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Sample records for nuclear detonation detection

  1. Nuclear Detonation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) Research and Development Nuclear Detonation Detection The Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection (NDD) develops and provide continuous, global capabilities to detect foreign nuclear weapon detonations, including for test ban treaty monitoring needs and military requirements. These efforts are aligned along three functional areas: Space-based Detection of Nuclear Detonations: Develops and builds space sensors for the nation's operational nuclear test treaty monitoring and Integrated

  2. Nuclear Detonation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administratio...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the entire planet from space to detect and report surface, atmospheric, or space nuclear detonations; produces and updates the regional geophysical datasets enabling...

  3. Nuclear Detonation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administratio...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA builds the nation's operational sensors that monitor the entire planet from space to detect and report surface, atmospheric, or space nuclear detonations; produces and updates...

  4. The Nuclear Detonation Detection System on the GPS satellites...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Nuclear Detonation Detection System on the GPS satellites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Nuclear Detonation Detection System on the GPS satellites You are ...

  5. detonation detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    7%2A en US Air Force Launches Satellite Carrying NNSA-provided Nuclear Detonation Detection Sensors http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesafsatellite

  6. detonation detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Satellite Carrying NNSA-provided Nuclear Detonation Detection Sensors http:www.nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesafsatellite

  7. detonation detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    detonation detection NNSA administrator visits NNSS to meet team, see national security work Last month, Department of Energy Under Secretary for Nuclear Security and NNSA Administrator Lt. Gen. Frank G. Klotz (Ret.) visited NNSA's Nevada Field Office where he hosted an all-hands for NNSA-Nevada staff and presented several service awards. During the trip he visited the NNSA... Radiological Security The program collaborates with domestic and international partners to address the threat of illicit

  8. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  9. The U.S. Nuclear Detonation Detection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Many believe it was a joint Israel-South Africa nuclear test, but the scarcity of corroborating evidence persuaded others that a sensor malfunction or meteor strike caused a false ...

  10. NNSA Deploys Nuclear Detonation Detection Equipment Aboard Air Force

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stewardship and Nuclear Nonproliferation | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Delivers Annual Reports to Congress on Progress for Stockpile Stewardship and Nuclear Nonproliferation April 01, 2016 WASHINGTON, D.C.-The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) today released the annual reports outlining the strategic direction for two of its vital and enduring missions-maintaining a safe, secure and effective nuclear deterrent and reducing the

  11. From Glimmer to Fireball: Photographing Nuclear Detonations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From Glimmer to Fireball National Security Science Latest Issue:July 2015 past issues All Issues submit From Glimmer to Fireball: Photographing Nuclear Detonations How do you...

  12. Post detonation nuclear forensics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Jay

    2014-05-09

    The problem of working backwards from the debris of a nuclear explosion to attempt to attribute the event to a particular actor is singularly difficult technically. However, moving from physical information of any certainty through the political steps that would lead to national action presents daunting policy questions as well. This monograph will outline the operational and physical components of this problem and suggest the difficulty of the policy questions that remain.

  13. Goals, Objectives, and Requirements (GOR) of the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team for the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    The goal, objectives, and requirements (GOR) presented in this document define a framework for describing research directed specifically by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The intent of this document is to provide a communication tool for the GNDD Team with NNSA management and with its stakeholder community. It describes the GNDD expectation that much of the improvement in the proficiency of nuclear explosion monitoring will come from better understanding of the science behind the generation, propagation, recording, and interpretation of seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide signals and development of "game-changer" advances in science and technology.

  14. ORISE: Message Testing for a Nuclear Detonation | How ORISE is...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Message Testing for a Nuclear Detonation How ORISE is Making a Difference For the average person, radiological contamination is a confusing and fearful concept. To help prepare our ...

  15. Program to Prevent Accidental or Unauthorized Nuclear Explosive Detonations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1980-12-18

    The order establishes the DOE program to prevent accidental or unauthorized nuclear explosive detonations, and to define responsibilities for DOE participation in the Department of Defense program for nuclear weapon and nuclear weapon system safety. Does not cancel other directives.

  16. Reducing the Consequences of a Nuclear Detonation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buddemeier, B R

    2007-11-09

    The 2002 National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction states that 'the United States must be prepared to respond to the use of WMD against our citizens, our military forces, and those of friends and allies'. Scenario No.1 of the 15 Department of Homeland Security national planning scenarios is an improvised nuclear detonation in the national capitol region. An effective response involves managing large-scale incident response, mass casualty, mass evacuation, and mass decontamination issues. Preparedness planning activities based on this scenario provided difficult challenges in time critical decision making and managing a large number of casualties within the hazard area. Perhaps even more challenging is the need to coordinate a large scale response across multiple jurisdictions and effectively responding with limited infrastructure and resources. Federal response planning continues to make improvements in coordination and recommending protective actions, but much work remains. The most critical life-saving activity depends on actions taken in the first few minutes and hours of an event. The most effective way to reduce the enormous national and international social and economic disruptions from a domestic nuclear explosion is through planning and rapid action, from the individual to the federal response. Anticipating response resources for survivors based on predicted types and distributions of injuries needs to be addressed.

  17. US Air Force Launches Satellite Carrying NNSA-provided Nuclear Detonation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Detection Sensors | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) US Air Force Launches Satellite Carrying NNSA-provided Nuclear Detonation Detection Sensors May 22, 2014 WASHINGTON, D.C. - On Friday, May 16, with the support of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a U.S. Air Force Delta IV rocket lifted off from Cape Canaveral. Hosted onboard was a GPS IIF navigation satellite and a Global Burst Detector (GBD) payload designed to detect, identify and precisely locate

  18. From Glimmer to Fireball: Photographing Nuclear Detonations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Federal Computer Week: Energy agency launches performance-based pay system By Richard W. Walker Published on March 27, 2008 The Energy Department's National Nuclear Security Administration has launched a new performance- based pay system involving about 2,000 of its 2,500 employees. NNSA officials described the effort as a pilot project that will test the feasibility of the new system, which collapses the traditional 15 General Schedule pay bands into broader pay bands. The new structure

  19. Russian Military and Security Forces: A Postulated Reaction to a Nuclear Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, D

    2005-04-29

    In this paper, we will examine how Russia's military and security forces might react to the detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear weapon placed next to the walls surrounding the Kremlin. At the time of this 'big bang,' Putin is situated outside Moscow and survives the explosion. No one claims responsibility for the detonation. No other information is known. Numerous variables will determine how events ultimately unfold and how the military and security forces will respond. Prior to examining these variables in greater detail, it is imperative to elucidate first what we mean by Russia's military and security forces.

  20. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-09-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  1. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-12-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  2. NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) : a tool for evaluation of sheltering and evacuation responses following urban nuclear detonations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-11-01

    The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including complex evacuation timing and path selection, as well as various sheltering or mixed evacuation and sheltering strategies. The calculations are based on externally generated, high resolution fallout deposition and plume data. Scenario setup and calculation outputs make extensive use of graphics and interactive features. This software is designed primarily to produce quantitative evaluations of nuclear detonation response options. However, the outputs have also proven useful in the communication of technical insights concerning shelter-evacuate tradeoffs to urban planning or response personnel.

  3. Nuclear Effects in nu-C Interactions at Low Q

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (NNSA) Research and Development Nuclear Detonation Detection The Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection (NDD) develops and provide continuous, global capabilities to detect foreign nuclear weapon detonations, including for test ban treaty monitoring needs and military requirements. These efforts are aligned along three functional areas: Space-based Detection of Nuclear Detonations: Develops and builds space sensors for the nation's operational nuclear test treaty monitoring and Integrated

  4. Research and Development | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    R&D is organized into two offices: Proliferation Detection develops technologies to detect ... Learn More Proliferation Detection Nuclear Detonation Detection Related Topics ...

  5. Process for estimating likelihood and confidence in post detonation nuclear forensics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, John L.; Craft, Charles M.

    2014-07-01

    Technical nuclear forensics (TNF) must provide answers to questions of concern to the broader community, including an estimate of uncertainty. There is significant uncertainty associated with post-detonation TNF. The uncertainty consists of a great deal of epistemic (state of knowledge) as well as aleatory (random) uncertainty, and many of the variables of interest are linguistic (words) and not numeric. We provide a process by which TNF experts can structure their process for answering questions and provide an estimate of uncertainty. The process uses belief and plausibility, fuzzy sets, and approximate reasoning.

  6. Planning and Response to the Detonation of an Improvised Nuclear Device: Past, Present, and Future Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentz, A

    2008-07-31

    While the reality of an improvised nuclear device (IND) being detonated in an American city is unlikely, its destructive power is such that the scenario must be planned for. Upon reviewing the academic literature on the effects of and response to IND events, this report looks to actual responders from around the country. The results from the meetings of public officials in the cities show where gaps exist between theoretical knowledge and actual practice. In addition to the literature, the meetings reveal areas where future research needs to be conducted. This paper recommends that local response planners: meet to discuss the challenges of IND events; offer education to officials, the public, and responders on IND events; incorporate 'shelter-first' into response plans; provide information to the public and responders using the 3 Cs; and engage the private sector (including media) in response plans. In addition to these recommendations for the response planners, the paper provides research questions that once answered will improve response plans around the country. By following the recommendations, both groups, response planners and researchers, can help the country better prepare for and mitigate the effects of an IND detonation.

  7. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  8. Domestic Nuclear Detection Office's Approach to Detect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Domestic Nuclear Detection Office's Approach to Detect Concealed Threats Joel Rynes, PhD Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) August 5, 2015 4:00 p.m. The Transformational and Applied Research (TAR) Directorate within the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has the mission to develop break-through technologies that will have a dramatic impact on capabilities to detect nuclear and radiological threats

  9. Improved estimates of separation distances to prevent unacceptable damage to nuclear power plant structures from hydrogen detonation for gaseous hydrogen storage. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report provides new estimates of separation distances for nuclear power plant gaseous hydrogen storage facilities. Unacceptable damage to plant structures from hydrogen detonations will be prevented by having hydrogen storage facilities meet separation distance criteria recommended in this report. The revised standoff distances are based on improved calculations on hydrogen gas cloud detonations and structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures. Also, the results presented in this study do not depend upon equivalencing a hydrogen detonation to an equivalent TNT detonation. The static and stagnation pressures, wave velocity, and the shock wave impulse delivered to wall surfaces were computed for several different size hydrogen explosions. Separation distance equations were developed and were used to compute the minimum separation distance for six different wall cases and for seven detonating volumes (from 1.59 to 79.67 lbm of hydrogen). These improved calculation results were compared to previous calculations. The ratio between the separation distance predicted in this report versus that predicted for hydrogen detonation in previous calculations varies from 0 to approximately 4. Thus, the separation distances results from the previous calculations can be either overconservative or unconservative depending upon the set of hydrogen detonation parameters that are used. Consequently, it is concluded that the hydrogen-to-TNT detonation equivalency utilized in previous calculations should no longer be used.

  10. The U.S. Nuclear Detonation Detection Syst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)'s Advanced Manufacturing Office partners with industry, small business, universities, and other stakeholders to identify and invest in emerging technologies with the potential to create high-quality domestic manufacturing jobs and enhance the global competitiveness of the United States. This document was prepared for DOE/EERE's AMO as a collaborative effort between DOE AMO and Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD. Disclaimer This

  11. NNSA Deploys Nuclear Detonation Detection Equipment Aboard Air...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    on the Air Force's new Space Based Infrared System satellites, as well as on a new block of GPS satellites. Working together, NNSA and the Air Force Space and Missile Systems ...

  12. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  13. Using Commercial Electronics in Nuclear Detection (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Using Commercial Electronics in Nuclear Detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Using Commercial Electronics in Nuclear Detection Authors: Quinn, Heather ...

  14. Using Commercial Electronics in Nuclear Detection (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using Commercial Electronics in Nuclear Detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Using Commercial Electronics in Nuclear Detection You are accessing a document from ...

  15. National Nuclear Security Administration's Space-Based Nuclear...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    National Nuclear Security Administration's Space-Based Nuclear Detonation Detection Program OAS-L-14-09 July 2014 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of ...

  16. detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    detection Researcher from NNSA lab helps develop new system for instant explosive detection Chemicals used in explosives give off signatures that can be read by spectroscopic systems. One practical application for this technology would be for use at airport screening stations. A spectroscopic detection system would be able to tell the difference between explosive chemicals and shampoo by... Sniffing out danger from above NNSA's efforts to prevent, counter, and respond to the dangers of nuclear

  17. Detonating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    1. Apparatus for detonation of high explosive in uniform timing comprising in combination, an outer case, spark gap electrodes insulatedly supported in spaced relationship within said case to form a spark gap, high explosive of the class consisting of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and trimethylene trinitramine substantially free from material sensitive to detonation by impact compressed in surrounding relation to said electrodes including said spark gap under a pressure from about 100 psi to about 500 psi, said spark gap with said compressed explosive therein requiring at least 1000 volts for sparking, and means for impressing at least 1000 volts on said spark gap.

  18. Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Research and Development Proliferation Detection The Office of Proliferation Detection (PD) develops capabilities to detect special nuclear materials and weapons production and movement, as well as for transparent nuclear reductions and monitoring. The PD efforts are aligned along three functional areas: Nuclear Weaponization and Material Production Detection: Supports the development of technology to target the detection and characterization of foreign weapons program activities, including

  19. Shaping the future of nuclear detection | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    reactor, and spending time analyzing radiation detection methods in a state-of-the-art ... in at the third annual Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School. ...

  20. Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the ...

  1. Foreign WMD Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    WMD Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering...

  2. Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence Program | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Smuggling Detection and Deterrence Program NNSA program strengthens national security from afar The Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) program is a key component of NNSA's core mission to reduce nuclear threats. The program, part of NNSA's Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, provides partners tools and training to deter, detect, and investigate smuggling of... NNSA Co-Hosts Nuclear Security Summit Workshop on Maritime Security with UK WASHINGTON

  3. Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detection and ... Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center As part of our increased global nuclear nonproliferation efforts, Y-12 commissioned the Nuclear Detection and Sensor ...

  4. Meeting the Next Generation of Nuclear Nonproliferation Specialists...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... DNN R&D directs an integrated research and development portfolio in support of its mission to detect signs of nuclear proliferation and nuclear detonations. The DNN R&D-funded ...

  5. Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence The mission of the Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence program (NSDD) (formerly Second Line of Defense) is to strengthen the capabilities and commitment of partner countries to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials within the interiors of partner countries, across international borders, and through the global maritime shipping system. NSDD provides partner countries

  6. radiological detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    detection NNSA program strengthens national security from afar The Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) program is a key component of NNSA's core mission to reduce nuclear threats. The program, part of NNSA's Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, provides partners tools and training to deter, detect, and investigate smuggling of... NNSA to Conduct Aerial Radiation Monitoring Survey Over Philadelphia July 18-20 Philadelphia - On July 18 through July 20, the U.S. Department of

  7. Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National Nuclear Security ... Home NNSA Blog Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection Reducing emissions ...

