

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

  6. Response Time Test for The Application of the Data Communication Network to Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Y.C.; Lee, J.Y.; Park, H.Y.; Seong, S.H.; Chung, H.Y.

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the response time test for the application of the Data Communication Network (DCN) to Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Conventional Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems using the analog technology in NPP have raised many problems regarding the lack of spare parts, maintenance burden, inaccuracy, etc.. In order to solve the problems, the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) I and C system has adopted the digital technology and new design features of using the data communication networks. It is essential to prove the response time requirements that arise from the introduction of digital I and C technology and data communication networks to nuclear power plant design. For the response time test, a high reliable data communication network structure has been developed to meet the requirements of redundancy, diversity, and segmentation. This paper presents the results of network load analysis and response time test for the KNGR DCN prototype. The test has been focused on the response time from the field components to the gateway because the response times from the gateway to the specific systems are similar to those of the existing design. It is verified that the response time requirements are met through the prototype test for KNGR I and C systems. (authors)

  7. The evolution of the break preclusion concept for nuclear power plants in Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, H.

    1997-04-01

    In the updating of the Guidelines for PWR`s of the {open_quotes}Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission{close_quotes} (RSK) in 1981 the requirements on the design have been changed with respect to the postulated leaks and breaks in the primary pressure boundary. The major change was a revision in the requirements for pipe whip protection. As a logical consequence of the {open_quotes}concept of basic safety{close_quotes} a guillotine type break or any other break type resulting in a large opening is not postulated any longer for the calculation of reaction and jet forces. As an upper limit for a leak an area of 0, 1 A (A = open cross section of the pipe) is postulated. This decision was based on a general assessment of the present PWR system design in Germany. Since then a number of piping systems have been requalified in the older nuclear power plants to comply with the break preclusion concept. Also a number of extensions of the concept have been developed to cover also leak-assumptions for branch pipes. Furthermore due considerations have been given to other aspects which could contribute to a leak development in the primary circuit, like vessel penetrations, manhole covers, flanges, etc. Now the break preclusion concept originally applied to the main piping has been developed into an integrated concept for the whole pressure boundary within the containment and will be applied also in the periodic safety review of present nuclear power plants.

  8. Challenges in Determining the Isotopic Mixture for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanks, Arthur; Fournier, Sean; Shanks, Sonoya

    2012-05-01

    As part of the United States response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant emergency, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Consequence Management (CM) Teams were activated with elements deploying to Japan. The NNSA CM teams faced the urgent need for information regarding the potential radiological doses that citizens of might experience. This paper discusses the challenges and lessons learned associated with the analysis of field collected samples and gamma spectra in an attempt to determine the isotopic mixture present on the ground around the Plant. There were several interesting and surprising lessons to be learned from the sample analysis portion of the response. The paper discusses several elements of the response that were unique to the event occurring in Japan, as well as several elements that would have occurred in a U.S. nuclear reactor event. Sections of this paper address details of the specific analytical challenges faced during the efforts to analyze samples and try to understand the overall release source term.

  9. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A.

    1997-08-01

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  10. Testing, licensing, and code requirements for seismic isolation systems (for nuclear power plants)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidensticker, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of seismic isolation as an earthquake hazard mitigation strategy for nuclear reactor power plants is rapidly receiving interest throughout the world. Seismic isolation has already been used on at least two French PWR plants, was to have been used for plants to be built in Iran, and is under serious consideration for advanced LMR plants (in the US, UK, France, and Japan). In addition, there is a growing use of seismic isolation throughout the world for other critical facilities such as hospitals, emergency facilities, buildings with very high-cost equipment (e.g., computers) and as a strategy to reduce loss of life and expensive equipment in earthquakes. Such a design approach is in complete contrast to the conventional seismic design strategy in which the structure and components are provided with sufficient strength and ductility to resist the earthquake forces and to prevent structural collapses or failure. The use of seismic isolation for nuclear plants can, therefore, be expected to be a significant licensing issue. For isolation, the licensing process must shift away in large measure from the superstructure and concentrate on the behavior of the seismic isolation system. This paper is not intended to promote the advantages of seismic isolation system, but to explore in some detail those technical issues which must be satisfactorily addressed to achieve full licensability of the use of seismic isolation as a viable, attractive and economical alternative to current traditional design approaches. Special problems and topics associated with testing and codes and standards development are addressed. A positive program for approach or strategy to secure licensing is presented.