  8. Far Field Modeling Methods For Characterizing Surface Detonations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed particle samples collected during experiments that were designed to replicate tests of nuclear weapons components that involve detonation of high explosives (HE). SRNL collected the particle samples in the HE debris cloud using innovative rocket propelled samplers. SRNL used scanning electronic microscopy to determine the elemental constituents of the particles and their size distributions. Depleted uranium composed about 7% of the particle contents. SRNL used the particle size distributions and elemental composition to perform transport calculations that indicate in many terrains and atmospheric conditions the uranium bearing particles will be transported long distances downwind. This research established that HE tests specific to nuclear proliferation should be detectable at long downwind distances by sampling airborne particles created by the test detonations.

  9. DETONATION PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS ON PETN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, L G; Lee, E L

    2006-06-23

    PETN is widely recognized as an example of nearly ideal detonation performance. The chemical composition is such that little or no carbon is produced in the detonation products. The reaction zone width is less than currently detectable. (<1 ns) Observations on PETN have thus become a baseline for EOS model predictions. It has therefore become important to characterize the detonation parameters as accurately as possible in order to provide the most exacting comparisons of EOS predictions with experimental results. We undertook a painstaking review of the detonation pressure measurements reported in an earlier work that was presented at the Fifth Detonation Symposium and found that corrections were required in determining the shock velocity in the PMMA witness material. We also refined the impedance calculation to account for the difference between the usual ''acoustic'' method and the more accurate Riemann integral. Our review indicates that the CJ pressures previously reported for full density PETN require an average lowering of about 6 percent. The lower densities require progressively smaller corrections. We present analysis of the records, supporting hydrodynamic simulations, the Riemann integral results, and EOS parameter values derived from the revised results.

  10. Precursor detonation wave development in ANFO due to aluminum confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Scott I; Klyanda, Charles B; Short, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Detonations in explosive mixtures of ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum allow for transport of detonation energy ahead of the detonation front due to the aluminum sound speed exceeding the detonation velocity. The net effect of this energy transport on the detonation is unclear. It could enhance the detonation by precompressing the explosive near the wall. Alternatively, it could decrease the explosive performance by crushing porosity required for initiation by shock compression or destroying confinement ahead of the detonation. At present, these phenomena are not well understood. But with slowly detonating, non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) systems becoming increasing prevalent, proper understanding and prediction of the performance of these metal-confined NIHE systems is desirable. Experiments are discussed that measured the effect of this ANFO detonation energy transported upstream of the front by a 76-mm-inner-diameter aluminum confining tube. Detonation velocity, detonation-front shape, and aluminum response are recorded as a function of confiner wall thickness and length. Detonation shape profiles display little curvature near the confining surface, which is attributed to energy transported upstream modifying the flow. Average detonation velocities were seen to increase with increasing confiner thickness, while wavefront curvature decreased due to the stiffer, subsonic confinement. Significant radial sidewall tube motion was observed immediately ahead of the detonation. Axial motion was also detected, which interfered with the front shape measurements in some cases. It was concluded that the confiner was able to transport energy ahead of the detonation and that this transport has a definite effect on the detonation by modifying its characteristic shape.

  11. High temperature detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (Los Alamos, NM); Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

  12. Detonation Wave Profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  13. radiation detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    radiation detection NNSA Deputy Administrator Creedon Travels to China In March, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Principal Deputy Administrator Madelyn Creedon traveled to China to participate in activities related to NNSA's cooperative engagement with various Chinese ministries on nuclear security. Creedon was accompanied by Principal Assistant... NNSA keeps the promises borne out of the Nuclear Security Summit On Thursday and Friday President Obama will host his fourth and

  14. Neutron Detectors for Detection of Nuclear Materials at LANL...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Neutron Detectors for Detection of Nuclear Materials at LANL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear ...

  15. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) for stand-off detection of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) for stand-off detection of contraband Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) for stand-off detection of ...

  16. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-03-30

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling.

  17. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  18. Detonation command and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2015-11-10

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  19. Detonation command and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-31

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link there between. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  20. U.S. Nuclear Deterrent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments. ...

  1. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  2. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  3. Bidirectional slapper detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, Robert N.; Boyd, Melissa D.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a bidirectional slapper detonator. One embodiment utilizes a single bridge circuit to detonate a pair of opposing initiating pellets. A line generator embodiment uses a plurality of bridges in electrical series to generate opposing cylindrical wavefronts.

  4. Implications of an Improvised Nuclear Device Detonation on Command and Control for Surrounding Regions at the Local, State and Federal Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasquale, David A.; Hansen, Richard G.

    2013-01-23

    This paper discusses command and control issues relating to the operation of Incident Command Posts (ICPs) and Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) in the surrounding area jurisdictions following the detonation of an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). Although many aspects of command and control will be similar to what is considered to be normal operations using the Incident Command System (ICS) and the National Incident Management System (NIMS), the IND response will require many new procedures and associations in order to design and implement a successful response. The scope of this white paper is to address the following questions: Would the current command and control framework change in the face of an IND incident? What would the management of operations look like as the event unfolded? How do neighboring and/or affected jurisdictions coordinate with the state? If the target areas command and control infrastructure is destroyed or disabled, how could neighboring jurisdictions assist with command and control of the targeted jurisdiction? How would public health and medical services fit into the command and control structure? How can pre-planning and common policies improve coordination and response effectiveness? Where can public health officials get federal guidance on radiation, contamination and other health and safety issues for IND response planning and operations?

  5. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  6. Shock and Detonation Physics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, David L; Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Steve A

    2012-08-22

    WX-9 serves the Laboratory and the Nation by delivering quality technical results, serving customers that include the Nuclear Weapons Program (DOE/NNSA), the Department of Defense, the Department of Homeland Security and other government agencies. The scientific expertise of the group encompasses equations-of-state, shock compression science, phase transformations, detonation physics including explosives initiation, detonation propagation, and reaction rates, spectroscopic methods and velocimetry, and detonation and equation-of-state theory. We are also internationally-recognized in ultra-fast laser shock methods and associated diagnostics, and are active in the area of ultra-sensitive explosives detection. The facility capital enabling the group to fulfill its missions include a number of laser systems, both for laser-driven shocks, and spectroscopic analysis, high pressure gas-driven guns and powder guns for high velocity plate impact experiments, explosively-driven techniques, static high pressure devices including diamond anvil cells and dilatometers coupled with spectroscopic probes, and machine shops and target fabrication facilities.

  7. Nuclear Detection and Forensics | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Detection and ... Nuclear Detection and Forensics We have a firm foundation to support the science and technology needed for the important, growing areas of nuclear detection and forensics. A strong technical nuclear detection and forensics capability is important to the nation's security. It will help discourage foreign cooperation with terrorist elements and encourage greater global security for material that could be used to develop nuclear weapons. Because of Y-12's 70 years of

  8. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with ...

  9. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  10. Reverse slapper detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weingart, Richard C.

    1990-01-01

    A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

  11. Research and Development | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) Nonproliferation Research and Development The mission of the Office of Research and Development (R&D) is to support U.S. national and nuclear security objectives in reducing global nuclear security threats through the innovation of unilateral and multi-lateral technical capabilities to detect, identify, and characterize: 1) foreign nuclear weapons programs, 2) illicit diversion of special nuclear materials, and 3) global nuclear detonations. R&D is organized into two offices:

  12. The world's first nuclear detonation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (and other Manhattan Project sites). It took them less than two years to change the world. July 10, 2015 x x "Highly accurate 3D computing is a Holy Grail of the Stockpile...

  13. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, A

    2005-12-21

    Many energetic systems can be activated via mechanical means. Percussion primers in small caliber ammunition and stab detonators used in medium caliber ammunition are just two examples. Current medium caliber (20-60mm) munitions are detonated through the use of impact sensitive stab detonators. Stab detonators are very sensitive and must be small, as to meet weight and size limitations. A mix of energetic powders, sensitive to mechanical stimulus, is typically used to ignite such devices. Stab detonators are mechanically activated by forcing a firing pin through the closure disc of the device and into the stab initiating mix. Rapid heating caused by mechanically driven compression and friction of the mixture results in its ignition. The rapid decomposition of these materials generates a pressure/temperature pulse that is sufficient to initiate a transfer charge, which has enough output energy to detonate the main charge. This general type of ignition mix is used in a large variety of primers, igniters, and detonators.[1] Common primer mixes, such as NOL-130, are made up of lead styphnate (basic) 40%, lead azide (dextrinated) 20%, barium nitrate 20%, antimony sulfide 15%, and tetrazene 5%.[1] These materials pose acute and chronic toxicity hazards during mixing of the composition and later in the item life cycle after the item has been field functioned. There is an established need to replace these mixes on toxicity, health, and environmental hazard grounds. This effort attempts to demonstrate that environmentally acceptable energetic solgel coated flash metal multilayer nanocomposites can be used to replace current impact initiated devices (IIDs), which have hazardous and toxic components. Successful completion of this project will result in IIDs that include innocuous compounds, have sufficient output energy for initiation, meet current military specifications, are small, cost competitive, and perform as well as or better than current devices. We expect flash

  14. R&D proliferation detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    R&D proliferation detection Research and Development The mission of the Office of Research and Development (R&D) is to support U.S. national and nuclear security objectives in reducing global nuclear security threats through the innovation of unilateral and multi-lateral technical capabilities to detect, identify, and characterize: 1) foreign... NNSA Announces Recipient of $25 Million Grant to Improve Technological Capabilities for Detecting Nuclear Proliferation Washington, D.C. - The

  15. PNNL Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkle, Bob

    2013-07-10

    PNNL's Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School gives graduate and advanced graduate students an understanding of how radiation detectors are used in national security missions.

  16. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) for stand-off detection of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) for stand-off detection of contraband Authors: Espy, Michelle A. 1 ; Karaulanov, Todor 1 ; Kim, Young Jin 1 ; Urbaitis, Algis V. 1 ...

  17. A review of direct numerical simulations of astrophysical detonations and their implications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Parete-Koon, Suzanne T.; Smith, Christopher R.; Papatheodore, Thomas L.; Bronson Messer, O. E.

    2013-04-11

    Multi-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of astrophysical detonations in degenerate matter have revealed that the nuclear burning is typically characterized by cellular structure caused by transverse instabilities in the detonation front. Type Ia supernova modelers often use one- dimensional DNS of detonations as inputs or constraints for their whole star simulations. While these one-dimensional studies are useful tools, the true nature of the detonation is multi-dimensional. The multi-dimensional structure of the burning influences the speed, stability, and the composition of the detonation and its burning products, and therefore, could have an impact on the spectra of Type Ia supernovae. Considerablemore » effort has been expended modeling Type Ia supernovae at densities above 1x107 g∙cm-3 where the complexities of turbulent burning dominate the flame propagation. However, most full star models turn the nuclear burning schemes off when the density falls below 1x107 g∙cm-3 and distributed burning begins. The deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) is believed to occur at just these densities and consequently they are the densities important for studying the properties of the subsequent detonation. In conclusion, this work reviews the status of DNS studies of detonations and their possible implications for Type Ia supernova models. It will cover the development of Detonation theory from the first simple Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation models to the current models based on the time-dependent, compressible, reactive flow Euler equations of fluid dynamics.« less

  18. Miniature plasma accelerating detonator and method of detonating insensitive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Kopczewski, M.R.; Schwarz, A.C.

    1985-01-04

    The invention is a detonator for use with high explosives. The detonator comprises a pair of parallel rail electrodes connected to a power supply. By shorting the electrodes at one end, a plasma is generated and accelerated toward the other end to impact against explosives. A projectile can be arranged between the rails to be accelerated by the plasma. An alternative arrangement is to a coaxial electrode construction. The invention also relates to a method of detonating explosives. 3 figs.

  19. Miniature plasma accelerating detonator and method of detonating insensitive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Kopczewski, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Alfred C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    The invention is a detonator for use with high explosives. The detonator comprises a pair of parallel rail electrodes connected to a power supply. By shorting the electrodes at one end, a plasma is generated and accelerated toward the other end to impact against explosives. A projectile can be arranged between the rails to be accelerated by the plasma. An alternative arrangement is to a coaxial electrode construction. The invention also relates to a method of detonating explosives.

  20. Printable sensors for explosive detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Matthew J. Cooling, Nathan A.; Elkington, Daniel C.; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.; Muller, Elmar

    2014-10-06

    Here, we report the development of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based on printable solution processed polymers and employing a quantum tunnelling composite material as a sensor to convert the pressure wave output from detonation transmission tubing (shock tube) into an inherently amplified electronic signal for explosives initiation. The organic electronic detector allows detection of the signal in a low voltage operating range, an essential feature for sites employing live ordinances that is not provided by conventional electronic devices. We show that a 30-fold change in detector response is possible using the presented detector assembly. Degradation of the OTFT response with both time and repeated voltage scans was characterised, and device lifetime is shown to be consistent with the requirements for on-site printing and usage. The integration of a low cost organic electronic detector with inexpensive shock tube transmission fuse presents attractive avenues for the development of cheap and simple assemblies for precisely timed initiation of explosive chains.

  1. Contraband Detection with Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence: Feasibility and Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruet, J; Lange, D

    2007-01-03

    In this report they show that cargo interrogation systems developed to thwart trafficking of illicit nuclear materials could also be powerful tools in the larger fight against contraband smuggling. In particular, in addition to detecting special nuclear materials, cargo scanning systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence to detect specific isotopes can be used to help find: chemical weapons; some drugs as well as some chemicals regulated under the controlled substances act; precious metals; materials regulated under export control laws; and commonly trafficked fluorocarbons.

  2. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  3. Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence Program

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    7%2A en NNSA Hosts International Nuclear Forensics Workshop with Participants from Eight Countries http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesinternationalforensicsworkshop...

  4. radiation detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (DOENNSA) and the U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change concluded a workshop at Wilton Park, NNSA, Argentina Transition Radiation...

  5. Performance characterization of the NASA standard detonator ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Performance characterization of the NASA standard detonator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance characterization of the NASA standard detonator ...

  6. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  7. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  8. Detonator-activated ball shutter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McWilliams, Roy A.; von Holle, William G.

    1983-01-01

    A detonator-activated ball shutter for closing an aperture in about 300.mu. seconds. The ball shutter containing an aperture through which light, etc., passes, is closed by firing a detonator which propels a projectile for rotating the ball shutter, thereby blocking passage through the aperture.

  9. Detonator-activated ball shutter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McWilliams, R.A.; Holle, W.G. von.

    1983-08-16

    A detonator-activated ball shutter for closing an aperture in about 300[mu] seconds. The ball shutter containing an aperture through which light, etc., passes, is closed by firing a detonator which propels a projectile for rotating the ball shutter, thereby blocking passage through the aperture. 3 figs.

  10. Production Pathways and Separation Procedures for High-Diagnostic-Value Activation Species, Fission Products, and Actinides Required for Preparation of Realistic Synthetic Post-Detonation Nuclear Debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faye, S A; Shaughnessy, D A

    2015-08-19

    The objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive study on the production routes and chemical separation requirements for activation products, fission products, and actinides required for the creation of realistic post-detonation surrogate debris. Isotopes that have been prioritized by debris diagnosticians will be examined for their ability to be produced at existing irradiation sources, production rates, and availability of target materials, and chemical separation procedures required to rapidly remove the products from the bulk target matrix for subsequent addition into synthetic debris samples. The characteristics and implications of the irradiation facilities on the isotopes of interest will be addressed in addition to a summary of the isotopes that are already regularly produced.

  11. Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence Program | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (DOENNSA) and the U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change concluded a workshop at Wilton Park, About This Site Budget IG Web Policy...

  12. Characterization Of High Explosives Detonations Via Laser-Induced Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    2015-10-08

    One objective of the Department of Energy’s National Security Administration is to develop technologies that can help the United States government to detect foreign nuclear weapons development activities. The realm of high explosive (HE) experiments is one of the key areas to assess the nuclear ambitions of a country. SRNL has participated in the collection of particulates from HE experiments and characterized the material with the purpose to correlate particulate matter with HE. Since these field campaigns are expensive, on-demand simulated laboratory-scale explosion experiments are needed to further our knowledge of the chemistry and particle formation in the process. Our goal is to develop an experimental test bed in the laboratory to test measurement concepts and correlate particle formation processes with the observables from the detonation fireball. The final objective is to use this knowledge to tailor our experimental setups in future field campaigns. The test bed uses pulsed laser-induced plasmas to simulate micro-explosions, with the intent to study the temporal behavior of the fireball observed in field tests. During FY15, a plan was prepared and executed which assembled two laser ablation systems, procured materials for study, and tested a Step-Scan Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (SS-FTIR). Designs for a shadowgraph system for shock wave analysis, design for a micro-particulate collector from ablated pulse were accomplished. A novel spectroscopic system was conceived and a prototype system built for acquisition of spectral/temporal characterization of a high speed event such as from a high explosive detonation. Experiments and analyses will continue into FY16.

  13. Elevated Radioxenon Detected Remotely Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Miley, Harry S.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-04-21

    We report on the first measurements of short-lived gaseous fission products detected outside of Japan following the Fukushima nuclear releases, which occurred after a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011.

  14. PPPL's MINDS Technology Takes Nuclear Detection to the Marketplace |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy PPPL's MINDS Technology Takes Nuclear Detection to the Marketplace PPPL's MINDS Technology Takes Nuclear Detection to the Marketplace October 20, 2011 - 5:25pm Addthis Charles Gentile (center) and other members of the MINDS team, including Ken Silber (right) and Bill Davis (left) work on new techniques to identify radionuclides. | Photo by Elle Starkman/Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Office of Communications Charles Gentile (center) and other members of the MINDS

  15. National Center for Nuclear Security: The Nuclear Forensics Project (F2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klingensmith, A. L.

    2012-03-21

    These presentation visuals introduce the National Center for Nuclear Security. Its chartered mission is to enhance the Nations verification and detection capabilities in support of nuclear arms control and nonproliferation through R&D activities at the NNSS. It has three focus areas: Treaty Verification Technologies, Nonproliferation Technologies, and Technical Nuclear Forensics. The objectives of nuclear forensics are to reduce uncertainty in the nuclear forensics process & improve the scientific defensibility of nuclear forensics conclusions when applied to nearsurface nuclear detonations. Research is in four key areas: Nuclear Physics, Debris collection and analysis, Prompt diagnostics, and Radiochemistry.

  16. Foreign WMD Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Foreign WMD Proliferation Detection NNSA develops the tools, technologies, techniques, and ... and analysis of the global proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, with ...

  17. First time nuclear material detection by one short-pulse-laser...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Articles First time nuclear material detection by one short-pulse-laser-driven neutron source First time nuclear material detection by one short-pulse-laser-driven...

  18. Detecting Nuclear Threats | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detecting Nuclear Threats Stories of Discovery & Innovation Detecting Nuclear Threats Enlarge Photo Photo: Denise Applewhite The MINDS device was invented by a team of engineers at ...

  19. Nuclear material detection apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, James L.; Hoggan, Jerry M.; Harker, Yale D.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Johnson, Larry O.

    2006-11-28

    A device for detecting photonuclear-induced neutrons is described herein. One embodiment of the device may comprise a neutron detector and a detection circuit. The neutron detector may comprise a detector output. The detection circuit may be operatively connected to the detector output and may comprise an amplifier, a low-pass filter, and a high pass filter. The amplifier may comprise an amplifier input and an amplifier output. The amplifier input may be being operatively connected to the detector output. The low-pass filter may comprise a low-pass filter input and a low-pass filter output. The low-pass filter input may be operatively connected to the amplifier output. The high-pass filter may comprise a high-pass filter input and a high-pass filter output. The high-pass filter input may be operatively connected to the amplifier output.

  20. Detonation waves in pentaerythritol tetranitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarver, C.M.; Breithaupt, R.D.; Kury, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    Fabry{endash}Perot laser interferometry was used to obtain nanosecond time resolved particle velocity histories of the free surfaces of tantalum discs accelerated by detonating pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) charges and of the interfaces between PETN detonation products and lithium fluoride crystals. The experimental records were compared to particle velocity histories calculated using very finely zoned meshes of the exact dimensions with the DYNA2D hydrodynamic code. The duration of the PETN detonation reaction zone was demonstrated to be less than the 5 ns initial resolution of the Fabry{endash}Perot technique, because the experimental records were accurately calculated using an instantaneous chemical reaction, the Chapman{endash}Jouguet (C-J) model of detonation, and the reaction product Jones{endash}Wilkins{endash}Lee (JWL) equation of state for PETN detonation products previously determined by supracompression (overdriven detonation) studies. Some of the PETN charges were pressed to densities approaching the crystal density and exhibited the phenomenon of superdetonation. An ignition and growth Zeldovich{endash}von Neumann{endash}Doring (ZND) reactive flow model was developed to explain these experimental records and the results of previous PETN shock initiation experiments on single crystals of PETN. Good agreement was obtained for the induction time delays preceding chemical reaction, the run distances at which the initial shock waves were overtaken by the detonation waves in the compressed PETN, and the measured particle velocity histories produced by the overdriven detonation waves before they could relax to steady state C-J velocity and pressure. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Detonation in TATB Hemispheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Druce, B; Souers, P C; Chow, C; Roeske, F; Vitello, P; Hrousis, C

    2004-03-17

    Streak camera breakout and Fabry-Perot interferometer data have been taken on the outer surface of 1.80 g/cm{sup 3} TATB hemispherical boosters initiated by slapper detonators at three temperatures. The slapper causes breakout to occur at 54{sup o} at ambient temperatures and 42{sup o} at -54 C, where the axis of rotation is 0{sup o}. The Fabry velocities may be associated with pressures, and these decrease for large timing delays in breakout seen at the colder temperatures. At room temperature, the Fabry pressures appear constant at all angles. Both fresh and decade-old explosive are tested and no difference is seen. The problem has been modeled with reactive flow. Adjustment of the JWL for temperature makes little difference, but cooling to -54 C decreases the rate constant by 1/6th. The problem was run both at constant density and with density differences using two different codes. The ambient code results show that a density difference is probably there but it cannot be quantified.

  2. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  3. Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S.; Snyderman, Neal J.

    2012-06-05

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

  4. Limited Test Ban Treaty | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Limited Test Ban Treaty US Air Force Launches Satellite Carrying NNSA-provided Nuclear Detonation Detection Sensors WASHINGTON, D.C. - On Friday, May 16, with the support of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a U.S. Air Force Delta IV rocket lifted off from Cape Canaveral. Hosted onboard was a GPS IIF navigation satellite and a Global Burst Detector (GBD) payload designed to detect, identify

  5. Research and Development | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA reduces the threat to national security posed by nuclear weapons proliferation and possible detonation or the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials through the long-term...

  6. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-08-05

    The Order defines the Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program, which was established to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives.

  7. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, A E

    2006-07-07

    The coupling of energetic metallic multilayers (a.k.a. flash metal) with energetic sol-gel synthesis and processing is an entirely new approach to forming energetic devices for several DoD and DOE needs. They are also practical and commercially viable manufacturing techniques. Improved occupational safety and health, performance, reliability, reproducibility, and environmentally acceptable processing can be achieved using these methodologies and materials. The development and fielding of this technology will enhance mission readiness and reduce the costs, environmental risks and the necessity of resolving environmental concerns related to maintaining military readiness while simultaneously enhancing safety and health. Without sacrificing current performance, we will formulate new impact initiated device (IID) compositions to replace materials from the current composition that pose significant environmental, health, and safety problems associated with functions such as synthesis, material receipt, storage, handling, processing into the composition, reaction products from testing, and safe disposal. To do this, we will advance the use of nanocomposite preparation via the use of multilayer flash metal and sol-gel technologies and apply it to new small IIDs. This work will also serve to demonstrate that these technologies and resultant materials are relevant and practical to a variety of energetic needs of DoD and DOE. The goal will be to produce an IID whose composition is acceptable by OSHA, EPA, the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Recovery Act, etc. standards, without sacrificing current performance. The development of environmentally benign stab detonators and igniters will result in the removal of hazardous and toxic components associated with their manufacturing, handling, and use. This will lead to improved worker safety during manufacturing as well as reduced exposure of Service personnel during their storage and or use in operations. The

  8. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  9. Enhancing international radiation/nuclear detection training opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Thomas L.; Bersell, Bridget M.; Booker, Paul M.; Anderson, Gerald E.; Leitch, Rosalyn M.; Meagher, John B.; Siefken, Rob R.; Spracklen, James L.

    2015-09-23

    The United States has worked domestically to develop and provide radiological and nuclear detection training and education initiatives aimed at interior law enforcement, but the international community has predominantly focused efforts at border and customs officials. The interior law enforcement officials of a State play a critical role in maintaining an effective national-level nuclear detection architecture. To meet this vital need, DNDO was funded by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to create and deliver a 1-week course at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Budapest, Hungary to inform interior law enforcement personnel of the overall mission, and to provide an understanding of how the participants can combat the threats of radiological and nuclear terrorism through detection efforts. Two courses, with approximately 20 students in each course, were delivered in fiscal year (FY) 2013, two were delivered in FY 2014 and FY 2015, and as of this report’s writing more are planned in FY 2016. However, while the ILEA courses produced measurable success, DNDO requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research potential avenues to further increase the course impact.In a multi-phased approach, PNNL researched and analyzed several possible global training locations and venues, and other possible ways to increase the impact of the course using an agreed-to data-gathering format.

  10. The initiation and propagation of helium detonations in white dwarf envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Ken J. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Moore, Kevin, E-mail: kenshen@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Detonations in helium-rich envelopes surrounding white dwarfs have garnered attention as triggers of faint thermonuclear '.Ia' supernovae and double detonation Type Ia supernovae. However, recent studies have found that the minimum size of a hotspot that can lead to a helium detonation is comparable to, or even larger than, the white dwarf's pressure scale height, casting doubt on the successful ignition of helium detonations in these systems. In this paper, we examine the previously neglected effects of C/O pollution and a full nuclear reaction network, and we consider hotspots with spatially constant pressure in addition to constant density hotspots. We find that the inclusion of these effects significantly decreases the minimum hotspot size for helium-rich detonation ignition, making detonations far more plausible during turbulent shell convection or during double white dwarf mergers. The increase in burning rate also decreases the minimum shell mass in which a helium detonation can successfully propagate and alters the composition of the shell's burning products. The ashes of these low-mass shells consist primarily of silicon, calcium, and unburned helium and metals and may explain the high-velocity spectral features observed in most Type Ia supernovae.

  11. First time nuclear material detection by one short-pulse-laser...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    material detection by one short-pulse-laser-driven neutron source First time nuclear material detection by one short-pulse-laser-driven neutron source The results obtained ...

  12. Gamma and neutron detection modeling in the nuclear detection figure of merit (NDFOM) portal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroud, Phillip D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Detection Figure Of Merit (NDFOM) portal is a database of objects and algorithms for evaluating the performance of radiation detectors to detect nuclear material. This paper describes the algorithms used to model the physics and mathematics of radiation detection. As a first-principles end-to-end analysis system, it starts with the representation of the gamma and neutron spectral fluxes, which are computed with the particle and radiation transport code MCNPX. The gamma spectra emitted by uranium, plutonium, and several other materials of interest are described. The impact of shielding and other intervening material is computed by the method of build-up factors. The interaction of radiation with the detector material is computed by a detector response function approach. The construction of detector response function matrices based on MCNPX simulation runs is described in detail. Neutron fluxes are represented in a three group formulation to treat differences in detector sensitivities to thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons.

  13. detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of 25 Million Grant to Improve Technological Capabilities for Detecting Nuclear Proliferation http:www.nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesncstateconsortium

  14. Nuclear Forensics | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Forensics Forensics Operations The National Technical Nuclear Forensics (NTNF) program is a Homeland Security Council and National Security Council-sponsored policy initiative that establishes federal agency missions and institutionalizes roles and responsibilities to enable operational support for materials, pre-detonation device, and post-detonation nuclear or radiological forensics programs with the broader goal of attribution. Technical nuclear forensics utilizes the data from

  15. Fuel leak detection apparatus for gas cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnette, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for detecting nuclear fuel leaks within nuclear power system reactors, such as high temperature gas cooled reactors. The apparatus includes a probe assembly that is inserted into the high temperature reactor coolant gaseous stream. The probe has an aperture adapted to communicate gaseous fluid between its inside and outside surfaces and also contains an inner tube for sampling gaseous fluid present near the aperture. A high pressure supply of noncontaminated gas is provided to selectively balance the pressure of the stream being sampled to prevent gas from entering the probe through the aperture. The apparatus includes valves that are operable to cause various directional flows and pressures, which valves are located outside of the reactor walls to permit maintenance work and the like to be performed without shutting down the reactor.

  16. Optically triggered fire set/detonator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chase, Jay B.; Pincosy, Philip A.; Chato, Donna M.; Kirbie, Hugh; James, Glen F.

    2007-03-20

    The present invention is directed to a system having a plurality of capacitor discharge units (CDUs) that includes electrical bridge type detonators operatively coupled to respective explosives. A pulse charging circuit is adapted to provide a voltage for each respective capacitor in each CDU. Such capacitors are discharged through the electrical bridge type detonators upon receiving an optical signal to detonate respective operatively coupled explosives at substantially the same time.

  17. Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  18. Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-05-09

    A simulator is disclosed which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  19. Neutron Detectors for Detection of Nuclear Materials at LANL| U.S. DOE

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Office of Science (SC) Neutron Detectors for Detection of Nuclear Materials at LANL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000

  20. Major Effects in the Thermodynamics of Detonation Products: Phase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water (Hsub 2O) and nitrogen (Nsub 2) are major detonation products of high explosives ... enough temperatures and pressures to influence detonation properties of common explosives. ...

  1. From Glimmer to Fireball: Photographing Nuclear Detonations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    While EG&G was responsible for scientific photography, a secret Hollywood studio, Lookout Mountain Laboratory, made documentaries for military and government briefings and then for ...

  2. Above-ground Antineutrino Detection for Nuclear Reactor Monitoring

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sweany, Melinda; Brennan, James S.; Cabrera-Palmer, Belkis; Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2014-08-01

    Antineutrino monitoring of nuclear reactors has been demonstrated many times, however the technique has not as of yet been developed into a useful capability for treaty verification purposes. The most notable drawback is the current requirement that detectors be deployed underground, with at least several meters-water-equivalent of shielding from cosmic radiation. In addition, the deployment of liquid-based detector media presents a challenge in reactor facilities. We are currently developing a detector system that has the potential to operate above ground and circumvent deployment problems associated with a liquid detection media: the system is composed of segments of plastic scintillator surroundedmore » by 6LiF/ZnS:Ag. ZnS:Ag is a radio-luminescent phosphor used to detect the neutron capture products of lithium-6. Because of its long decay time compared to standard plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination can be used to distinguish positron and neutron interactions resulting from the inverse beta decay (IBD) of antineutrinos within the detector volume, reducing both accidental and correlated backgrounds. Segmentation further reduces backgrounds by identifying the positron’s annihilation gammas, which are absent for most correlated and uncorrelated backgrounds. This work explores different configurations in order to maximize the size of the detector segments without reducing the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. We believe this technology will ultimately be applicable to potential safeguards scenarios such as those recently described.« less

  3. Above-ground Antineutrino Detection for Nuclear Reactor Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweany, Melinda; Brennan, James S.; Cabrera-Palmer, Belkis; Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2014-08-01

    Antineutrino monitoring of nuclear reactors has been demonstrated many times, however the technique has not as of yet been developed into a useful capability for treaty verification purposes. The most notable drawback is the current requirement that detectors be deployed underground, with at least several meters-water-equivalent of shielding from cosmic radiation. In addition, the deployment of liquid-based detector media presents a challenge in reactor facilities. We are currently developing a detector system that has the potential to operate above ground and circumvent deployment problems associated with a liquid detection media: the system is composed of segments of plastic scintillator surrounded by 6LiF/ZnS:Ag. ZnS:Ag is a radio-luminescent phosphor used to detect the neutron capture products of lithium-6. Because of its long decay time compared to standard plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination can be used to distinguish positron and neutron interactions resulting from the inverse beta decay (IBD) of antineutrinos within the detector volume, reducing both accidental and correlated backgrounds. Segmentation further reduces backgrounds by identifying the positrons annihilation gammas, which are absent for most correlated and uncorrelated backgrounds. This work explores different configurations in order to maximize the size of the detector segments without reducing the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. We believe this technology will ultimately be applicable to potential safeguards scenarios such as those recently described.

  4. Internal Detonation Velocity Measurements Inside High Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benterou, J; Bennett, C V; Cole, G; Hare, D E; May, C; Udd, E

    2009-01-16

    In order to fully calibrate hydrocodes and dynamic chemistry burn models, initiation models and detonation models of high explosives, the ability to continuously measure the detonation velocity within an explosive is required. Progress on an embedded velocity diagnostic using a 125 micron diameter optical fiber containing a chirped fiber Bragg grating is reported. As the chirped fiber Bragg grating is consumed by the moving detonation wave, the physical length of the unconsumed Bragg grating is monitored with a fast InGaAs photodiode. Experimental details of the associated equipment and data in the form of continuous detonation velocity records within PBX-9502 are presented. This small diameter fiber sensor has the potential to measure internal detonation velocities on the order of 10 mm/{micro}sec along path lengths tens of millimeters long.

  5. Prompt detonation of secondary explosives by laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Secondary high explosives have been promptly detonated by directing a laser beam of various wavelengths from 266 nanometers to 1.06 micron on the surface of the explosives. For this paper ''prompt'' means the excess transit time through an explosive charge is /approximately/250 nanoseconds (or less) less than the accepted full detonation velocity time. Timing between laser pulse, explosive initiation and detonation velocity and function time have been recorded. The laser parameters studied include: wavelength, pulse length, energy and power density, and beam diameter (spot size). Explosives evaluated include: PETN, HNS, HMX, and graphited PETN, HNS, and HMX. Explosive parameters that have been correlated with optical parameters include: density, surface area, critical diameter (spot size), spectral characteristics and enhance absorption. Some explosives have been promptly detonated over the entire range of wavelengths, possibly by two competing initiating mechanisms. Other explosives could not be detonated at any of the wavelengths or power densities tested. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Initiatives » Nuclear Reactor Technologies » Nuclear Deployment Scorecards Nuclear Deployment Scorecards April 28, 2016 Quarterly Nuclear Deployment Scorecard - April 2016 News items on TVA Early Site Permit, UAMPS site use permit, south texas project license, PSEG early site permit. January 22, 2016 Quarterly Nuclear Deployment Scorecard - January 2016 Watts Bar Unit 2 completes fuel load. PSEG ESP final environmental impact statement completed. October 27, 2015 Quarterly Nuclear Deployment

  7. NNSA Conducts Experiment to Improve U.S. Ability to Detect Foreign Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Explosions | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) NNSA Conducts Experiment to Improve U.S. Ability to Detect Foreign Nuclear Explosions May 26, 2015 Last week, a National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) led-team successfully conducted the fourth in a series of experiments designed to improve our ability to detect underground nuclear explosions. The Source Physics Experiment (SPE-4 Prime) is a fundamental step forward in the U.S. effort to improve arms control

  8. Los Alamos staff help improve U.S. capability to detect underground nuclear

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    explosions Capability to detect underground nuclear explosions Los Alamos staff help improve U.S. capability to detect underground nuclear explosions Los Alamos staff were instrumental in the fifth conventional explosion experiment as part of the NNSA's Source Physics Experiment (SPE) series. May 17, 2016 An aerial photo of the field site at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site. Photo courtesy of NSTec. An aerial photo of the field site at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site. Photo courtesy of

  9. detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of 25 Million Grant to Improve Technological Capabilities for Detecting Nuclear Proliferation http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesncstateconsortium

  10. Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-12-30

    Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

  11. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  12. Geospatial Image Mining For Nuclear Proliferation Detection: Challenges and New Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Arrowood, Lloyd; Bright, Eddie A; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Diegert, Carl; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K; Pappas, Thrasos N; Porter, Reid; Bollinger, Jim; Chen, Barry; Hohimer, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    With increasing understanding and availability of nuclear technologies, and increasing persuasion of nuclear technologies by several new countries, it is increasingly becoming important to monitor the nuclear proliferation activities. There is a great need for developing technologies to automatically or semi-automatically detect nuclear proliferation activities using remote sensing. Images acquired from earth observation satellites is an important source of information in detecting proliferation activities. High-resolution remote sensing images are highly useful in verifying the correctness, as well as completeness of any nuclear program. DOE national laboratories are interested in detecting nuclear proliferation by developing advanced geospatial image mining algorithms. In this paper we describe the current understanding of geospatial image mining techniques and enumerate key gaps and identify future research needs in the context of nuclear proliferation.

  13. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However,more » distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.« less

  14. NNSA scientists find more effective ways to detect nuclear explosions near

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and far | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) scientists find more effective ways to detect nuclear explosions near and far Wednesday, April 6, 2016 - 10:36am NNSA Blog NNSA activities are vital to detecting nuclear explosions and helping verify compliance with the testing ban worldwide. Recent developments at NNSA's Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will help NNSA meet this commitment. Using computer-generated models and field experiments, LLNL simulates how gases produced

  15. Effect of Resolution on Propagating Detonation Wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-07-10

    Simulations of the cylinder test are used to illustrate the effect of mesh resolution on a propagating detonation wave. For this study we use the xRage code with the SURF burn model for PBX 9501. The adaptive mesh capability of xRage is used to vary the resolution of the reaction zone. We focus on two key properties: the detonation speed and the cylinder wall velocity. The latter is related to the release isentrope behind the detonation wave. As the reaction zone is refined (2 to 15 cells for cell size of 62 to 8?m), both the detonation speed and final wall velocity change by a small amount; less than 1 per cent. The detonation speed decreases with coarser resolution. Even when the reaction zone is grossly under-resolved (cell size twice the reaction-zone width of the burn model) the wall velocity is within a per cent and the detonation speed is low by only 2 per cent.

  16. Initiation and Detonation Physics on Millimeter Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philllips, D F; Benterou, J J; May, C A

    2012-03-20

    The LLNL Detonation Science Project has a major interest in understanding the physics of detonation on a millimeter scale. This report summarizes the rate stick experiment results of two high explosives. The GO/NO-GO threshold between varying diameters of ultra-fine TATB (ufTATB) and LX-16 were recorded on an electronic streak camera and analyzed. This report summarizes the failure diameters of rate sticks for ufTATB and LX-16. Failure diameter for the ufTATB explosive, with densities at 1.80 g/cc, begin at 2.34 mm (not maintaining detonation velocity over the entire length of the rate stick). ufTATB rate sticks at the larger 3.18 mm diameter maintain a constant detonation velocity over the complete length. The PETN based and LLNL developed explosive, LX-16, with densities at 1.7 g/cc, shows detonation failure between 0.318 mm and 0.365 mm. Additional tests would be required to narrow this failure diameter further. Many of the tested rate sticks were machined using a femtosecond laser focused into a firing tank - in case of accidental detonation.

  17. Prototype explosives-detection system based on nuclear-resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D.; Krauss, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    A prototype explosives-detection system (EDS) that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear-resonance absorption technique is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  18. Detecting special nuclear materials in containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.

    2007-10-02

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a container. The system and its method include irradiating the container with an energetic beam, so as to induce a fission in the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  19. Structure and properties of detonation soot particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MalKOV, I.Y.; Titiov, V.M.

    1996-05-01

    The influence of TNT/RDX (50/50) detonation parameters and conservation conditions of detonation products during their expansion in hermetic detonation chamber on structure and phase composition of the detonation carbon has been considered. Systematic studies made it possible to establish the real structure of detonation carbon depending on experimental conditions. It has been shown that both during explosion in a chamber and thermal annealing in vacuum the nanoparticles of diamond have the tendency to transform not into graphite particles, as was assumed earlier, but into onionlike structures of fullerene series, composed of closed concentric carbon shells, the so-called carbon onions. The nanometer carbon particles have been obtained which comprise a diamond nucleus surrounded by a graphite-like mantle composed of quasi-spherical carbon shells which are the intermediate products of annealing of nanodiamond. The influence of initial sizes of the diamond particles and temperature on the annealing of diamond has been studied. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Detection of Actinides via Nuclear Isomer De-Excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francy, Christopher J.

    2009-07-22

    This dissertation discusses a data collection experiment within the Actinide Isomer Identification project (AID). The AID project is the investigation of an active interrogation technique that utilizes nuclear isomer production, with the goal of assisting in the interdiction of illicit nuclear materials. In an attempt to find and characterize isomers belonging to 235U and its fission fragments, a 232Th target was bombarded with a monoenergetic 6Li ion beam, operating at 45 MeV.

  1. Multistage reaction pathways in detonating high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Vashishta, Priya

    2014-11-17

    Atomistic mechanisms underlying the reaction time and intermediate reaction products of detonating high explosives far from equilibrium have been elusive. This is because detonation is one of the hardest multiscale physics problems, in which diverse length and time scales play important roles. Here, large spatiotemporal-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a two-stage reaction mechanism during the detonation of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine crystal. Rapid production of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O within ?10 ps is followed by delayed production of CO molecules beyond ns. We found that further decomposition towards the final products is inhibited by the formation of large metastable carbon- and oxygen-rich clusters with fractal geometry. In addition, we found distinct unimolecular and intermolecular reaction pathways, respectively, for the rapid N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O productions.

  2. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Jean A.

    2012-08-22

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the inaugural Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from June 11 – 22, 2012. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. The first week of the summer school focused on the foundational knowledge required by technology practitioners; the second week focused on contemporary applications. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security.

  3. NNSA scientists find more effective ways to detect nuclear explosions...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    The new tests were performed as part of the multi-laboratory experimental effort, which is supported by NNSA's Office of Proliferation Detection. Click to read more about the new ...

  4. Detonation propagation in a high loss configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Scott I; Shepherd, Joseph E

    2009-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study of detonation wave propagation in tubes with inner diameters (ID) comparable to the mixture cell size. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in two test section tubes with inner diameters of 1.27 mm and 6.35 mm. For both test sections, the initial pressure of stoichiometric mixtures was varied to determine the effect on detonation propagation. For the 6.35 mm tube, the equivalence ratio {phi} (where the mixture was {phi} C{sub 3}H{sub 8} + 50{sub 2}) was also varied. Detonations were found to propagate in mixtures with cell sizes as large as five times the diameter of the tube. However, under these conditions, significant losses were observed, resulting in wave propagation velocities as slow as 40% of the CJ velocity U{sub CJ}. A review of relevant literature is presented, followed by experimental details and data. Observed velocity deficits are predicted using models that account for boundary layer growth inside detonation waves.

  5. Lanthanum halide nanoparticle scintillators for nuclear radiation detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, Paul; Guise, Ronald; O'Brien, Robert; Lowe, Daniel; Kang Zhitao; Menkara, Hisham; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2013-02-14

    Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated and characterized for their nanocomposite radiation detector properties. This work investigated the properties of several nanostructured radiation scintillators, in order to determine the viability of using scintillators employing nanostructured lanthanum trifluoride. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with the idea that these materials have an intrinsic response to nuclear radiation that may be correlated to the energy of the incident radiation.

  6. Who Did It? Using International Forensics to Detect and Deter Nuclear Terrorism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunlop, W H; Smith, H P

    2006-08-28

    On February 2, the ''New York Times'' reported that the Pentagon has formed a nuclear forensics team tasked with identifying the terrorist attackers should the United States be hit with a nuclear bomb. Adapting nuclear technology to the forensics of exploded nuclear weapons is an old but rapidly evolving field. It dates back to at least 1949, when analysis of airborne debris, retrieved at high altitude off the coast of China, convinced President Harry Truman that the Soviet Union had exploded a nuclear device on the steppes of central Asia. The technology is neither new nor has it been particularly secret, but the formation of a national nuclear forensics team was newsworthy and a useful development. An international team, however, would be even better. Although Washington has naturally focused on preventing a nuclear terrorism attack in the United States, a U.S. city is not necessarily the most likely target for nuclear terrorists. It is doubtful that a terrorist organization would be able to acquire a U.S. nuclear device and even more doubtful that it would acquire one on U.S. soil. Accordingly, if a terrorist organization does get its hands on a fission device, it is likely that it will do so on foreign territory. At that point, the terrorists will have an enormously valuable political weapon in their hands and will be loath to risk losing that asset. Given the risks associated with getting the device into the United States, the rational choice would be to deploy the device abroad against much softer targets. For Islamist terrorists, a major ''Christian'' capital such as London, Rome, or Moscow might offer a more suitable target. Among these, Moscow perhaps presents the most compelling case for international cooperation on post-detonation nuclear forensics. Russia has the largest stockpile of poorly secured nuclear devices in the world. It also has porous borders and poor internal security, and it continues to be a potential source of contraband nuclear material

  7. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Wiemann, Dora K.; Choi, Junoh; Howell, Stephen W.

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  8. Proceedings of the symposium on Nuclear Radiation Detection Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, D.L.; Burger, A.; Franks, L.; Schieber, M.

    2008-07-01

    This symposium provides a venue for the presentation of the latest results and discussion of radiation detection materials from both experimental and theoretical standpoints. As advances are made in this area of materials, additional experimental and theoretical approaches are used to both guide the growth of materials and to characterize the materials that have a wide array of applications for detecting different types of radiation. The types of detector materials for semiconductors and scintillators include a variety of molecular compounds such as lanthanum halides (LaX{sub 3}), zinc oxide (ZnO), lead iodide (PbI{sub 2}), cadmium telluride (CdTe), mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}), thallium bromide (TlBr), as well as others, such as cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). An additional class of scintillators includes those based on organic compounds and glasses. Ideally, desired materials used for radiation detection have attributes such as appropriate-range band-gaps, high atomic numbers of the central element, high densities, performance at room temperature, and strong mechanical properties, and are low cost in terms of their production. There are significant gaps in the knowledge related to these materials that are very important in making radiation detector materials that are higher quality in terms of their reproducible purity, homogeneity, and mechanical integrity. The topics that are the focal point of this symposium address these issues so that much better detectors may be made in the future. Topics cover the following areas: - Material growth: on-going developments regarding cadmium telluride (CdTe), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}), cadmium manganese telluride (CMT), LaX{sub 3}, and all other detector materials; new materials with potential for radiation detection (II-VI, III-VI, III-VII compounds, neutron detectors, nano-materials, and ceramic scintillators); purification techniques; and growth methods; - Characterization: experimental

  9. Kinetic information from detonation front curvature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P. C., LLNL

    1998-06-15

    The time constants for time-dependent modeling may be estimated from reaction zone lengths, which are obtained from two sources One is detonation front curvature, where the edge lag is close to being a direct measure The other is the Size Effect, where the detonation velocity decreases with decreasing radius as energy is lost to the cylinder edge A simple theory that interlocks the two effects is given A differential equation for energy flow in the front is used, the front is described by quadratic and sixth-power radius terms The quadratic curvature comes from a constant power source of energy moving sideways to the walls Near the walls, the this energy rises to the total energy of detonation and produces the sixth-power term The presence of defects acting on a short reaction zone can eliminate the quadratic part while leaving the wall portion of the cuvature A collection of TNT data shows that the reaction zone increases with both the radius and the void fraction

  10. Insensitive detonator apparatus for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-07-28

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  11. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  12. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1997-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  13. THE DETONATION MECHANISM OF THE PULSATIONALLY ASSISTED GRAVITATIONALLY CONFINED DETONATION MODEL OF Type Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, G. C. IV; Graziani, C.; Weide, K.; Norris, J.; Hudson, R.; Lamb, D. Q.; Fisher, R. T.; Townsley, D. M.; Meakin, C.; Reid, L. B.

    2012-11-01

    We describe the detonation mechanism composing the 'pulsationally assisted' gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae. This model is analogous to the previous GCD model reported in Jordan et al.; however, the chosen initial conditions produce a substantively different detonation mechanism, resulting from a larger energy release during the deflagration phase. The resulting final kinetic energy and {sup 56}Ni yields conform better to observational values than is the case for the 'classical' GCD models. In the present class of models, the ignition of a deflagration phase leads to a rising, burning plume of ash. The ash breaks out of the surface of the white dwarf, flows laterally around the star, and converges on the collision region at the antipodal point from where it broke out. The amount of energy released during the deflagration phase is enough to cause the star to rapidly expand, so that when the ash reaches the antipodal point, the surface density is too low to initiate a detonation. Instead, as the ash flows into the collision region (while mixing with surface fuel), the star reaches its maximally expanded state and then contracts. The stellar contraction acts to increase the density of the star, including the density in the collision region. This both raises the temperature and density of the fuel-ash mixture in the collision region and ultimately leads to thermodynamic conditions that are necessary for the Zel'dovich gradient mechanism to produce a detonation. We demonstrate feasibility of this scenario with three three-dimensional (3D), full star simulations of this model using the FLASH code. We characterized the simulations by the energy released during the deflagration phase, which ranged from 38% to 78% of the white dwarf's binding energy. We show that the necessary conditions for detonation are achieved in all three of the models.

  14. Safety and performance enhancement circuit for primary explosive detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Ronald W.

    2006-04-04

    A safety and performance enhancement arrangement for primary explosive detonators. This arrangement involves a circuit containing an energy storage capacitor and preset self-trigger to protect the primary explosive detonator from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The circuit does not discharge into the detonator until a sufficient level of charge is acquired on the capacitor. The circuit parameters are designed so that normal ESD environments cannot charge the protection circuit to a level to achieve discharge. When functioned, the performance of the detonator is also improved because of the close coupling of the stored energy.

  15. Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation by an electric arc Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploring high temperature phenomena related to ...

  16. A library of prompt detonation reaction zone data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P. C., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    Tables are given listing literature data that allows calculation of sonic reaction zones at or near steady-state for promptly detonating explosive cylinders. The data covers homogeneous, heterogeneous, composite, inorganic and binary explosives and allows comparison across the entire explosive field. Table 1 lists detonation front curvatures. Table 2 lists Size Effect data, i.e. the change of detonation velocity with cylinder radius. Table 3 lists failure radii and detonation velocities. Table 4 lists explosive compositions. A total of 51 references dating back into the 1950`s are given. Calculated reaction zones, radii of curvature and growth rate coefficients are listed.

  17. Hydroxyapatite Reinforced Coatings with Incorporated Detonationally Generated Nanodiamonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pramatarova, L.; Pecheva, E.; Hikov, T.; Fingarova, D.; Dimitrova, R.; Spassov, T.; Krasteva, N.; Mitev, D.

    2010-01-21

    We studied the effect of the substrate chemistry on the morphology of hydroxyapatite-detonational nanodiamond composite coatings grown by a biomimetic approach (immersion in a supersaturated simulated body fluid). When detonational nanodiamond particles were added to the solution, the morphology of the grown for 2 h composite particles was porous but more compact then that of pure hydroxyapatite particles. The nanodiamond particles stimulated the hydroxyapatite growth with different morphology on the various substrates (Ti, Ti alloys, glasses, Si, opal). Biocompatibility assay with MG63 osteoblast cells revealed that the detonational nanodiamond water suspension with low and average concentration of the detonational nanodiamond powder is not toxic to living cells.

  18. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Baciak, James E.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Jenno, Diana M.

    2014-09-30

    Executive Summary The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the 3rd Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from 16 – 27 June 2014. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security. In fact, we are beginning to see previous students both enroll in graduate programs (former undergraduates) and complete internships at agencies like the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  19. Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating ...

  20. Nuclear spin conversion of water inside fullerene cages detected by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamone, Salvatore Concistr, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J.

    2014-05-21

    The water-endofullerene H{sub 2}O@C{sub 60} provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H{sub 2}O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H{sub 2}O molecules is catalysed by {sup 13}C nuclei present in the cages.

  1. Shock-to-Detonation Transition simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2015-07-14

    Shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) experiments with embedded velocity gauges provide data that can be used for both calibration and validation of high explosive (HE) burn models. Typically, a series of experiments is performed for each HE in which the initial shock pressure is varied. Here we describe a methodology for automating a series of SDT simulations and comparing numerical tracer particle velocities with the experimental gauge data. Illustrative examples are shown for PBX 9502 using the HE models implemented in the xRage ASC code at LANL.

  2. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarver, C M

    2005-07-14

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich--von Neumann--Doring (NEZND) theory and Ignition and Growth reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes is discussed for explosives based on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitromethane, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), triaminitrinitrobenzene(TATB) and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  3. Laser image recording on detonation nanodiamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikheev, G M; Mikheev, K G; Mogileva, T N; Puzyr, A P; Bondar, V S

    2014-01-31

    A focused He Ne laser beam is shown to cause local blackening of semitransparent detonation nanodiamond (DND) films at incident power densities above 600 W cm{sup -2}. Data obtained with a Raman spectrometer and low-power 632.8-nm laser source indicate that the blackening is accompanied by a decrease in broadband background luminescence and emergence of sharp Raman peaks corresponding to the structures of nanodiamond and sp{sup 2} carbon. The feasibility of image recording on DND films by a focused He Ne laser beam is demonstrated. (letters)

  4. Computation of a diverging Comp-B detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukiet, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    The expansion which occurs in diverging detonations weakens the wave and yields pressures and densities below those occurring in planar geometry. We study the problem of a spherically expanding detonation of Comp-B. The effect of varying the order of reaction as well as the rate law parameters (using an Arrhenius burn model) is studied. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Effect of prill structure on detonation performance of ANFO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salyer, Terry R; Short, Mark; Kiyanda, Charles B; Morris, John S; Zimmerly, Tony

    2010-01-01

    While the effects of charge diameter, fuel mix ratio, and temperature on ANFO detonation performance are substantial, the effects of prill type are considerable as well as tailorable. Engineered AN prills provide a means to improve overall performance, primarily by changing the material microstructure through the addition of features designed to enhance hot spot action. To examine the effects of prill type (along with fuel mix ratio and charge diameter) on detonation performance, a series of precision, large-scale, ANFO front-curvature rate-stick tests was performed. Each shot used standard No. 2 diesel for the fuel oil and was essentially unconfined with cardboard confinement. Detonation velocities and front curvatures were measured while actively maintaining consistent shot temperatures. Based on the experimental results, DSD calibrations were performed to model the detonation performance over a range of conditions, and the overall effects of prill microstructure were examined and correlated with detonation performance.

  6. Measuring In-Situ Mdf Velocity Of Detonation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horine, Frank M.; James, Jr., Forrest B.

    2005-10-25

    A system for determining the velocity of detonation of a mild detonation fuse mounted on the surface of a device includes placing the device in a predetermined position with respect to an apparatus that carries a couple of sensors that sense the passage of a detonation wave at first and second spaced locations along the fuse. The sensors operate a timer and the time and distance between the locations is used to determine the velocity of detonation. The sensors are preferably electrical contacts that are held spaced from but close to the fuse such that expansion of the fuse caused by detonation causes the fuse to touch the contact, causing an electrical signal to actuate the timer.

  7. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half. 2 figs.

  8. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L.

    1990-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half.

  9. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L.

    1989-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

  10. Compact Detection System for High Sensitivity Hydrogen Profiling of Materials by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marble, Daniel Keith; Urban, Ben; Pacheco, Jose

    2009-03-10

    Hydrogen is a ubiquitous contaminant that is known to have dramatic effects on the electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties of many types of materials in even minute quantities. Thus, the detection of hydrogen in materials is of major importance. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) is a powerful technique for nondestructive profiling hydrogen in materials. However, NRA has found only limited use in many applications because of poor sensitivity due to cosmic ray background (CSRB). Most attempts to eliminate CSRB to achieve ppm detection levels using higher energy nuclear reactions or tons of passive shielding are not compatible with commercial ion beam analysis space and equipment requirements Zimmerman, et al. have previously reported upon a coincidence detector that meets IBA space requirements and reduces the cosmic ray background, but the detector suffers from lower detection efficiency and small sample size. We have replaced the BGO well detector in the Zimmerman coincidence detection scheme with a larger Nal well detector and used faster timing electronics to produce a detector that can handle larger samples with higher detection efficiency, and still eliminate cosmic ray background.

  11. Heat shock-induced interactions among nuclear HSFs detected by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pack, Chan-Gi; Ahn, Sang-Gun

    2015-07-31

    The cellular response to stress is primarily controlled in cells via transcriptional activation by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 is well-known to form homotrimers for activation upon heat shock and subsequently bind to target DNAs, such as heat-shock elements, by forming stress granules. A previous study demonstrated that nuclear HSF1 and HSF2 molecules in live cells interacted with target DNAs on the stress granules. However, the process underlying the binding interactions of HSF family in cells upon heat shock remains unclear. This study demonstrate for the first time that the interaction kinetics among nuclear HSF1, HSF2, and HSF4 upon heat shock can be detected directly in live cells using dual color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). FCCS analyses indicated that the binding between HSFs was dramatically changed by heat shock. Interestingly, the recovery kinetics of interaction between HSF1 molecules after heat shock could be represented by changes in the relative interaction amplitude and mobility. - Highlights: • The binding interactions among nuclear HSFs were successfully detected. • The binding kinetics between HSF1s during recovery was quantified. • HSF2 and HSF4 strongly formed hetero-complex, even before heat shock. • Nuclear HSF2 and HSF4 bound to HSF1 only after heat shock.

  12. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-08-06

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1A. Canceled by DOE O 452.1C.

  13. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-09-20

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1B. Canceled by DOE O 452.1D

  14. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1C. Canceled by DOE O 452.1D Admin Chg 1.

  15. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-01-17

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1. Canceled by DOE O 452.1B.

  16. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-16

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. Here, we observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be anmore » indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). In conclusion, our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.« less

  17. Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.

    2009-01-27

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  18. Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Eric B [Oakland, CA; Prussin, Stanley G [Kensington, CA

    2009-05-05

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  19. Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.

    2009-01-06

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  20. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-01-26

    All nuclear explosives and nuclear explosive operations require special safety, security, and use control consideration because of the potentially unacceptable consequences of an accident or unauthorized act; therefore, a Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program is established to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Supersedes DOE O 452.1D.

  1. Theoretical solution of the minimum charge problem for gaseous detonations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostensen, R.W.

    1990-12-01

    A theoretical model was developed for the minimum charge to trigger a gaseous detonation in spherical geometry as a generalization of the Zeldovich model. Careful comparisons were made between the theoretical predictions and experimental data on the minimum charge to trigger detonations in propane-air mixtures. The predictions are an order of magnitude too high, and there is no apparent resolution to the discrepancy. A dynamic model, which takes into account the experimentally observed oscillations in the detonation zone, may be necessary for reliable predictions. 27 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe includes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4), each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two. 2 figs.

  3. A dual neutron/gamma source for the Fissmat Inspection for Nuclear Detection (FIND) system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Barney Lee; King, Michael; Rossi, Paolo; McDaniel, Floyd Del; Morse, Daniel Henry; Antolak, Arlyn J.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Raber, Thomas N.

    2008-12-01

    Shielded special nuclear material (SNM) is very difficult to detect and new technologies are needed to clear alarms and verify the presence of SNM. High-energy photons and neutrons can be used to actively interrogate for heavily shielded SNM, such as highly enriched uranium (HEU), since neutrons can penetrate gamma-ray shielding and gamma-rays can penetrate neutron shielding. Both source particles then induce unique detectable signals from fission. In this LDRD, we explored a new type of interrogation source that uses low-energy proton- or deuteron-induced nuclear reactions to generate high fluxes of mono-energetic gammas or neutrons. Accelerator-based experiments, computational studies, and prototype source tests were performed to obtain a better understanding of (1) the flux requirements, (2) fission-induced signals, background, and interferences, and (3) operational performance of the source. The results of this research led to the development and testing of an axial-type gamma tube source and the design/construction of a high power coaxial-type gamma generator based on the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction.

  4. Neutron detection of the Triga Mark III reactor, using nuclear track methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espinosa, G. Golzarri, J. I.; Raya-Arredondo, R.; Cruz-Galindo, S.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-23

    Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM), based on the neutron-proton interaction is one often employed alternative for neutron detection. In this paper we apply NTM to determine the Triga Mark III reactor operating power and neutron flux. The facility nuclear core, loaded with 85 Highly Enriched Uranium as fuel with control rods in a demineralized water pool, provide a neutron flux around 2 × 10{sup 12} n cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, at the irradiation channel TO-2. The neutron field is measured at this channel, using Landauer{sup ®} PADC as neutron detection material, covered by 3 mm Plexiglas{sup ®} as converter. After exposure, plastic detectors were chemically etched to make observable the formed latent tracks induced by proton recoils. The track density was determined by a custom made Digital Image Analysis System. The resulting average nuclear track density shows a direct proportionality response for reactor power in the range 0.1-7 kW. We indicate several advantages of the technique including the possibility to calibrate the neutron flux density measured at low reactor power.

  5. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2015-10-26

    We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonancemore » can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10–100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. As a result, the method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems.« less

  6. Explosive Products EOS: Adjustment for detonation speed and energy release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-05

    Propagating detonation waves exhibit a curvature effect in which the detonation speed decreases with increasing front curvature. The curvature effect is due to the width of the wave profile. Numerically, the wave profile depends on resolution. With coarse resolution, the wave width is too large and results in a curvature effect that is too large. Consequently, the detonation speed decreases as the cell size is increased. We propose a modification to the products equation of state (EOS) to compensate for the effect of numerical resolution; i.e., to increase the CJ pressure in order that a simulation propagates a detonation wave with a speed that is on average correct. The EOS modification also adjusts the release isentrope to correct the energy release.

  7. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  8. Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases PI Name: Alexei Khokhlov PI Email: ajk@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: University of Chicago Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 20,000,000 Year: 2012 Research Domain: Chemistry First-principles direct numerical simulations explain and predict high-speed combustion and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in hydrogen-oxygen gaseous mixtures. DDT and the

  9. Isotropic proton-detected local-field nuclear magnetic resonancein solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havlin, Robert H.; Walls, Jamie D.; Pines, Alexander

    2004-08-04

    A new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method is presented which produces linear, isotropic proton-detected local-field spectra for InS spin systems in powdered samples. The method, HETeronuclear Isotropic Evolution (HETIE), refocuses the anisotropic portion of the heteronuclear dipolar coupling frequencies by evolving the system under a series of specially designed Hamiltonians and evolution pathways. The theory behind HETIE is represented along with experimental studies conducted on a powdered sample of ferrocene, demonstrating the methodology outlined in this paper. Applications of HETIE for structural determination in solid-state NMR are discussed.

  10. Nonintrusive stabilization of a conical detonation wave for supersonic combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrier, G.F.; Fendell, F.E.; Fink, S.F. IV

    1995-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies are undertaken of the feasibility of an air-breathing supersonic combustor based on a stabilized, conically configured (oblique) detonation wave. The conical wave is the result of the interaction of a train of spherical detonation waves, each directly initiated by a brief, localized deposition of energy from a very-rapidly-repeated pulsed laser. The laser is tightly focused on a fixed site (in the combustor) where there is a steady uniform supersonic stream of combustible gas. Simple analysis of the requirements for (nonintrusive) direct initiation of an individual spherical detonation wave by a single laser pulse relates the pulse-energy and pulse-duration parameters. Then, an estimate is given of the entropy production associated with the early-time interaction of spherical detonations created in a supersonic reactive stream by a train of laser pulses. The entropy production, which arises from reflected shocks in the already detonated mixture, is reduced by increasing the repetition rate of the laser. Finally, the fuel/air mixing is inevitably imperfect in practical high-speed combustors. The authors investigate that portion of the throughput which is compressed, but not reacted, during transit of the conical detonation wave, because of imperfect mixing. Specifically, they estimate the spatial scale of the cold-mixture inhomogeneity that still permits diffusive burnup, prior to exhaust from the nozzle of the combustor.

  11. Uranium Enrichment Standards of the Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, J.

    2012-05-23

    The Y-12 National Security Complex has recently fabricated and characterized a new series of metallic uranium standards for use in the Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC). Ten uranium metal disks with enrichments varying from 0.2 to 93.2% {sup 235}U were designed to provide researchers access to a wide variety of measurement scenarios in a single testing venue. Special care was taken in the selection of the enrichments in order to closely bracket the definitions of reactor fuel at 4% {sup 235}U and that of highly enriched uranium (HEU) at 20% {sup 235}U. Each standard is well characterized using analytical chemistry as well as a series of gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. Gamma-ray spectra of these standards are being archived in a reference library for use by customers of the NDSTC. A software database tool has been created that allows for easier access and comparison of various spectra. Information provided through the database includes: raw count data (including background spectra), regions of interest (ROIs), and full width half maximum calculations. Input is being sought from the user community on future needs including enhancements to the spectral database and additional Uranium standards, shielding configurations and detector types. A related presentation are planned for the INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (Hull, et al.), which describe new uranium chemical compound standards and testing opportunities at Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC).

  12. The development of laser ignited deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) detonators and pyrotechnic actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.

    1994-05-01

    The use of laser ignited explosive components has been recognized as a safety enhancement over existing electrical explosive devices (EEDs). Sandia has been pursuing the development of optical ordnance for many years with recent emphasis on developing optical deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) detonators and pyrotechnic actuators. These low energy optical ordnance devices can be ignited with either a semiconductor diode laser, laser diode arrays or a solid state rod laser. By using a semiconductor laser diode, the safety improvement can be made without sacrificing performance since the input energy required for the laser diode and the explosive output are similar to existing electrical systems. The use of higher powered laser diode arrays or rod lasers may have advantages in fast DDT applications or lossy optical environments such as long fiber applications and applications with numerous optical connectors. Recent results from our continued study of optical ignition of explosive and pyrotechnic materials are presented. These areas of investigation can be separated into three different margin categories: (1) the margin relative to intended inputs ( i.e. powder performance as a function of laser input variation), (2) the margin relative to anticipated environments (i.e. powder performance as a function of thermal environment variation), and (3) the margin relative to unintended environments (i.e. responses to abnormal environments or safety).

  13. The development of laser ignited deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) detonators and pyrotechnic actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Harlan, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    The use of laser ignited explosive components has been recognized as a safety enhancement over existing electrical explosive devices (EEDs). Sandia has been pursuing the development of optical ordnance for many years with recent emphasis on developing optical deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) detonators and pyrotechnic actuators. These low energy optical ordnance devices can be ignited with either a semiconductor diode laser, laser diode arrays or a solid state rod laser. By using a semiconductor laser diode, the safety improvement can be made without sacrificing performance since the input energy required for the laser diode and the explosive output are similar to existing electrical systems. The use of higher powered laser diode arrays or rod lasers may have advantages in fast DDT applications or lossy optical environments such as long fiber applications and applications with numerous optical connectors. Recent results from our continued study of optical ignition of explosive and pyrotechnic materials are presented. These areas of investigation can be separated into three different margin categories: (1) the margin relative to intended inputs (i.e. powder performance as a function of laser input variation), (2) the margin relative to anticipated environments (i.e. powder performance as a function of thermal environment variation), and (3) the margin relative to unintended environments (i.e. responses to abnormal environments or safety).

  14. nuclear security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3%2A en Shaping the future of nuclear detection http:nnsa.energy.govblogshaping-future-nuclear-detection

    Learning techniques to combat nuclear trafficking, touring the...

  15. An assessment of antineutrino detection as a tool for monitoring nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Bernstein; Todd West; Vipin Gupta

    1999-06-01

    The antineutrino is the only real-time nuclear signature from a fission explosion that propagates great distances through air, water, and ground. The size and sensitivity of antineutrino detectors has increased dramatically in the last decade, and will continue to do so in the next, thanks in part to the renewed interest in neutrino physics brought on by the recent discovery that neutrinos may have mass. The evolution of antineutrino detectors, and the evident interest of the signature as a means for monitoring nuclear tests motivates this review of the capabilities of existing and possible future detectors as test ban verification tools. The authors find that existing liquid scintillator ionization detectors, operating a few tens of meters below the Earth's surface and containing a few thousand tons of active material, could be used to monitor an area of a few square kilometers for nuclear explosions at the 1 kt level. Purified water Cerenkov detectors of sizes comparable to existing detectors (50,000 m{sup 3}) could be used to detect 1 kt explosions at distances of a few tens of kilometers. If neutron-absorbing dopants such as sodium chloride or gadolinium could be added to purified water, the resulting background reduction would allow extension of the range for sensitivity to a pulse of 10 antineutrino events from a 1 kt explosion out to approximately 1000 km. Beyond 1000 km, backgrounds from the world's nuclear reactors would become prohibitively large. The engineering hurdles for such detectors would be formidable. The size of a doped detector operating at the 100 km range, suitable for cooperative monitoring of existing nuclear test sites, is about 60 times that of the largest existing water detector, and would require a factor of several dozen more photomultiplier tubes than what is now used in large scale physics experiments. At a price per phototube of $1000, capital costs would amount to several billions of dollars, even for a detector at this modest

  16. Investigations on detonation shock dynamics and related topics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    This document is a final report that summarizes the research findings and research activities supported by the subcontract DOE-LANL-9-XG8-3931P-1 between the University of Illinois (D. S. Stewart Principal Investigator) and the University of California (Los Alamos National Laboratory, M-Division). The main focus of the work has been on investigations of Detonation Shock Dynamics. A second emphasis has been on modeling compaction of energetic materials and deflagration to detonation in those materials. The work has led to a number of extensions of the theory of Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) and its application as an engineering design method for high explosive systems. The work also enhanced the hydrocode capabilities of researchers in M-Division by modifications to CAVEAT, an existing Los Alamos hydrocode. Linear stability studies of detonation flows were carried out for the purpose of code verification. This work also broadened the existing theory for detonation. The work in this contract has led to the development of one-phase models for dynamic compaction of porous energetic materials and laid the groundwork for subsequent studies. Some work that modeled the discrete heterogeneous behavior of propellant beds was also performed. The contract supported the efforts of D. S. Stewart and a Postdoctoral student H. I. Lee at the University of Illinois.

  17. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  18. AUTOMATED LEAK DETECTION OF BURIED TANKS USING GEOPHYSICAL METHODS AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CALENDINE S; SCHOFIELD JS; LEVITT MT; FINK JB; RUCKER DF

    2011-03-30

    At the Hanford Nuclear Site in Washington State, the Department of Energy oversees the containment, treatment, and retrieval of liquid high-level radioactive waste. Much of the waste is stored in single-shelled tanks (SSTs) built between 1943 and 1964. Currently, the waste is being retrieved from the SSTs and transferred into newer double-shelled tanks (DSTs) for temporary storage before final treatment. Monitoring the tanks during the retrieval process is critical to identifying leaks. An electrically-based geophysics monitoring program for leak detection and monitoring (LDM) has been successfully deployed on several SSTs at the Hanford site since 2004. The monitoring program takes advantage of changes in contact resistance that will occur when conductive tank liquid leaks into the soil. During monitoring, electrical current is transmitted on a number of different electrode types (e.g., steel cased wells and surface electrodes) while voltages are measured on all other electrodes, including the tanks. Data acquisition hardware and software allow for continuous real-time monitoring of the received voltages and the leak assessment is conducted through a time-series data analysis. The specific hardware and software combination creates a highly sensitive method of leak detection, complementing existing drywell logging as a means to detect and quantify leaks. Working in an industrial environment such as the Hanford site presents many challenges for electrical monitoring: cathodic protection, grounded electrical infrastructure, lightning strikes, diurnal and seasonal temperature trends, and precipitation, all of which create a complex environment for leak detection. In this discussion we present examples of challenges and solutions to working in the tank farms of the Hanford site.

  19. Proof-of-Concept Assessment of a Photofission-Based Interrogation System for the Detection of Shielded Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, J. L.; Yoon, W. Y.; Harker, Y. D.; Hoggan, J. M.; Haskell, K. J.; VanAusdeln, L. A.

    2000-11-01

    A photonuclear interrogation method was experimentally assessed for the detection of shielded nuclear materials. Proof-of-Concept assessment was performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-18 facility and used the INEEL VARITRON electron accelerator. Experiments were performed to assess and characterize the delayed neutron emission responses for different nuclear materials with various shield configurations using three ''nominal'' electron beam energies; 8-, 10-, and 11-MeV. With the exception of highly enriched uranium (HEU), the nuclear materials assessed represent material types commonly encountered in commerce. The specific nuclear materials studied include a solid 4.8-kg HEU sphere, a 5-kg multiple-object, depleted uranium (DU) [uranium with about 0.2% enrichment with U-235] target, and two 11-kg thorium disks. The shield materials selected include polyethylene, borated-polyethylene, and lead. Experimental results, supported with numerical predictions, have shown that the photonuclear interrogation technique is quite capable of detecting shielded nuclear material via the direct measurement of the photofission-induced delayed neutron emissions. To identify or discriminate between nuclear material types (i.e., depleted uranium, HEU, and thorium), a ratio of delayed neutron counts at two different beam energies is utilized. This latter method, referred to as the dual-beam energy ratio Figure-of-Merit, allows one to differentiate among the three nuclear material types.

  20. Ferrite core coupled slapper detonator apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boberg, R.E.; Lee, R.S.; Weingart, R.C.

    1989-08-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for coupling a temporally short electric power pulse from a thick flat-conductor power cable into a thin flat-conductor slapper detonator circuit. A first planar and generally circular loop is formed from an end portion of the power cable. A second planar and generally circular loop, of similar diameter, is formed from all or part of the slapper detonator circuit. The two loops are placed together, within a ferrite housing that provides a ferrite path that magnetically couples the two loops. Slapper detonator parts may be incorporated within the ferrite housing. The ferrite housing may be made vacuum and water-tight, with the addition of a hermetic ceramic seal, and provided with an enclosure for protecting the power cable and parts related thereto. 10 figs.

  1. Synthesis of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles by detonation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Guilei, E-mail: sunguilei@126.com [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China)] [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China); Li, Xiaojie, E-mail: dalian03@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang, Qiquan [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China)] [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China); Yan, Honghao [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were synthesized by detonating a mixture of ferrocene, naphthalene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in an explosion vessel under low vacuum conditions (8.1 kPa). The RDX functioned as an energy source for the decomposition of ferrocene and naphthalene. The carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were formed as soot-like deposits on the inner surface of the reactor, which were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. And a portion of the detonation soot was treated with hydrochloric acid. The product was carbon-coated nanoparticles in perfect core-shell structures with graphitic shells and bcc-Fe cores. The detonation technique offers an energy-saving route to the synthesis of carbon-coated nanomaterials.

  2. Ferrite core coupled slapper detonator apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boberg, Ralph E. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Weingart, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for coupling a temporally short electric power pulse from a thick flat-conductor power cable into a thin flat-conductor slapper detonator circuit. A first planar and generally circular loop is formed from an end portion of the power cable. A second planar and generally circular loop, of similar diameter, is formed from all or part of the slapper detonator circuit. The two loops are placed together, within a ferrite housing that provides a ferrite path that magnetically couples the two loops. Slapper detonator parts may be incorporated within the ferrite housing. The ferrite housing may be made vacuum and water-tight, with the addition of a hermetic ceramic seal, and provided with an enclosure for protecting the power cable and parts related thereto.

  3. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stroud, John R.; Ornellas, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  4. Chemical reaction and equilibration mechanisms in detonation waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarver, C. M., LLNL

    1997-07-01

    Experimental and theoretical evidence for the nonequilibrium Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (NEZND) theory of self-sustaining detonation is presented. High density, high temperature transition state theory is used to calculate unimolecular reaction rate constants for the initial decomposition of gaseous norbornene, liquid nitromethane, and solid, single crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate as functions of shock temperature. The calculated rate constants are compared to those derived from experimental induction time measurements at various shock and detonation states. Uncertainties in the calculated shock and von Neumann spike temperatures are the main drawbacks to calculating these reaction rates. Nanosecond measurements of the shock temperatures of unreacted explosives are necessary to reduce these uncertainties.

  5. Secretary Chu Visits Russian Seaport, Checks Out Second Line of Defense Nuclear Detection System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through strong partnerships with other countries, we can secure vulnerable nuclear material around the world.

  6. nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en U.S-, Japan Exchange Best Practices on Nuclear Emergency Response http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesu.s-japan-exchange-best-practices-nuclear-emergency-respon...

  7. Declassification of the Yields of 11 Nuclear Tests Conducted as Part

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Declassification of the Yields of 11 Nuclear Tests Conducted as Part of the Plowshare Peaceful Uses for Nuclear Explosives Program The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense have jointly declassified the specific yields of 11 nuclear tests conducted between 1962 and 1968 at the Nevada Test Site, including three tests that, as previously announced, leaked radioactivity. Also declassified are the yields of two detonations that, together with another detonation whose yield has already

  8. The role of cellular structure on increasing the detonability limits of three-step chain-branching detonations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, Mark; Kiyanda, Charles B; Quirk, James J; Sharpe, Gary J

    2011-01-27

    In [1], the dynamics of a pulsating three-step chain-branching detonation were studied. The reaction model consists of, sequentially, chain-initiation, chain-branching and chain-termination steps. The chain-initiation and chain-branching steps are taken to be thermally neutral, with chemical energy release occuring in the chain-termination stage. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether cellular detonation structure can increase the value of the chain-branching cross-over temperature T{sub b} at which fully coupled detonation solutions are observed over those in 1 D. The basic concept is straightforward and has been discussed in [1] and [3]; if T{sub s} drops below T{sub b} at the lead shock, the passage of a transverse shock can increase both the lead shock temperature and the temperature behind the transverse wave back above T{sub b}, thus sustaining an unstable cellular detonation for values of T{sub b} for which a one-dimensional pulsating detonation will fail. Experiments potentially supporting this hypothesis with irregular detonations have been shown in [3] in a shock tube with acoustically absorbing walls. Removal of the transverse waves results in detonation failure, giving way to a decoupled shock-flame complex. A number of questions remain to be addressed regarding the possibility of such a mechanism, and, if so, about the precise mechanisms driving the cellular structure for large T{sub b}. For instance, one might ask what sets the cell size in a chain-branching detonation, particularly could the characteristic cell size be set by the chain-branching cross-over temperature T{sub b}: after a transverse wave shock collision, the strength of the transverse wave weakens as it propagates along the front. If the spacing between shock collisions is too large (cell size), then the transverse shocks may weaken to the extent that the lead shock temperature or that behind the transverse waves is not raised above T{sub b}, losing chemical energy to

  9. Detonation equation of state at LLNL, 1995. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P.C.; Wu, B.; Haselman, L.C. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    JWL`s and 1-D Look-up tables are shown to work for ``one-track`` experiments like cylinder shots and the expanding sphere. They fail for ``many-track`` experiments like the compressed sphere. As long as the one-track experiment has dimensions larger than the explosive`s reaction zone and the explosive is near-ideal, a general JWL with R{sub 1} = 4.5 and R{sub 2} = 1.5 can be constructed, with both {omega} and E{sub o} being calculated from thermochemical codes. These general JWL`s allow comparison between various explosives plus recalculation of the JWL for different densities. The Bigplate experiment complements the cylinder test by providing continuous oblique angles of shock incidence from 0{degrees} to 70{degrees}. Explosive reaction zone lengths are determined from metal plate thicknesses, extrapolated run-to-detonation distances, radius size effects and detonation front curvature. Simple theories of the cylinder test, Bigplate, the cylinder size effect and detonation front curvature are given. The detonation front lag at the cylinder edge is shown to be proportional to the half-power of the reaction zone length. By calibrating for wall blow-out, a full set of reaction zone lengths from PETN to ANFO are obtained. The 1800--2100 K freezing effect is shown to be caused by rapid cooling of the product gases. Compiled comparative data for about 80 explosives is listed. Ten Chapters plus an Appendix.

  10. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  11. In-Situ Continuous Detonation Velocity Measurements Using Fiber-optic Bragg Grating Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benterou, J; Udd, E; Wilkins, P; Roeske, F; Roos, E; Jackson, D

    2007-07-25

    In order to fully calibrate hydrocodes and dynamic chemistry burn models, initiation and detonation research requires continuous measurement of low order detonation velocities as the detonation runs up to full order detonation for a given density and initiation pressure pulse. A novel detector of detonation velocity is presented using a 125 micron diameter optical fiber with an integral chirped fiber Bragg grating as an intrinsic sensor. This fiber is embedded in the explosive under study and interrogated during detonation as the fiber Bragg grating scatters light back along the fiber to a photodiode, producing a return signal dependant on the convolution integral of the grating reflection bandpass, the ASE intensity profile and the photodetector response curve. Detonation velocity is measured as the decrease in reflected light exiting the fiber as the grating is consumed when the detonation reaction zone proceeds along the fiber sensor axis. This small fiber probe causes minimal perturbation to the detonation wave and can measure detonation velocities along path lengths tens of millimeters long. Experimental details of the associated equipment and preliminary data in the form of continuous detonation velocity records within nitromethane and PBX-9502 are presented.

  12. Nuclear Material Detection by One-Short-Pulse-Laser-Driven Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Favalli, Andrea; Aymond, F.; Bridgewater, Jon S.; Croft, Stephen; Deppert, O.; Devlin, Matthew James; Falk, Katerina; Fernandez, Juan Carlos; Gautier, Donald Cort; Gonzales, Manuel A.; Goodsell, Alison Victoria; Guler, Nevzat; Hamilton, Christopher Eric; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Henzlova, Daniela; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Johnson, Randall Philip; Jung, Daniel; Kleinschmidt, Annika; Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth; Pomerantz, Ishay; Roth, Markus; Santi, Peter Angelo; Shimada, Tsutomu; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas; Wurden, Glen Anthony; Palaniyappan, Sasikumar; McCary, E.

    2015-01-28

    Covered in the PowerPoint presentation are the following areas: Motivation and requirements for active interrogation of nuclear material; laser-driven neutron source; neutron diagnostics; active interrogation of nuclear material; and, conclusions, remarks, and future works.

  13. Nuclear reactor with internal thimble-type delayed neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenny C.; Poloncsik, John; Lambert, John D. B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention teaches improved apparatus for the method of detecting a breach in cladded fuel used in a nuclear reactor. The detector apparatus is located in the primary heat exchanger which conveys part of the reactor coolant past at least three separate delayed-neutron detectors mounted in this heat exchanger. The detectors are spaced apart such that the coolant flow time from the core to each detector is different, and these differences are known. The delayed-neutron activity at the detectors is a function of the delay time after the reaction in the fuel until the coolant carrying the delayed-neutron emitter passes the respective detector. This time delay is broken down into separate components including an isotopic holdup time required for the emitter to move through the fuel from the reaction to the coolant at the breach, and two transit times required for the emitter now in the coolant to flow from the breach to the detector loop and then via the loop to the detector. At least two of these time components are determined during calibrated operation of the reactor. Thereafter during normal reactor operation, repeated comparisons are made by the method of regression approximation of the third time component for the best-fit line correlating measured delayed-neutron activity against activity that is approximated according to specific equations. The equations use these time-delay components and known parameter values of the fuel and of the part and emitting daughter isotopes.

  14. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  15. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Russell N.; Senum, Gunnar I.

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  16. A Study of Detonation Propagation and Diffraction with Compliant Confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, J; Schwendeman, D; Kapila, A; Henshaw, W

    2007-08-13

    A previous computational study of diffracting detonations with the ignition-and-growth model demonstrated that contrary to experimental observations, the computed solution did not exhibit dead zones. For a rigidly confined explosive it was found that while diffraction past a sharp corner did lead to a temporary separation of the lead shock from the reaction zone, the detonation re-established itself in due course and no pockets of unreacted material were left behind. The present investigation continues to focus on the potential for detonation failure within the ignition-and-growth (IG) model, but now for a compliant confinement of the explosive. The aim of the present paper is two fold. First, in order to compute solutions of the governing equations for multi-material reactive flow, a numerical method of solution is developed and discussed. The method is a Godunov-type, fractional-step scheme which incorporates an energy correction to suppress numerical oscillations that would occur near the material interface separating the reactive material and the inert confiner for standard conservative schemes. The numerical method uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on overlapping grids, and the accuracy of solutions is well tested using a two-dimensional rate-stick problem for both strong and weak inert confinements. The second aim of the paper is to extend the previous computational study of the IG model by considering two related problems. In the first problem, the corner-turning configuration is re-examined, and it is shown that in the matter of detonation failure, the absence of rigid confinement does not affect the outcome in a material way; sustained dead zones continue to elude the model. In the second problem, detonations propagating down a compliantly confined pencil-shaped configuration are computed for a variety of cone angles of the tapered section. It is found, in accord with experimental observation, that if the cone angle is small enough, the detonation fails

  17. Chemical processing in geothermal nuclear chimney

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1973-10-01

    A closed rubble filled nuclear chimney is provided in a subterranean geothermal formation by detonation of a nuclear explosive device therein, with reagent input and product output conduits connecting the chimney cavity with appropriate surface facilities. Such facilities will usually comprise reagent preparation, product recovery and recycle facilities. Proccsses are then conducted in the nuclear chimney which processes are facilitated by temperature, pressure, catalytic and other conditions existent or which are otherwise provided in the nuclear chimney. (auth)

  18. Bonus-- Cameras Designed to Strengthen Nuclear Security Can Also Detect Cancer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Technologies that are improving our ability to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and material are also saving lives on a daily basis.

  19. United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, December 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-12-01

    This document list chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Revision 15, dated December 2000.

  20. Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image Weak ignition behind a reflected Mach=1.5 shock in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 0.1 atm initial pressure. Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Alexei Khokhlov, University of Chicago; Charles Bacon, Argonne National Laboratory, Joanna Austin, Andrew Knisely, University of Illinois at Urbanna-Champaign Simulations

  1. Munitions having an insensitive detonator system for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-08-04

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  2. Shock temperature as a criterion for the detonability of LNG/LPG constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michels, H.J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology); Rashidi, F. )

    1992-12-01

    Detonation limit data obtained at ambient conditions for some aliphatic LNG/LNG constituents with oxygen and nitrogen (air) have been analyzed in search of a single critical parameter for detonation propagation. It was established the shock, rather than C-J reaction temperatures, provides a firm basis for marginal detonability prediction and that, furthermore, classical reaction mechanisms and relatively simple calculation methods can be used for their reliable evaluation. In this paper the result is used to formulate a criterion, for predicting composition limits to detonation. For the systems investigated, this criterion is accurate to within approximately 0.2% for fuel-lean and around 1% for fuel-rich mixtures.

  3. Hydrogen loaded metal for bridge-foils for enhanced electric gun/slapper detonator operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The invention provides a more efficient electric gun or slapper detonator ich provides a higher velocity flyer by using a bridge foil made of a hydrogen loaded metal.

  4. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuest, Craig R.; Hart, Brad; Slezak, Thomas R.

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  5. NEW - DOE O 452.1E, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    All nuclear explosives and nuclear explosive operations require special safety, security, and use control consideration because of the potentially unacceptable consequences of an accident or unauthorized act; therefore, a Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program is established to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives.

  6. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.

  7. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highlymore » Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.« less

  8. Experimental study on transmission of an overdriven detonation wave from propane/oxygen to propane/air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Lai, W.H.; Chung, K.; Lu, F.K.

    2008-08-15

    Two sets of experiments were performed to achieve a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane/oxygen mixture were used to evaluate the attenuation of the overdriven detonation wave in the DDT process. Next, experiments were performed wherein a propane/oxygen mixture was separated from a propane/air mixture by a thin diaphragm to observe the transmission of an overdriven detonation wave. Based on the characteristic relations, a simple wave intersection model was used to calculate the state of the transmitted detonation wave. The results showed that a rarefaction effect must be included to ensure that there is no overestimate of the post-transmission wave properties when the incident detonation wave is overdriven. The strength of the incident overdriven detonation wave plays an important role in the wave transmission process. The experimental results showed that a transmitted overdriven detonation wave occurs instantaneously with a strong incident overdriven detonation wave. The near-CJ state of the incident wave leads to a transmitted shock wave, and then the transition to the overdriven detonation wave occurs downstream. The attenuation process for the overdriven detonation wave decaying to a near-CJ state occurs in all tests. After the attenuation process, an unstable detonation wave was observed in most tests. This may be attributed to the increase in the cell width in the attenuation process that exceeds the detonability cell width limit. (author)

  9. Bonus-- Cameras Designed To Strengthen Nuclear Security Can Also Detect Cancer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thanks to researchers from Brookhaven National Laboratory, a high-resolution gamma camera exists that can be used to detect prostate cancer.

  10. Application of a model-based fault detection system to nuclear plant signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Wegerich, S.W.; Herzog, J.P.; VanAlstine, R.; Bockhorst, F.

    1997-05-01

    To assure the continued safe and reliable operation of a nuclear power station, it is essential that accurate online information on the current state of the entire system be available to the operators. Such information is needed to determine the operability of safety and control systems, the condition of active components, the necessity of preventative maintenance, and the status of sensory systems. To this end, ANL has developed a new Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) which utilizes advanced pattern recognition methods to enhance sensor and component operational validation for commercial nuclear reactors. Operational data from the Crystal River-3 (CR-3) nuclear power plant are used to illustrate the high sensitivity, accuracy, and the rapid response time of MSET for annunciation of a variety of signal disturbances.

  11. Equation of state for high explosives detonation products with explicit polar and ionic species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastea, S; Glaesemann, K R; Fried, L E

    2006-06-28

    We introduce a new thermodynamic theory for detonation products that includes polar and ionic species. The new formalism extends the domain of validity of the previously developed EXP6 equation of state library and opens the possibility of new applications. We illustrate the scope of the new approach on PETN detonation properties and water ionization models.

  12. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis W.; Druce, Robert L.; Johnson, Gary W.; Vogtlin, George E.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Lee, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques.

  13. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O`Brien, D.W.; Druce, R.L.; Johnson, G.W.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-03-24

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques. 13 figs.

  14. Detect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coherent Raman scattering Standoff detection of physical and chemical signatures from manufacturing and concealed deployment Standoff high-selectivity spectroscopy of ...

  15. NUCLEAR INCIDENT CAPABILITIES, KNOWLEDGE & ENABLER LEVERAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinney, J.; Newman, J.; Goodwyn, A.; Dewes, J.

    2011-04-18

    The detonation of a 10 Kiloton Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) is a serious scenario that the United States must be prepared to address. The likelihood of a single nuclear bomb exploding in a single city is greater today than at the height of the Cold War. Layered defenses against domestic nuclear terrorism indicate that our government continues to view the threat as credible. The risk of such an event is further evidenced by terrorists desire to acquire nuclear weapons. The act of nuclear terrorism, particularly an act directed against a large population center in the United States, will overwhelm the capabilities of many local and state governments to respond, and will seriously challenge existing federal response capabilities. A 10 Kiloton IND detonation would cause total infrastructure damage in a 3-mile radius and levels of radiation spanning out 3,000 square miles. In a densely populated urban area, the anticipated casualties would be in excess of several hundred thousand. Although there would be enormous loss of life, housing and infrastructure, an IND detonation is a recoverable event. We can reduce the risk of these high-consequence, nontraditional threats by enhancing our nuclear detection architecture and establishing well planned and rehearsed plans for coordinated response. It is also important for us to identify new and improved ways to foster collaboration regarding the response to the IND threat to ensure the demand and density of expertise required for such an event is postured and prepared to mobilize, integrate, and support a myriad of anticipated challenges. We must be prepared to manage the consequences of such an event in a deliberate manner and get beyond notions of total devastation by adopting planning assumptions around survivability and resiliency. Planning for such a scenario needs to be decisive in determining a response based on competencies and desired outcomes. It is time to synthesize known threats and plausible consequences into

  16. Investigation into Nanostructured Lanthanum Halides and CeBr{sub 3} for Nuclear Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, P., Guise, R., Mukhopadhyay, S., Yuan, D.

    2011-06-22

    This slide-show presents work on radiation detection with nanostructured lanthanum halides and CeBr{sub 3}. The goal is to extend the gamma energy response on both low and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy x-rays and relatively high-energy activation prompt gamma rays simultaneously using the nano-structured lanthanum bromide, lanthanum fluoride, cerium bromide, or other nanocrystal material. Homogeneous and nano structure cases are compared.

  17. Utilization of nuclear structural proteins for targeted therapy and detection of proliferative and differentiation disorders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lelievre, Sophie; Bissell, Mina

    2001-01-01

    The localization of nuclear apparatus proteins (NUMA) is used to identify tumor cells and different stages in the tumor progression and differentiation processes. There is a characteristic organization of NuMA in tumor cells and in phenotypically normal cells. NuMA distribution patterns are significantly less diffuse in proliferating non-malignant cells compared to malignant cells. The technique encompasses cell immunostaining using a NuMA specific antibody, and microscopic analysis of NuMA distribution within each nucleus.

  18. United States nuclear tests, July 1945 through September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air.

  19. Theoretical and computer models of detonation in solid explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarver, C.M.; Urtiew, P.A.

    1997-10-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical advances in understanding energy transfer and chemical kinetics have led to improved models of detonation waves in solid explosives. The Nonequilibrium Zeldovich - von Neumann - Doring (NEZND) model is supported by picosecond laser experiments and molecular dynamics simulations of the multiphonon up-pumping and internal vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) processes by which the unreacted explosive molecules are excited to the transition state(s) preceding reaction behind the leading shock front(s). High temperature, high density transition state theory calculates the induction times measured by laser interferometric techniques. Exothermic chain reactions form product gases in highly excited vibrational states, which have been demonstrated to rapidly equilibrate via supercollisions. Embedded gauge and Fabry-Perot techniques measure the rates of reaction product expansion as thermal and chemical equilibrium is approached. Detonation reaction zone lengths in carbon-rich condensed phase explosives depend on the relatively slow formation of solid graphite or diamond. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model based on pressure dependent reaction rates and Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equations of state has reproduced this nanosecond time resolved experimental data and thus has yielded accurate average reaction zone descriptions in one-, two- and three- dimensional hydrodynamic code calculations. The next generation reactive flow model requires improved equations of state and temperature dependent chemical kinetics. Such a model is being developed for the ALE3D hydrodynamic code, in which heat transfer and Arrhenius kinetics are intimately linked to the hydrodynamics.

  20. Progress in measuring detonation wave profiles in PBX9501

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, R.L.; Sheffield, S.A.; Alcon, R.R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors have measured detonation wave profiles in PBX9501 (95 wt% HMX and 5 wt% binders) using VISAR. Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with projectiles launched in a 72 mm bore gas gun. Particle velocity wave profiles were measured at the explosive/window interface using two VISARs with different fringe constants. Windows with very thin vapor deposited aluminum mirrors were used for all experiments. PMMA windows provided an undermatch, and LiF (Lithium Fluoride) windows provided an overmatch to the explosive, reacted and unreacted. While the present experiments do not have adequate time resolution to adequately resolve the ZND spike condition, they do constrain it to lie between 38.7 and 53.4 Gpa or 2.4 and 3.3 km/s. Accurate knowledge of the CJ state places the reaction zone length at 35 {+-} 12 ns ({approx} 0.3 mm). The present experiments do not show any effect of the window on the reaction zone; both window materials result in the same reaction zone length.

  1. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1C. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE O 452.1D.

  2. Nuclear Verification | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Control Nuclear Verification Challenge: Maintain the U.S. ability to monitor and verify nuclear reduction agreements and detect violations of treaties and other nuclear nonproliferation commitments. Solution: Develop and deploy measures to ensure verifiable compliance with treaties and other international agreements, implement regimes to reduce nuclear weapons, and detect and dismantle undeclared nuclear programs. Specific subprogram activities include: Implementing current and developing future

  3. nuclear controls | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    controls Nuclear Verification Challenge: Maintain the U.S. ability to monitor and verify nuclear reduction agreements and detect violations of treaties and other nuclear nonproliferation commitments. Solution: Develop and deploy measures to ensure verifiable compliance with treaties and other international agreements,... International Nuclear Safeguards Challenge: Detect/deter undeclared nuclear materials and activities. Solution: Build capacity of the International Atomic Energy Agency and

  4. Deflagration-to-detonation transition project: quarterly report for the period September through November 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieberman, M. L.

    1980-07-01

    The activities of the Sandia Laboratories project on deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) pertain primarily to the development of small, safe, low-voltage, hot-wire detonators. Its major goals are: the formulation of a modeling capability for DDT of the explosive 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)pentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate (CP); the development of improved DDT materials; the establishment of a data base for corrosion, compatibility, and reliability of CP-loaded detonators; and the design and development of advanced DDT components. Progress in this research is reported. The planned development of the MC3423 detonator has been completed and the final design review meeting has been held. Additional work must be performed to establish satisfactory output function. Ignition sensitivity data have also been obtained. Ignition and shock testing experiments for development of the MC3533 detonator have been planned. An initial version of the component will utilize available MC3423 headers, while the final design will incorporate a new header that has been designed and ordered. Detonator performance studies have been planned to optimize CP density-length factors. Feasibility studies on the MC3196A detonator have continued in an effort to obtain a reliable 50-200 ..mu..s function time.

  5. White paper : the fourth amendment : implications for radiological and nuclear detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levey, Brandon Seth

    2010-01-01

    The need to improve the radiation detection architecture has given rise to increased concern over the potential of equipment or procedures to violate the Fourth Amendment. Protecting the rights guaranteed by the Constitution is a foremost value of every government agency. However, protecting U.S. residents and assets from potentially catastrophic threats is also a crucial role of government. In the absence of clear precedent, the fear of potentially violating rights could lead to the rejection of effective and reasonable means that could reduce risks, possibly savings lives and assets. The goal of this document is not to apply case law to determine what the precedent may be if it exists, but rather provide a detailed outline that defines searches and seizures, identifies what precedent exists and what precedent doesn't exist, and explore what the existing (and non-existing) precedent means for the use of radiation detection used inside the nation's borders.

  6. Systems and methods for detecting nuclear radiation in the presence of backgrounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-06-21

    Systems and methods for the simultaneous detection and identification of radiation species, including neutrons, gammas/x-rays and minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). A plurality of rectangular and/or triangularly shaped radiation sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within a central hole of each extruded scintillator, wherein the wavelength-shifting fiber absorbs scintillation light and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength, thereby piping the light to a photodetector whose response to the light indicates the presence of radiation The resulting method and system can simultaneously detect neutrons, gamma rays, x-rays and cosmic rays (MIPs) and identify each.

  7. Quantification of C?C and C?O Surface Carbons in Detonation Nanodiamond by NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, J -F; Fang, X -W; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2014-05-08

    The ability of solid-state 13C NMR to detect and quantify small amounts of sp2-hybridized carbon on the surface of ?5 nm diameter nanodiamond particles is demonstrated. The C?C carbon fraction is only 1.1 0.4% in pristine purified detonation nanodiamond, while a full single-layer graphitic or bucky diamond shell would contain ca. 25% of all C in a 5 nm diameter particle. Instead of large aromatic patches repeatedly proposed in the recent literature, sp3-hybridized CH and COH carbons cover most of the nanodiamond particle surface, accounting for ?5% each. C?O and COO groups also seen in X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) but not detected in previous NMR studies make up ca. 1.5% of all C. They are removed by heat treatment at 800 C, which increases the aromatic fraction. 13C{1H} NMR demonstrates that the various sp2-hybridized carbons are mostly not protonated, but cross-polarization shows that they are separated from 1H by only a few bond lengths, which proves that they are near the protonated surface. Together, the observed CH, COH, C?O, and C?C groups account for 1214% of all C, which matches the surface fraction expected for bulk-terminated 5 nm diameter diamond particles.

  8. Argon Collection And Purification For Proliferation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achey, R.; Hunter, D.

    2015-10-09

    In order to determine whether a seismic event was a declared/undeclared underground nuclear weapon test, environmental samples must be taken and analyzed for signatures that are unique to a nuclear explosion. These signatures are either particles or gases. Particle samples are routinely taken and analyzed under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) verification regime as well as by individual countries. Gas samples are analyzed for signature gases, especially radioactive xenon. Underground nuclear tests also produce radioactive argon, but that signature is not well monitored. A radioactive argon signature, along with other signatures, can more conclusively determine whether an event was a nuclear test. This project has developed capabilities for collecting and purifying argon samples for ultra-low-background proportional counting. SRNL has developed a continuous gas enrichment system that produces an output stream containing 97% argon from whole air using adsorbent separation technology (the flow diagram for the system is shown in the figure). The vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) enrichment system is easily scalable to produce ten liters or more of 97% argon within twelve hours. A gas chromatographic separation using a column of modified hydrogen mordenite molecular sieve has been developed that can further purify the sample to better than 99% purity after separation from the helium carrier gas. The combination of these concentration and purification systems has the capability of being used for a field-deployable system for collecting argon samples suitable for ultra-low-background proportional counting for detecting nuclear detonations under the On-Site Inspection program of the CTBTO verification regime. The technology also has applications for the bulk argon separation from air for industrial purposes such as the semi-conductor industry.

  9. Nuclear Verification | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenge: Maintain the U.S. ability to monitor and verify nuclear reduction agreements and detect violations of treaties and other nuclear nonproliferation commitments. Solution: ...

  10. community | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    community NNSS celebrates its 65 anniversary The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) celebrates its 65th anniversary this year. The first on-site test occurred on January 27, 1951, when the Able Test was detonated on Frenchman Flat. Among the many activities NNSS officials are holding to commemorate the milestone is an open house for... Who's on FIRST? Inspiring STEM through robotics Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC, which runs the Y-12 National Security Complex and the Pantex Plant, plays an